WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing regulatory environment

  1. Evolution of regulatory networks towards adaptability and stability in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Diverse biological networks exhibit universal features distinguished from those of random networks, calling much attention to their origins and implications. Here we propose a minimal evolution model of Boolean regulatory networks, which evolve by selectively rewiring links towards enhancing adaptability to a changing environment and stability against dynamical perturbations. We find that sparse and heterogeneous connectivity patterns emerge, which show qualitative agreement with real transcriptional regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The characteristic scaling behavior of stability reflects the balance between robustness and flexibility. The scaling of fluctuation in the perturbation spread shows a dynamic crossover, which is analyzed by investigating separately the stochasticity of internal dynamics and the network structure differences depending on the evolution pathways. Our study delineates how the ambivalent pressure of evolution shapes biological networks, which can be helpful for studying general complex systems interacting with environments.

  2. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  3. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    used to investigate the effects of the various solar generation scenarios given emissions projections that account for changing regulatory environment, economic and population growth, and technological change. The results will help to quantify the potential air quality benefits of promotion of solar electricity generation in regions containing high penetration of coal-fired power generation. Note current national solar incentives that are based only on solar generation capacity. Further investigation of changes to regional climate due to emission reductions of aerosols and relevant precursors will provide insight into the environmental effects that may occur if solar power generation becomes widespread.

  4. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  5. Orphan drugs: the regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pedro

    2013-02-01

    The definition of a rare disease is not universal and depends on the legislation and policies adopted by each region or country. The main objective of this article is to describe and discuss the legal framework and the regulatory environment of orphan drugs worldwide. Some reflections and discussions on the need for specific orphan drug legislation or policies are described at length. Furthermore, some aspects of the history of each region in respect of the orphan drug legislation evolution are outlined. This article describes and compares the orphan drug legislation or policies of the following countries or regions: United Sates of America (US), European Union (EU), Japan, Australia, Singapore, Taiwan and Canada. The incentives described in the orphan drug legislations or policies, the criteria for designation of orphan status and the authorisation process of an orphan drug are also described and compared. The legislations and policies are to some extent similar but not the same. It is important to understand the main differences among all available legislative systems to improve the international collaboration in the field of orphan drugs and rare diseases.

  6. Regulatory environment for clinical research: Recent past and expected future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Amita; Menon, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, there have been numerous updates to policy and guidelines governing the conduct of clinical research in India. These measures were taken by regulators considering safety of Indian patients as the topmost priority although the overall regulatory environment became challenging. However, in the recent past, Indian regulations have evolved positively to favorably support clinical research in India while appropriately balancing patient safety as well. These regulatory changes are expected to bring newer innovative medicines to Indian patients at an earliest.

  7. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives...

  8. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  9. Responding to the changing regulatory scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, P.

    1995-12-31

    The regulatory approach of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is discussed in this paper. Three areas receive emphasis: (1) the changing relations between the US EPA and the states, (2) the new emphasis on pollution prevention techniques, and (3) a new environmental amnesty project. Budgetary considerations, performance partnerships, and nonregulatory compliance assistance are briefly outlined in relation to these topics. Results of the environmental amnesty program for small business, called Clean Break, are briefly reported.

  10. Regulatory Models and the Environment: Practice, Pitfalls, and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, K. John; Graham, Judith A.; McKone, Thomas; Whipple, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Computational models support environmental regulatory activities by providing the regulator an ability to evaluate available knowledge, assess alternative regulations, and provide a framework to assess compliance. But all models face inherent uncertainties, because human and natural systems are always more complex and heterogeneous than can be captured in a model. Here we provide a summary discussion of the activities, findings, and recommendations of the National Research Council's Committee on Regulatory Environmental Models, a committee funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance on the use of computational models in the regulatory process. Modeling is a difficult enterprise even outside of the potentially adversarial regulatory environment. The demands grow when the regulatory requirements for accountability, transparency, public accessibility, and technical rigor are added to the challenges. Moreover, models cannot be validated (declared true) but instead should be evaluated with regard to their suitability as tools to address a specific question. The committee concluded that these characteristics make evaluation of a regulatory model more complex than simply comparing measurement data with model results. Evaluation also must balance the need for a model to be accurate with the need for a model to be reproducible, transparent, and useful for the regulatory decision at hand. Meeting these needs requires model evaluation to be applied over the"life cycle" of a regulatory model with an approach that includes different forms of peer review, uncertainty analysis, and extrapolation methods than for non-regulatory models.

  11. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  12. Favorable genomic environments for cis-regulatory evolution: A novel theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeso, Ignacio; Tena, Juan J

    2016-09-01

    Cis-regulatory changes are arguably the primary evolutionary source of animal morphological diversity. With the recent explosion of genome-wide comparisons of the cis-regulatory content in different animal species is now possible to infer general principles underlying enhancer evolution. However, these studies have also revealed numerous discrepancies and paradoxes, suggesting that the mechanistic causes and modes of cis-regulatory evolution are still not well understood and are probably much more complex than generally appreciated. Here, we argue that the mutational mechanisms and genomic regions generating new regulatory activities must comply with the constraints imposed by the molecular properties of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and the organizational features of long-range chromatin interactions. Accordingly, we propose a new integrative evolutionary framework for cis-regulatory evolution based on two major premises for the origin of novel enhancer activity: (i) an accessible chromatin environment and (ii) compatibility with the 3D structure and interactions of pre-existing CREs. Mechanisms and DNA sequences not fulfilling these premises, will be less likely to have a measurable impact on gene expression and as such, will have a minor contribution to the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, we discuss current comparative cis-regulatory data under the light of this new evolutionary model, and propose that the two most prominent mechanisms for the evolution of cis-regulatory changes are the overprinting of ancestral CREs and the exaptation of transposable elements.

  13. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings; Les sources de rayonnements ionisants: des moyens tres diversifies, des applications multiples et une reglementation en evolution. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a {sup 60}Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille

  14. Electricity distribution networks: Changing regulatory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambini, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed generation and smart grid technologies requires substantial investments. A study proposes an innovative approach that combines four regulatory tools to provide economic incentives for distribution system operators to facilitate these innovative practices.

  15. Evolution in a changing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baronchelli

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model for genetic adaptation to a changing environment, describing a fitness landscape characterized by two maxima. One is associated with "specialist" individuals that are adapted to the environment; this maximum moves over time as the environment changes. The other maximum is static, and represents "generalist" individuals not affected by environmental changes. The rest of the landscape is occupied by "maladapted" individuals. Our analysis considers the evolution of these three subpopulations. Our main result is that, in presence of a sufficiently stable environmental feature, as in the case of an unchanging aspect of a physical habitat, specialists can dominate the population. By contrast, rapidly changing environmental features, such as language or cultural habits, are a moving target for the genes; here, generalists dominate, because the best evolutionary strategy is to adopt neutral alleles not specialized for any specific environment. The model we propose is based on simple assumptions about evolutionary dynamics and describes all possible scenarios in a non-trivial phase diagram. The approach provides a general framework to address such fundamental issues as the Baldwin effect, the biological basis for language, or the ecological consequences of a rapid climate change.

  16. Deposit Insurance and Risk Shifting in a Strong Regulatory Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Justesen, Lene Gilje

    This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set of regulat......This study provides empirical evidence on the moral hazard implications of introducing deposit insurance into a strong regulatory environment. Denmark offers a unique setting because commercial banks and savings banks have different ownership structures, but are subject to the same set...... of regulations. The ownership structure in savings banks implies that they have no incentive to increase risk after the implementation of a deposit insurance scheme whereas commercial banks have. Also, at the time of introduction, Denmark had high capital requirements and a strict closure policy. Using...... a difference-in-difference framework we show that commercial banks did not increase their risk compared to savings banks when deposit insurance was introduced. The results also hold for large commercial banks, indicating that the systemic risk did not increase either. Thus for a system with high capital...

  17. Changes in the Alpine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  18. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  19. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  20. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  1. Inferring slowly-changing dynamic gene-regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Ernst C; Abbruzzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic gene-regulatory networks are complex since the interaction patterns between their components mean that it is impossible to study parts of the network in separation. This holistic character of gene-regulatory networks poses a real challenge to any type of modelling. Graphical models are a class of models that connect the network with a conditional independence relationships between random variables. By interpreting these random variables as gene activities and the conditional independence relationships as functional non-relatedness, graphical models have been used to describe gene-regulatory networks. Whereas the literature has been focused on static networks, most time-course experiments are designed in order to tease out temporal changes in the underlying network. It is typically reasonable to assume that changes in genomic networks are few, because biological systems tend to be stable. We introduce a new model for estimating slow changes in dynamic gene-regulatory networks, which is suitable for high-dimensional data, e.g. time-course microarray data. Our aim is to estimate a dynamically changing genomic network based on temporal activity measurements of the genes in the network. Our method is based on the penalized likelihood with l1-norm, that penalizes conditional dependencies between genes as well as differences between conditional independence elements across time points. We also present a heuristic search strategy to find optimal tuning parameters. We re-write the penalized maximum likelihood problem into a standard convex optimization problem subject to linear equality constraints. We show that our method performs well in simulation studies. Finally, we apply the proposed model to a time-course T-cell dataset.

  2. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  3. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  4. Uncertainty and innovation: Understanding the role of cell-based manufacturing facilities in shaping regulatory and commercialization environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Rosario; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Charlebois, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to elucidate stakeholder perceptions of, and institutional practices related to cell-based therapies and products (CTP) regulation and commercialization in Canada. The development of reproducible, safe and effective CTPs is predicated on regulatory and commercialization environments that enable innovation. Manufacturing processes constitute a critical step for CTP development in this regard. The road from CTP manufacturing to translation in the clinic, however, has yet to be paved. This study aims to fill an empirical gap in the literature by exploring how CTP manufacturing facilities navigate Canadian regulatory and commercialization environments, which together drive the translation of novel CTPs from bench to bedside. Using the multi-level model of practice-driven institutional change proposed by Smets et al., we demonstrate how CTP manufacturing practices are governed by established standards, yet meaningfully shape higher-order regulatory and commercial norms in CTP research and development. We identify four key themes that undergird such processes of innovation: 1) managing regulatory uncertainty, which stems from an inability to classify CTPs within existing regulatory categories for approval and commercialization purposes; 2) building a 'business case' whereby a CTP's market potential is determined in large part by proving its safety and effectiveness; 3) standardizing manufacturing procedures that mobilize CTPs from a research and development phase to a commercialization one; and 4) networking between researchers and regulators to develop responsible commercialization processes that reflect the uniqueness of CTPs as distinct from other biologics and medical devices.

  5. A new method for measuring the thermal regulatory properties of phase change material (PCM) fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X.; Fan, J.

    2009-02-01

    Several methods already exist for the measurement of the thermal regulatory properties of fabrics containing phase change materials (PCMs). However, they do not adequately simulate the actual use condition; consequently the measurements may not have relevance to the performance of PCM fabrics in actual use. Here we report on the development of a new method, which better simulates the real use situation. In this method, a hot plate, simulating the human body, generates a constant amount of heat depending on the type of human activity to be simulated. The hot plate covered by the PCM fabric is then exposed to a thermal transient simulating a wearer moving from one thermal environment to another; the changes of surface temperature and heat loss of the hot plate are then recorded and used to characterize the thermal regulatory properties of the PCM fabrics.

  6. Changes in Cis-regulatory Elements during Morphological Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lee Paul

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How have animals evolved new body designs (morphological evolution? This requires explanations both for simple morphological changes, such as differences in pigmentation and hair patterns between different Drosophila populations and species, and also for more complex changes, such as differences in the forelimbs of mice and bats, and the necks of amphibians and reptiles. The genetic changes and pathways involved in these evolutionary steps require identification. Many, though not all, of these events occur by changes in cis-regulatory (enhancer elements within developmental genes. Enhancers are modular, each affecting expression in only one or a few tissues. Therefore it is possible to add, remove or alter an enhancer without producing changes in multiple tissues, and thereby avoid widespread (pleiotropic deleterious effects. Ideally, for a given step in morphological evolution it is necessary to identify (i the change in phenotype, (ii the changes in gene expression, (iii the DNA region, enhancer or otherwise, affected, (iv the mutation involved, (v the nature of the transcription or other factors that bind to this site. In practice these data are incomplete for most of the published studies upon morphological evolution. Here, the investigations are categorized according to how far these analyses have proceeded.

  7. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  8. Changes of Regulatory T Cells in Graves' Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongxiang; ZHAO Shi; TANG Xiaoqiong; LI Jingyuan

    2006-01-01

    The immune mechanism of Graves' diseases (GD) and the roles of regulator T cells were investigated. In 32 patients with GD (GD group) and 20 healthy volunteers (control group), flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of CD4+CD25+ cells, MACS to isolate CD4+ CD25+ cells,RT-PCR to assay the expression of FOXP3, and ELISA to test the level of IL-10, respectively. It was found that there was no significant change in the proportion of CD4+CD25+ T cells between GD group and control group (P>0.05), while secretion of IL-10 and expression of FOXP3 in GD group were lower than control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, though the proportion of regulatory T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes in the patients with GD, the functions of them were significantly weakened, which might be a pathogenic factor in GD.

  9. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  10. Sex and adaptation in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, D; Peck, J R

    1999-01-01

    In this study we consider a mathematical model of a sexual population that lives in a changing environment. We find that a low rate of environmental change can produce a very large increase in genetic variability. This may help to explain the high levels of heritability observed in many natural populations. We also study asexuality and find that a modest rate of environmental change can be very damaging to an asexual population, while leaving a sexual population virtually unscathed. Furthermore, in a changing environment, the advantages of sexuality over asexuality can be much greater than suggested by most previous studies. Our analysis applies in the case of very large populations, where stochastic forces may be neglected. PMID:10511577

  11. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  12. Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

  13. Probabilistic adaptation in changing microbial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarden Katz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes growing in animal host environments face fluctuations that have elements of both randomness and predictability. In the mammalian gut, fluctuations in nutrient levels and other physiological parameters are structured by the host’s behavior, diet, health and microbiota composition. Microbial cells that can anticipate environmental fluctuations by exploiting this structure would likely gain a fitness advantage (by adapting their internal state in advance. We propose that the problem of adaptive growth in structured changing environments, such as the gut, can be viewed as probabilistic inference. We analyze environments that are “meta-changing”: where there are changes in the way the environment fluctuates, governed by a mechanism unobservable to cells. We develop a dynamic Bayesian model of these environments and show that a real-time inference algorithm (particle filtering for this model can be used as a microbial growth strategy implementable in molecular circuits. The growth strategy suggested by our model outperforms heuristic strategies, and points to a class of algorithms that could support real-time probabilistic inference in natural or synthetic cellular circuits.

  14. Complex Unsaturated Zone Flow and Thermohydrologic Processes in a Regulatory Environment: A Perspective on Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. W.; Manepally, C.; Justus, P. S.; Basagaoglu, H.; Pensado, O.; Dubreuilh, P.

    2007-12-01

    An important part of a risk-informed, performance-based regulatory review of a potential license application for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is the consideration of alternative interpretations and models of risk significant physical processes. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expects that simplified models will be abstracted from complex process-level models to conduct total-system performance assessments. There are several phases or steps to developing an abstracted model and its supporting basis from more detailed and complicated models for each area of the total system. For complex ambient and thermally perturbed flow in fractured tuffs of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, these steps c,an be summarized as (i) site characterization and observation, (ii) field and laboratory tests, (iii) conceptual model development, (iv) process-level numerical modeling, and (v) abstraction development. Each step is affected by uncertainty in (i) assessing parameters for models and (ii) conceptualization and understanding of governing processes. Because of the complexity and uncertainty, alternative interpretations and models become important aspects in the regulatory environment. NRC staff gain confidence in performance assessment model results through understanding the uncertainty in the various models. An example of a complex process in the unsaturated zone is seepage into drifts, which leads to liquid water potentially contacting waste packages. Seepage is a risk-important process for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain because of its potential effect on waste package integrity and trainsport of potentially released radionuclides. Complexities for seepage include (i) characterization of fractures that carry flow, (ii) effect of small to intermediate scale structural features on flow, (iii) consideration of the diverse flow regimes (rivulets, film flow, capillarity) in fractures, (iv) effect of vapor transport associated

  15. Inferring slowly-changing dynamic gene-regulatory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Ernst C.; Abbruzzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic gene-regulatory networks are complex since the interaction patterns between their components mean that it is impossible to study parts of the network in separation. This holistic character of gene-regulatory networks poses a real challenge to any type of modelling. Graphical models are a cla

  16. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands...

  17. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  18. Changes in the coastal and marine environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Ahmed, A; DileepKumar, M.; Jagtap, T.G.; Sardessai, S.; Hassan, A

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 10 Changes in the Coastal and Marine Environments S.N. de Sousa, Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, M.D. Kumar, T.G. Jagtap, S. Sardessai and A. Hassan 1. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF THE NORTH INDIAN OCEAN The Indian Ocean is bounded in the north... heating and cooling of the northern Indian Ocean, the northwest Pacific and the Asian landmass (Prasanna Kumar et a!., 2004a; Zahn, 2003). At intermediate levels, the two high salinity water masses that are formed in the northwestern region - The Persian...

  19. 76 FR 48187 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by International... July 25, 2011, the International Securities Exchange, Inc. (``ISE'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the...). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of...

  20. Seabed change detection in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Sternlicht, Daniel D.

    2011-06-01

    Automatic Change Detection (ACD) compares new and stored terrain images for alerting to changes occurring over time. These techniques, long used in airborne radar, are just beginning to be applied to sidescan sonar. Under the right conditions ACD by image correlation-comparing multi-temporal image data at the pixel or parcel level-can be used to detect new objects on the seafloor. Synthetic aperture sonars (SAS)-coherent sensors that produce fine-scale, range-independent resolution seafloor images-are well suited for this approach; however, dynamic seabed environments can introduce "clutter" to the process. This paper explores an ACD method that uses salience mapping in a global-to-local analysis architecture. In this method, termed Temporally Invariant Saliency (TIS), variance ratios of median-filtered repeat-pass images are used to detect new objects, while deemphasizing modest environmental or radiometric-induced changes in the background. Successful tests with repeat-pass data from two SAS systems mounted on autonomous undersea vehicles (AUV) demonstrate the feasibility of the technique.

  1. Nurse leaders' experiences of implementing regulatory changes in sexual health nursing practice in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Stevenson, Janine

    2013-05-01

    Most research about regulatory policy change concerning expanded nursing activities has emphasized advanced practice roles and acute care settings. This study is a contribution to the small pool of research concerned with regulatory policy implementation for nurses undertaking expanded nursing practice activities in a public health context. Using the regulatory changes in certified nursing practice in one Canadian province as our starting point, we investigated the experiences of nurse leaders in implementing this change. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive approach informed by tenets of complexity theory, we examined the experiences of 16 nurse leaders as situated within the larger public health care system in which nurses practice. Two interrelated themes, (a) preparing for certification and (b) the certification process, were identified to illustrate how competing and contrasting demands between health care and regulatory organizations created substantial barriers to policy change. Implications for health service delivery and future research are discussed.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria in a changing legislative environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feord, J.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, pr

  3. Navigating the obesogenic environment : How psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T.; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy

  4. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  5. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    administration: Clinton (122.3 ± 36.4, Bush (29.5 ± 16.2 and Obama (41.7 ± 11.1. Conclusions Most regulatory letters released by FDA headquarters were related to marketing and advertising activities of pharmaceutical companies. The number of regulatory letters was highest during the second Clinton administration, diminished during the Bush administrations, and increased again during the Obama administration. A further assessment of the impact of changes in federal administration on the enforcement activities of the FDA is required.

  6. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass.

  7. Combating Childhood Obesity: Changing Our Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Anna,

    2007-01-01

    A review of literature was conducted to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for childhood obesity. Factors contributing to childhood obesity include poor food choices, physical inactivity, and genetics. Complications of obesity include respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, cancer, gallbladder disease, poor health status, depression, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Since childhood obesity, largely due to the environment that children live in ...

  8. Heterogeneity and Change in European Financial Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Stoneman, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to provide a background for other research relating to the impact of the financial environment on the diffusion of new technology in Europe. The issues addressed are: relative sizes and importance of banks and capital markets in the "financial sector" per se; the roles of banks and capital markets in how savers hold their wealth and how corporations fund their investments; corporate governance structures, comparing insider and outsider controlled governance syste...

  9. The roles of regulatory focus and medical recommendation avatars' trustworthiness in virtual environment-based e-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the influence of regulatory focus and medical recommendation avatars' trustworthiness in avatar-based e-health within 3D virtual environments (VEs). Drawing on Higgins's regulatory focus theory and the existing literature on self-construal, a 2 x 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention by interdependent self-construal: low vs. high) between-participants factorial design experiment tested the moderating role of health consumers' interdependent self-construal in determining the effects of regulatory focus in VE-based e-health. Results showed an interaction effect of regulatory focus and interdependent self-construal such that VE users with a dominant interdependent self-construal indicated greater issue familiarity and involvement when exposed to a prevention-focused e-health intervention than when exposed to a promotion-focused e-health intervention, whereas the effects of regulatory focus on issue familiarity and involvement among users low in interdependent self-construal demonstrated the opposite pattern. A path analysis further revealed that VE users' evaluation of a medical recommendation avatar's trustworthiness mediated the effects regulatory focus had on their perceived informational and educational values of the health messages. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for VE-based e-health applications are discussed.

  10. Transition Management in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Harold

    1978-01-01

    This case study of organizational change, with transition guidelines, describes how an organization development consultant helped surplus line managers to adjust to reassignments when company retrenchment caused reductions in the number of production workers. (MF)

  11. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.H.; Lehnert, L.S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted

  12. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  13. 78 FR 60695 - Regulatory Reorganization; Administrative Changes to Regulations Due to the Consolidation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Fiscal Service Bureau of the Fiscal Service 31 CFR Chapter II, Parts 202-391 RIN 1510-AB31 Regulatory Reorganization; Administrative Changes to Regulations Due to the Consolidation of the Financial Management Service and the Bureau of the Public Debt Into the Bureau of the Fiscal Service AGENCY: Bureau of...

  14. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N; O. Boebel; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K. H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U; Brierley, A

    2014-01-01

    Funding: Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (proposal Nu 253407 (call reference: FP7- PEOPLE-2009-IIF). Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice ...

  15. Department Chairs as Change Agents: Leading Change in Resistant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.; Ensminger, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Change process research often discusses barriers that impede organizational change (e.g., Banta, 1997; Cavacuiti and Locke, 2013; Mutchler, 1990; Stewart et al., 2012); however, no empirical research has addressed how behaviors established in leadership models counteract these barriers. This study explored these two interconnected constructs of…

  16. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  17. Fostering Entrepreneurship in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is the cornerstone of a modern competitive economy. Because of the economic and social importance attributed to entrepreneurship, every country has adopted policies aiming to encourage and to support entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors. Despite the fact that the set of public policy measures is very similar across countries and regions, the outcomes are different. The differences can be observed not only in quantitative terms (i.e. number of newly established ventures, but also in qualitative terms (i.e. proportion of innovative firms, intensity of knowledge and technological level, degree of internationalization etc.. Indeed, entrepreneurship takes different forms ranging from an alternative to employment (self-employed to creation of innovative, competitive and fast growing enterprises. It is also recognized the corporate entrepreneurship, the social entrepreneurship and even the entrepreneurship in the public sector. Different forms of entrepreneurship have a different impact in terms of general progress. Scholars have shown that context is an important factor explaining the variability of entrepreneurship outcomes, calling for a better understanding of the business environment influence on the intensity and quality of the entrepreneurial activity.

  18. Response of Sphagna to the changing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During last decade, considerable interest has been focused to assess the influence of human activities on ecosystems. The increasing trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has been predicted to continue till the next century and the amount of nitrogen deposition in the northern hemisphere has increased markedly. Substantial interest has been focused on predicting how these changes will affect on plants. Most boreal mire ecosystems are dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum, the litter of which constitutes the main component in the peat deposits and is an important CO{sub 2} sink via peat formation. Since virtually nothing was known about the growth response of peat mosses to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and alerting changes in species composition were detected in the sensitive ombrotrophic mire vegetation under increased N deposition in central Europe, this study was established. Laboratory experiments focused on measurements of the patterns of growth, production and plant metabolism at increased CO{sub 2} and N deposition levels in peat moss species. Long term field experiments were established to study the growth response and spatial competition of two interacting Sphagnum species under the increased nitrogen deposition levels

  19. Development and Delivery of Coursework: The Legal/Regulatory/Policy Environment of Cyberforensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Bagby

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a cyber-forensics course that integrates important public policy and legal issues as well as relevant forensic techniques. Cyber-forensics refers to the amalgam of multi-disciplinary activities involved in the identification, gathering, handling, custody, use and security of electronic files and records, involving expertise from the forensic domain, and which produces evidence useful in the proof of facts for both commercial and legal activities. The legal and regulatory environment in which electronic discovery takes place is of critical importance to cyber-forensics experts because the legal process imposes both constraints and opportunities for the effective use of evidence gathered through cyber-forensic techniques. This paper discusses different pedagogies that can be used (including project teams, research and writing assignments, student presentations, case analyses, class activities and participation and examinations, evaluation methods, problem-based learning approaches and critical thinking analysis. A survey and evaluation is provided of the growing body of applicable print and online materials that can be utilized. Target populations for such a course includes students with majors, minors or supporting elective coursework in law, information sciences, information technology, computer science, computer engineering, financial fraud, security and information assurance, forensic aspects of cyber security, privacy, and electronic commerce.

  20. DOES AN EFFICIENT BUSINESS REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT MATTER AT URBAN LEVEL? SOME EVIDENCE FROM CHINESE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro MARRA,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that firms require an efficient regulatory environment: if transaction costs generated by business regulations are not onerous, firms grow more and develop more quickly, attract more foreign direct investment, and employ more workers. But what does it induce alterations in the basic institutional framework? In this paper we intend to test North’s thesis by which as trade expands and the size of the market grows, transaction costs increase requiring that more and more resources should be devoted to improving existing regulations and, then, reducing such costs. The paper is structured as follows. Section 1 introduces. Section 2 provides the theoretical background. Section 3, based on World Bank data on 30 Chinese cities, investigates whether there is a correlation at urban and provincial levels between efficient business regulations on one side and economic outcomes (gross domestic product, foreign direct investment, employment, etc. on the other. Section 4 addresses the pilot question mentioned above and tests whether simpler and less costly ways of meeting legal requirements for starting and running a business are associated with long-run trade. Section 5 discusses results in the light of theoretically assumed causal links and proposes a 2SLS regression model, whereby a geographical instrumental variable is used to investigate the causal relationship between business regulations and exports.

  1. Accounting for Technological Change in Regulatory Impact Analyses: The Learning Curve Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Regulatory impact assessment is formally required by the U.S. and many other nations in order to help governments weigh the costs and benefits of proposed regulations, particularly as they compare to those of alternative actions and other government priorities. 1 One of the “best practices” of regulatory impact assessments, as established by the OECD, is to use estimates of costs that are grounded in economic theory. Economic theory indicates that changes in compliance costs should be expected over time as a result of factors related to technological innovation. But many U.S. regulatory impact assessments have traditionally employed a practice that is in conflict with this expectation: they take current estimates of the costs of complying with a proposed regulation and project that those costs will remain unchanged over the full time period that the regulation would be in effect.

  2. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  3. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  4. Impact of a Fragmented Regulatory Environment on Sustainable Urban Development Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Anne London

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The building project development approval process is increasingly complex and fraught with conflict due to the rise of the sustainable urban development movement and inclusive decision making. Coupled with this, government decision-making decentralization has resulted in a fragmented and over-regulated compliance system. Problems arising from the process include wasted resources, excessive time delays, increased holding and litigation costs, inadequate planning coordination, high levels of advocacy costs and a divisive politicized approval process. In Australia, despite attempts by government and industry associations, numerous problems are still unresolved. Design managers increasingly assume a liaison role during the approval phase. There is a long tradition of planning theory literature which provides context for understanding the knowledge-power-participation relationship for this paper. This study investigated the policy, process and practice conflicts during the approval stage in achieving sustainable urban developments. Three regional local government areas within one state jurisdiction and observations from detailed structured focus group interviews involving 23 stakeholders, proposers and assessors were analysed to explore this conflictual environment. As a result of regulatory fragmentation and excessive consultation, various persuasion tactics have been developed by all stakeholders of which `reciprocity' and `authority' were identified as the most common. Two challenges for design managers were thus identified: first, the emergence of the role of a by default central informal arbitrator across conflicting planning instruments; and, second, as a navigator through a set of persuasion tactics. An inclusive knowledge-based design management framework for sustainable urban development is proposed considering Habermas' communicative planning theory, Foucaltian governance and discursive powers thesis and Cialdini's persuasion theory, as

  5. Change Management and its Influence in the Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that are happening in businesses dictate the changes in all kinds of needed resources to develop the organization. The environment in which the organizations operate is in constant change and becomes more and more unpredictable. Managing these changes is a challenge that all enterprises face. The rapid changes that are happening in business are increasing the need to manage these changes. Enterprises have to develop and use different kinds of management models so that they can grow their performance in order to ensure a competitive position in the market. The changes in enterprises sometimes are not accepted by the organization employees, and seem to have negative effects towards them (exemption from work, reduction of working hours, reduction of income. Changes have negative and positive effects. Successful and rational managers can achieve having successful changes and minimizing the negative effects that come due to changes. Changes are vital for organizations so that they can replace the old plans and models with new and successful ones. In this paper we talk about the role and importance of managing the changes, the types of changes, models of changes, the resistance against changes and also the obtained results of the paper are introduced. Literature was used to support the research in the study field, and based on that to explain the role of changes in the business environment. There are quantitative methods and an inductive analysis used in this paper.

  6. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  7. Emergent adaptive behaviour of GRN-controlled simulated robots in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a bio-inspired robot controller combining an artificial genome with an agent-based control system. The genome encodes a gene regulatory network (GRN that is switched on by environmental cues and, following the rules of transcriptional regulation, provides output signals to actuators. Whereas the genome represents the full encoding of the transcriptional network, the agent-based system mimics the active regulatory network and signal transduction system also present in naturally occurring biological systems. Using such a design that separates the static from the conditionally active part of the gene regulatory network contributes to a better general adaptive behaviour. Here, we have explored the potential of our platform with respect to the evolution of adaptive behaviour, such as preying when food becomes scarce, in a complex and changing environment and show through simulations of swarm robots in an A-life environment that evolution of collective behaviour likely can be attributed to bio-inspired evolutionary processes acting at different levels, from the gene and the genome to the individual robot and robot population.

  8. Some spatial aspects of regulatory and technological change in telecommunication industries

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This paper makes a contribution to the analysis of regulatory change, an aspect of the broader theoretical debate initiated by the 'regulation school' of economic theorists and others. Unlike much of that debate this paper is focused on an empirical field - telecommunications deregulation -- and on questions of market strategy rather than those purely of production. After an analysis of the nature and rationale for regulation there is a focus upon the political and economic processes leading ...

  9. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larkin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice.

  10. Public Agility and Change in a Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Engers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by changes in the law; changes in the organization’s environment often create a need to redesign business processes, reallocate roles and responsibilities, and reorder tasks. Moreover, preparations for change are not limited to the internal processes and systems of these organizations. Propagation of changes to network partners and redesign of network arrangements can be an enormous challenge. In the AGILE project, we develop a design method, distributed service architecture, and supporting tools that enable organizations - administrative and otherwise - to orchestrate their law-based services in a networked environment. This paper explains the Agile approach and describes some of its key principles.

  11. Fronting Integrated Scientific Web Applications: Design Features and Benefits for Regulatory Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated decision support systems for regulatory applications benefit from standardindustry practices such as code reuse, test-driven development, and modularization. Theseapproaches make meeting the federal government’s goals of transparency, efficiency, and quality assurance ...

  12. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Sugawara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305 is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. Design: The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×1010 washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. Results: The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively. Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013. The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008, whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003. The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic

  13. 76 FR 28830 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Act Release No. 34-54714 at 4 (November 6, 2006), 71 FR 66352 (November 14, 2006). B. Self-Regulatory... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rule 11.9, Entitled ``Orders and Modifiers'' and BATS Rule...

  14. Detecting functional divergence after gene duplication through evolutionary changes in posttranslational regulatory sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Ba, Alex N; Strome, Bob; Hua, Jun Jie; Desmond, Jonathan; Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle; Weiss, Eric L; Landry, Christian R; Moses, Alan M

    2014-12-01

    Gene duplication is an important evolutionary mechanism that can result in functional divergence in paralogs due to neo-functionalization or sub-functionalization. Consistent with functional divergence after gene duplication, recent studies have shown accelerated evolution in retained paralogs. However, little is known in general about the impact of this accelerated evolution on the molecular functions of retained paralogs. For example, do new functions typically involve changes in enzymatic activities, or changes in protein regulation? Here we study the evolution of posttranslational regulation by examining the evolution of important regulatory sequences (short linear motifs) in retained duplicates created by the whole-genome duplication in budding yeast. To do so, we identified short linear motifs whose evolutionary constraint has relaxed after gene duplication with a likelihood-ratio test that can account for heterogeneity in the evolutionary process by using a non-central chi-squared null distribution. We find that short linear motifs are more likely to show changes in evolutionary constraints in retained duplicates compared to single-copy genes. We examine changes in constraints on known regulatory sequences and show that for the Rck1/Rck2, Fkh1/Fkh2, Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, they are associated with previously characterized differences in posttranslational regulation. Finally, we experimentally confirm our prediction that for the Ace2/Swi5 paralogs, Cbk1 regulated localization was lost along the lineage leading to SWI5 after gene duplication. Our analysis suggests that changes in posttranslational regulation mediated by short regulatory motifs systematically contribute to functional divergence after gene duplication.

  15. Evaluating model of frozen soil environment change under engineering actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai(吴青柏); ZHU; Yuanlin(朱元林); LIU; Yongzhi(刘永智)

    2002-01-01

    The change of frozen soil environment is evaluated by permafrost thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability and the quantitatively evaluating model of frozen soil environment is proposed in this paper. The evaluating model of frozen soil environment is calculated by 28 ground temperature measurements along Qinghai-Xizang Highway. The relationships of thermal thaw sensibility and freezing and thawing processes and seasonally thawing depth, thermal stability and permafrost table temperature, mean annual ground temperature and seasonally thawing depth, and surface landscape stability and freezing and thawing hazards and their forming possibility are analyzed. The results show that thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability can be used to evaluate and predict the change of frozen soil environment under human engineering action.

  16. Vegetation change in dryland environments: understanding changes in fluvial fluxes via changes in hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. The transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage. Functional change is characterised by an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. Connectivity is a key concept in understanding the hydrological response to this vegetation change, with reduced vegetation coverage in woody environments being associated with longer and more connected overland flow pathways. This increase in hydrological connectivity results in an accentuated rainfall-runoff response and increased fluvial fluxes of eroded sediment and associated soil organic carbon and other nutrients. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, characterising ecological structure and monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over bounded plots with different vegetation covering the transitions from C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 creosote (Larrea tridentate) shrubland and C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand woodland. Data collected quantifies

  17. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... between states and can result in tensions, even military ones. This article investigates through a political and legal analysis the role of China as an emerging regulatory sea power in the Arctic Ocean given its assertive “energy hungry country behaviour” in the Arctic Ocean. The United Nations Convention...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...

  18. [Hormonal changes in response to extreme environment factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubassov, R V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper presented current state about hormonal changes in sympathetic-adrenal, hypophysis-adrenal, hypophysis-gonads and thyroid levels from extreme environment factors. It's shown that hypophysis gonads and thyroid endocrine links along with sympathetic adrenal, hypophysis adrenal axes are very important relevance in response to extreme environment factors and organism adaptation. In this time a hormonal secretion changes corresponds as interrelated reactions cascade in mechanisms of homeostasis maintenance. A studying of this mechanisms and revealing of its role in stress pathogenesis is fundamental biomedical investigation task. A problem solving allow to perfect prophylactic and treatment methods against stress diseases.

  19. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  20. Crafting the change: the role of job crafting and regulatory focus in adaptation to organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Petrou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Organizations change rapidly nowadays. However, little is known about successful ways in which employees can adapt to the new situation that arises throughout organizational change. The present dissertation addressed job crafting as a proactive employee strategy in order to deal with and adapt to changes implemented by organizations. The conceptualization of job crafting that was employed included the following behaviors: seeking job resources (e.g., facilitating factors such as su...

  1. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  2. Regulatory authority on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances - Especially on changes after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011-

    OpenAIRE

    西久保, 裕彦

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory authority on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances has been changing especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. In this article, I tried to summarize the changes on regulatory system before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, starting from the enactment of the Basic Law on Environmental Pollution in 1967, and including the enactment of the law on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive substance...

  3. Crafting the change: the role of job crafting and regulatory focus in adaptation to organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Organizations change rapidly nowadays. However, little is known about successful ways in which employees can adapt to the new situation that arises throughout organizational change. The present dissertation addressed job crafting as a proactive employee strategy in order to deal with and

  4. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  5. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  6. Changes in heliophysical parameter influence on environment of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Ma, W.

    2007-12-01

    Terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial satellite data and environmental parameter records were correlated. It has been observed that some relationship exists in between the changes in environment and extraterrestrial phenomenon. The star flare changes the cosmic parameters. The nearest star of earth, the Sun, is found to be under the influence of the star flare. It has been observed that there is some relationship in between the planetary indices (Kp) Electron flux (E flux) Proton flux (P-flux) of Sun-Earth environment with the changes in thermosphere, ionosphere, atmosphere and geosphere. The tsunami of 26 December 2004, abnormal snowfall in 2004-2005, sudden hike in global temperature and erratic monsoon in India and irregular rainfall in other parts of the world in 2006-2007 followed by snowfall and torrential rain are the impact of the star-sun-earth relationship.

  7. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  8. Anticipating Changing in Environments: Adaptation in Fluctuating Environments in A Heterogeneous Microbial Communites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Merzu; Bálazsi, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    The environments in which micro-organisms grow often fluctuate. To survive in temporally changing environments, cells have evolved mechanisms to survive environmental changes. One survival mechanism is generating phenotypic differences among identical cells in a given environment, with cells randomly switching between phenotypes. Such cells form subpopulations that proliferate at different rates. Optimal population fitness was attributed before to matching cellular and environmental switching rates. However, the conditions for this optimum are not well understood. In particular, it is unknown how the growth rates of the phenotypes affect the optimum. We use mathematical models to address this question. We find that the existence of the predicted optimum depends on cell growth rates in each phenotype. The predicted optimum exists for wider parameter regimes if the environmental durations are long. In addition, we study how mutants arising among such phenotypically heterogeneous cells spread in the population.

  9. Legitimization of regulatory norms: Waterfowl hunter acceptance of changing duck bag limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Lawrence, Jeffrey S.; Cordts, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined response to regulatory change over time, or addressed hunter attitudes about changes in hunting bag limits. This article explores Minnesota waterfowl hunters’ attitudes about duck bag limits, examining attitudes about two state duck bag limits that were initially more restrictive than the maximum set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), but then increased to match federal limits. Results are from four mail surveys that examined attitudes about bag limits over time. Following two bag limit increases, a greater proportion of hunters rated the new bag limit “too high” and a smaller proportion rated it “too low.” Several years following the first bag limit increase, the proportion of hunters who indicated that the limit was “too high” had declined, suggesting hunter acceptance of the new regulation. Results suggest that waterfowl bag limits may represent legal norms that influence hunter attitudes and gain legitimacy over time.

  10. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds.

  11. Built environment change: a framework to support health-enhancing behaviour through environmental policy and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ethan M; Vernez-Moudon, Anne

    2014-06-01

    As research examining the effect of the built environment on health accelerates, it is critical for health and planning researchers to conduct studies and make recommendations in the context of a robust theoretical framework. We propose a framework for built environment change (BEC) related to improving health. BEC consists of elements of the built environment, how people are exposed to and interact with them perceptually and functionally, and how this exposure may affect health-related behaviours. Integrated into this framework are the legal and regulatory mechanisms and instruments that are commonly used to effect change in the built environment. This framework would be applicable to medical research as well as to issues of policy and community planning.

  12. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  13. Plasticity-Mediated Persistence in New and Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baldwin’s synthesis of the Organicist position, first published in 1896 and elaborated in 1902, sought to rescue environmentally induced phenotypes from disrepute by showing their Darwinian significance. Of particular interest to Baldwin was plasticity’s mediating role during environmental change or colonization—plastic individuals were more likely to successfully survive and reproduce in new environments than were nonplastic individuals. Once a population of plastic individuals had become established, plasticity could further mediate the future course of evolution. The evidence for plasticity-mediated persistence (PMP is reviewed here with a particular focus on evolutionary rescue experiments, studies on invasive success, and the role of learning in survival. Many PMP studies are methodologically limited, showing that preexistent plasticity has utility in new environments (soft PMP rather than directly demonstrating that plasticity is responsible for persistence (hard PMP. An ideal PMP study would be able to demonstrate that (1 plasticity preexisted environmental change, (2 plasticity was fortuitously beneficial in the new environment, (3 plasticity was responsible for individual persistence in the new environment, and (4 plasticity was responsible for population persistence in succeeding generations. Although PMP is not ubiquitous, Baldwin’s hypotheses have been largely vindicated in theoretical and empirical studies, but much work remains.

  14. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  15. Selection, adaptation, and predictive information in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltgen, Quentin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation by means of natural selection is a key concept in evolutionary biology. Individuals better matched to the surrounding environment outcompete the others. This increases the fraction of the better adapted individuals in the population, and hence increases its collective fitness. Adaptation is also prominent on the physiological scale in neuroscience and cell biology. There each individual infers properties of the environment and changes to become individually better, improving the overall population as well. Traditionally, these two notions of adaption have been considered distinct. Here we argue that both types of adaptation result in the same population growth in a broad class of analytically tractable population dynamics models in temporally changing environments. In particular, both types of adaptation lead to subextensive corrections to the population growth rates. These corrections are nearly universal and are equal to the predictive information in the environment time series, which is also the characterization of the time series complexity. This work has been supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  16. Detecting changes in dynamic and complex acoustic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubenec, Yves; Lawlor, Jennifer; Górska, Urszula; Shamma, Shihab; Englitz, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Natural sounds such as wind or rain, are characterized by the statistical occurrence of their constituents. Despite their complexity, listeners readily detect changes in these contexts. We here address the neural basis of statistical decision-making using a combination of psychophysics, EEG and modelling. In a texture-based, change-detection paradigm, human performance and reaction times improved with longer pre-change exposure, consistent with improved estimation of baseline statistics. Change-locked and decision-related EEG responses were found in a centro-parietal scalp location, whose slope depended on change size, consistent with sensory evidence accumulation. The potential's amplitude scaled with the duration of pre-change exposure, suggesting a time-dependent decision threshold. Auditory cortex-related potentials showed no response to the change. A dual timescale, statistical estimation model accounted for subjects' performance. Furthermore, a decision-augmented auditory cortex model accounted for performance and reaction times, suggesting that the primary cortical representation requires little post-processing to enable change-detection in complex acoustic environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24910.001 PMID:28262095

  17. Emotion Regulatory Brain Function and SSRI Treatment in PTSD: Neural Correlates and Predictors of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Rabinak, Christine A; Kennedy, Amy E; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Liberzon, Israel; Stein, Murray B; Phan, K Luan

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-a chronic, debilitating condition, broadly characterized by emotion dysregulation-is prevalent among US military personnel who have returned from Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a first-line treatment for PTSD, but treatment mechanisms are unknown and patient response varies. SSRIs may exert their effects by remediating emotion regulatory brain activity and individual differences in patient response might be explained, in part, by pre-treatment differences in neural systems supporting the downregulation of negative affect. Thirty-four OEF/OIF veterans, 17 with PTSD and 17 without PTSD underwent 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging scans 12 weeks apart. At each scan, they performed an emotion regulation task; in the interim, veterans with PTSD were treated with the SSRI, paroxetine. SSRI treatment increased activation in both the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) during emotion regulation, although only change in the SMA over time occurred in veterans with PTSD and not those without PTSD. Less activation of the right ventrolateral PFC/inferior frontal gyrus during pre-treatment emotion regulation was associated with greater reduction in PTSD symptoms with SSRI treatment, irrespective of pre-treatment severity. Patients with the least recruitment of prefrontal emotion regulatory brain regions may benefit most from treatment with SSRIs, which appear to augment activity in these regions.

  18. Access to regulatory data from the European Medicines Agency: the times they are a-changing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseler, Beate; McGauran, Natalie; Kerekes, Michaela F; Kaiser, Thomas

    2012-10-30

    transparency measures, such as the implementation of processes to evaluate CoIs and the publication of methods and protocols.In conclusion, regulatory data are an indispensable source for systematic reviews. Because of EMA's policy change, a milestone for data transparency in clinical research is within reach; let's hope it is not unnecessarily delayed.

  19. Access to regulatory data from the European Medicines Agency: the times they are a-changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieseler Beate

    2012-10-01

    can be reduced by transparency measures, such as the implementation of processes to evaluate CoIs and the publication of methods and protocols. In conclusion, regulatory data are an indispensable source for systematic reviews. Because of EMA’s policy change, a milestone for data transparency in clinical research is within reach; let’s hope it is not unnecessarily delayed.

  20. Regulatory and information support for evaluation of biological productivity of Ukrainian forests and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakyda, Petro; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Stabilization and preservation of the planet's climate system today is regarded as one of the most important global political-economic, environmental and social problems of mankind. Rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the planet's atmosphere due to anthropogenic impact is the main reason leading to global climate change. Due to the above mentioned, social demands on forests are changing their biosphere role and function of natural sink of greenhouse gases becomes top priority. It is known that one of the most essential components of biological productivity of forests is their live biomass. Absorption, long-term sequestration of carbon and generation of oxygen are secured by its components. System research of its parametric structure and development of regulatory and reference information for assessment of aboveground live biomass components of trees and stands of the main forest-forming tree species in Ukraine began over twenty-five years ago at the department of forest mensuration and forest inventory of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, involving staff from other research institutions. Today, regulatory and reference materials for evaluation of parametric structure of live biomass are developed for trees of the following major forest-forming tree species of Ukraine: Scots pine of natural and artificial origin, Crimean pine, Norway spruce, silver fir, pedunculate oak, European beech, hornbeam, ash, common birch, aspen and black alder (P.I. Lakyda et al., 2011). An ongoing process on development of similar regulatory and reference materials for forest stands of the abovementioned forest-forming tree species of Ukraine is secured by scientists of departments of forest management, and forest mensuration and forest inventory. The total experimental research base is 609 temporary sample plots, where 4880 model trees were processed, including 3195 model trees with estimates of live biomass components. Laboratory studies conducted

  1. Environment Changes of Lampao Dam Communities in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winyoo Sata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to study the environment change of Lampao Dam communities in Northeast Thailand, being a case study of the Sa-Adnathom community, Lamklong sub-district, Muang, Kalasin province, adjacent to the Lampao Dam. Approach: A qualitative research, it started with a review of literature and related researches. Field data were collected by way of interviews and both participant and non-participant observations, involving 15 informants including senior-villagers, who had lived in the village some 10-20 years. The research data were descriptively analyzed and presented. Results: As a result its was found that the Lampao Dam communities date back 200 years to the era of Chiangsom Kingdom. Deserted due to deadly epidemics, the area was later on repopulated by migrants from Yang Talad district, Kalasin province. A new community, called Sa-Adnathom, was born. Prior to the inception of the National Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961, the environment of this community was complete with fertile land and natural resource abundance. People lived in harmony with nature and relied on resources from it for their livelihood, especially from Nong Waeng reservoir, Phan and Yang streams and Khoke Ngoo forest. But with the implementation of the first Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961-1966 the Thai government started the construction of the Lampao Dam in 1963. Completed in 1968, the Dam took land from the villagers, part of which were simply flooded. This forced the village farmers to change their means of livelihood from relying on forest and rivers to production methods which by necessity involved purchase of machines and usage of chemical fertilizers. In short, a change from farming to fishing in Lampao Dam. Their values also changed from local exchanges of goods to money economy, which only led to household debts, increasing with rising degree of consumerism. Eventually people in the

  2. Preserving the Environment of Outer Space - Legal, Regulatory and Institutional Aspects of Active Orbital Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankata Nyampong, Y. O.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the massive quantities of space debris already deposited in outer space, any effort aimed at guaranteeing the sustainability of mankind's access to outer space and the continued safety of space operations must not be limited exclusively to mitigating the creation of new debris, but must also focus on the active removal of existing pieces of debris from space (remediation) as a matter of necessity. Presently, technologies that will enable active debris removal (ADR) are only just emerging. As the technology develops, however, several legal, regulatory and institutional issues that may hinder the conduct of ADR activities must also be addressed. This paper highlights and explores some of the foregoing issues in an effort to draw international attention to these matters and ultimately to pave the way for the smooth conduct of ADR activities once the technology matures.

  3. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage.

  4. 76 FR 65763 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ..., other than with respect to certain conforming changes. \\4\\ Similar to the index credit default swap... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add Rules Related to the Clearing of Emerging Markets Sovereigns October 18, 2011. I. Introduction On...

  5. 77 FR 27255 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... This rule change permits ICC to make two modifications to its risk model for clearing credit default... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Reduce the Current Level of Risk Mutualization Among Clearing Participants and To Modify the...

  6. 76 FR 38712 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... (May 12, 2011); 76 FR 28830 (``Notice''). II. Description First, the Exchange proposes to change its... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.9, Entitled ``Orders and Modifiers'' and BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...

  7. Speculative Fictions for Understanding Global Change Environments: Two Thought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Gough

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a thought experiment, as the term was used by quantum and relativity physicists in the early part of the twentieth century, was not prediction (as is the goal of classical experimental science, but more defensible representations of present ‘realities’. Speculative fictions, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to the Star Wars cinema saga, can be read as sociotechnical thought experiments that produce alternative representations of present circumstances and uncertainties, and anticipate and critique possible futures. In this essay I demonstrate how two examples of popular speculative fictions, Frank Herbert's Dune (1965 and Ursula Le Guin's The Telling (2000, function as thought experiments that problematise global transitions in their respective eras. I argue that critical readings of such stories can help us to anticipate, critique, and respond constructively to social and cultural changes and change environments within nation-states that constitute, and are constituted by, global change processes and their effects.

  8. Persistent Robotic Tasks: Monitoring and Sweeping in Changing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen L; Rus, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    We present controllers that enable mobile robots to persistently monitor or sweep a changing environment. The changing environment is modeled as a field which grows in locations that are not within range of a robot, and decreases in locations that are within range of a robot. We assume that the robots travel on given closed paths. The speed of each robot along its path is controlled to prevent the field from growing unbounded at any location. We consider the space of speed controllers that can be parametrized by a finite set of basis functions. For a single robot, we develop a linear program that is guaranteed to compute a speed controller in this space to keep the field bounded, if such a controller exists. Another linear program is then derived whose solution is the speed controller that minimizes the maximum field value over the environment. We extend our linear program formulation to develop a multi-robot controller that keeps the field bounded. The multi-robot controller has the unique feature that it do...

  9. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  10. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.

  11. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  12. The Role of Learning Environment on High School Chemistry Students' Motivation and Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective…

  13. Prioritization of chemicals in the aquatic environment based on risk assessment: analytical, modeling and regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, D; Ginebreda, A; Farré, M; Darbra, R M; Petrovic, M; Gros, M; Barceló, D

    2012-12-01

    The extensive and intensive use of chemicals in our developed, highly technological society includes more than 100,000 chemical substances. Significant scientific evidence has lead to the recognition that their improper use and release may result in undesirable and harmful side-effects on both the human and ecosystem health. To cope with them, appropriate risk assessment processes and related prioritization schemes have been developed in order to provide the necessary scientific support for regulatory procedures. In the present paper, two of the elements that constitute the core of risk assessment, namely occurrence and hazard effects, have been discussed. Recent advances in analytical chemistry (sample pre-treatment and instrumental equipment, etc.) have allowed for more comprehensive monitoring of environmental pollution reaching limits of detection up to sub ng L(-1). Alternative to analytical measurements, occurrence models can provide risk managers with a very interesting approach for estimating environmental concentrations from real or hypothetical scenarios. The most representative prioritization schemes used for issuing lists of concerning chemicals have also been examined and put in the context of existing environmental policies for protection strategies and regulations. Finally, new challenges in the field of risk-assessment have been outlined, including those posed by new materials (i.e., nanomaterials), transformation products, multi-chemical exposure, or extension of the risk assessment process to the whole ecosystem.

  14. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  15. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M;

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shor...... is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.......We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths...... and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations...

  16. The regulatory environment past and future--incentive or impediment to developments in food science and technology: a perspective from FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, F R; Carson, K

    1994-01-01

    The best system for protecting public health is one that involves two layers of control before food reaches the consumer. The first layer of control is the industry's clear responsibility to prepare food that is safe. The second layer of control is the monitoring that is provided by government to ensure that the industry is doing its job and is in fact producing safe food. While some may view this "second layer" as an impediment in the development and marketing of new technologies, there is another way to look at the "regulatory environment". The regulatory environment itself, is not an impediment to the development of food science and technology. The regulatory environment, with all its components--scientists, consumers, industry, and Congress--defines "safety" within the context of today's technology, scientific capability, and tolerance level of the lay public. The entire regulatory environment serves to guide the development of food science and technology by providing signposts, in the form of scientifically sound regulatory decisions. The scientific basis of these decisions becomes building blocks on which to rest further refinement of the technology, product, ingredient, or packaging material or on which research in related technologies or research in innovative directions can build. This scientific groundwork becomes very important as more and more companies move away from having self-contained research laboratories toward using commercial laboratories and academic institutions, as well as participating in cooperative research endeavors to meet food safety and product development research needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  18. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  19. 75 FR 51509 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change by the NASDAQ Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change by the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC To Adopt a Definition of Professional and Require That All Professional Orders Be...'') \\1\\, and Rule 19b-4 \\2\\ thereunder, notice is hereby given that on August 6, 2010, The NASDAQ...

  20. 76 FR 55984 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... clear additional credit default swap (``CDS'') contracts. Specifically, ICC is proposing to amend... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Add Rules Related to the Clearing of Emerging Markets Sovereigns September 2, 2011. Pursuant...

  1. 78 FR 60357 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... the basis for ICC to clear additional credit default swap contracts. Specifically, ICC is proposing to... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Provide for the Clearance of Standard Emerging European and Middle Eastern Sovereign Single...

  2. 75 FR 39081 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change by The NASDAQ Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change by The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC to Amend NASDAQ Rule 4120(a)(11) To Add Securities Included in the Russell 1000 Index...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 30, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (the ``Exchange'' or...

  3. 76 FR 70206 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to... hereby given that on November 4, 2011, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and...), the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the New York State Banking Department. Implementation...

  4. 78 FR 32287 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... United States. ICE Clear Europe is recognized as an interbank payment system by the Bank of England under... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder \\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 13, 2013, ICE Clear Europe...

  5. 78 FR 67209 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change Relating to NDX and RUT Combination Orders November 4, 2013. On June 21, 2013, NYSE MKT LLC (``NYSE MKT... MKT Rule 965NY to revise the procedures governing the trading of NDX and RUT combination orders....

  6. 77 FR 44294 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending... July 13, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT'') filed with the Securities and...

  7. 78 FR 72965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE MKT Rules 13--Equities, 70.25-- Equities, 107C--Equities and 1000--Equities To Adopt a New Order... given that, on November 18, 2013, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT'') filed with...

  8. 78 FR 41168 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending... hereby given that, on June 21, 2013, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT'') filed with the.... Do commenters believe that market participants consider NDX combination orders traded on NYSE MKT...

  9. 77 FR 39309 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending the NYSE MKT Price List To Provide for Additional Co-Location Services and Establish Related Fees June 26... 19b-4 thereunder,\\3\\ notice is hereby given that on June 13, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange''...

  10. 77 FR 68191 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Deleting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Deleting NYSE MKT Rules 95(c) and (d)--Equities and Related Supplementary Material November 8, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that, on October 26, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT'')...

  11. 77 FR 40112 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Adopting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Adopting... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on June 19, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT''), on behalf of NYSE Amex Options LLC (``NYSE Amex Options''), filed with the Securities...

  12. 78 FR 66980 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Regarding...\\ notice is hereby given that, on October 29, 2013, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT'')...

  13. 77 FR 39288 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending the...''),\\2\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\3\\ notice is hereby given that on June 13, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``NYSE MKT'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the ``Commission'')...

  14. 77 FR 12637 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Exchange does not intend to eliminate certain controls in Exchange rules related to potential conflicts of... Exchange proposes to eliminate the text in current Rule 304(e)(1), which requires an approved person to... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

  15. 78 FR 785 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change To... invest in ``Financial Instruments.'' The term ``Financial Instruments,'' as defined in Commentary .02(b... Malaysia (``Malaysia'') (each a ``Futures Exchange'' and collectively, ``Futures Exchanges''), and (b)...

  16. 75 FR 47323 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change..., Chile, Colombia, Hungary, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, Russia, South Africa, South... invest in deposits and other obligations of U.S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions;...

  17. 76 FR 10073 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change..., Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. While the Fund is permitted to invest in....S. and non-U.S. banks and financial institutions. All Money Market Securities acquired by the...

  18. 75 FR 28834 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.18, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility'' May 19, 2010... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 18, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or...

  19. 75 FR 22668 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules 2.5 and 17.2 Applicable to Registration Requirements April 22, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 9, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  20. 78 FR 28663 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend and Restate the Amended and Restated By-Laws of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 29, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  1. 77 FR 15152 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...). \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58375 (August 21, 2008), 73 FR 49498 (August 21, 2008...). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62716 (August 13, 2010), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

  2. 75 FR 17818 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... definition of Trust Units in Rule 1600 to remove the master/feeder structure requirement and permit the... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...), 75 FR 9265 (``Notice''). I. Description of the Proposal NYSE Amex previously adopted Rule 1600 et...

  3. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan.

  4. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  5. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jodi S.; Nolte, Christoph; Steinberg, Jessica; Agrawal, Arun

    2014-04-01

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems.

  6. Nonlinear biofluvial responses to vegetation change in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Mel; Rayburg, Scott

    2007-09-01

    The desertification of grassland communities in the Jornada del Muerto Basin, southern New Mexico, USA, has occurred in association with a series of geomorphic responses that have influenced the system of vegetation change. Rainfall simulation experiments indicate that the volume of runoff generated from basin surfaces and its ability to erode are greatly affected by the distribution of vegetation, which ultimately controls processes such as rainsplash erosion, soil infiltrability and crust development. Animal activities also influence rates of sediment movement from unvegetated surfaces by disrupting soil crusts and making loose sediment available for transportation by overland flow. Shrublands in the Jornada Basin have a patchier vegetation cover than grasslands, with vegetated areas (shrubs) being separated by unvegetated (intershrub) zones. The exposed intershrub surfaces are more vulnerable to erosion than the grass and shrub surfaces. Thus, water and sediment yields, calculated using rainfall simulation experiments, were higher for vegetated (shrub and grass) plots than they were for unvegetated (intershrub) plots. The runoff and erosion model, KINEROS2, predicts that at the base of a 100 m slope, shrubland surfaces shed seven times more runoff and 25 times more sediment than grassland surfaces. Evidence to support the prediction of higher rates of erosion in the shrubland can be found in the form of the extensive rill networks that are common in this community. The contraction of grasslands has been associated with elevated rates of erosion that have altered the morphology of the surface, lowering slopes between shrubs, and increasing the amplitude of the microtopography. Overall, the viability of the exposed soils for recolonization by grasses has been reduced, reinforcing the system of shrubland invasion and lending support to the use of state-and-transition models to describe ecologic responses to change within this environment. Combined, these results

  7. QUANTITITATIVE CHANGES OF T-REGULATORY CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH POLIPOUS RHINOSINUSITIS TREATED BY NASAL GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Semenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This work was aimed for studying immunity markers, especially, T-regulatory cells, in patients suffering from polypous rhinosinusitis and treated with nasal steroids, in frame of integrated preventive treatment. The study included fifteen patients of both sexes (18 to 60 years of age, and eighteen persons with difficulties of nasal breathing not associated with inflammatory events. T-regulatory cells were determined by a specific set of membrane receptors (CD4+, CD25+, CD127-. We have shown a significant reduction in T-regulatory cell contents prior to treatment, followed by their increase to normal levels in the course of therapy.

  8. Street environment change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an approach that combines occupancy grids and a distance-based method for change detection from MLS point clouds is proposed. Unlike conventional occupancy grids, our occupancy-based method models space based on scanning rays and local point distributions in 3D without voxelization. A local cylindrical reference frame is presented for the interpolation of occupancy between rays according to the scanning geometry. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is utilized for both intra-data evidence fusion and inter-data consistency assessment. Occupancy of reference point cloud is fused at the location of target points and then the consistency is evaluated directly on the points. A point-to-triangle (PTT) distance-based method is combined to improve the occupancy-based method. Because it is robust to penetrable objects, e.g. vegetation, which cause self-conflicts when modelling occupancy. The combined method tackles irregular point density and occlusion problems, also eliminates false detections on penetrable objects.

  9. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  10. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  11. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  12. Evolution of migration in a periodically changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, F; Gandon, S

    2011-02-01

    The ability to migrate can evolve in response to various forces. In particular, when selection is heterogeneous in space but constant in time, local adaptation induces a fitness cost on immigrants and selects against migration. The evolutionary outcome, however, is less clear when selection also varies temporally. Here, we present a two-locus model analyzing the effects of spatial and temporal variability in selection on the evolution of migration. The first locus is under temporally varying selection (various periodic functions are considered, but a general nonparametric framework is used), and the second locus is a modifier controlling migration ability. First, we study the dynamics of local adaptation and derive the migration rate that maximizes local adaptation as a function of the speed and geometry of the fluctuations in the environment. Second, we derive an analytical expression for the evolutionarily stable migration rate. When there is no cost of migration, we show that higher migration rates are favored when selection changes fast. When migration is costly, however, the evolutionarily stable migration rate is maximal for an intermediate speed of the variation of selection. This model may help in understanding the evolution of migration in a broad range of scenarios and, in particular, in host-parasite systems, where selection is thought to vary quickly in both space and time.

  13. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  14. Using Nematostella vectensis to study the interactions between genome, epigenome and bacteria in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fraune

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotype of an animal cannot be explained entirely by its genes. It is now clear that factors other than the genome contribute to the ecology and evolution of animals. Two fundamentally important factors are the associated microbiota and epigenetic regulations. Unlike the genes and regulatory regions of the genome, epigenetics and microbial composition can be rapidly modified, and may thus represent mechanisms for rapid acclimation to a changing environment. At present, the individual functions of epigenetics, microbiomes, and genomic mutations are largely studied in isolation, particularly for species in marine ecosystems. This single variable approach leaves significant questions open for how these mechanisms intersect in the acclimation and adaptation of organisms in different environments. Here, we propose that the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, is a model of choice to investigate the complex interplay between adaptation as well as physiological and molecular plasticity in coastal ecosystems. N. vectensis’ geographic range spans four distinct coastlines, including a wide thermocline along the Atlantic coast of North America. N. vectensis is a particularly powerful invertebrate model for studying genome-environment interactions due to (1 the availability of a well-annotated genome, including preexisting data on genome methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs, (2 an extensive molecular toolkit including well-developed protocols for gene suppression and transgenesis, and (3 the simplicity of culture and experimentation in the laboratory. Taken together, N. vectensis has the tractability to connect the functional relationships between a host animal, microbes, and genome modifications to determine mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation.

  15. The past, present, and future of the U.S. electric power sector: Examining regulatory changes using multivariate time series approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kyle Edwin

    The U.S. energy sector has undergone continuous change in the regulatory, technological, and market environments. These developments show no signs of slowing. Accordingly, it is imperative that energy market regulators and participants develop a strong comprehension of market dynamics and the potential implications of their actions. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the past, present, and future of U.S. energy market dynamics and interactions with policy. Advancements in multivariate time series analysis are employed in three related studies of the electric power sector. Overall, results suggest that regulatory changes have had and will continue to have important implications for the electric power sector. The sector, however, has exhibited adaptability to past regulatory changes and is projected to remain resilient in the future. Tests for constancy of the long run parameters in a vector error correction model are applied to determine whether relationships among coal inventories in the electric power sector, input prices, output prices, and opportunity costs have remained constant over the past 38 years. Two periods of instability are found, the first following railroad deregulation in the U.S. and the second corresponding to a number of major regulatory changes in the electric power and natural gas sectors. Relationships among Renewable Energy Credit prices, electricity prices, and natural gas prices are estimated using a vector error correction model. Results suggest that Renewable Energy Credit prices do not completely behave as previously theorized in the literature. Potential reasons for the divergence between theory and empirical evidence are the relative immaturity of current markets and continuous institutional intervention. Potential impacts of future CO2 emissions reductions under the Clean Power Plan on economic and energy sector activity are estimated. Conditional forecasts based on an outlined path for CO2 emissions are

  16. Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is taking longer than expected to realize the immense potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)for civil applications due to the complexity of regulations being developed by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) that can be applied to both manned and unmanned flight in the National Airspace System (NAS). As a result, FAA has required that for all UAV flights in the NAS, an external pilot must maintain line-of-sight contact with the UAV. Properly trained observers must also be present to assist the external pilot in collision avoidance. Additionally, in order to fly in the NAS, formal approval must be requested from FAA through application for a Certificate of Authorization (COA for government applicants or a Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC) in the experimental category for non-government applicants. Flight crews of UAVs must pass exams also required for manned airplane pilots. Although flight crews for UAVs are not required to become manned airplane pilots, UAV flight missions are much more efficient if one or two of the UAV flight crew are also manned aircraft pilots so they can serve as the UAV mission commander. Our group has performed numerous UAV flights within the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Two developments with Jornada UAVs can be recommended to other UAV operators that would increase flight time experience and study areas covered by UAV images. First, do not overlook the possibility of obtaining permission to fly in Restricted Military Airspace (RMA). At the Jornada, our airspace is approximately 50% NAS and 50% RMA. With experiments ongoing in both types of airspace, we can fly in both areas and continue to increase UAV flights. Second, we have developed an air- and-ground vehicle approach for long distance, continuous pilot transport that always maintains line-of-sight requirements. This allows flying several target areas on a single mission and increasing the number of acquired UAV images - over 90,000 UAV images have now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

  17. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  18. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher, telephone: (301) 492- 3668; email: Carol.Gallagher@nrc.gov . FOR... by the Commission on June 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62 FR..., Maryland, this 13th day of October 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael F. Weber,...

  19. Using Surface Treatment Specification Databases to Anticipate and Accelerate Response to Regulatory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    Substance declarations, MSDS data, specifications 3. Tools REPORT Substances in article, Article 33 ... INTEGRATE, ACCESS from: PLM , CAD, ERP...specifications, materials & processes for regulatory impact & obsolescence risk Use existing infrastructure (e.g. CAD, PLM ) to deploy strategy into engineers

  20. Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The objective is to identify and test regulatory options for creating supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating among local governments in Victoria, Australia. A literature review identified nine potential areas for policy intervention at local government level, including the walking environment and food policy. Discussion documents were drafted which summarized the public health evidence and legal framework for change in each area. Levels of support for particular interventions were identified through semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from local government. We conducted 11 key informant interviews and found support for policy intervention to create environments supportive of physical activity but little support for policy changes to promote healthy eating. Participants reported lack of relevance and competing priorities as reasons for not supporting particular interventions. Promoting healthy eating environments was not considered a priority for local government above food safety. There is a real opportunity for action to prevent obesity at local government level (e.g. mandate the promotion of healthy eating environments). For local government to have a role in the promotion of healthy food environments, regulatory change and suitable funding are required.

  1. Fostering Entrepreneurial Investment Decision in Medical Technology Ventures in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bettina Keppler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from a survey among public and private venture capitalists from countries which attract a large amount of venture capital investment: Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Israel. The objective is to investigate venture capitalists’ investment criteria for medical technology ventures in the start-up or expansion phase. Since existing research evaluated venture capitalists’ general investment criteria, the aim of this study is to provide specific results on entrepreneurial investment decisions for the medical technology sector, which constantly attracted a significant share of European venture capital. The research used semi-structured interviews with 39 venture capitalists and experts. The results show that venture capitalists prefer to invest in companies which develop products for treating and diagnosing diseases showing a high prevalence and large market volumes, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurological diseases, and orthopaedic disorders. The study confirms that venture capitalists use a number of industry-specific criteria highly relevant in a changing business environment. These include a high medical need for the product, availability of clinical data, stage of European Conformity approval, high probability of receiving reimbursement from health insurances, medical key opinion leaders supporting technology, management’s regulatory experience and their communication ability with doctors and key opinion leaders.

  2. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  3. The impact of business environment changes on recent costing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧涓

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The acceleration of globalization and the prosperity of information technology benefit business a great deal.But with the speeding up of economic development,firms are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their business.The heated debate is on about whether traditional management accounting practices and techniques are irrelevant to the current business environment and this essay will explore the causes for using some traditional management accounting practices and techniques in the current business environment are inappropriate and put forward some contemporary management accounting techniques which is relevant to the current business environment.Thus,the essay will be divided into three sections to discuss the traditional management accounting practices and techniques and contemporary management accounting techniques in current business environment.

  4. Regulatory pressure and income smoothing by banks in response to anticipated changes to the Basel II Accord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Yeong Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of the revised Basel II rules on bank managers’ discretionary behavior, specifically income smoothing and loan loss provisioning. As the revised rules exert greater regulatory pressure on corporate than retail banking, we predict corporate bank managers to reduce risk-taking activities or increase income smoothing. Analysis of segmental reports reveals greater (less income smoothing in the corporate banking segments of low-capital (high-capital banks during the Basel II period, with their managers recognizing loan loss provisions in a less timely fashion. We find no such effects for retail banking. Although we document an initially negative market reaction to the regulatory announcements, that reaction weakens over time. Overall, the study highlights the unintended consequences of the banking rule changes.

  5. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  6. Public agility and change in a network environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engers, T.; Boer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by c

  7. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  8. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  9. Designing Learning Environments To Promote Conceptual Change in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella; Ioannides, Christos; Dimitrakopoulou, Aggeliki; Papademetriou, Efi

    2001-01-01

    Studied the use of research-based principles to create a learning environment for teaching mechanics to one class of Greek fifth and sixth graders. Students were encouraged to take active control of their learning, make predictions, and test their own hypotheses. Results show significant differences between experimental and control groups,…

  10. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  11. Climate Change and Societal Response: Livelihoods, Communities, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be considered a natural disaster evolving in slow motion on a global scale. Increasing storm intensities, shifting rainfall patterns, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and other manifold alterations are being experienced around the world. Climate has never been constant in any location, but human-induced changes associated…

  12. Do changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in single-family houses result in the expected energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 pct. reduction in natural gas consumption. For comparison the ex ante expectation was 25 pct. reduction in heating demand...

  13. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  14. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren S Proppe

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  15. Simulation of machine interference in randomly changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztrik J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation tool lcpSim can be used to investigate special level crossing problems of queuing systems of type HYPOk / HYPOr / 1 // n embedded in different Markovian environments (recently referred to as Markov modulated ones. Our observed system consists of n heterogeneous machines (requests and a server that 'repairs' the broken machines according to the most commonly used service disciplines, such as FIFO, LIFO, PPS, HOL, Preemptive Priorities (Resume, Repeat, Transfer, Polling, Nearest. We specify a maximum number of stopped machines for an operating system and our aim is to give the main steady-state performance measures of the system, such as, server utilization, machine utilization, mean waiting times, mean response times, the probability of an operating system and the mean operating time of the system. These values can be calculated by lcpSim level crossing problem Simulation package for different random environment types and service disciplines.

  16. Diatoms in peat – dominant producers in a changing environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, Ulla; Struyf, Eric; Randsalu, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Changes in hydrology and temperature can induce rapid changes in boreal wetland ecosystems. Factors such as hydrosere, permafrost, climate and human interference may disturb the prevailing mire vegetation, whereby a new dominant assemblage can develop. At the transition from one vegetation type...... content. Biogenic silica and other nutrients that would otherwise be lost during mineralization in runoff are in this way retained in the ecosystem. Our results imply that silica storage originating from diatoms can be expected to increase in today's rapidly changing boreal wetlands. The impacts...

  17. Treatment with lenalidomide induces immunoactivating and counter-regulatory immunosuppressive changes in myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, A; Zeh, D; Janzen, V; Mügge, L-O; Wolf, D; Fingerhut, L; Hahn-Ast, C; Maurer, O; Brossart, P; von Lilienfeld-Toal, M

    2014-08-01

    Lenalidomide activates the immune system, but the exact immunomodulatory mechanisms of lenalidomide in vivo are poorly defined. In an observational study we assessed the impact of lenalidomide on different populations of immune cells in multiple myeloma patients. Lenalidomide therapy was associated with increased amounts of a CD8(+) T cell subset, phenotypically staged between classical central memory T cells (TCM) and effector memory T cells (TEM), consequently termed TCM/TEM. The moderate expression of perforin/granzyme and phenotypical profile of these cells identifies them as not yet terminally differentiated, which makes them promising candidates for the anti-tumour response. In addition, lenalidomide-treated patients showed higher abundance of CD14(+) myeloid cells co-expressing CD15. This population was able to inhibit both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation in vitro and could thus be defined as a so far undescribed novel myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subtype. We observed a striking correlation between levels of TCM/TEM, mature regulatory T cells (T(regs)) and CD14(+) CD15(+) MDSCs. In summary, lenalidomide induces both activating and inhibitory components of the immune system, indicating the existence of potential counter-regulatory mechanisms. These findings provide new insights into the immunomodulatory action of lenalidomide.

  18. A look at the changing environment along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Das, V.K.

    Increased human activity along the Indian coastline has exerted pressure on its morphology and ecology. The factors responsible for morphological changes like subsidence, rising sea level, storms, storm surges, sediment input from rivers, sediment...

  19. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  20. The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Environment: A Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The Center for Global Security Research and Global Security Principal Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop in July 2016 to consider “The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Security Environment.” We took a broad view of nonproliferation, encompassing not just the treaty regime but also arms control, threat reduction, counter-­proliferation, and countering nuclear terrorism. We gathered a group of approximately 60 experts from the technical, academic, political, defense and think tank communities and asked them what—and how much—can reasonably be accomplished in each of these areas in the 5 to 10 years ahead. Discussion was on a not-­for-­attribution basis. This document provides a summary of key insights and lessons-­learned and is provided to help stimulate broader public discussion of these issues. It is a collection of ideas as informally discussed and debated among a group of experts. The ideas reported here are the personal views of individual experts and should not be attributed to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Non-transcriptional regulatory processes shape transcriptional network dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J. Christian J; Tabor, Jeffrey J.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the extra- or intracellular environment is often captured as biochemical signals propagating through regulatory networks. These signals eventually drive phenotypic changes, typically by altering gene expression programs in the cell. Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks has given a compelling picture of bacterial physiology, but transcriptional network maps alone often fail to describe phenotypes. In many cases, the dynamical performance of transcriptional re...

  2. How the American, Degree-Granting For-Profit Higher Education Sector Manages the Regulatory Environment: An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Caulyne Nichole

    2013-01-01

    This intrinsic case study examined the context of the American, degree-granting for-profit higher education sector between 2009 and 2012, applying institutional theory and resource dependency theory to develop an understanding of how the degree-granting for-profit sector of American higher education manages regulatory pressures. The study examines…

  3. Changes of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Xiao; Yu-Lan Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the changes of CD8+ T subsets especially CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of experimental colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofiuorobenzene (DNFB).METHODS: The rat model of experimental colitis was induced by enema with DNFB. Ten days later, colonic intraepithelial and splenic lymphocytes were isolated from colitis animals (n=16) and controls (n=8). The proportion of CD8+ T cells, CD8+CD28+ T cells and CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells were determined by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The model of experimental colitis was successfully established by DNFB that was demonstrated by bloody diarrhea, weight loss and colonic histopathology. The proportion of CD8+ T cells in either splenic or colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes was not significantly different between colitis animals and controls (spleen: 34.6±7.24 % vs33.5±9.41%,colon: 14.0±8.93 % vs 18.0±4.06 %, P>0.05). But CD8+CD28-T regulatory cells from colitis animals were significantly more than those from controls (spleen: 11.3±2.26 % vs5.64±1.01%,colon: 6.50±5.37 % vs 1.07±0.65 %, P<0.05). In contrast,CD8+CD28+ T cells from colitis animals were less than those from controls (spleen: 23.3±6.14 % vs27.8±9.70 %, P=0.06;colon: 7.52±4.18 % vs 16.9±4.07 %, P<0.05). The proportion of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in splenic and colonintraepithelial CD8+ T cells from colitis animals was higher than that from controls (spleen: 33.3±5.49 % vs 18.4±7.26 %,colon: 46.0±14.3 % vs6.10±3.72 %, P<0.005).CONCLUSION: Experimental colitis of rats can be induced by DNFB with simplicity and good reproducibility. The proportion of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rats with experimental colitis is increased, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colitis.

  4. Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1999-09-01

    In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

  5. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  6. The Networked University: The Structure, Culture, and Policy of Universities in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The universities in Europe are finding themselves in a turbulent environment. They are exposed to global and European developments. This article links changes in the structure, culture, and policy of universities to these developments and changes in the broader-than-national environment. The central question is, in short: what is globalisation…

  7. Regulatory change at Physalis Organ Size 1 correlates to natural variation in tomatillo reproductive organ size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; He, Lingli; Li, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zhichao; He, Chaoying

    2014-07-01

    The genetic basis of size variation in the reproductive organs of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica) is unknown. Here we report that the expression levels of the gene Physalis Organ Size 1 (POS1) are positively associated with size variation in P. philadelphica reproductive organs such flowers, berries and seeds. POS1 knockdown results in smaller flowers and berries with smaller cells as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Conversely, POS1 overexpression promotes organ size without increasing the cell number. The first introns of the POS1 alleles from the large, intermediate and small tomatillo groups contain one, two and three 37-bp repeats, respectively. Furthermore, our results show that copy variation of repeats in the first intron of POS1 alleles results in differential expression of this gene. Thus, co-variation in tomatillo reproductive organ sizes can be attributed to the novel regulatory variation in POS1.

  8. The changed balance of regulatory and naive T cells promotes tolerance after TLI and anti-T-cell antibody conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nador, R G; Hongo, D; Baker, J; Yao, Z; Strober, S

    2010-02-01

    The goal of the study was to determine how the changed balance of host naïve and regulatory T cells observed after conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte serum (ATS) promotes tolerance to combined organ and bone marrow transplants. Although previous studies showed that tolerance was dependent on host natural killer T (NKT) cells, this study shows that there is an additional dependence on host CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells. Depletion of the latter cells before conditioning resulted in rapid rejection of bone marrow and organ allografts. The balance of T-cell subsets changed after TLI and ATS with TLI favoring mainly NKT cells and ATS favoring mainly Treg cells. Combined modalities reduced the conventional naïve CD4(+) T cells 2800-fold. The host type Treg cells that persisted in the stable chimeras had the capacity to suppress alloreactivity to both donor and third party cells in the mixed leukocyte reaction. In conclusion, tolerance induction after conditioning in this model depends upon the ability of naturally occurring regulatory NKT and Treg cells to suppress the residual alloreactive T cells that are capable of rejecting grafts.

  9. General Education: The Changing Environment at Sante Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, John P.

    Established in 1966, in an era of educational creativity, Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) has consistently fostered innovation in instruction and programming and a student-centered approach to education. In 1976, in recognition of a need for change fostered by a switch in academic calendars, loss of vetarans enrollment, reduced state funding,…

  10. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  11. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    In a Danish context, climate changes are primarily manifested in an interaction between modified wind and precipitation patterns, increasing temperature and a rising sea level. The individual factors often act together and are reinforced in interaction with already known natural and cultural...

  12. The dynamic replicon: adapting to a changing cellular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, John

    2010-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells are often exposed to fluctuations in growth conditions as well as endogenous and exogenous stress-related agents. During development, global patterns of gene transcription change substantially, and these changes are associated with altered patterns of DNA replication and larger distances between replication origins in somatic cells compared to embryos. Conversely, when cells experience difficulties while replicating DNA, the replication program is dramatically altered and distances between replication origins decrease. Recent evidence indicates that each unit of replication, or replicon, can correspond to one or more potential replication origins, but in the case of multiple potential origins, only one is selected to initiate replication of the replicon. How one origin is selected from multiple potential origins and how origin densities are regulated during genome duplication remains unclear. The following review addresses some of the mechanisms involved in regulating replication origins during both a normal and perturbed eukaryotic cell cycle.

  13. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  14. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  15. Manager-Organization Linkages: The Impact of Changing Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    creation of the rest of the occupational characteristics that have come to be associated with the professions (cf. Ritzer , 1977). One of the more...Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Mi. Ritzer , G. (1977). Working: Conflict and Change, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Schein, E... George E. Rowland Temple University, The Merit Center Ritter Annex, 9th Floor College of Education Philadephia, PA 19122 Dr. Irwin G. Sarason

  16. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  17. The rate of molecular adaptation in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, João M; Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    It is currently unclear whether the amino acid substitutions that occur during protein evolution are primarily driven by adaptation, or reflect the random accumulation of neutral changes. When estimated from genomic data, the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions, called α, was found to vary greatly across species, from nearly zero in humans to above 0.5 in Drosophila. These variations have been interpreted as reflecting differences in effective population size, adaptation being supposedly more efficient in large populations. Here, we investigate the influence of effective population size and other biological parameters on the rate of adaptive evolution by simulating the evolution of a coding sequence under Fisher's geometric formalism. We explicitly model recurrent environmental changes and the subsequent adaptive walks, followed by periods of stasis during which purifying selection dominates. We show that, under a variety of conditions, the effective population size has only a moderate influence on α, and an even weaker influence on the per generation rate of selective sweeps, modifying the prevalent view in current literature. The rate of environmental change and, interestingly, the dimensionality of the phenotypic space (organismal complexity) affect the adaptive rate more deeply than does the effective population size. We discuss the reasons why verbal arguments have been misleading on that subject and revisit the empirical evidence. Our results question the relevance of the "α" parameter as an indicator of the efficiency of molecular adaptation.

  18. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  19. A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Adam G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even th...

  20. COST EFFECTIVE REGULATORY APPROACHES TO ENHANCE DOMESTIC OIL & GAS PRODUCTION AND ENSURE THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Grunewald; Paul Jehn; Tom Gillespie; Ben Binder

    2004-12-21

    The Environmental Information Management Suite/Risk Based Data Management System (EIMS/RBDMS) and Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA) programs continue to be successful. All oil and gas state regulatory programs participate in these efforts. Significant accomplishments include: streamline regulatory approaches, enhancing environmental protection, and making oil and gas data available via the Internet. Oil and gas companies worldwide now have access to data on state web sites. This reduces the cost of exploration and enables companies to develop properties in areas that would have been cost prohibited for exploration. Early in project, GWPC and State Oil and Gas agencies developed the EIMS and CERA strategic plan to prioritize long term development and implementation. The planning process identifies electronic commerce and coal bed methane as high priorities. The group has involved strategic partners in industry and government to develop a common data exchange process. Technical assistance to Alaska continues to improve their program management capabilities. New initiatives in Alaska include the development of an electronic permit tracking system. This system allows managers to expedite the permitting process. Nationwide, the RBDMS system is largely completed with 22 states and one Indian Nation now using this nationally accepted data management system. Additional remaining tasks include routine maintenance and the installation of the program upon request for the remaining oil and gas states. The GWPC in working with the BLM and MMS to develop an XML schema to facilitate electronic permitting and reporting (Appendix A, B, and C). This is a significant effort and, in years to come, will increase access to federal lands by reducing regulatory barriers. The new initiatives are coal bed methane and e-commerce. The e-commerce program will provide industry and BLM/MMS access to the millions of data points housed in the RBDMS system. E-commerce will streamline

  1. Teaching and assessing nutrition competence in a changing curricular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Sarah K

    2008-01-01

    In the past, the required introductory veterinary nutrition course at Michigan State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM) has provided 29 hours of didactic lectures, with student performance evaluated by short-answer or multiple-choice questions. Because of a 50% reduction in allotted course credits and a change in prerequisites for admission, the course is being redesigned to focus on three of 29 nutrition competencies outlined by the American College of Veterinary Nutrition. Professional communication skills will be developed through small-group learning experiences, case-based problems, and videotaped interviews with standardized clients to teach and assess nutrition competencies. Assessment strategies will differ from traditional multiple-choice examinations and include pre- and post-course self-efficacy ratings, written evaluations from trained standardized clients, and oral and written evaluations from coaches or facilitators.

  2. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, P.S. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  3. Ages of celiac disease: from changing environment to improved diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Alberto; Not, Tarcisio; Ventura, Alessandro

    2011-08-28

    From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into many ages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeper knowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time, these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the disease in population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was not known; later, the disease was proven to depend on an intolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosal changes in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten (AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presentation. More recently, the characterization of autoantibodies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further developments for the next celiac age will be proposed.

  4. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Downard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they are located. Managers have acquired water rights and constructed infrastructure while cultivating collaborative relationships with other water users to increase the adaptive capacity of the region and decrease conflict. Historically, water management involved diversion and impoundment of water within wetland units timed around patterns of agricultural water needs. In the last 20 years, managers have learned from flood and drought events and developed a long-term adaptive management plan that specifies alternative management actions managers can choose each year based on habitat needs and projected water supply. Each alternative includes habitat goals and target wetland water depth. However, wetland management adapted to agricultural return-flow availability may prove insufficient as population growth and climate change alter patterns of land and water use. Future management will likely depend more on negotiation, collaboration, and learning from social developments within the SES than strictly focusing on water management within refuge boundaries. To face this problem, managers have worked to be included in negotiations with regional water users, a strategy that may prove instructive for other wetland managers in agriculture-dominated watersheds.

  5. 77 FR 39781 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... would be for an IPO. \\3\\ 15 U.S.C. 77a. Significant regulatory concerns, including accounting fraud... accounting fraud or subject to other concealed and undisclosed legal or regulatory problems. For purposes...

  6. 78 FR 69694 - Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... rescheduled due to the government shutdown. The title of the workshop has also been changed. Dates amd Times... due to a disability, please contact Herbert Lerner (see Contact Person) at least 7 days before...

  7. Estimation of vapor concentration in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2003-08-01

    A key limitation on the use of two-wavelength DIAL or its multi-spectral generalization is the unknown spectral structure of the topographically backscattered lidar signals in the absence of the target materials. Although some of the factors responsible for the background spectral structure can be measured in advance, others, such as the terrain differences are highly variable and usually unknown. For applications to tactical reconnainssance and high-altitude surveillance where the background is continuously changing, the inability to account for the background can seriously degrade sensor performance. This study describes a method for estimating both the spectral dependence of the background as well as the path-integrated concentration, or CL, from the same data set using dual Kalman filtering. The idea is to run parallel filters that estimate the background and CL using input from the other filter. The approach is illustrated on a variety of synthetic data sets and signal injections into background data collected by the U.S. Army WILDCAT sensor at Dugway Proving Ground.

  8. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  9. Ages of celiac disease: From changing environment to improved diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Tommasini; Tarcisio Not; Alessandro Ventura

    2011-01-01

    From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into manyages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeperknowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time,these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the diseasein population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was notknown; later, the disease was proven to depend on anintolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosalchanges in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten(AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presenta-tion. More recently, the characterization of autoantibod-ies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disor-ders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further devel-opments for the next celiac age will be proposed.

  10. 75 FR 69150 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., 2010), 75 FR 60158. II. Description DTC's Security Position Report (``SPR'') service provides valuable... November 4, 2010. I. Introduction On September 14, 2010, The Depository Trust Company (``DTC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') proposed rule change SR-DTC-2010-12...

  11. 78 FR 8640 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    .... 65619 (October 25, 2011), 76 FR 67238 (October 31, 2011) (order approving proposed rule change by BATS...\\ \\7\\ See Notice supra note 3, at 76 FR 75460. \\8\\ BATS Rule 11.23(a)(23) defines ``Volume Based Tie....\\23\\ \\22\\ See Notice supra note 3, at 77 FR at 75460. BATS Rule 11.23(a)(22) defines a RHO order as...

  12. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...

  13. Adaptive management of irrigated rice in the changing environments of the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Alternate wetting and drying, Climate change adaptation, Crop growth simulation models, Genotype × environment interaction, N use efficiency,  Oryza sativa L., Phenology, Sahelian irrigation schemes, Sowing date, Spikelet sterility, Temperature increase, Water productivity, Wee

  14. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  15. The Carrier Arms Race in East and South Asia: Responses to a Changing Strategic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    is indicative of the evolving naval strategic environment in the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean. Most Asian states have long refrained from...I NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE CARRIER ARMS...RACE IN EAST AND SOUTH ASIA: RESPONSES TO A CHANGING STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT by Christian P. Richer September 2014 Thesis Advisor

  16. Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Miguel Chevin

    Full Text Available Many species are experiencing sustained environmental change mainly due to human activities. The unusual rate and extent of anthropogenic alterations of the environment may exceed the capacity of developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms that populations have evolved to deal with environmental change. To begin to understand the limits to population persistence, we present a simple evolutionary model for the critical rate of environmental change beyond which a population must decline and go extinct. We use this model to highlight the major determinants of extinction risk in a changing environment, and identify research needs for improved predictions based on projected changes in environmental variables. Two key parameters relating the environment to population biology have not yet received sufficient attention. Phenotypic plasticity, the direct influence of environment on the development of individual phenotypes, is increasingly considered an important component of phenotypic change in the wild and should be incorporated in models of population persistence. Environmental sensitivity of selection, the change in the optimum phenotype with the environment, still crucially needs empirical assessment. We use environmental tolerance curves and other examples of ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to illustrate how these mechanistic approaches can be developed for predictive purposes.

  17. Hepatic microvascular regulatory mechanisms. VIII. Glucogenic responses and morphologic changes following serotonin-induced low flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, F D; McCafferty, R E; McCuskey, P A; Dimlich, R V

    1986-01-01

    Changes in blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content and distribution, the number of hepatic mast cells, and hepatic morphology were assessed over 30 min in non-fasted and anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats receiving endoportal or femoral intravenous injections of selected doses of serotonin and/or phentolamine, lodoxamide, or of Ringer's solution (control). Endoportal administration of low-flow producing doses of serotonin (1.0, 10.0, 20.0 micrograms per 100 g b.w.) elevated circulating blood glucose without decreasing hepatic glycogen content when compared to control in unit dry or wet weights. Hyperglycemia was accompanied by centrilobular glycogen depletion and apparent Kupffer cell activation. However, no change in hepatocyte or endothelial cell morphology or in the number of hepatic mast cells was observed following serotonin-induced low flow. The glucotropic response to a nonhypotensive dose of serotonin (1.0 microgram per 100 g b.w.) was modified by phentolamine (100 micrograms per 100 g b.w.) but not lodoxamide (0.1 microgram per 100 g b.w.). These blockers, when given alone, stimulated centrilobular glycogen depletion without producing a net change in blood glucose or hepatic glycogen content. By contrast, injection of serotonin (10.0 micrograms per 100 g b.w.) and/or phentolamine (100 micrograms per 100 g b.w.) into the femoral vein provoked no glucogenesis or systemic hypotension. Given these results, serotonin is suggested to stimulate hyperglycemia by activating alpha-adrenergic receptors. Since centrilobular glycogen depletion proceeds with no detectable change in total hepatic glycogen content, it is postulated that hepatic glycogen catabolism and deposition occur simultaneously and at equivalent rates during conditions of serotonin-induced hyperglycemia and low flow.

  18. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  19. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  20. Regulatory Changes of N-Acetylgalactosamine Terminal Sugar in Early Mouse Embryonic Paraxial Mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Miri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The development of vertebrae is a complex phenomenon that is correlated with distinct morphological and biochemical alterations in the paraxial mesenchyme and glycoconjugates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the glycosylation pattern in paraxial mesenchyme-forming vertebrae by using the lectin histochemical technique.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, B4G fixed paraffin sections of 9 to 15 day Balb/c mouse embryos were processed for histochemical studies using seven different HRP-labelled lectins: Glycin max (SBA, Maclura pomifera (MPA, Wistaria floribunda (WFA, Vicia villosa (VVA which all of them are specific for N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, Ulex europius (UEA1, binds to α-L-fucose, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, binds to sialic acid, and Griffonia simplicifolia (GSA1-B4, binds to galactose terminal sugars. The sections were observed separately by three examiners who were blinded to the lectins. Grading was done according to the intensity of the tested lectins’ reactions with the specimen, from negative (- to severe (+++. Data was analysed with SPSS software (version 11.5 and the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test; p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Our findings showed that among the tested lectins, only GalNAc residue sensitive lectins showed regulated changes in paraxial mesenchyme. Reactions of WFA and MPA lectins with paraxial mesenchyme were severe on GD9. Reactions of WFA continued to GD15 constantly, while MPA reactions continued strongly to GD12, significantly decreased thereafter (p<0.001, and then disappeared. VVA and SBA bindings initiated weakly on GD10 and continued to GD12 without changing. These reactions increased significantly (p<0.001 thereafter, became severe to GD14, and later disappeared. The other tested lectins did not reveal regulated changes.Conclusion: According to these findings it can be concluded that only the GalNAc terminal sugar showed temporally regulated

  1. 75 FR 40000 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. July 2, 2010. On May 21, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc....

  2. Changes of microRNA profile and microRNA-mRNA regulatory network in bones of ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Ohn, Jung Hun; Song, Jung Ah; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hyojung; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Park, Woog-Yang; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-03-01

    Growing evidence shows the possibility of a role of microRNAs (miRNA) in regulating bone mass. We investigated the change of miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles in bone tissue in an ovariectomized mice model and evaluated the regulatory mechanism of bone mass mediated by miRNAs in an estrogen-deficiency state. Eight-week-old female C3H/HeJ mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Sham-op), and their femur and tibia were harvested to extract total bone RNAs after 4 weeks for microarray analysis. Eight miRNAs (miR-127, -133a, -133a*, -133b, -136, -206, -378, -378*) were identified to be upregulated after OVX, whereas one miRNA (miR-204) was downregulated. Concomitant analysis of mRNA microarray revealed that 658 genes were differentially expressed between OVX and Sham-op mice. Target prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs identified potential targets, and integrative analysis using the mRNA microarray results showed that PPARγ and CREB pathways are activated in skeletal tissues after ovariectomy. Among the potential candidates of miRNA, we further studied the role of miR-127 in vitro, which exhibited the greatest changes after OVX. We also studied the effects of miR-136, which has not been studied in the context of bone mass regulation. Transfection of miR-127 inhibitor has enhanced osteoblastic differentiation in UAMS-32 cells as measured by alkaline phosphatase activities and mRNA expression of osteoblast-specific genes, whereas miR-136 precursor has inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, transfection of both miR-127 and miR-136 inhibitors enhanced the osteocyte-like morphological changes and survival in MLO-Y4 cells, whereas precursors of miR-127 and -136 have aggravated dexamethasone-induced cell death. Both of the precursors enhanced osteoclastic differentiation in bone marrow macrophages, indicating that both miR-127 and -136 are negatively regulating bone mass. Taken together, these results suggest a novel insight into the

  3. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    for the contrasting findings for the two richness-environment relationships. In conclusion, we find support for the idea that Plio-Pleistocene climate change may sometimes affect current species richness-environment relationships via its effects on regional species pools. However, further studies integrating...... information on species ages and clade differentiation rates will be needed to substantiate this interpretation. On a general level, our results indicate that although strong richness-environment relationships are often found in macroecological studies, these can be contingent upon the historical constraints......Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...

  4. Managing Evolution and Change in Web-Based Teaching and Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the design and maintenance of computer-based teaching and learning environments and illustrates consequences of evolution and change in Web-based courses. Focuses on changes in content; format of the course; infrastructure, including hardware, systems, and software; and pedagogy, or instructional design, including knowledge modeling,…

  5. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  6. Communication in troubled waters : responses of fish communication systems to changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, Inke; Gray, Suzanne M.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.; Barber, Iain; Candolin, Ulrika; Hendry, Andrew P.; Krahe, Ruediger; Maan, Martine E.; Utne-Palm, Anne Christine; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly being subjected to anthropogenic changes to their sensory environments. The impact of these changes on inter- and intra-specific communication, and its evolutionary consequences, has only recently started to receive research attention. A disruption of the sensory en

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou@scut.edu.cn

    2016-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene accompanied by early conformational change from α-helix to β-sheet structures was observed by molecular simulations. This work presents the molecular mechanism of graphene-induced peptide conformational alteration and sheds light on developing graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV. - Highlights: • Graphene induced early structural transition of Vpr13-33 is studied by MD simulations. • Both π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions orchestrate the peptide adsorption. • Vpr has an increased propensity of β-sheet content on graphene surface. • To develop graphene-based materials to inhibit HIV is possible. - Abstract: The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of

  8. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity.

  9. Changes in Students' Science Ability Produced by Multimedia Learning Environments: Application of the Linear Logistic Model for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; McGee, Steven; Howard, Bruce C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to measure changes in students' science proficiency produced by a multimedia learning environment. Describes the inquiry-based design of Astronomy Village, which supports middle school students in learning fundamental concepts in life, earth, and physical sciences. Results indicate sizable treatment effects for two…

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of peptide conformations. These findings are consistent with experimental results, and give a molecular level interpretation for the reduced cytotoxicity of Vpr13-33 to some extent upon graphene exposure. Meanwhile, this study provides some significant insights into the detailed mechanism of graphene-induced protein conformation transition.

  11. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  12. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  13. 76 FR 65255 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... herein, the current corporate structure, governance and self-regulatory independence and separation of... Relating to a Corporate Transaction in Which Its Indirect Parent, Deutsche B rse AG, Will Become a Wholly... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed...

  14. 76 FR 65264 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... modifications described herein, the current corporate structure, governance and self-regulatory independence and... Relating to a Corporate Transaction in Which Its Indirect Parent, Deutsche B rse AG, Will Become a Wholly... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed...

  15. Intramolecular and intermolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer in fluorescent protein-tagged Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1): sensitivity to regulatory conformational change and cell volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Meike; Carmosino, Monica; Forbush, Biff

    2008-02-01

    To examine the structure and function of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter, NKCC1, we tagged the transporter with cyan (CFP) and yellow (YFP) fluorescent proteins and measured fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in stably expressing human embryonic kidney cell lines. Fluorescent protein tags were added at the N-terminal residue between the regulatory domain and the membrane domain and within a poorly conserved region of the C terminus. Both singly and doubly tagged NKCC1s were appropriately trafficked to the cell membrane and were fully functional; regulation was normal except when YFP was inserted near the regulatory domain, in which case activation occurred only upon incubation with calyculin A. Quenching of YFP fluorescence by Cl(-) provided a ratiometric indicator of intracellular [Cl(-)]. All of the CFP/YFP NKCC pairs exhibited some level of FRET, demonstrating the presence of dimers or higher multimers in functioning NKCC1. With YFP near the regulatory domain and CFP in the C terminus, we recorded a 6% FRET change signaling the regulatory phosphorylation event. On the other hand, when the probe was placed at the extreme N terminus, such changes were not seen, presumably due to the length and predicted flexibility of the N terminus. Substantial FRET changes were observed contemporaneous with cell volume changes, possibly reflective of an increase in molecular crowding upon cell shrinkage.

  16. The future of marketing: an appropriate response to the environment changes

    OpenAIRE

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-01-01

    The future landscape of the business worldwide will have the marketing evolutions as a driver. These evolutions will be the response to the changes of business and marketing environment. The paper aims to analyze both the key trends that are shaping the macro environment, markets and consumers and their impact on the marketing at business level. First, these issues are presented as they result of both theoretical and applied various researches performed by numerous international and national ...

  17. Gene regulatory network inference and validation using relative change ratio analysis and time-delayed dynamic Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Gong, Ping; Li, Haoni; Perkins, Edward J; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2014-12-01

    The Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM) project was initiated in 2006 as a community-wide effort for the development of network inference challenges for rigorous assessment of reverse engineering methods for biological networks. We participated in the in silico network inference challenge of DREAM3 in 2008. Here we report the details of our approach and its performance on the synthetic challenge datasets. In our methodology, we first developed a model called relative change ratio (RCR), which took advantage of the heterozygous knockdown data and null-mutant knockout data provided by the challenge, in order to identify the potential regulators for the genes. With this information, a time-delayed dynamic Bayesian network (TDBN) approach was then used to infer gene regulatory networks from time series trajectory datasets. Our approach considerably reduced the searching space of TDBN; hence, it gained a much higher efficiency and accuracy. The networks predicted using our approach were evaluated comparatively along with 29 other submissions by two metrics (area under the ROC curve and area under the precision-recall curve). The overall performance of our approach ranked the second among all participating teams.

  18. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  19. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change.

  20. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  1. Effects of lipid environment on the conformational changes of an ABC importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Austin J; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-01-01

    In order to shuttle substrates across the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins undergo a series of conformation changes that are influenced by protein structure, ligands, and the lipid environment. To test the effect of lipid on conformation change of the ABC transporter MolBC, EPR studies were conducted in lipids and detergents of variable composition. In both a detergent and lipid environment, MolBC underwent the same general conformation changes as detected by site-directed EPR spectroscopy. However, differences in activity and the details of the EPR analysis indicate conformational rigidity that is dependent on the lipid environment. From these observations, we conclude that native-like lipid mixtures provide the transporter with greater activity and conformational flexibility as well as technical advantages such as reconstitution efficiency and protein stability.

  2. Population transcriptomics uncovers the regulation of gene expression variation in adaptation to changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Zhu, Caiyun; Fan, Yangyang; Song, Zhihong; Xing, Shilai; Liu, Wei; Yan, Juan; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Expression variation plays an important role in plant adaptation, but little is known about the factors impacting the expression variation when population adapts to changing environment. We used RNA-seq data from 80 individuals in 14 Miscanthus lutarioriparius populations, which were transplanted into a harsh environment from native habitat, to investigate the expression level, expression diversity and genetic diversity for genes expressed in both environments. The expression level of genes with lower expression level or without SNP tended to be more changeable in new environment, which suggested highly expressed genes experienced stronger purifying selection than those at lower level. Low proportion of genes with population effect confirmed the weak population structure and frequent gene flow in these populations. Meanwhile, the number of genes with environment effect was the most frequent compared with that with population effect. Our results showed that environment and genetic diversity were the main factors determining gene expression variation in population. This study could facilitate understanding the mechanisms of global gene expression variation when plant population adapts to changing environment. PMID:27150248

  3. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  4. The Role of Aerosol in Climate Change,the Environment,and Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol is an important component of the atmosphere,and its source,composition,distribution,and effects are highly complicated.Governments and scientists have given much attention to aerosol problems,and it has become a hot topic due to the important role it plays in climate change and the Earth's environment.In this paper,1) the importance of aerosol in climate change,the atmospheric environment,and human health is summarized;2) the recent serious problems of aerosol pollution and the shortage of current aerosol research in China are pointed out;and 3) the necessity to enhance aerosol research in China is emphasized.

  5. Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra E; Dave, Jayna; Tanner, Andrea; Duhe, Sonya; Condrasky, Margaret; Wilson, Dawn; Griffin, Sarah; Palmer, Meredith; Evans, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The specific aim for this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition and media literacy intervention targeting elementary students and their parents. The purpose of the intervention was to increase child fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and change the home nutrition environment (measured with FV availability and accessibility and parental social support). During the intervention, students learned about nutrition, the role media plays in shaping values concerning nutrition, and developed a media campaign for their parents. A quasi-experimental research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The media intervention was effective in changing the home environment.

  6. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J. Moerlein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  7. Molecular and cellular bases of adaptation to a changing environment in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleuven, Clara; Landry, Christian R

    2016-10-26

    Environmental heterogeneity constitutes an evolutionary challenge for organisms. While evolutionary dynamics under variable conditions has been explored for decades, we still know relatively little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. It is of paramount importance to examine these molecular bases because they may play an important role in shaping the course of evolution. In this review, we examine the diversity of adaptive mechanisms in the face of environmental changes. We exploit the recent literature on microbial systems because those have benefited the most from the recent emergence of genetic engineering and experimental evolution followed by genome sequencing. We identify four emerging trends: (i) an adaptive molecular change in a pathway often results in fitness trade-off in alternative environments but the effects are dependent on a mutation's genetic background; (ii) adaptive changes often modify transcriptional and signalling pathways; (iii) several adaptive changes may occur within the same molecular pathway but be associated with pleiotropy of different signs across environments; (iv) because of their large associated costs, macromolecular changes such as gene amplification and aneuploidy may be a rapid mechanism of adaptation in the short-term only. The course of adaptation in a variable environment, therefore, depends on the complexity of the environment but also on the molecular relationships among the genes involved and between the genes and the phenotypes under selection.

  8. 76 FR 49522 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... company. \\5\\ 15 U.S.C. 77a. Significant regulatory concerns, including accounting fraud allegations, have... engaged in undetected accounting fraud or subject to other concealed and undisclosed legal or...

  9. Changing the learning environment to promote deep learning approaches in first year accounting students

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Developing deep approaches to learning is claimed to enhance students' engagement with their subject material and result in improved analytical and conceptual thinking skills. Numerous calls have been made for accounting educators to adopt strategies that produce such results. This paper reports on changes to the learning environment centring on the introduction of group learning activities that were designed to improve the quality of students' learning outcomes. The impact of changes in the ...

  10. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem...... disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system includes a total of 565 individual hazard evaluations, each graduated into four different hazard levels based on a scientific literature review. The framework uses a simple assessment methodology with limited data...

  11. Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in River deltas in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.; Offermans, A.; Beek, E. van; Deursen, W.P.A. van

    2012-01-01

    Exploring adaptation pathways into an uncertain future can support decisionmaking in achieving sustainable water management in a changing environment. Our objective is to develop and test a method to identify such pathways by including dynamics from natural variability and the interaction between th

  12. The effects of a changing institutional environment on academic research practices: three cases from agricultural science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.; Grin, J.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the varying effects of a changing institutional environment on academic research practices in three fields of Dutch animal science. Our analysis shows that the shifts in funding have stimulated interactions with societal stakeholders in fields where this has helped to sustain

  13. The central role of the construction sector for climate change adaptions in the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roders, M.J.; Straub, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, research has clearly enunciated the necessity of adaptation to climate change in the built environment. Policy is being developed on national and municipal levels to have adaptations implemented. However, for the actual application of the measures, property owners are the actors

  14. Change in Teacher Candidates' Metaphorical Images about Classroom Management in a Social Constructivist Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Hanife; Yildirim, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the conceptual change teacher candidates went through in a constructivist learning environment in a classroom management course. Within a qualitative case study design, teacher candidates' metaphorical images about classroom management were obtained through document analysis before and after they were…

  15. Organic fertilisers of the mac trial and their impact on soil quality, environment and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.J.; Zanen, M.; Bokhorst, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    After 8 years, the MAC field trial in Lelystad, the Netherlands, shows the effects of different fertiliser strategies, ranging from animal manure to plant compost to mineral fertiliser. The impact on yield, soil quality, soil health, environment and climate change is discussed. The trial is unique i

  16. Environment for Innovation: Exploring Associations with Individual Disposition toward Change, Organizational Conflict, Justice and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Daniel James

    2013-01-01

    The environment in higher education and healthcare is rapidly changing. Adaptation through innovation is critical for organizations responsible for the education of healthcare providers. This study examined the climate for innovation at chiropractic colleges and health sciences universities offering a doctor of chiropractic program. The…

  17. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  18. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical…

  19. Dynamic changes in binding of immunoglobulin heavy chain 3' regulatory region to protein factors during class switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sanjukta; Ju, Zhongliang; Hassan, Rabih; Volpi, Sabrina A; Emelyanov, Alexander V; Birshtein, Barbara K

    2011-08-19

    The 3' regulatory region (3' RR) of the Igh locus works at long distances on variable region (V(H)) and switch region (I) region promoters to initiate germ line (non-coding) transcription (GT) and promote class switch recombination (CSR). The 3' RR contains multiple elements, including enhancers (hs3a, hs1.2, hs3b, and hs4) and a proposed insulator region containing CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) binding sites, i.e. hs5/6/7 and the downstream region ("38"). Notably, deletion of each individual enhancer (hs3a-hs4) has no significant phenotypic consequence, suggesting that the 3' RR has considerable structural flexibility in its function. To better understand how the 3' RR functions, we identified transcription factor binding sites and used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor their occupancy in splenic B cells that initiate GT and undergo CSR (LPS±IL4), are deficient in GT and CSR (p50(-/-)), or do not undergo CSR despite efficient GT (anti-IgM+IL4). Like 3' RR enhancers, hs5-7 and the 38 region were observed to contain multiple Pax5 binding sites (in addition to multiple CTCF sites). We found that the Pax5 binding profile to the 3' RR dynamically changed during CSR independent of the specific isotype to which switching was induced, and binding focused on hs1.2, hs4, and hs7. CTCF-associated and CTCF-independent cohesin interactions were also identified. Our observations are consistent with a scaffold model in which a platform of active protein complexes capable of facilitating GT and CSR can be formed by varying constellations of 3' RR elements.

  20. Attribution of Runoff Change for the Xinshui River Catchment on the Loess Plateau of China in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stream flow plays a crucial role in the environment, society, and the economy, and identifying the causes of changes in runoff is important to understanding the impact of climate change and human activity. This study examines the variation trends in recorded runoff for the Xinshui River, a tributary of the Yellow River on the Loess Plateau, and uses hydrological simulations to investigate how climate change and human activity have contributed to those trends. Results show that the recorded runoff at the Daning station on the Xinshui River declined significantly from 1955–2008 with an abrupt change occurring in 1973. The Simplified Water Balance Model (SWBM simulates monthly discharge well with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE coefficient of 78% and a relative error of volumetric fit (RE of 0.32%. Runoff depth over the catchment in 1973–2008 fell by 25.5 mm relative to the previous period, with human activity and climate change contributing 60.6% and 39.4% of the total runoff reduction, respectively. However, the impacts induced by climate change and human activities are both tending to increase. Therefore, efforts to improve the ecology of the Loess Plateau should give sufficient attention to the impacts of climate change and human activity.

  1. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort under Thermal Environment Ramp Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇赟喆; 涂光备; 孙琳

    2004-01-01

    Set points of the indoor air temperature and relative humidity in short-term staying location were studied. In this condition, the thermal reaction of human body varied with the ramp changes of the environmental thermal parameters.The change rules of about 60 subjects'thermal reaction to the ramp change of environment were surveyed, and the effect of air movement on the thermal reaction during transient condition was considered by using a questionnaire. With the experimental results and research findings under stable condition, a way to set environmental parameters of short-time staying location was recommended.

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mironescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Change is a factor of impact on managerial functions especially upon those related to the coordination and training of the human resources. Change management is a broad spectrum of means, referring to different types of change , however, it is generally used in the processing management and in the strategic management, in the information management , including the electronic one. The analysis of changes inside the organization is very important , these changes allow the organizations to be more adaptable and innovative. However, some changes may suddenly occur and will independently act of the managers’will. If we are talking about the human change, then we should mention that the importance of this dimension of the organizational change is essential. The way people relate to change can be affected by the position they occupy inside the organization and the attitudes they adopt facing the change influence the role that they assume with the greatest ease in the change processes. Leadership and the organizational culture are in a tight relationship. Manager evaluates its business, in addition to a number of work processes and products, and the cultural environment too, so conducive, in his view, that it should activate and record the organizational and work performance.

  3. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    This overview of Danish law related to companies’ conduct and impact on environment and climate change has been undertaken under the ‘Sustainable Companies’ project hosted at the Department of Private Law at the University of Oslo. The ‘mapping’ of national law – including in particular company law....... Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...... for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section...

  4. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Environmental degradation and unsustainable development were addressed on a global scale at the UN Summits in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Johannesburg in 2002. This article presents analyses of Danish television coverage of these two summits and related topics viewing the media stories as exemplary...... cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...... development towards post-environmentalism. Already ecological modernisation can be perceived as post-environmentalist, but this article wants to suggest a downfall also for ecological modernisation as a prominent discourse and a more direct challenge to the legitimacy of environmental concern and thus...

  5. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  6. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment.

  7. Agreement Maintenance Based on Schema and Ontology Change in P2P Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Banowosari, L Y; Mutiara, A B

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concern about developing a semantic agreement maintenance method based on semantic distance by calculating the change of local schema or ontology. This approach is important in dynamic and autonomous environment, in which the current approach assumed that agreement or mapping in static environment. The contribution of this research is to develop a framework based on semantic agreement maintenance approach for P2P environment. This framework based on two level hybrid P2P model architecture, which consist of two peer type: (1) super peer that use to register and manage the other peers, and (2) simple peer, as a simple peer, it exports and shares its contents with others. This research develop a model to maintain the semantic agreement in P2P environment, so the current approach which does not have the mechanism to know the change, since it assumed that ontology and local schema are in the static condition, and it is different in dynamic condition. The main issues are how to calculate the change of...

  8. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  9. Climate Change and Regulation in International and Regional Level, Especially the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnoki Zsuzsanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief insight into the history of climate change, with a scope on the international and legal aspects of ever-changing regulations. The regional level is in the article is The European Union, as the only regional economic integration organization under the Kyoto Protocol. It deals with the United Nation’s international agreements like UNFCCC its Kyoto’s Protocol and the Post-Kyoto era. It also analyses the EU’s system in the climate change law with correspondence the international rules. Comparison between international and regional legislation in the climate change is used as a tool of analysis. Finally an insight is given into a special field in the climate change, the build environment, reflecting on the related United Nation’s recommendation and the EU’s regulation.

  10. Dynamic changes in CD45RA−Foxp3high regulatory T-cells in chronic hepatitis C patients during antiviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqin Li; Yu Ping; Zujiang Yu; Meng Wang; Dongli Yue; Zhen Zhang; Jianbin Li; Bin Zhang; Xuezhong Shi; Yi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) are known to accumulate under certain pathological conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of and dynamic changes in Treg cells in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients during antiviral therapy. Methods: One hundred and forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study, including 105 CHC patients and 40 healthy donors. The phenotypes and functions of Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: A significan...

  11. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: guptanidhi12@gmail.com; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); George, Saji, E-mail: saji_george@nyp.gov.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  12. A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Adam G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even though the dynamics of extinction almost certainly depend upon the nature of species interactions. Results Here, I use a model of quantitative trait evolution in a two-species community to show that negative ecological interactions, such as predation and competition, can produce unexpected results regarding time to extinction. Under some circumstances, negative interactions can be expected to hasten the extinction of species declining in numbers. However, under other circumstances, negative interactions can actually increase times to extinction. This effect occurs across a wide range of parameter values and can be substantial, in some cases allowing a population to persist for 40 percent longer than it would in the absence of the species interaction. Conclusion This theoretical study indicates that negative species interactions can have unexpected positive effects on times to extinction. Consequently, detailed studies of selection and demographics will be necessary to predict the consequences of species interactions in changing environments for any particular ecological community.

  13. Feature Optimization for Long-Range Visual Homing in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a feature optimization method for robot long-range feature-based visual homing in changing environments. To cope with the changing environmental appearance, the optimization procedure is introduced to distinguish the most relevant features for feature-based visual homing, including the spatial distribution, selection and updating. In the previous research on feature-based visual homing, less effort has been spent on the way to improve the feature distribution to get uniformly distributed features, which are closely related to homing performance. This paper presents a modified feature extraction algorithm to decrease the influence of anisotropic feature distribution. In addition, the feature selection and updating mechanisms, which have hardly drawn any attention in the domain of feature-based visual homing, are crucial in improving homing accuracy and in maintaining the representation of changing environments. To verify the feasibility of the proposal, several comprehensive evaluations are conducted. The results indicate that the feature optimization method can find optimal feature sets for feature-based visual homing, and adapt the appearance representation to the changing environments as well.

  14. Quantifying spectral changes experienced by plasmonic nanoparticles in a cellular environment to inform biomedical nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen L.; Hu, Ying S.; Jackson, Meredith A.; Lin, Adam Y.; Young, Joseph K.; Langsner, Robert J.; Drezek, Rebekah A.

    2014-08-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) scatter and absorb light in precise, designable ways, making them agile candidates for a variety of biomedical applications. When NPs are introduced to a physiological environment and interact with cells, their physicochemical properties can change as proteins adsorb on their surface and they agglomerate within intracellular endosomal vesicles. Since the plasmonic properties of metal NPs are dependent on their geometry and local environment, these physicochemical changes may alter the NPs' plasmonic properties, on which applications such as plasmonic photothermal therapy and photonic gene circuits are based. Here we systematically study and quantify how metal NPs' optical spectra change upon introduction to a cellular environment in which NPs agglomerate within endosomal vesicles. Using darkfield hyperspectral imaging, we measure changes in the peak wavelength, broadening, and distribution of 100-nm spherical gold NPs' optical spectra following introduction to human breast adenocarcinoma Sk-Br-3 cells as a function of NP exposure dose and time. On a cellular level, spectra shift up to 78.6 ± 23.5 nm after 24 h of NP exposure. Importantly, spectra broaden with time, achieving a spectral width of 105.9 ± 11.7 nm at 95% of the spectrum's maximum intensity after 24 h. On an individual intracellular NP cluster (NPC) level, spectra also show significant shifting, broadening, and heterogeneity after 24 h. Cellular transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electromagnetic simulations of NPCs support the trends in spectral changes we measured. These quantitative data can help guide the design of metal NPs introduced to cellular environments in plasmonic NP-mediated biomedical technologies.

  15. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H

    2011-02-16

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but

  16. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Messaoud

    Full Text Available Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂ concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S. in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation. As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree

  17. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  18. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  19. Assessing conservation relevance of organism-environment relations using predicted changes in response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; White, Joseph D.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Cade, Brian S.; Zygo, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Organism–environment models are used widely in conservation. The degree to which they are useful for informing conservation decisions – the conservation relevance of these relations – is important because lack of relevance may lead to misapplication of scarce conservation resources or failure to resolve important conservation dilemmas. Even when models perform well based on model fit and predictive ability, conservation relevance of associations may not be clear without also knowing the magnitude and variability of predicted changes in response variables. 2. We introduce a method for evaluating the conservation relevance of organism–environment relations that employs confidence intervals for predicted changes in response variables. The confidence intervals are compared to a preselected magnitude of change that marks a threshold (trigger) for conservation action. To demonstrate the approach, we used a case study from the Chihuahuan Desert involving relations between avian richness and broad-scale patterns of shrubland. We considered relations for three winters and two spatial extents (1- and 2-km-radius areas) and compared predicted changes in richness to three thresholds (10%, 20% and 30% change). For each threshold, we examined 48 relations. 3. The method identified seven, four and zero conservation-relevant changes in mean richness for the 10%, 20% and 30% thresholds respectively. These changes were associated with major (20%) changes in shrubland cover, mean patch size, the coefficient of variation for patch size, or edge density but not with major changes in shrubland patch density. The relative rarity of conservation-relevant changes indicated that, overall, the relations had little practical value for informing conservation decisions about avian richness. 4. The approach we illustrate is appropriate for various response and predictor variables measured at any temporal or spatial scale. The method is broadly applicable across ecological

  20. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  1. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  2. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  3. Flocking for swarm systems with fixed topology in a changing environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zonggang LI; Yingmin JIA

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to the flocking of a class of swarm with fixed topology in a changing environment.Firstly,the controller for each agent is proposed by employing the error terms between the state of the agent and the average state of its neighbors.Secondly,a sufficient condition for the swarm to achieve flocking is presented under assumptions that the gradient of the environment is bounded and the initial position graph is connected.Thirdly,as the environment is a plane,it is further proved that the velocity of each agent finally converges to the velocity of the swarm center although not one agent knows where the center of the group is.Finally,numerical examples are included to illustrate the obtained results.

  4. 77 FR 31053 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... relationship between PHLX and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's affiliation with a member of... advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory obligations and its... Release No. 57478 (March 12, 2008), 73 FR 14521 (March 18, 2008) (SR-NASDAQ-2007-004 and...

  5. 78 FR 1281 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... single-name CDS): Replacing standard deviation with mean absolute deviation (MAD) as a measure of credit... appropriate portfolio margining between related index and single-name CDS positions. II. Self-Regulatory... single-name CDS) and (2) provide appropriate portfolio margin treatment between index CDS and...

  6. 75 FR 62443 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...-2010-099] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule... Marked October 1, 2010. I. Introduction On August 6, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock Market (``NASDAQ''), filed... Chapter I, Section 1 (Definitions) of the rules of the Nasdaq Options Market (``NOM'') to adopt...

  7. 77 FR 22019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... capital'' as the amount reported on Form 1-FR-FCM or FOCUS Report or as otherwise reported to the CFTC... regulated for capital adequacy by a competent authority such as the CFTC, SEC, Federal Reserve Board, Office... capital adequacy regulatory requirement and is subject to consolidated holding company group...

  8. 78 FR 41462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Exchange. ] The Listing Rules also set forth, among other things, definitions,\\4\\ the Exchange's regulatory... satisfied; or the pricing information for each component of a Reference Asset other than a Currency must be... surveillance sharing agreement. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, pricing information for gold and...

  9. Differential roles of epigenetic changes and Foxp3 expression in regulatory T cell-specific transcriptional regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morikawa, Hiromasa; Ohkura, Naganari; Vandenbon, Alexis; Itoh, Masayoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R R; Standley, Daron M; Date, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring regulatory T (Treg) cells, which specifically express the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), are engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. By transcriptional start site cluster analysis, we assessed here how genome-wide patterns of DNA

  10. 78 FR 16749 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... trading. While, in theory, the liquidity provided by requiring Market Makers to continue to quote during a... and equitable principles of trade, to remove impediments to and perfect the mechanism of a free and...-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Burden on Competition The Exchange does not believe that the...

  11. 76 FR 9843 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... sales and marketing materials, and certain regulatory compliance matters. The Distributor will not open... daily return of the S&P U.S. Equity Risk Premium Total Return Index. The Fund will seek to track the... daily return of the S&P U.S. Equity Risk Premium Total Return Index. The Fund will seek to track...

  12. 77 FR 36307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Corporate Governance Code that would be added, given that Holdco was formed under and subject to the laws of... corporate governance and regulatory obligations that are addressed by means of ownership and voting... balanced board composition and promote various other important corporate governance objectives, such...

  13. 77 FR 36324 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... independence standards and criteria in the Dutch Corporate Governance Code that would be added, given that... subsidiaries, it is subject to various corporate governance and regulatory obligations that are addressed by... important corporate governance objectives, such as ensuring appropriate expertise and experience on...

  14. Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei

    Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.

  15. Using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling for regulatory benefit-cost analysis: application to the Western hemisphere travel initiative in the land environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; LaTourrette, Tom

    2008-04-01

    This article presents a framework for using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling in regulatory analysis. We demonstrate the framework with an example application involving a regulation under consideration, the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative for the Land Environment, (WHTI-L). First, we estimate annualized loss from terrorist attacks with the Risk Management Solutions (RMS) Probabilistic Terrorism Model. We then estimate the critical risk reduction, which is the risk-reducing effectiveness of WHTI-L needed for its benefit, in terms of reduced terrorism loss in the United States, to exceed its cost. Our analysis indicates that the critical risk reduction depends strongly not only on uncertainties in the terrorism risk level, but also on uncertainty in the cost of regulation and how casualties are monetized. For a terrorism risk level based on the RMS standard risk estimate, the baseline regulatory cost estimate for WHTI-L, and a range of casualty cost estimates based on the willingness-to-pay approach, our estimate for the expected annualized loss from terrorism ranges from $2.7 billion to $5.2 billion. For this range in annualized loss, the critical risk reduction for WHTI-L ranges from 7% to 13%. Basing results on a lower risk level that results in halving the annualized terrorism loss would double the critical risk reduction (14-26%), and basing the results on a higher risk level that results in a doubling of the annualized terrorism loss would cut the critical risk reduction in half (3.5-6.6%). Ideally, decisions about terrorism security regulations and policies would be informed by true benefit-cost analyses in which the estimated benefits are compared to costs. Such analyses for terrorism security efforts face substantial impediments stemming from the great uncertainty in the terrorist threat and the very low recurrence interval for large attacks. Several approaches can be used to estimate how a terrorism security program or regulation reduces the

  16. Non-transcriptional regulatory processes shape transcriptional network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J Christian J; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2011-10-11

    Information about the extra- or intracellular environment is often captured as biochemical signals that propagate through regulatory networks. These signals eventually drive phenotypic changes, typically by altering gene expression programmes in the cell. Reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks has given a compelling picture of bacterial physiology, but transcriptional network maps alone often fail to describe phenotypes. Cellular response dynamics are ultimately determined by interactions between transcriptional and non-transcriptional networks, with dramatic implications for physiology and evolution. Here, we provide an overview of non-transcriptional interactions that can affect the performance of natural and synthetic bacterial regulatory networks.

  17. The development and change study of cost accounting in the IT environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilian Li; Qiumei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Relative to costs of computerized accounting, the cost accounting information further to get rid of the shackles of artificial accounting, reflecting a pure information management thinking, which contains a richer content, and traditional cost accounting theory a profound impact on the system. Clear understanding of the environment in the IT development process cost accounting will help us actively to promote cost accounting change, innovation and development.

  18. Risk evolution: how can changes in the built environment influence the potential loss of natural hazards?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendtner, B.; Papathoma-Köhle, M.; T. Glade

    2013-01-01

    Alpine areas often suffer significant loss and damage due to a range of natural processes such as landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches or floods. Sealing of the soil surface, settling in endangered areas and enhanced human intervention in the natural settings, as well as socio-economic changes, increase the risk and susceptibility of built environments to natural hazards and the costs of the consequences in a spatio-temporal context. The present study examines the loss ...

  19. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas;

    2014-01-01

    The COST Action FP0903 “Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment (MAFor)” involved 29 countries and created a platform for information exchange with experts from different fields, with the following main objectives: 1) to increase understanding of the state an....... The action also increased European capacity building in this sector by organizing five conferences, granting 64 short-term scientific missions, organizing four training schools and publishing more than 100 papers....

  20. Malaria vectors in the changing environment of the southern Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; Konradsen, Flemming; Herrel, Nathaly

    2004-01-01

    in the Pakistani Punjab may have been influenced by a change in vector species abundance or composition, possibly induced by environmental changes. To investigate this question, routinely-collected government entomological data for the period 1970 to 1999 for the district of Bahawalnagar, in the Indus Basin......, where irrigation-induced waterlogging of soil with related salinization has created an environment favourable for the more salt-tolerant A. stephensi. Some biotypes of A. stephensi are suspected of being less efficient vectors and, therefore, the shift in species dominance might have played a role...

  1. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...

  2. Ants adjust their pheromone deposition to a changing environment and their probability of making errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-07-07

    Animals must contend with an ever-changing environment. Social animals, especially eusocial insects such as ants and bees, rely heavily on communication for their success. However, in a changing environment, communicated information can become rapidly outdated. This is a particular problem for pheromone trail using ants, as once deposited pheromones cannot be removed. Here, we study the response of ant foragers to an environmental change. Ants were trained to one feeder location, and the feeder was then moved to a different location. We found that ants responded to an environmental change by strongly upregulating pheromone deposition immediately after experiencing the change. This may help maintain the colony's foraging flexibility, and allow multiple food locations to be exploited simultaneously. Our treatment also caused uncertainty in the foragers, by making their memories less reliable. Ants which had made an error but eventually found the food source upregulated pheromone deposition when returning to the nest. Intriguingly, ants on their way towards the food source downregulated pheromone deposition if they were going to make an error. This may suggest that individual ants can measure the reliability of their own memories and respond appropriately.

  3. Joint probability analysis of extreme precipitation and storm tide in a coastal city under changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Ma, Chao; Lian, Jijian; Bin, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding resulting from extreme meteorological events has occurred more frequently and drawn great attention in recent years in China. In coastal areas, extreme precipitation and storm tide are both inducing factors of flooding and therefore their joint probability would be critical to determine the flooding risk. The impact of storm tide or changing environment on flooding is ignored or underestimated in the design of drainage systems of today in coastal areas in China. This paper investigates the joint probability of extreme precipitation and storm tide and its change using copula-based models in Fuzhou City. The change point at the year of 1984 detected by Mann-Kendall and Pettitt's tests divides the extreme precipitation series into two subsequences. For each subsequence the probability of the joint behavior of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated by the optimal copula. Results show that the joint probability has increased by more than 300% on average after 1984 (α = 0.05). The design joint return period (RP) of extreme precipitation and storm tide is estimated to propose a design standard for future flooding preparedness. For a combination of extreme precipitation and storm tide, the design joint RP has become smaller than before. It implies that flooding would happen more often after 1984, which corresponds with the observation. The study would facilitate understanding the change of flood risk and proposing the adaption measures for coastal areas under a changing environment.

  4. A Governing Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Mazmanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing an approach to governing adaptation to climate change is severely hampered by the dictatorship of the present when the needs of future generations are inadequately represented in current policy making. We posit this problem as a function of the attributes of adaptation policy making, including deep uncertainty and nonstationarity, where past observations are not reliable predictors of future outcomes. Our research links organizational decision-making attributes with adaptation decision making and identifies cases in which adaptation actions cause spillovers, free riding, and distributional impacts. We develop a governing framework for adaptation that we believe will enable policy, planning, and major long-term development decisions to be made appropriately at all levels of government in the face of the deep uncertainty and nonstationarity caused by climate change. Our framework requires that approval of projects with an expected life span of 30 years or more in the built environment include minimum building standards that integrate forecasted climate change impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC intermediate scenario. The intermediate IPCC scenario must be downscaled to include local or regional temperature, water availability, sea level rise, susceptibility to forest fires, and human habitation impacts to minimize climate-change risks to the built environment. The minimum standard is systematically updated every six years to facilitate learning by formal and informal organizations. As a minimum standard, the governance framework allows jurisdictions to take stronger actions to increase their climate resilience and thus maintain system flexibility.

  5. Book Review: Late Cenozoic Climate Change in Asia: Loess, Monsoon and Monsoon-arid Environment Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Loess-Paleosol deposits drape >500,000 km2 of eastern China, spanning environments from the humid, monsoon-influenced regions near the coast to the arid, westerlies-dominated regions inland. Sections, up to hundreds of meters thick, are exposed in deeply incised river valleys and can be accessed as well by drilling. Combined, the high sedimentation rates and extensive geographic coverage make these sections unique among global terrestrial sediment archives. The Chinese loess-paleosol sequences, and the arid interior regions to the northwest, record diverse aspects of geologic and environmental change ranging from the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau (106 year time scale) through glacial-interglacial scale changes in global ice volume and greenhouse gasses (105 year time scale) on down through the orbital (104 years) to millennial and centennial scale events (103-102 year) relevant to the underpinnings of human interactions with changing environmental pressures. 'Late Cenozoic Climate Chang in Asia: Loess, Monsoon and Monsoon-arid Environment Evolution' is a timely contribution that synthesizes findings derived from the extensive work in these areas, places the findings in the broader context of global climate change and helps to define avenues for future research.

  6. 3. Neural changes in different gravity and ecophysiological environments - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neural changes or neuronal plasticity occur after and during different stimulations and inputs in general. Gravity is one major input to the brain transferred from the vestibular system. However, often also direct effects of gravity on the cellular level are discussed. Our group was investigating the influence of different gravity environments on a large variety of neuronal enzymes in the developing fish brain. Long-term space travel or bases on Moon and Mars will have to deal not only with neural changes based on the different gravity environment, but also with potential negative or even toxic changes in the respective life support system. Our goal is now to identify reported enzyme activity changes in the brain based for example on potential toxic drugs or endocrine disruptors in combination with gravity induced changes. In this paper a survey will be undertaken discussing recent results obtained in ecotoxicology, gravitational biology combined with new data from our group regarding potential differences in brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of medaka and zebrafish.

  7. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment.

  8. Complexity in organizations and environment - adaptive changes and adaptive decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of complexity are ever more present in modern organizations and in environments in which they operate, trying to survive and be as competitive as possible. In the processes of, the so-called emergence, the formal organizational structure, designed purposefully and with a plan, is going through a change due to complexity and the need for adaptation. As a result, there is a variety of new informal groups. At the same time, the intended structural changes and business process changes occur because of the perception that the leadership and senior organizational management have of the strategic situation. Managers in modern organizations often use business intelligence (BI systems when making important business decisions. These systems offer support to the decision-making by gathering and processing relevant data and information about the company performance, but also about the data on conditions in close and remote environment. A modern company is characterized by the complex adaptive system, but the environment in which it operates together with other business subjects (agents is also complex. Consequently, the requirements for appropriate or optimal decisions and successfully completed activities are hard to meet. Given that expected future events and circumstances often occur in nonlinear mechanisms, the decisions made by following the models of traditional predicting and planning are not satisfactory. This calls for new approaches to decision making and acting.

  9. Changes in school environments with implementation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F

    2010-02-01

    Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P students in cafeterias (white milk: 26.1% in 2004, 41.0% in 2008, P chocolate milk: 9.0% in 2004, 24.0% in 2008, P changes were noted in foods and beverages offered in the cafeteria, in classrooms, and at school events, as well as in fund-raising and physical activity practices. A significant number of school districts have modified physical education requirements for elementary schools and developed policies prohibiting the use of physical activity as a punishment. We conclude that Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is associated with a number of changes in school environments and policies, resulting from both statewide and local initiatives spawned by the Act.

  10. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  11. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed by professio......Enteroantigens (eAgs) drive tolerogenic and inflammatory immune responses in the gut and are of importance for sustained immune homeostasis in colonic mucosa. Decline of regulatory activity in the gut mucosa might result in chronic colitis. B7-H4 is a co-inhibitory receptor expressed...... by professional antigen-presenting cells. By delivering signal 2 during T cell activation, it inhibits T cell proliferation and inflammation. In this study, we have used a newly developed B7-H4-Ig fusion protein and evaluated its effect on eAg-activated effector and regulatory T cells (Treg) in vitro and in vivo......⁺ T cell subsets as well as the functional activity of MLN-derived Tregs, whereas the proliferative activity of eAg or alloantigen specific effector T cells was not influenced, although treatment resulted in less secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from these cells. B7-H4-Ig treatment...

  12. Making decisions in an ever-changing environment - A research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Pataki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon recognized the limitations of the classical normative decision theory and established descriptive theory. His concept of bounded rationality and administrative behavior was a big step ahead, but the world has changed dramatically since then. Multiple, continuous changes have become normal, which brings up new problems on the decision maker’s and on the organization’s level as well. It became usual that the decision maker is not able to define preferences for lack of knowledge and have to learn or delegate much more frequently than before. In the same time the organization should be more resilient or nimble in this ever-changing environment. The authors outline a research agenda on both levels: some about the continuous learning and frequent delegating, and some about the HRM and IT-management issues of organizational nimbleness.

  13. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  14. Planning safer suburbs: do changes in the built environment influence residents' perceptions of crime risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence has reiterated the negative impacts that crime and perceptions of insecurity can have on the health and wellbeing of local residents. Strategies that reduce residents' perceived crime risk may contribute to improved health outcomes; however interventions require a better understanding of the neighbourhood influences on residents perceptions of crime and safety. We examined the impact of changes in the objective built environment following relocation on changes in residents' perceived crime risk for participants in a longitudinal study of people moving to new neighbourhoods in Perth, Western Australia (n = 1159). They completed a questionnaire before moving to their new neighbourhood, and again 36 months after relocation. Individual-level objective environmental measures were generated at both time points using Geographic Information Systems, focussing on the characteristics that comprise a 'walkable neighbourhood'. Linear regression models examined the influence of objective environmental changes between the two environments on perceived crime risk, with progressive adjustment for other change variables (i.e., perceptions of the physical and social environment, reported crime). We found that increases in the proportion of land allocated to shopping/retail land-uses increased residents' perceived crime risk (β = 11.875, p = 0.001), and this relationship remained constant, despite controlling for other influences on perceived crime risk (β = 9.140, p = 0.004). The findings highlight an important paradox: that the neighbourhood characteristics known to enhance one outcome, such as walking, may negatively impact another. In this instance, the 'strangers' that retail destinations attract to a neighbourhood may be interpreted by locals as a threat to safety. Thus, in areas with more retail destinations, it is vital that other environmental strategies be employed to balance any negative effects that retail may have on residents' perceptions of

  15. Bivalve aquaculture-environment interactions in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Comeau, Luc A; Tremblay, Réjean

    2016-12-01

    Coastal embayments are at risk of impacts by climate change drivers such as ocean warming, sea level rise and alteration in precipitation regimes. The response of the ecosystem to these drivers is highly dependent on their magnitude of change, but also on physical characteristics such as bay morphology and river discharge, which play key roles in water residence time and hence estuarine functioning. These considerations are especially relevant for bivalve aquaculture sites, where the cultured biomass can alter ecosystem dynamics. The combination of climate change, physical and aquaculture drivers can result in synergistic/antagonistic and nonlinear processes. A spatially explicit model was constructed to explore effects of the physical environment (bay geomorphic type, freshwater inputs), climate change drivers (sea level, temperature, precipitation) and aquaculture (bivalve species, stock) on ecosystem functioning. A factorial design led to 336 scenarios (48 hydrodynamic × 7 management). Model outcomes suggest that the physical environment controls estuarine functioning given its influence on primary productivity (bottom-up control dominated by riverine nutrients) and horizontal advection with the open ocean (dominated by bay geomorphic type). The intensity of bivalve aquaculture ultimately determines the bivalve-phytoplankton trophic interaction, which can range from a bottom-up control triggered by ammonia excretion to a top-down control via feeding. Results also suggest that temperature is the strongest climate change driver due to its influence on the metabolism of poikilothermic organisms (e.g. zooplankton and bivalves), which ultimately causes a concomitant increase of top-down pressure on phytoplankton. Given the different thermal tolerance of cultured species, temperature is also critical to sort winners from losers, benefiting Crassostrea virginica over Mytilus edulis under the specific conditions tested in this numerical exercise. In general, it is

  16. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  17. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  18. The future of marketing: an appropriate response to the environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The future landscape of the business worldwide will have the marketing evolutions as a driver. These evolutions will be the response to the changes of business and marketing environment.The paper aims to analyze both the key trends that are shaping the macro environment, markets and consumers and their impact on the marketing at business level. First, these issues are presented as they result of both theoretical and applied various researches performed by numerous international and national organizations, universities, consulting and global companies, scholars and authors. These researches are read from the author’s scientific point of view, on the other hand, and some own considerations are revealed. They could be found mainly in the systematic approach by using the marketing paradigm and practices around the world, in order to keep successful the organizations. These organizations should give the proper skillful response to each of main futures challenges of marketing.

  19. Environment-dependent plasticity and ontogenetic changes in the brain of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, J.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Thomassen, S.T.;

    2017-01-01

    enhancement strategies, like environmental enrichment. Here, we investigated the size of the brain in hatcheryreared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar kept at standard (high) and reduced (low) tank densities. In contrast to our predictions, we found that fish reared at high density had larger dry mass of cerebellum......Lowered rearing density has repeatedly been shown to increase the performance of hatchery-reared salmonids stocked into natural environments. One possible mechanism for this pattern could be that lower densities enhance brain development, which has been shown to be the case in other hatchery...... the opposite pattern was observed for telencephalon. Overall, these results reveal substantial brain plasticity depending on the surrounding environment as well as ontogenetic adaptive changes in the brain of the Atlantic salmon...

  20. Integrated assessment and changes of ecological environment in the Daning River Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ruimin; SHEN Zhenyao

    2007-01-01

    Based on Remote Sensing (RS),Geographical Information Systems (GIS),and the Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) method,the integrated assessment and changes in the ecological environment of Daning River Watershed are studied in this paper.The watershed is located in the Three Gorge Area in China.The result of the integrated assessment showed that level 9 had the biggest proportion in the year 1990,which was about 40%.In the year 2000,however,there were no levels with a proportion significantly bigger than the others.By comparing the assessment results in 1990 and 2000,it is discovered that the ecological environment in Daning River Watershed in 1990 was better than that in 2000.

  1. ECO-ENVIRONMENT CHANGE AND SOIL EROSION PROCESS IN THE RECLAIMED FORESTLAND OF THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Xiao-chun; TANG Ke-li

    2003-01-01

    Serious soil erosion has made the eco-environment fragile in the Loess Plateau. Based on the 10-year da-ta observed from 1989 to 1998 in the Ziwuling Survey Station in loess hilly region, the eco-environment change and soil erosion process in reclaimed forestland were studied in this paper. The results showed that the intensity of man-made soil erosion caused by forestland reclamation was 1000 times more than that of the natural erosion. From the analysis of soil physical and mechanical properties, in the 10th year after forestland was reclaimed, the clay content and physical clay content decreased 2.74 percentage point and 3.01 percentage point respectively, the >0.25mm water-stable aggregate content decreased 31.59 percentage point, the soil bulk density increased and soil shear strength de-creased, all of which were easier to cause soil erosion. The correlation analysis showed that >0.25mm waterstable ag-gregate content was the key factor affecting soil erosion, and the secondary factors were soil coarse grain and soil shear strength. The relation between the >0.25mm waterstable aggregate content, the soil sheer strength and the soil erosion intensity were analyzed, which showed that the first year and the seventh erosion year were the turn years of the soil erosion intensity after the forestland was reclaimed, revealed that the change ofeco-environment was the main cause to accelerate soil erosion, and the worse environment caused soil erosion to be serious rapidly.

  2. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  3. Global changes in the hippocampal proteome following exposure to an enriched environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, K; Broad, J; Riedel, G; Davies, C H; Cobb, S R

    2007-03-16

    Exposure to an enriched environment promotes neurochemical, structural and neurophysiological changes in the brain and is associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved hippocampal-dependent learning. Using a global proteomics-based approach we have now been able to reveal the altered expression of a diverse range of hippocampal proteins following exposure to an enriched environment. Male Hooded Lister rats (8 weeks) were subjected to a 6-week regimen in which they were housed in either non-enriched (open field) or enriched conditions (toys, wheels etc.). Whole protein extracts from stratum pyramidale and stratum radiatum of area CA1 were then isolated and subjected to differential gel electrophoresis [McNair K, Davies CH, Cobb SR (2006) Plasticity-related regulation of the hippocampal proteome. Eur J Neurosci 23(2):575-580]. Of the 2469 resolvable protein spots detected in this study, 42 spots (1.7% of the detectable proteome) derived from predominantly somatic fractions and 32 proteins spots from dendritic fractions (1.3% of detectable proteome) were significantly altered in abundance following exposure to an enriched environment (somatic: 14 increased/28 decreased abundance, range -1.5 to +1.4-fold change; dendritic: 16 increased, 16 decreased abundance, range -1.6 to +3.0-fold change). Following in-gel tryptic digestion and Maldi-Tof/Q-star mass spectrometry, database searching revealed the identity of 50 protein spots displaying environmental enrichment-related modulation of expression. Identified proteins belonged to a variety of functional classes with gene ontology analysis revealing the majority (>70%) of regulated proteins to be part of the energy metabolism, cytoplasmic organization/biogenesis and signal transduction processes.

  4. How does a fish's metabolic rate influence its performance in a changing environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Metcalfe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish provide some of the best-studied examples of marked intraspecific variation in metabolic rate: after accounting for variation in size and age, there can typically be a 2-3 fold variation among individual fish for both standard and maximum metabolic rate (SMR and MMR, and also in their aerobic scope (AS, the difference between SMR and MMR and hence a fish’s capacity to increase its aerobic metabolism. These differences are relatively stable over time, although individual fish differ in the extent to which they can alter their metabolism when environmental conditions change. In this presentation I will briefly consider the extent and causes of individual variation in SMR, MMR and AS, considering both the mechanistic basis (e.g. individual variation in mitochondrial performance and its origins, including a consideration of genetic and maternal effects. I will then describe both documented and potential links between metabolism, behaviour and performance. Intraspecific variation in metabolism has been found to be related to other traits. As an example, fish with a relatively high SMR tend to be more dominant, digest food faster and grow faster than those with a low SMR, but these advantages only apply in environments where the food supply is high and predictable; in less favourable environments they lose their advantage, and are more prone to risk-taking when conditions deteriorate. Less is known about the ecological consequences of individual variation in MMR and AS, although fish with a higher AS are known to have advantages in some contexts. This is especially important in the context of climate change, since it has been suggested that constraints on AS may underlie the poor performance of fishes at higher temperatures. Given these links between metabolism and measures of performance, understanding the metabolic responses of individuals to changing environments will be a key area for future research.

  5. Coping with a changing environment: The effects of early life stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Madaro, Angelico; Fraser, Thomas W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing rapid domestication of Atlantic salmon implies that individuals are subjected to evolutionarily novel stressors encountered under conditions of artificial rearing, requiring new levels and directions of flexibility in physiological and behavioural coping mechanisms. Phenotypic plasticity...... to environmental changes is particularly evident at early life stages. We investigated the performance of salmon, previously subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) treatment at an early age (10 month old parr), over several months and life stages. The UCS fish showed overall higher specific growth...... farming environments may be beneficial, because in such situations individuals may be able to reallocate energy from stress responses into other life processes, such as growth....

  6. Welfare Mix and Hybridity. Flexible Adjustments to Changed Environments. Introduction to the Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Zimmer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Present day welfare societies rely on a complex mix of different providers ranging from the state, markets, family, and non-profit organizations to unions, grassroots organizations, and informal networks. At the same time changing welfare discourses have opened up space for new partnerships...... organizations and organizational fields adjust to a new environment that is increasingly dominated by the logic of the market, and how in particular nonprofit organizations, as hybrids by definition, are able to cope with new demands, funding structures, and control mechanisms....

  7. Evolution of evolvability in gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Crombach

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are perhaps the most important organizational level in the cell where signals from the cell state and the outside environment are integrated in terms of activation and inhibition of genes. For the last decade, the study of such networks has been fueled by large-scale experiments and renewed attention from the theoretical field. Different models have been proposed to, for instance, investigate expression dynamics, explain the network topology we observe in bacteria and yeast, and for the analysis of evolvability and robustness of such networks. Yet how these gene regulatory networks evolve and become evolvable remains an open question. An individual-oriented evolutionary model is used to shed light on this matter. Each individual has a genome from which its gene regulatory network is derived. Mutations, such as gene duplications and deletions, alter the genome, while the resulting network determines the gene expression pattern and hence fitness. With this protocol we let a population of individuals evolve under Darwinian selection in an environment that changes through time. Our work demonstrates that long-term evolution of complex gene regulatory networks in a changing environment can lead to a striking increase in the efficiency of generating beneficial mutations. We show that the population evolves towards genotype-phenotype mappings that allow for an orchestrated network-wide change in the gene expression pattern, requiring only a few specific gene indels. The genes involved are hubs of the networks, or directly influencing the hubs. Moreover, throughout the evolutionary trajectory the networks maintain their mutational robustness. In other words, evolution in an alternating environment leads to a network that is sensitive to a small class of beneficial mutations, while the majority of mutations remain neutral: an example of evolution of evolvability.

  8. Did the short PETM trigger long-lasting changes in terrestrial environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, H. C.; Clyde, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is a well-documented episode of warming where average temperatures increased 5-8 C in both marine and terrestrial settings before returning to pre-PETM values. As a result the PETM is generally thought of as a transient event that is superimposed on a longer-term trend of global change. Nevertheless not all aspects of the climatic-hydrologic-biologic system experienced a transient response to this event. For example, the well-known dispersal of mammals (Artiodactyls, Perrisopdactyls and Primates = APP taxa) at the beginning of the PETM resulted in fundamentally different terrestrial ecosystems dafter the PETM compared to before it. In this case the PETM can be considered not just a transient event, but a triggering, or threshold, event that resulted in long-term biotic change. Here we consider the possibility that the PETM acted as a threshold event for parts of the climatic and hydrologic system as well as the biologic system. A review of terrestrial/fluvial sections from Laramide basins of western North America (Bighorn, Green River, Huerfano/Raton, Piceance Creek, Powder River, San Juan, Tornillo, Uintah, Washakie, Williston, Wind River), reveals a pronounced difference between rocks of Paleocene and of Eocene age. Common differences include absence of lignites/coal beds in the Eocene, and the occurrence of highly oxidized paleosols and relatively fewer organic-rich mudstones compared to the Paleocene. These suggest drier conditions, either a decrease in mean annual precipitation or enhanced seasonal drying. In sections where the PETM can be identified on the basis of biostratigraphic indicators and carbon isotope excursions (Bighorn, Piceance Creek, Powder River and Williston Basins), and where the PETM can be inferred based on carbon isotope data alone (Huerfano/Raton?, Tornillo, Wind River Basins), it is associated with this transition from one long-lasting lithofacies (environment?) to another. This association

  9. [Analysis of urban thermal environment change characteristics during the total solar eclipse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Shi-Ling; Bu, Cui-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xi

    2011-04-01

    There was a very good observation area in Chongqing for the total solar eclipse along the Changjiang river on 22 July, 2009. Through the experiments, the outdoor meteorological data (solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity) were observed and recorded on 21 July and 22 July. Based on the experimental observation data, the effect of thermal environment in Chongqing area was to analyzed and discussed. Experiment indicates that the reduction of air temperature and surface temperature resulted in the decrease in the solar radiation intensity, and the amplitude of the air temperature change is 2.4 degrees C during the total solar eclipse. Compared with the two days' air temperature, the amplitude of the air temperature change reached 4.6 degrees C on account of the total solar eclipse.

  10. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Modeling the Interaction of Directional Selection and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change.

  11. Is average chain length of plant lipids a potential proxy for vegetation, environment and climate changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Zhang, W.; Hou, J.

    2015-04-01

    Average chain length (ACL) of leaf wax components preserved in lacustrine sediments and soil profiles has been widely adopted as a proxy indicator for past changes in vegetation, environment and climate during the late Quaternary. The fundamental assumption is that woody plants produce leaf waxes with shorter ACL values than non-woody plants. However, there is a lack of systematic survey of modern plants to justify the assumption. Here, we investigated various types of plants at two lakes, Blood Pond in the northeastern USA and Lake Ranwu on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, and found that the ACL values were not significantly different between woody and non-woody plants. We also compiled the ACL values of modern plants in the literatures and performed a meta-analysis to determine whether a significant difference exists between woody and non-woody plants at single sites. The results showed that the ACL values of plants at 19 out of 26 sites did not show a significant difference between the two major types of plants. This suggests that extreme caution should be taken in using ACL as proxy for past changes in vegetation, environment and climate.

  12. Risk evolution: how can changes in the built environment influence the potential loss of natural hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendtner, B.; Papathoma-Köhle, M.; Glade, T.

    2013-09-01

    Alpine areas often suffer significant loss and damage due to a range of natural processes such as landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches or floods. Sealing of the soil surface, settling in endangered areas and enhanced human intervention in the natural settings, as well as socio-economic changes, increase the risk and susceptibility of built environments to natural hazards and the costs of the consequences in a spatio-temporal context. The present study examines the loss estimation of a particular debris flow event for different points in time. The event occurred in August 1987, affected the municipality Martell in South Tyrol, Italy, and resulted in a total cost of € 25 million. The approach presented in this paper focuses on the changes of the land use and settlement expansion in the area since 1954 and attempts to assess the monetary impact of a similar event, which could have happened before (1954, 1985) or following the actual event (1992, 1999, 2006). The method applied is based on the use of a vulnerability curve which was developed for the specific area, based on the documentation of the damage of the 1987 event. Based on this curve, a loss estimation was carried out in order to visualise the risk evolution in a period of 52 yr (1954 to 2006). The results show a significant increase in the extent of the built environment (number, size and value of buildings) which consequently reflect an increase of the potential overall loss through the years. The method can be used in order to assess the potential loss for future scenarios based on different spatial patterns of the built environment.

  13. Risk evolution: how can changes in the built environment influence the potential loss of natural hazards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schwendtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alpine areas often suffer significant loss and damage due to a range of natural processes such as landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches or floods. Sealing of the soil surface, settling in endangered areas and enhanced human intervention in the natural settings, as well as socio-economic changes, increase the risk and susceptibility of built environments to natural hazards and the costs of the consequences in a spatio-temporal context. The present study examines the loss estimation of a particular debris flow event for different points in time. The event occurred in August 1987, affected the municipality Martell in South Tyrol, Italy, and resulted in a total cost of € 25 million. The approach presented in this paper focuses on the changes of the land use and settlement expansion in the area since 1954 and attempts to assess the monetary impact of a similar event, which could have happened before (1954, 1985 or following the actual event (1992, 1999, 2006. The method applied is based on the use of a vulnerability curve which was developed for the specific area, based on the documentation of the damage of the 1987 event. Based on this curve, a loss estimation was carried out in order to visualise the risk evolution in a period of 52 yr (1954 to 2006. The results show a significant increase in the extent of the built environment (number, size and value of buildings which consequently reflect an increase of the potential overall loss through the years. The method can be used in order to assess the potential loss for future scenarios based on different spatial patterns of the built environment.

  14. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  15. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, M.; Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Vairavamoorthy, K.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings - including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  16. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes mainly, the urbanization and the climatic change leads to increased runoff and increased peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to overcome possible damage and inconveniences caused by the induced flooding. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. The traditional practice was to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in climate-environment, this approach is no longer economically viable and safe, and explicit consideration of changes that gradually take place during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and amounts throughout the lifespan of the drainage network. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  17. Adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueffer, Karsten; O'Hara, Todd M; Follmann, Erich H

    2011-03-11

    Many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture). The interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons). The annual cycles of interacting pathogen and host biology is regulated in part by highly synchronized temperature and photoperiod changes during seasonal transitions (e.g., freezeup and breakup). With a warming climate, only one of these key biological cues will undergo drastic changes, while the other will remain fixed. This uncoupling can theoretically have drastic consequences on host-pathogen interactions. These poorly understood cues together with a changing climate by itself will challenge host populations that are adapted to pathogens under the historic and current climate regime. We will review adaptations of both host and pathogens to the extreme conditions at high latitudes and explore some potential consequences of rapid changes in the Arctic.

  18. Adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hara Todd M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture. The interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons. The annual cycles of interacting pathogen and host biology is regulated in part by highly synchronized temperature and photoperiod changes during seasonal transitions (e.g., freezeup and breakup. With a warming climate, only one of these key biological cues will undergo drastic changes, while the other will remain fixed. This uncoupling can theoretically have drastic consequences on host-pathogen interactions. These poorly understood cues together with a changing climate by itself will challenge host populations that are adapted to pathogens under the historic and current climate regime. We will review adaptations of both host and pathogens to the extreme conditions at high latitudes and explore some potential consequences of rapid changes in the Arctic.

  19. Adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture). The interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons). The annual cycles of interacting pathogen and host biology is regulated in part by highly synchronized temperature and photoperiod changes during seasonal transitions (e.g., freezeup and breakup). With a warming climate, only one of these key biological cues will undergo drastic changes, while the other will remain fixed. This uncoupling can theoretically have drastic consequences on host-pathogen interactions. These poorly understood cues together with a changing climate by itself will challenge host populations that are adapted to pathogens under the historic and current climate regime. We will review adaptations of both host and pathogens to the extreme conditions at high latitudes and explore some potential consequences of rapid changes in the Arctic. PMID:21392401

  20. 77 FR 62547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... compensation decisions in today's corporate governance environment. Since responsibility for executive... already subject to a pervasive system of federal regulation in certain areas of corporate governance, and... formal committee structure may help promote accountability to stockholders for executive...

  1. Computer assisted dynamic adaptive policy design for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Haasnoot, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable water management in a changing environment full of uncertainty is a profound challenge. To deal with uncertainties, dynamic adaptive policies can be used. Such policies can change over time in response to how the future unfolds, to what we learn about the system, to changes in environmen

  2. Developing an Understanding of Vegetation Change and Fluvial Carbon Fluxes in Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. Transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage and an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over six bounded plots with different vegetation coverage. The experiment takes advantage of a natural abundance stable 13C isotope shift from C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand through a C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 shrub (Larrea tridentata). Data collected quantify fluvial fluxes of sediment and associated soil organic matter and carbon that is lost from across the grass-to-shrub and grass-to-woodland transition (where change in space is taken to indicate a similar change through time). Results collected during the 2010 and 2011 monsoon seasons will be presented, illustrating that soil and carbon losses are greater as the ecosystem becomes more dominated by woody plants. Additionally this project utilises novel

  3. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Bierkens, Marc; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2015-04-01

    The prospect of sea level rise and increase in extreme weather conditions has led to a new focus on coastal defense in the Netherlands. As an innovative solution for coastal erosion a mega-nourishment named the Sand Motor (or Sand Engine) has been constructed at the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents; keeping the coastal defense structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. The large size and position of the Sand Motor might lead to a substantial increase of fresh ground water resources. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied. The preliminary model calculations show that in a period of 20 years volume of fresh water gradually increases to ca. 12 Mm3. In the nearby dune area 7-8 Mm3 is abstracted yearly, therefore the first results are promising in increasing fresh groundwater resources. More model calculations will be performed to investigate the sensitivity of the change in the fresh, brackish and salt water distribution.

  4. Adaptation and evolution in marine environments. Vol. 2. The impacts of global change on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, Cinzia; Di Prisco, Guido (eds.) [CNR, Napoli (Italy). Inst. of Protein Biochemistry

    2013-02-01

    Offers a regionally focussed approach. Describes research on adaptive evolution. State-of-the-art content. The second volume of ''Adaptation and Evolution in Marine Environments - The Impacts of Global Change on Biodiversity'' from the series ''From Pole to Pole'' integrates the marine biology contribution of the first tome to the IPY 2007-2009, presenting overviews of organisms (from bacteria and ciliates to higher vertebrates) thriving on polar continental shelves, slopes and deep sea. The speed and extent of warming in the Arctic and in regions of Antarctica (the Peninsula, at the present) are greater than elsewhere. Changes impact several parameters, in particular the extent of sea ice; organisms, ecosystems and communities that became finely adapted to increasing cold in the course of millions of years are now becoming vulnerable, and biodiversity is threatened. Investigating evolutionary adaptations helps to foresee the impact of changes in temperate areas, highlighting the invaluable contribution of polar marine research to present and future outcomes of the IPY in the Earth system scenario.

  5. Changes in recreation participation in natural environments after immigration among immigrants in the U.S., Netherlands, Germany and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stodolska, Monika; Peters, K.B.M.; Horolets, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the use of natural environments for recreation among immigrants and factors that led to changes in their use of natural environments between home and host countries. The data were collected through individual interviews with 13 Latino and 13 Chinese immigrants in the U.S., 15 Ukr

  6. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  7. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K

    2013-01-01

    in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated...... of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems...... level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons...

  8. Species management benchmarking: outcomes over outputs in a changing operating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Carolyn J; Hibbard, Chris; Ford, Claire; Embury, Amanda

    2013-03-01

    Species management has been utilized by the zoo and aquarium industry, since the mid-1990s, to ensure the ongoing genetic and demographic viability of populations, which can be difficult to maintain in the ever-changing operating environments of zoos. In 2009, the Zoo and Aquarium Association Australasia reviewed their species management services, focusing on addressing issues that had arisen as a result of the managed programs maturing and operating environments evolving. In summary, the project examined resourcing, policies, processes, and species to be managed. As a result, a benchmarking tool was developed (Health Check Report, HCR), which evaluated the programs against a set of broad criteria. A comparison of managed programs (n = 98), between 2008 and 2011, was undertaken to ascertain the tool's effectiveness. There was a marked decrease in programs that were designated as weak (37 down to 13); and an increase in excellent programs (24 up to 49) between the 2 years. Further, there were significant improvements in the administration benchmarking area (submission of reports, captive management plan development) across a number of taxon advisory groups. This HCR comparison showed that a benchmarking tool enables a program's performance to be quickly assessed and any remedial measures applied. The increases observed in program health were mainly due to increased management goals being attained. The HCR will be an ongoing program, as the management of the programs increases and goals are achieved, criteria will be refined to better highlight ongoing issues and ways in which these can be resolved.

  9. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  10. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  11. 78 FR 75423 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Adviser believes to be ``sound'' monetary policy and gold.\\12\\ Sound monetary policy is ] defined by the Investment Adviser as a monetary policy providing an environment fostering long-term price stability. The... sound monetary policy, ``hard currencies'' include, without limitation: Argentine Peso (ARS),...

  12. 76 FR 67012 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... use on PSX. Today's cash equities markets are characterized by high levels of automation and speed, both in the systems employed by exchanges and by their market participants. In such an environment, the degree to which displayed orders reflect committed trading sentiment has become less predictable,...

  13. Helminths of Murres (Alcidae: Uria spp.): markers of ecological change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2009-07-01

    Seabirds are prominent components of the North Atlantic marine environment, and their parasites offer an insight into seabird ecologic interactions. Parasites also provide vital information on historic biogeography of host associations and thus may reveal broad changes in the marine ecosystem. Helminths of Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) in the northwest Atlantic marine environment were assessed to determine parasite community composition and changes in their parasite fauna since the 1960s. In total, 623 helminths, representing Digenea, Eucestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala, were recorded from 100 Common and Thick-billed Murres collected from breeding colonies along the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland, and Greenland. Parasite communities differed from those reported from the 1960s, and over 85% of the specimens were tapeworms (mostly in the genus Alcataenia). The high prevalence (26%) and mean intensity (14.6) of A. longicervica, a Pacific species recorded recently from Newfoundland, indicates that this tapeworm was established in the Atlantic by 2006. Significantly higher A. longicervica prevalence (>53%) and mean intensity (27.3) in the murres from Greenland and in wintering murres compared to murres from breeding colonies in Labrador and Newfoundland suggest a mechanism for the introduction of this species to the Atlantic. Periodic mixing of populations of Thysanoessa species, the euphausiid intermediate host of Alcataenia, occurs along the seas adjacent to the North Pacific and those along the Siberian Arctic. The mixing of infected Thysanoessa likely exposed North Atlantic and Arctic murres, which are geographically isolated from Pacific murres, to this tapeworm. The greater prevalence of A. longicervica in Thick-billed Murres was consistent with diet analyses, which revealed a greater proportion of euphausiids.

  14. Whose environment?: the end of nature, climate change and the process of post-politicization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how the elevation of the environmental question, in particular the problem of climate change, to a global and consensually established public concern is both a marker of and constituent force in the production of de-politicization. The paper has four parts. First, I problematize the question of Nature and the environment. Second, the case of climate change policy is presented as cause célèbre of de-politicization. The third part relates this argument to the views of political theorists who argue that the political constitution of western democracies is increasingly marked by the consolidation of post-political and post-democratic arrangements. Fourth, I discuss the climate change consensus in light of the post-political thesis. I conclude that the matter of the environment and climate change in particular, needs to be displaced onto the terrain of the properly political.Este artigo explora como a eminência da questão ambiental, particularmente da problemática das mudanças climáticas, para uma preocupação pública global e consensualmente vigente é ao mesmo tempo um marco e uma força constituinte na produção da despolitização. Este artigo tem quatro partes. Primeiro, eu problematizo a questão da natureza e do meio ambiente. Segundo, o caso das políticas de mudanças climáticas é apresentado como cause célèbre da despolitização. A terceira parte relaciona este argumento com as visões de teóricos políticos que argumentam que a constituição política das democracias ocidentais é, cada vez mais, marcada pela consolidação de arranjos pós-politicos e pós-democráticos. Na quarta parte eu discuto o consenso das mudanças climáticas à luz da tese pós-política. Eu concluo que a questão do meio ambiente e, particularmente, das mudanças climáticas precisam ser deslocadas para o terreno do propriamente político.

  15. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local

  16. The nature and impact of changes in home learning environment on development of language and academic skills in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,018) revealed an overall improvement in the home learning environment from 36 to 54 months of children's age, with 30.6% of parents of preschoolers displaying significant improvement in the home environment (i.e., changes greater than 1 SD) and with only 0.6% showing a decrease. More important, the degree of change uniquely contributed to the children's language but not to their academic skills. Home changes were more likely to be observed from mothers with more education and work hours and with fewer symptoms of depression.

  17. 75 FR 14650 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... rule changes is to delete NYSE Rule 446 (Business Continuity and Contingency Plans) and adopt new Rule 4370 (Business Continuity Plans and Emergency Contact Information) to correspond with rule changes... Amendments to NYSE Rules In 2008, FINRA deleted FINRA Incorporated NYSE Rule 446 (Business ] Continuity...

  18. 75 FR 2902 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    .... (ii)-(iii)--No Change. ` (c) Reporting Requirements for Options on Market Indexes.--Each member or...-2008-56. Markets to buy and sell the individual index component stocks are now much more efficient... acting in concert. \\6\\ Also known as Sector Index Options. The text of the proposed rule change is...

  19. 76 FR 1477 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... the daily return between two market segments. The Long Sub-Index tracks the changes in the Long Index Futures Contract. The Short Sub-Index tracks the changes in the Short Index Futures Contract. The Sub.... Contract: E-mini (next day). Standard and Poor's 500 Stock Price Index\\TM\\ Futures. Short Sub-Index:...

  20. 77 FR 47444 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... unlisted trading privileges on NYSE: (1) Vanguard Total Stock Market VIPERs; (2) iShares Russell 2000 Index..., the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose Proposal To Amend Index Fund Shares Rules The Exchange proposes certain changes to Rule 14.11(c), relating to Index Fund Shares, to conform the Exchange's...

  1. 77 FR 15153 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... BATS Exchange, Inc. to Amend BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' March 12... BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and To Make Related Changes); 65516... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Extend the Pilot Period of the Inbound Router, as Described in Rule...

  2. 78 FR 75585 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct... change (the ``Proposed Rule Change'') in connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below, involving its parent company, BATS Global Markets, Inc....

  3. 77 FR 39768 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... market centers where the customization and segmentation experience may be less transparent and objective... Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Changes In its filing with the Commission, the Exchange included statements concerning the purpose of, and basis for, the proposed rule changes...

  4. Dynamic changes of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in spleen and brain of canine distemper virus-infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qeska, V; Barthel, Y; Iseringhausen, M; Tipold, A; Stein, V M; Khan, M A; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2013-12-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection causes immunosuppression and demyelinating leukoencephalitis in dogs. In viral diseases, an ambiguous function of regulatory T cells (Treg), with both beneficial effects by reducing immunopathology and detrimental effects by inhibiting antiviral immunity, has been described. However, the role of Treg in the pathogenesis of canine distemper remains unknown. In order to determine the effect of CDV upon immune homeostasis, the amount of Foxp3(+) Treg in spleen and brain of naturally infected dogs has been determined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, splenic cytokine expression has been quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Splenic depletion of Foxp3(+) Treg was associated with an increased mRNA-expression of tumor necrosis factor and decreased transcription of interleukin-2 in the acute disease phase, indicative of disturbed immunological counter regulation in peripheral lymphoid organs. In the brain, a lack of Foxp3(+) Treg in predemyelinating and early demyelinating lesions and significantly increased infiltrations of Foxp3(+) Treg in chronic demyelinating lesions were observed. In conclusion, disturbed peripheral and CNS immune regulation associated with a reduction of Treg represents a potential prerequisite for excessive neuroinflammation and early lesion development in canine distemper leukoencephalitis.

  5. Ecological environment changes in Daya Bay, China, from 1982 to 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Youshao [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China)], E-mail: yswang@scsio.ac.cn; Lou Zhiping; Sun Cuici [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Sun Song [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Data collected from 12 marine monitoring stations in Daya Bay from 1982 to 2004 reveal a substantial change in the ecological environment of this region. The average N/P ratio increased from 1.377 in 1985 to 49.09 in 2004. Algal species changed from 159 species of 46 genera in 1982 to 126 species of 44 genera in 2004. Major zooplankton species went from 46 species in 1983 to 36 species in 2004. The annual mean biomass of benthic animals was recorded at 123.10 g m{sup -2} in 1982 and 126.68 g m{sup -2} in 2004. Mean biomass and species of benthic animals near nuclear power plants ranged from 317.9 g m{sup -2} in 1991 to 45.24 g m{sup -2} in 2004 and from 250 species in 1991 to 177 species in 2004. A total of 12-19 species of hermatypic corals and 13 species of mangrove plants were observed in Daya Bay from 1984 to 2002.

  6. 40 CFR 94.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 94.6 Section 94... for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this Part 94 are intended to...

  7. 40 CFR 92.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 92.6 Section 92... Regulations for Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this part 92 are intended...

  8. 76 FR 75926 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., adverse changes in investment or exchange control regulations, political instability which could affect U... systems failure, natural or man-made disaster, act of God, armed conflict, act of terrorism, riot or...

  9. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial, and grain size change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Holthaus, Karlijn I E; Trannum, Hilde C; Neff, Jerry M; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, Grete; Jak, Robbert G; Singsaas, Ivar; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hendriks, A Jan

    2008-04-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognostic risk assessments for nontoxic stress is lacking. In the present study we challenge this lack of information by the development of marine species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for three nontoxic stressors: suspended clays, burial by sediment, and change in sediment grain size. Through a literature study, effect levels were obtained for suspended clays, as well as for burial of biota. Information on the species preference range for median grain size was used to assess the sensitivity of marine species to changes in grain size. The 50% hazardous concentrations (HC50) for suspended barite and bentonite based on 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) were 3,010 and 1,830 mg/L, respectively. For burial the 50% hazardous level (HL50) was 5.4 cm. For change in median grain size, two SSDs were constructed; one for reducing and one for increasing the median grain size. The HL50 for reducing the median grain size was 17.8 mum. For increasing the median grain size this value was 305 mum. The SSDs have been constructed by using information related to offshore oil- and gas-related activities. Nevertheless, the results of the present study may have broader implications. The hypothesis of the present study is that the SSD methodology developed for the evaluation of toxic stress can also be applied to evaluate nontoxic stressors, facilitating the incorporation of nontoxic stressors in prognostic risk assessment tools.

  10. Planning for Post-Regime Change Environments: The Introduction of a Post-Regime Environment Planning Partnership (PREPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    national security , or a peaceful transition of power, the United States takes a reactive approach to regime change with mixed results. The United States has...signed by the President of the United States appointing 85 Paul D. Miller, "Organizing the National Security Council: I Like Ike’s," Presidential Studies ...Quarterly 43, no. 3 (2013): 597. 86 Ibid.; Robert Cutler, “The National Security Council,” In Organizing for National Security : Studies and

  11. Population dynamics in the presence of quasispecies effects and changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Robert Burke

    2006-12-01

    This thesis explores how natural selection acts on organisms such as viruses that have either highly error-prone reproduction or face variable environmental conditions or both. By modeling population dynamics under these conditions, we gain a better understanding of the selective forces at work, both in our simulations and hopefully also in real organisms. With an understanding of the important factors in natural selection we can forecast not only the immediate fate of an existing population but also in what directions such a population might evolve in the future. We demonstrate that the concept of a quasispecies is relevant to evolution in a neutral fitness landscape. Motivated by RNA viruses such as HIV, we use RNA secondary structure as our model system and find that quasispecies effects arise both rapidly and in realistically small populations. We discover that the evolutionary effects of neutral drift, punctuated equilibrium and the selection for mutational robustness extend to the concept of a quasispecies. In our study of periodic environments, we consider the tradeoffs faced by quasispecies in adapting to environmental change. We develop an analytical model to predict whether evolution favors short-term or long-term adaptation and validate our model through simulation. Our results bear directly on the population dynamics of viruses such as West Nile that alternate between two host species. More generally, we discover that a selective pressure exists under these conditions to fuse or split genes with complementary environmental functions. Lastly, we study the general effects of frequency-dependent selection on two strains competing in a periodic environment. Under very general assumptions, we prove that stable coexistence rather than extinction is the likely outcome. The population dynamics of this system may be as simple as stable equilibrium or as complex as deterministic chaos.

  12. A Changing Gastric Environment Leads to Adaptation of Lipopolysaccharide Variants in Helicobacter pylori Populations during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Christina; Björkholm, Britta; Normark, Staffan; Engstrand, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG) with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS) decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression. PMID:19517017

  13. A changing gastric environment leads to adaptation of lipopolysaccharide variants in Helicobacter pylori populations during colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoglund

    Full Text Available The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression.

  14. Ca2+-induced PRE-NMR changes in the troponin complex reveal the possessive nature of the cardiac isoform for its regulatory switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Nicole M; Liew, Chu K; Potluri, Phani R; Curmi, Paul M; Fajer, Piotr G; Logan, Timothy M; Mackay, Joel P; Brown, Louise J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between myosin and actin in cardiac muscle, modulated by the calcium (Ca2+) sensor Troponin complex (Tn), is a complex process which is yet to be fully resolved at the molecular level. Our understanding of how the binding of Ca2+ triggers conformational changes within Tn that are subsequently propagated through the contractile apparatus to initiate muscle activation is hampered by a lack of an atomic structure for the Ca2+-free state of the cardiac isoform. We have used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)-NMR to obtain a description of the Ca2+-free state of cardiac Tn by describing the movement of key regions of the troponin I (cTnI) subunit upon the release of Ca2+ from Troponin C (cTnC). Site-directed spin-labeling was used to position paramagnetic spin labels in cTnI and the changes in the interaction between cTnI and cTnC subunits were then mapped by PRE-NMR. The functionally important regions of cTnI targeted in this study included the cTnC-binding N-region (cTnI57), the inhibitory region (cTnI143), and two sites on the regulatory switch region (cTnI151 and cTnI159). Comparison of 1H-15N-TROSY spectra of Ca2+-bound and free states for the spin labeled cTnC-cTnI binary constructs demonstrated the release and modest movement of the cTnI switch region (∼10 Å) away from the hydrophobic N-lobe of troponin C (cTnC) upon the removal of Ca2+. Our data supports a model where the non-bound regulatory switch region of cTnI is highly flexible in the absence of Ca2+ but remains in close vicinity to cTnC. We speculate that the close proximity of TnI to TnC in the cardiac complex is favourable for increasing the frequency of collisions between the N-lobe of cTnC and the regulatory switch region, counterbalancing the reduction in collision probability that results from the incomplete opening of the N-lobe of TnC that is unique to the cardiac isoform.

  15. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Iain Brown

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government...

  16. Physiological plasticity of the thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii in response to a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, T.; Johnson, A.; Gelsinger, D.; de la Torre, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in high temperature environments underwent a dramatic revision with the discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). The importance of AOA to the global nitrogen cycle came to light when recent studies of marine AOA demonstrated the dominance of these organisms in the ocean microbiome and their role as producers of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Understanding how AOA respond to fluctuating environments is crucial to fully comprehending their contribution to global biogeochemical cycling and climate change. In this study we use the thermophilic AOA Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii strain HL72 to explore the physiological plasticity of energy metabolism in these organisms. Previous studies have shown that HL72 grows autotrophically by aerobically oxidizing ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-). Unlike studies of marine AOA, we find that HL72 can grow over a wide ammonia concentration range (0.25 - 10 mM NH4Cl) with comparable generation times when in the presence of 0.25 to 4 mM NH4Cl. However, preliminary data indicate that amoA, the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), is upregulated at low ammonia concentrations (urea transporter. Urea ((NH2)2CO) is an organic compound ubiquitous to aquatic and soil habitats that, when hydrolyzed, forms NH3 and CO2. We examined urea as an alternate source of ammonia for the ammonia oxidation pathway. HL72 grows over a wide range of urea concentrations (0.25 - 10 mM) at rates comparable to growth on ammonia. In a substrate competition experiment HL72 preferentially consumed NH3 from NH4Cl when both substrates were provided in equal molar concentrations. However, the urease alpha subunit ureC was expressed in both the presence and absence of urea. One consequence of urea hydrolysis is consumption of intracellular protons during the reaction. As ammonia oxidation produces H+, leading to a decrease in pH, the hydrolysis of urea prior to ammonia oxidation may help alleviate

  17. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  18. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lee Chew

    2016-05-01

    . Centropages tenuiremis was likely an introduced species. There was no significant loss in species richness of copepods despite the dramatic changes in community structure. Discussion. Sea warming and other human-induced effects such as eutrophication, acidification and coastal habitat degradation are likely the main factors that have altered copepod community structure. The large-bodied estuarine and coastal calanoid copepods are surmised to be vulnerable to eutrophication and hypoxia, while both resilient and opportunistic species are largely unaffected by, or adaptable to, degraded coastal environments and observed sea surface temperature (SST rise. It is forecasted that SST rise with unmitigated anthropogenic impacts will further reduce large-bodied copepod species the favoured food for fish larvae with dire consequences for coastal fish production.

  19. 78 FR 62751 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    .... Dollar against the specified currencies, the U.S. cash rate, and the spread of U.S. interest rates... (i.e., cash) basis at the spot rate prevailing in the foreign currency exchange market. In order to... of the changes in the U.S. Dollar against the specified currencies, the U.S. cash rate, and...

  20. 76 FR 79729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... of these changes include: Replacing standard deviation with mean absolute deviation as a measure of... 7, 2011), 76 FR 70206 (November 10, 2011). In its filing with the Commission, ICC included... modifications are collectively referred to as the ``Portfolio Decomposition Model.'' A fundamental aspect of...

  1. 77 FR 38877 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    .... I. Introduction On March 9, 2012, NYSE Arca, Inc. (``Exchange'' or ``NYSE Arca'') filed with the... appointment, market makers may not engage in transactions that are disproportionate in relation to or in... general, to protect investors and the public interest. \\6\\ In approving this proposed rule change,...

  2. 77 FR 22623 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... change is to adopt new rules that will provide the basis for ICC to clear additional credit default swap... Supplement'' refers to the market standard form of documentation used for credit default swaps on the CDX.EM... express views with respect to emerging market sovereign credit. ICC believes clearance of CDX.EM...

  3. 77 FR 76121 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... methods of analysis, including company visits, earnings updates, the broker-dealer's reputation, PIMCO's... million or more par amount outstanding and significant par value traded to be considered as an eligible..., reduces the Fund's exposure to changes in the value of the currency it will deliver and increases...

  4. 78 FR 69503 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ..., will make available Indicative Per Share Portfolio Value on a continuous basis throughout the day; (3... the change in market value or level of a specified index or asset. The Adviser represents that... reputation, the Adviser's past experience with the counterparty and the price/market actions of debt of...

  5. 76 FR 8388 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...), 75 FR 81692 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange proposes to list and trade the... Trade Shares of the Grail Western Asset Ultra Short Duration ETF February 7, 2011. I. Introduction On...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to list and trade shares (``Shares'') of the Grail...

  6. 76 FR 5627 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Act Release No. 63462 (December 8, 2010), 75 FR 77689 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal... Commission (``Commission''), pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1... stated that the proposed rule change seeks to reduce investor confusion resulting from...

  7. 76 FR 5646 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Act Release No. 63463 (December 8, 2010), 75 FR 77923 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal... Commission (``Commission''), pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act'') \\1... stated that the proposed rule change seeks to reduce investor confusion resulting from...

  8. 76 FR 61463 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... calculating the index? Would the triggering of many single stock circuit breakers in a general market downturn... All Stocks Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility September 28, 2011 Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1... to extraordinary market volatility. The text of the proposed rule change is available at the...

  9. 76 FR 28836 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... additional series of index options under certain circumstances. The proposed change is based directly on the... the underlying stock price in the primary market at about the time that class of options is first... the market price of the underlying stock moves more than five strike prices from the initial...

  10. 75 FR 58460 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... market makers registered with BATS (``Market Makers''). The text of the proposed rule change is available..., the Exchange will require market makers for each stock in which they are registered to continuously... place on a pilot basis for stocks in the S&P 500\\ \\ Index,\\3\\ the Russell 1000 Index, as well as a...

  11. 76 FR 61422 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... triggering of many single stock circuit breakers in a general market downturn cause the index calculation to... All Stocks Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility September 28, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1... extraordinary market volatility. The text of the proposed rule change is available at the Exchange,...

  12. 76 FR 60957 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...%). The current benchmark, the S&P 500 Index, includes 500 leading companies in leading industries of the... the Fund's benchmark Index will continue to be a broad-based index of large capitalization companies... To Reflect a Change to the Benchmark Index Applicable to the Russell Equity ETF September 26, 2011....

  13. 77 FR 50734 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... customers, issuers, brokers, or dealers. \\10\\ In approving this proposed rule change, the Commission notes... needed to expedite customer requests, including the potential need for overtime compensation for data... the Exchange. The Exchange is offering additional co-location services as a convenience to Users....

  14. 77 FR 50743 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... customers, issuers, brokers, or dealers. \\10\\ In approving this proposed rule change, the Commission notes... needed to expedite customer requests, including the potential need for overtime compensation for data... Exchange. The Exchange is offering additional co-location services as a convenience to Users. For...

  15. 77 FR 50746 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... customers, issuers, brokers, or dealers. \\10\\ In approving this proposed rule change, the Commission notes... needed to expedite customer requests, including the potential need for overtime compensation for data... Exchange. The Exchange is offering additional co-location services as a convenience to Users. For...

  16. 17 CFR 240.19b-4 - Filings with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities product traded pursuant to this paragraph (e) for a period of not less than five years, the first... proposed rule change may take effect upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Section 19(b)(3)(A) of the... or the public interest; (ii) Does not impose any significant burden on competition; and (iii)...

  17. 75 FR 59299 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending Its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Commission received no comment letters on the proposal. This order approves the proposed rule change. \\1\\ 15... combination with SFTI connections and optic connections to outside access centers and within the data center. The SFTI and optic connections are not related to the co-location services. Amex represented that...

  18. 77 FR 77137 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... concepts already approved by the Commission in its review of the Independence Policy of the NYSE Euronext Board of Directors (the ``Independence Policy'').\\5\\ The proposed rule change also makes several other..., director, or employee of a broker or dealer, excluding an outside director or a director not engaged in...

  19. 75 FR 8423 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... accessing liquidity a fee equal to 0.1% (10 basis points) of the total transaction cost and provides no... charged 0.3% (30 basis points) of the total transaction cost, and members providing liquidity will be provided a credit equal to 0.25% (25 basis points) of the total transaction cost. The change is intended...

  20. 78 FR 13130 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... accurate settlement and risk management of swaps and contribute to the safeguarding of securities and funds... computed by considering changes in the recovery rate assumptions and their impact on the net asset value of... generally accepted accounting principles and is in the best interest of customers.\\11\\ The commenter...

  1. 76 FR 46863 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... does not intend to eliminate controls in Exchange rules related to potential conflicts of interest... the proposed rule change. For example, NYSE Amex Equities Rule 22 seeks to eliminate conflicts of... Exchange proposes to eliminate the text in current NYSE Amex Equities Rule 304(e)(1), which requires...

  2. 75 FR 14644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... access to the Exchange's trading and execution systems that is separate or superior than Users that do... equitable allocation of reasonable dues, fees, and other charges among its members and other persons using... Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule Change Received From Members, Participants, or Others No...

  3. 75 FR 28844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Amend EDGX Rule 11.14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility'' May 19, 2010... Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility.'' The text of the proposed rule change is available at the... trading halt described in Rule 11.14 applies to all stocks traded on the Exchange, the Exchange has...

  4. 75 FR 28833 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Amend EDGA Rule 11.14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility'' May 19, 2010... Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility.'' The text of the proposed rule change is available at the... trading halt described in Rule 11.14 applies to all stocks traded on the Exchange, the Exchange has...

  5. 78 FR 19790 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... single- name constituents of the Emerging Markets Index, and High Yield single names). ICC proposes to... included conforming changes to the chapters of the ICC Rules referencing iTraxx Europe index CDS and...), Eligible SES Reference Obligations (Rule 26D-102), Eligible iTraxx Europe Untranched Index (Rule...

  6. 77 FR 29730 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... to quote in smaller increments has been shown to reduce spreads, thereby lowering costs to investors..., must each file a proposed rule change to receive inbound orders from their affiliate exchange, BX. \\18... outbound routing using NOS as its routing broker, as well as receiving inbound orders from its...

  7. 75 FR 11216 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Information (``SAI''), the Fund's Shareholder Reports, and its Form N- CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice a year... documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on-screen or downloaded from the Commission's Web... that the proposed rule change will facilitate the listing and trading of additional types of...

  8. 75 FR 54676 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Arca, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Information (``SAI''), the Fund's Shareholder Reports, and its Form N- CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice a year... documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on-screen or downloaded from the Commission's Web... the proposed rule change will facilitate the listing and trading of an additional type of...

  9. 75 FR 81692 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Information (``SAI''), the ETF's Shareholder Reports, and its Form N- CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice a year... documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on-screen or downloaded from the Commission's Web... that the proposed rule change will facilitate the listing and trading of additional types of...

  10. 76 FR 65305 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... disseminate quotes for the balance of the trading day.'' In its filing, the Exchange states that market makers... Adding Commentary .01 to Rule 6.37B Concerning Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligations and Adjusted... change to add Commentary .01 to Rule 6.37B to indicate that market makers will not be obligated to...

  11. 75 FR 1439 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Rescinding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Gap Quote Policy January 4, 2010. I. Introduction On November 9, 2009, the NYSE Amex LLC (``NYSEAmex... that provides updated parameters for, and guidance on the application of, the Exchange's Gap Quote... Exchange has proposed that these changes be made operative ten business days after the date of this...

  12. 75 FR 29792 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... represented that those who are quoting verbally (in open outcry) must, throughout the trading day, comply with... Relating to Quote Spread Parameters and Batching of Violations May 21, 2010. On March 26, 2010, NASDAQ OMX...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating to quote spread parameters and batching of violations....

  13. 75 FR 35865 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Amex LLC Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... part of round lot (``PRL'') interest.\\8\\ \\5\\ The Display Book system is an Exchange order management... amendments to Rule 62--NYSE Amex Equities to track changes to corresponding NYSE Rule 62). \\8\\ PRL orders are... odd- lot interest and the odd-lot portion of PRL interest in the Odd-lot System. Pursuant to...

  14. 75 FR 170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... changes in the NAV as well as market supply and demand. The amount of the discount or premium in the... premium or discount to the NAV may widen. Trust Expenses The fees and expenses of the Trust are set forth... discretion of the Manager may involve a matter that would be a ``conflict of interest matter'' as set...

  15. 75 FR 43597 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    .... 61345 (January 13, 2010), 75 FR 32631 (January 20, 2010) (SR-NASDAQ-2008-104). If NASDAQ's rules are... Relating to the Establishment of NASDAQ OMX PSX as a Platform for Trading NMS Stocks July 16, 2010... new electronic platform for trading NMS stocks. The text of the proposed rule change is available...

  16. 78 FR 76415 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct Edge Holdings LLC... Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct Edge Holdings LLC December 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section...

  17. 78 FR 75607 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct Edge... (the ``Proposed Rule Change'') in connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below, involving its parent company, BATS Global Markets, Inc. and...

  18. 78 FR 76479 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct Edge Holdings LLC... Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1, in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct Edge Holdings LLC December 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section...

  19. 77 FR 67712 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...''), London Metal Exchange (``LME''), Tokyo Commodity Exchange (``TOCOM''), Dubai Mercantile Exchange (``DME... Canada, ICE Europe, LME, TOCOM, DME, and Malaysia are each referred to herein as a ``Futures Exchange... commodity production, commodity consumption, net imports or exports of commodities, and changes in...

  20. 77 FR 59423 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Options LLC (``Company'') was formed as a joint venture between NYSE MKT \\4\\ and its corporate parent NYSE... Agreement impact the terms of this transfer. Because NYSE Market is an affiliate of NYSE MKT, pursuant to... governance structure did not change. NYSE MKT continues to appoint a majority (7 of 13) of the...

  1. 76 FR 24069 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to alter its governance structure and to make other non... herein as ``Advices''), and Regulations of the Exchange. \\5\\ To align itself with the terminology used by... Delaware corporate law.\\15\\ Accordingly, the Exchange proposes to amend the LLC Agreement to refer to...

  2. 77 FR 39785 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... this notice to solicit comments on the proposed rule changes from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s... promote just and equitable principles of trade, to foster cooperation and coordination with persons... customization and segmentation experience may be less transparent and objective. While non-routable orders...

  3. 78 FR 49308 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating To Which Complex...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Orders Can Initiate a Complex Order Live Auction; Correction June 21, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... Change Relating to Which Complex Orders Can Initiate a Complex Order Live Auction. The document was dated incorrectly. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Charles Sommers, Division of Trading and Markets, Securities...

  4. 77 FR 39535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... issues, specifically SPDR S&P 500 (SPY), Apple, Inc. (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG... rule change be submitted with the Commission. For example, with Apple Inc. (``AAPL'') trading at $605...), Apple, Inc. (AAPL), SPDR Gold Trust (GLD), Google Inc. (GOOG), and Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) for...

  5. 78 FR 69167 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... additional Standard Emerging Sovereign Single Name constituents of the CDX Emerging Markets Index (``SES... CDX Emerging Markets Index. The proposed changes to the ICC Rules would provide for the clearance of... Name constituents of the CDX Emerging Markets Index currently cleared by ICC and governed by...

  6. 78 FR 13132 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Exchange is proposing to delete the existing language of Rule 1063(e)(ii),which is obsolete. In this way...\\ Rather than making changes to Advice B-11, which generally tracks the language of Rule 1064, the Exchange... Rule 1080. The Exchange is also proposing introductory language specifically stating that these...

  7. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-07-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  8. 77 FR 1524 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving..., 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and... effective date of the proposed rule change in a Regulatory Notice to be published no later than 60...

  9. 75 FR 17810 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on March 12, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is...

  10. 76 FR 2739 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... is hereby given that on January 5, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is...

  11. 76 FR 78706 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a... On October 20, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the... advised that it would announce the implementation date of the proposed rule change in a Regulatory...

  12. 75 FR 15470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that, on March 9, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is...

  13. 77 FR 5611 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Order Approving a..., 2012. I. Introduction On October 13, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA... change in a Regulatory Notice to be published no later than 90 days following Commission approval,...

  14. Remote sensing based change analysis of rice environments in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Mohanty, Samarendu; Nelson, Andrew; Arnel, Rala; Mohammed, Irshad A; Das, Satya Ranjan

    2015-01-15

    The rainfed rice-growing environment is perhaps one of the most vulnerable to water stress such as drought and floods. It is important to determine the spatial extent of the stress-prone areas to effectively and efficiently promote proper technologies (e.g., stress-tolerant varieties) to tackle the problem of sustainable food production. This study was conducted in Odisha state located in eastern India. Odisha is predominantly a rainfed rice ecosystem (71% rainfed and 29% canal irrigated during kharif-monsoon season), where rice is the major crop and staple food of the people. However, rice productivity in Odisha is one of the lowest in India and a significant decline (9%) in rice cultivated area was observed in 2002 (a drought year). The present study analyzed the temporal rice cropping pattern in various ecosystems and identified the stress-prone areas due to submergence (flooding) and water shortage. The spatial distribution of rice areas was mapped using MODIS (MOD09Q1) 250-m 8-day time-series data (2000-2010) and spectral matching techniques. The mapped rice areas were strongly correlated (R(2) = 90%) with district-level statistics. Also the class accuracy based on field-plot data was 84.8%. The area under the rainfed rice ecosystem continues to dominate, recording the largest share among rice classes across all the years. The use of remote-sensing techniques is rapid, cost-effective, and reliable to monitor changes in rice cultivated area over long periods of time and estimate the reduction in area cultivated due to abiotic stress such as water stress and submergence. Agricultural research institutes and line departments in the government can use these techniques for better planning, regular monitoring of land-use changes, and dissemination of appropriate technologies.

  15. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994. The aims of the study were to: 1 characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2 assess the contribution of elements of the epiphytic compartment to structuring the community; 3 define the optima and tolerances of selected epiphytic macroinvertebrate taxa for the most relevant ecological factors responsible for assemblage composition; and 4 identify possible epiphytic species assemblages that would allow a lagoon’s typology to be established, as well as their representative indicator species. Communities showed statistically significant seasonal variation, with two faunal peaks: one in summer, with high chironomid densities, and the other in winter, with high naidid densities. These peaks showed a clear response to the influence of environmental factors. Salinity explained the highest percentage of total variance (36%, while trophic variables (nutrients, phytoplanktonic chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon and epiphyton biomass (19.2 and 4% of total variance explained, respectively were secondary. Three different epiphytic macroinvertebrate species assemblages could be defined. These assemblages were directly linked to conductivity conditions, which determined the rate of survival of certain taxa, and to the existence of a direct connection with the sea, which permitted the establishment of "brackish-water" species. In spite of the existence of these species assemblages, the species composition and biomass of epiphytic macroinvertebrates and epiphyton differed substantially between lagoons; both elements were subject to changes in the environment, which finally determined the site

  16. Environment and Economic Growth. Is Technical Change the Key to Decoupling?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeotti, M. [Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    The relationship between economic growth and pollution is very complex, depending upon a host of different factors. Thus the study of this phenomenon represents a challenging endeavor. While most economics papers begin with theory and support that theory with econometric evidence, the literature on Environmental Kuznets Curves has proceeded in the opposite direction: first developing an empirical observation about the world, and then attempting to supply appropriate theories. A number of papers have aimed at providing the theoretical underpinnings to the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Prominent here is the class of optimal growth models. These are usually studied from the point of view of the analytical conditions that must hold in order to obtain an inverted-U functional relationship between pollution and growth. These models are however seldom confronted with the data. In this paper we take one popular optimal growth model designed for climate change policy analysis and carry out a few simulation exercises with the purpose of characterizing the relationship between economic growth and emissions. In particular, we try to assess the relative contribution of the ingredients of the well-known decomposition of the environment-growth relationship put forth by Grossman (1995): according to it, the presumed inverted-U pattern results from the joint effect of scale, composition, and technology components. We do this focusing on the developed regions of the world and on a global pollutant, CO2 emissions.

  17. Stress field evolution law of mining environment reconstructing structure with change of filling height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-fa; ZHOU Ke-ping; WANG Li-li

    2010-01-01

    For improving global stability of mining environment reconstructing structure,the stress field evolution law of the structure with the filling height change of low-grade backfill was studied by ADINA finite element analysis code.Three kinds of filling schemes were designed and calculated,in which the filling heights were 2,4,and 7 m,separately.The results show that there are some rules in the stress field with the increase of the filling height as follows:(1)the maximum value of tension stress of the roof decreases gradually,and stress conditions are improved gradually;(2)the tension stress status in the vertical pillar is transformed into the compressive stress status,and the carrying capacity is improved gradually; however,when the filling height is beyond 2.8 m,the carrying capacity of the vertical pillar grows very slowly,so,there is little significance to continue to fill the low-grade backfill;(3)the bottom pillar suffers the squeezing action from the vertical pillars at first and then the gravity action of the low-grade backfill,and the maximum value of tension stress of the bottom pillar firstly increases and then decreases.Considering the economic factor,security and other factors,the low-grade backfill has the most reasonable height(2.8 m)in the scope of all filling height.

  18. A space-for-time (SFT substitution approach to studying historical phenological changes in urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Buyantuyev

    Full Text Available Plant phenological records are crucial for predicting plant responses to global warming. However, many historical records are either short or replete with data gaps, which pose limitations and may lead to erroneous conclusions about the direction and magnitude of change. In addition to uninterrupted monitoring, missing observations may be substituted via modeling, experimentation, or gradient analysis. Here we have developed a space-for-time (SFT substitution method that uses spatial phenology and temperature data to fill gaps in historical records. To do this, we combined historical data for several tree species from a single location with spatial data for the same species and used linear regression and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA to build complementary spring phenology models and assess improvements achieved by the approach. SFT substitution allowed increasing the sample size and developing more robust phenology models for some of the species studied. Testing models with reduced historical data size revealed thresholds at which SFT improved historical trend estimation. We conclude that under certain circumstances both the robustness of models and accuracy of phenological trends can be enhanced although some limitations and assumptions still need to be resolved. There is considerable potential for exploring SFT analyses in phenology studies, especially those conducted in urban environments and those dealing with non-linearities in phenology modeling.

  19. Long-term changes of information environments and computer anxiety of nurse administrators in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yukie; Izumi, Takako

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, medical information systems, including electronic medical records, are being introduced increasingly at medical and nursing fields. Nurse administrators, who are involved in the introduction of medical information systems and who must make proper judgment, are particularly required to have at least minimal knowledge of computers and networks and the ability to think about easy-to-use medical information systems. However, few of the current generation of nurse administrators studied information science subjects in their basic education curriculum. It can be said that information education for nurse administrators has become a pressing issue. Consequently, in this study, we conducted a survey of participants taking the first level program of the education course for Japanese certified nurse administrators to ascertain the actual conditions, such as the information environments that nurse administrators are in, their anxiety attitude to computers. Comparisons over the seven years since 2004 revealed that although introduction of electronic medical records in hospitals was progressing, little change in attributes of participants taking the course was observed, such as computer anxiety.

  20. Daily Sleep Changes in a Noisy Environment Assessed by Subjective and Polygraphic Sleep Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.

    1997-08-01

    Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency, REM cycle, REM duration, frequency and duration in minutes of awakening during sleep, total sleep time, number of sleep stage shifts, sleep efficiency, number of sleep spindles and density. The differences between reaction times before sleep that night and the following morning were also examined. The subjects were twelve students aged 19 to 21 who were tested a total of 96 nights. Each subject slept in an experimental room and was exposed to recorded passing truck noise with peak levels of 45, 50, 55 and 60 dB(A) at intervals of 15 min. Significant changes were recognized in Stage 1, MT, frequency of awakening and number of sleep stage shifts. The authors speculate that the decrease in the shallow stage as noisy nights were repeated reflects habituation of night sleep to repeated passing truck noise, whose interval, duration and nature was constant.

  1. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Automated Guided Vehicle Systems in Changing Logistics Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, L.; Behling, S.; Buhrs, S.

    2008-06-01

    The usage of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) is growing. This has not always been the case in the past. A new record of the sells numbers is the result of inventive developments, new applications and modern thinking. One market that AGVS were not able to thoroughly conquer yet were rapidly changing logistics environments. The advantages in recurrent transportation with AGVS used to be hindered by the needs of flexibility. When nowadays managers talk about Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) there is no reason not to consider AGVS. Fixed guidelines, permanent transfer stations and static routes are no necessity for most AGVS producers. Flexible Manufacturing Systems can raise profitability with AGVS. When robots start saving billions in production costs, the next step at same plants are automated materials handling systems. Today, there are hundreds of instances of computer-controlled systems designed to handle and transport materials, many of which have replaced conventional human-driven platform trucks. Reduced costs due to damages and failures, tracking and tracing as well as improved production scheduling on top of fewer personnel needs are only some of the advantages.

  2. Biologic Therapies: From Complexity to Clinical Practice in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Panaccione

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This symposium provided an opportunity for global experts to discuss the challenges posed by the introduction of biosimilars. The impact of the manufacturing process on clinical outcomes, maintaining treatment responses over the long term, and issues surrounding patient management in a changing environment were addressed. The symposium was opened by Prof Panaccione describing the evolution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD treatment in the last 20 years and how biologics have improved outcomes. Prof D’Haens provided an explanation of the complexity surrounding biologic drug development and the hurdles facing drug manufacturers when ensuring high quality and consistently performing products over time. Prof Panaccione discussed the clinical challenges in balancing the transition from induction to maintenance therapy in order to provide a clinically relevant and sustained response to therapy. He also discussed the evidence for long-term outcomes with adalimumab for IBD. Prof Feagan highlighted the issues faced by clinicians treating patients with biologics, including the ability to switch between biologics without loss of efficacy or impact on safety, and the need to consider interchangeability between biologic therapies and the potential risk and impact of immunogenicity.

  3. Complex dynamics of selection and cellular memory in adaptation to a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussell, Edo; Lin, Wei-Hsiang

    We study a synthetic evolutionary system in bacteria in which an antibiotic resistance gene is controlled by a stochastic on/off switching promoter. At the population level, this system displays all the basic ingredients for evolutionary selection, including diversity, fitness differences, and heritability. At the single cell level, physiological processes can modulate the ability of selection to act. We expose the stochastic switching strains to pulses of antibiotics of different durations in periodically changing environments using microfluidics. Small populations are tracked over a large number of periods at single cell resolution, allowing the visualization and quantification of selective sweeps and counter-sweeps at the population level, as well as detailed single cell analysis. A simple model is introduced to predict long-term population growth rates from single cell measurements, and reveals unexpected aspects of population dynamics, including cellular memory that acts on a fast timescale to modulate growth rates. This work is supported by NIH Grant No. R01-GM097356.

  4. 77 FR 10005 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...) (percent) CBT Chicago Wheat...... W 09:30-13:15 3.00 KBT Kansas City Wheat.. KW 09:30-13:15 0.69 CBT Corn C... Designated Contract is below the TVMT, the composition of the Index is reevaluated, based on the criteria and... given year. As a result, it is possible that the composition or weighting of the Index will change...

  5. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    Media representations are an important part of the dynamics of contemporary socio-ecological systems. The media agenda influences and interacts with the public and the policy agenda and all of these are connected to the changes of the state of the environment. Partly as a result of media debate, some issues are considered serious environmental problems, some risks are amplified while others are attenuated, and some proposals for remedies are highlighted and others downplayed. Research on environmental media coverage has focused predominantly on the English-speaking industrialised countries. This thesis presents an analysis of Finnish environmental coverage, focusing on representations of climate change and eutrophication from 1990- 2010. The main source of material is Helsingin Sanomat (HS), the most widely-read newspaper in Finland. The analysis adopts the perspective of contextual constructivism and the agenda-setting function of the mass media. Selected models describing the evolution of environmental coverage are applied within an interdisciplinary emphasis. The results show that the amount of newspaper content on eutrophication and climate change has generally increased, although both debates have been characterised by intense fluctuations. The volume of the coverage on climate change has been higher than that of eutrophication, especially since 2006. Eutrophication was highlighted most during the late 1990s while the peaks of climate coverage occurred between 2007 and 2009. Two key factors have shaped the coverage of eutrophication. First, the coverage is shaped by ecological factors, especially by the algal occurrences that are largely dependent on weather conditions. Second, the national algal monitoring and communication system run by environmental authorities has provided the media with easy-to-use data on the algal situation during the summertime. The peaks of climate coverage have been caused by an accumulation of several contributing factors. The two

  6. Coping with Change: A Closer Look at the Underlying Attributes of Change and the Individual Response to Unstable Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minke B. W. Langenhof

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the study of environmental change has long been of academic interest, the effects of change have become a much more pressing concern in the past few decades due to the often disruptive effect of human expansion and innovation. Researchers from many fields contribute to understanding our footprint on the natural world, problems we cause, and strategies we can employ to protect key species and ecosystems. Unfortunately, environmental change and its consequences are often studied without an awareness of the inherent attributes of the changes. As a result, the relevance of new advances in this field may be easily missed or misunderstood, and existing knowledge is not optimally applied. In this paper, we aim to facilitate the multi-disciplinary comparison of studies on environmental change, by offering a meta-level perspective on the process of change from the point of view of the individual animal. We propose an inclusive definition of change that can be applied across contexts, in which we take our understanding of “change” from an event to an interaction between a physical occurrence and an individual’s state. Furthermore, we discuss key event- and individual-based attributes of change, their relevance in today’s changing world, and how they relate to animals’ available behavioural, physiological and cross-generational responses. We hope that by uncovering the underlying fundamental (or structure of change, fellow scientists may better share their experience and knowledge gained from years of studying individual species and situations.

  7. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  8. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  9. Opening the Market for Lower Cost Hearing Aids: Regulatory Change Can Improve the Health of Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Jan; Weinstein, Barbara E

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is a leading cause of disability among older people. Yet only one in seven US adults who could benefit from a hearing aid uses one. This fraction has not increased over the past 30 years, nor have hearing aid prices dropped, despite trends of steady improvements and price reductions in the consumer electronics industry. The President's Council on Science and Technology has proposed changes in the regulation of hearing aids, including the creation of a "basic" low-cost over-the-counter category of devices. We discuss the potential to reduce disability as well as to improve public health, stakeholder responses to the president's council's proposal, and public health efforts to further mitigate the burden of disability stemming from age-related hearing loss.

  10. Death of an Arctic Mixed Phase Cloud: How Changes in the Arctic Environment Influence Cloud Properties and Cloud Radiative Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, E. L.; Posselt, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus clouds exert an important influence on the radiative budget over the Arctic ocean and sea ice. Field programs and numerical experiments have shown the properties of these clouds to be sensitive to changes in the surface properties, thermodynamic environment, and aerosols. While it is clear that Arctic mixed-phase clouds respond to changes in the Arctic environment, uncertainty remains as to how climate warming will affect the cloud micro- and macrophysical properties. This is in no small part due to the fact that there are nonlinear interactions between changes in atmospheric and surface properties and changes in cloud characteristics. In this study, large-eddy simulations are performed of an arctic mixed phase cloud observed during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign. A parameter-space-filling uncertainty quantification technique is used to rigorously explore how simulated arctic mixed phase clouds respond to changes in the properties of the environment. Specifically, the cloud ice and aerosol concentration, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and large scale temperature, water vapor, and vertical motion are systematically changed, and the properties of the resulting clouds are examined. It is found that Arctic mixed phase clouds exhibit four characteristic behaviors: stability, growth, decay, and dissipation. Sets of environmental and surface properties that lead to the emergence of each type of behavior are presented, and the implications for the response of Arctic clouds to changes in climate are explored.

  11. Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Arife

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood.

  12. Regulatory interaction in electricity retail theory and evidence from the United States and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this research I have used a sample that was to cover market - regulatory environment - firm performance permutations capturing the changes in competitive dynamics and the co-evolutionary paths the firms and their respective business environment have taken when the markets were opened for competition. The research process builds on Event Structure Analysis (ESA) as a means to create causal patterns in the interaction between the firm and the environment. Data was collected from primary and ...

  13. Changes of Family Environment and the Formation of Parents'Expectation on Child Education : Research based on Survey of Dalian, China

    OpenAIRE

    許, 敏

    2000-01-01

    Currently family education in Chinese families is undergoing significant changes. This is partly due to societal changes which in turn leads to changes in family environment. This paper analyzes the impact of changes of family environment on parents'expectation on their children's education as well as the reasons behind the differences of such expectation and impact between cities and rural communities in China.

  14. Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) and Eco-Environment Response to LUCC in Farming-Pastoral Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hui-mei; REN Zhi-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand land use/land cover changes (LUCC) and the eco-environment response to LUCC in farming-pastoral zone of the northern China during the recent twenty years, Baotou prefecture was selected as a case study area for investigation and quantitative evaluation. Technologies of remote sensing (RS), global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), and other statistical methods were employed to implement. Results showed that: (1) During the recent twenty years, the areas of forest lands, grasslands and water were reduced, whereas the areas of other types were enlarged. Parts of forest lands, grasslands, and waters had become farmlands, and about 31.5% of the changed grasslands transferred into unused lands. The newly increased farmlands mainly came from grasslands and unused lands. And the newly increased construction lands mainly came from grasslands and farmlands. (2) Regional eco-environmental quality decreased by 12.6%, for which the land degradation (especially the meadow degeneration) and the developing of the cultivated land were mainly responsible, and their contributions to the regional eco-environment changes were 51.84 and 23.63% respectively. (3) The tendency of LUCC and the coo-environment response to LUCC displayed spatial heterogeneity. It can be concluded that the present agricultural production mode was not sustainable in farming-pastoral zone of northern China. Land degradation, especially meadow degradation induced by over-trarnpling and overgrazing, and developing of cultivated land were mainly responsible for regional eco-environment deterioration. Changing the cultivated land to forest or grass, however, can relieve deterioration of local coo-environment to some extents. And in the farming-pastoral zone in the northern China, evaluating regional coo-environment responses to LUCC was very necessary due to its fragile coo-environments.

  15. Coping with Change : A Closer Look at the Underlying Attributes of Change and the Individual Response to Unstable Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, Minke B. W.; Komdeur, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Although the study of environmental change has long been of academic interest, the effects of change have become a much more pressing concern in the past few decades due to the often disruptive effect of human expansion and innovation. Researchers from many fields contribute to understanding our foo

  16. Impacts of the Bolivian regulatory changes for the future of natural gas in Brazil; Impacto na relacao Brasil-Bolivia com a nacionalizacao dos hidrocarbonetos bolivianos de 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Berrnardo Pestana Mello C.; Saraiva, Thiago Carvalho; Bone, Rosemarie Broker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to clarify and understand the reasons for the current economic policy and trade between Bolivia and Brazil, the latter represented by PETROBRAS, as the year 2006. Focuses on the regulatory change in Bolivia that culminated in a period of re-nationalization of its mineral wealth as opposed to international interests, including Brazilians, and agreements entered into during the opening of the market in the country. Thus, set in the Latin American actual situation, we undertake to understand the process and its consequences for Brazil, which, even with the third largest gas reserves in the region, in the short term, it follows as an importer of this feature. To have a concrete base with foundations and analyze what happens today, we must understand the political history of Bolivia and their internal changes. So we divided the work into two parts: first, we analyze the neo liberal period, and the agreements signed with Brazil in the hydrocarbon sector, for mutual benefits. In the second part, we understand the political rise of Evo Morales and the nationalization process of national wealth and the consequent crisis that developed with the international oil companies, especially with PETROBRAS, to the final outcome on the price, production and export of gas.

  17. REM sleep deprivation induces changes of down regulatory antagonist modulator (DREAM) expression in the ventrobasal thalamic nuclei of sprague-dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siran, Rosfaiizah; Ahmad, Asma Hayati; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Ismail, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    REM sleep is a crucial component of sleep. Animal studies indicate that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation elicits changes in gene expression. Down regulatory antagonist modulator (DREAM) is a protein which downregulates other gene transcriptions by binding to the downstream response element site. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of REM sleep deprivation on DREAM expression in ventrobasal thalamic nuclei (VB) of rats. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four major groups consisting of free-moving control rats (FMC) (n = 18), 72-h REM sleep-deprived rats (REMsd) (n = 18), 72-h REM sleep-deprived rats with 72-h sleep recovery (RG) (n = 18), and tank control rats (TC) (n = 18). REM sleep deprivation was elicited using the inverted flower pot technique. DREAM expression was examined in VB by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) studies. The DREAM-positive neuronal cells (DPN) were decreased bilaterally in the VB of rats deprived of REM sleep as well as after sleep recovery. The nuclear DREAM extractions were increased bilaterally in animals deprived of REM sleep. The DREAM messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were decreased after sleep recovery. The results demonstrated a link between DREAM expression and REM sleep deprivation as well as sleep recovery which may indicate potential involvement of DREAM in REM sleep-induced changes in gene expression, specifically in nociceptive processing.

  18. Fiber Bragg gratings in the radiation environment: Change under the influence of radiolytic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, Oleg V.; Golant, Konstantin M.; Shevtsov, Igor'A.; Fedorov, Artem N.

    2015-08-01

    The change of the transmission spectra of fiber Bragg gratings written in the optical fibers, whose silica cores are doped with either germanium or nitrogen, is studied experimentally under the influence of gamma-radiation. The transmission spectra in the neighborhood of the resonance (Bragg) wavelengths were regularly recorded "in-situ" in the course of irradiation during 24 days. For this purpose, uncoated gratings were placed in a pool near the spent fuel rods of a nuclear reactor. The fibers with the gratings written in them were in immediate contact with water. The estimated total absorbed radiation dose of the fibers is approximately 5 MGy. Molecular hydrogen, which is produced by radiolysis of water and penetrates into the core of silica fiber, is found to interact with the defects of Ge-doped silica induced by gamma-radiation, thereby causing a strong impact on the parameters of the spectrum of the Bragg gratings. On the contrary, in the case of gratings inscribed in N-doped silica fibers, the hydrogen molecules interact with defects induced in the course of laser UV exposure during the grating writing only. The possible subsequent formation of additional defects in N-doped silica under the influence of gamma-radiation has no substantial impact on the transmission spectra of Bragg gratings, which remained stable. The obtained results suggest that a small amount of molecular hydrogen resided in the fiber core is the main source of radiation instability of Ge-doped fiber Bragg grating sensors in radiation environments. These hydrogen molecules can remain in the Bragg gratings, in particular, after the inscription process in the hydrogen-loaded fibers.

  19. Metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment under pH changes in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Torre, M Camino; Payán, M Cruz; Verbinnen, Bram; Coz, Alberto; Ruiz, Gema; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R

    2015-04-01

    The contaminant release from estuarine sediment due to pH changes was investigated using a modified CEN/TS 14429 pH-dependence leaching test. The test is performed in the range of pH values of 0-14 using deionised water and seawater as leaching solutions. The experimental conditions mimic different circumstances of the marine environment due to the global acidification, carbon dioxide (CO2) leakages from carbon capture and sequestration technologies, and accidental chemical spills in seawater. Leaching test results using seawater as leaching solution show a better neutralisation capacity giving slightly lower metal leaching concentrations than when using deionised water. The contaminated sediment shows a low base-neutralisation capacity (BNCpH 12 = -0.44 eq/kg for deionised water and BNCpH 12 = -1.38 eq/kg for seawater) but a high acid-neutralisation capacity when using deionised water (ANCpH 4 = 3.58 eq/kg) and seawater (ANCpH 4 = 3.97 eq/kg). Experimental results are modelled with the Visual MINTEQ geochemical software to predict metal release from sediment using both leaching liquids. Surface adsorption to iron- and aluminium-(hydr)oxides was applied for all studied elements. The consideration of the metal-organic matter binding through the NICA-Donnan model and Stockholm Humic Model for lead and copper, respectively, improves the former metal release prediction. Modelled curves can be useful for the environmental impact assessment of seawater acidification due to its match with the experimental values.

  20. Fiber Bragg gratings in the radiation environment: Change under the influence of radiolytic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butov, Oleg V., E-mail: obutov@mail.ru; Golant, Konstantin M. [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya Str., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Shevtsov, Igor' A.; Fedorov, Artem N. [Prolog LLC, PO Box 3007, Obninsk, the Kaluga Region 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-21

    The change of the transmission spectra of fiber Bragg gratings written in the optical fibers, whose silica cores are doped with either germanium or nitrogen, is studied experimentally under the influence of gamma-radiation. The transmission spectra in the neighborhood of the resonance (Bragg) wavelengths were regularly recorded “in-situ” in the course of irradiation during 24 days. For this purpose, uncoated gratings were placed in a pool near the spent fuel rods of a nuclear reactor. The fibers with the gratings written in them were in immediate contact with water. The estimated total absorbed radiation dose of the fibers is approximately 5 MGy. Molecular hydrogen, which is produced by radiolysis of water and penetrates into the core of silica fiber, is found to interact with the defects of Ge-doped silica induced by gamma-radiation, thereby causing a strong impact on the parameters of the spectrum of the Bragg gratings. On the contrary, in the case of gratings inscribed in N-doped silica fibers, the hydrogen molecules interact with defects induced in the course of laser UV exposure during the grating writing only. The possible subsequent formation of additional defects in N-doped silica under the influence of gamma-radiation has no substantial impact on the transmission spectra of Bragg gratings, which remained stable. The obtained results suggest that a small amount of molecular hydrogen resided in the fiber core is the main source of radiation instability of Ge-doped fiber Bragg grating sensors in radiation environments. These hydrogen molecules can remain in the Bragg gratings, in particular, after the inscription process in the hydrogen-loaded fibers.

  1. Remote Sensing in a Changing Climate and Environment: the Rift Valley Fever Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.-P.; Vignolles, C.; Lafaye, M.

    2012-07-01

    Climate and environment are changing rapidly whilst global population already reached 7 billions people. New public health challenges are posed by new and re-emerging diseases. Innovation is a must i.e., 1) using high resolution remote sensing, 2) re-invent health politics and trans-disciplinary management. The above are part of the 'TransCube Approach' i.e., Transition, Translation, and Transformation. The new concept of Tele-epidemiology includes such approach. A conceptual approach (CA) associated with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds are detected using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images and radar data from space. Data on rainfall events obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA/JAXA) are combined with in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable and parked hosts (obtained from QuickBird satellite) is also used. The dynamic spatio-temporal distribution and aggressiveness of RVF mosquitoes, are based on total rainfall amounts, ponds' dynamics and entomological observations. Detailed risks maps (hazards + vulnerability) in real-time are expressed in percentages of parks where animals are potentially at risks. This CA which simply relies upon rainfall distribution from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of the RVF early warning system (RVFews). It is meant to be applied to other diseases and elsewhere. This is particularly true in new places where new vectors have been rapidly adapting (such as Aedes albopictus) whilst viruses (such as West Nile and Chikungunya,) circulate from constantly moving reservoirs and increasing population.

  2. Changing the Food Environment for Obesity Prevention: Key Gaps and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Martins, Paula Andrea; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-12-01

    The food environment has a great impact on the nutritional health of the population. Food environment interventions have become a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the most effective strategies to modify the food environment to improve health. In this review, we examine key gaps in the food environment intervention literature, including the need for: developing appropriate formative research plans when addressing the food environment; methods for selecting intervention domains and components; incorporating food producers and distributors in intervention strategies; strengthening evaluation of environmental interventions; building the evidence base for food environment interventions in diverse settings; engaging policy makers in the process of modifying the food environment; and creating systems science models to examine the costs and benefits of a potential program or policy on the food environment prior to implementation. In addition, we outline the need for strategies for addressing these issues including conducting additional pilot interventions, developing additional methodologies, and embracing the use of simulation models.

  3. REGULATORY AGENCIES, CONSUMER AND ENVIROMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Valezi Raymundo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis on the insertion of the consumer in the current model of State in Brazil, considering the nowaday legal system. It is wished to be shown, moreover, the already existing reality on the theme, even if modest, so to in a way to question the responsibility of the consumer, according to its consuming habits and its inertia, takes in today’s technological society. To such proposal, the most effective research method, and, for this reason had been used in this paper, is the extensive bibliography research and legislation consultation. Through it, it had been found that the State model has changed over the past decades in order to delegate the execution of various activities of State ownership to private enterprise, in view of the existence of a minimal State and governor. In this sense, there were created the Regulatory Agencies, which are indirect public administration entities, with the ultimate objective of regulating and supervising the execution of those legal activities, performed by the private sector. The consumer, inserted in this reality, is the direct recipient of the action of the mentioned entities, questioning the legislative and sanction legitimacy of the regulatory entities as well as the possibility of judicial review on the merits of administrative actions of these entities and the applicability of the Brazilian Code of Defense of the Consumer (CDC to the execution of public services, a discipline that affects the administrative law rights. Notwithstanding the above analysis in context, all these social workers, consumers and regulatory agencies are immersed in changing habits, due to the optimization of actions, aimed at preserving the environment, the prospect of achieving sustainable development. Based on this perspective, the results brought by the survey showed that the application of the Brazilian Code of Defense of the Consumer in relations between consumers does not preclude

  4. Cosmet'eau -Changes in the personal care product consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; Gouvello, Bernard de; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; SOYER, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the " changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments. " In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities – including local authorities –, industries and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption pract...

  5. An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Urbanization and Changes in Resources and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianyuan; LIU; Yu; JIA

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of urban scale is the inevitable outcome during urbanization,and it has exacerbated the contradiction between urbanization,and resources and environment. Based on the environmental indicator data related to the urbanization of Chongqing Municipality during the period 2000- 2012,this article uses regression analysis and ARIMA forecasting model to study the impact of rapid urbanization on the resources and environment. It is found that urbanization is significantly and positively correlated with the built-up area,the annual electricity consumption,domestic waste water discharge amount,and industrial waste gas emission,but significantly and negatively correlated with the industrial solid waste discharge amount; before 2020,along with the improvement of the level of urbanization in Chongqing,the degree of deterioration of the environment and resources will be further increased; after 2020,urbanization and ecological environment will be in a new round of balance,and the resources and environment will be improved.

  6. Covering Risks in the Public Administration – an In-Depth Analysis of the Regulatory Changes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Cocosatu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing in a trans-disciplinary manner the institutional and functional changesof the public administration under crisis. The current analysis looks in depth of the financial, economic, and,more importantly, social crisis in relation to the reforms imposed by both the internal and externalstakeholders. The decision-makers have not taken into account the risk factors, triggering legislativeincoherence and instability due to the challenging and approval as non-constitutional of many such normativeacts by the Romanian Constitutional Court. The research objectives search to clear up the measures’coherence in the context of a declining public budget and a negative growth period, when the shrunk publicfunds need to be properly allocated. Therefore, the answer that our research is looking for should pertain tothe following concern: can the government’s actions be considered solutions to the problems raised by thecurrent context? The answers shall aim at both restoring the legal and economic balance, as defined in theworking hypothesis. The lax fiscal policy of the expenditures brings about an involuntary fiscal contraction inthe event of an economic downturn (Rosen and Gayer, 2010, as it was the case in Romania. Those lack ofprudence shall be addressed in our analysis, with specific reference to the already established literatureexplanations involving the decision-makers trust in the „good days shall be around forever”, which triggers abelief that the expenditures’ expansion can be permanent. Regarding the paper methodology, this study isproceeding via bibliographical research, so that the reasoning behind the paper is clearly underlined as thisresearch is actually triggered by the radical changes made by both legislatures and practitioners as a responseto crisis. Further, the manuscript makes use of direct observation and legislative analysis and extensivedocumentary research of national tax policy and statistics relevant

  7. Stability and Change of Mentoring Practices in a Capricious Policy Environment: Opening the "Black Box of Institutionalization"

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, Virginie; Kelchtermans, Geert; Dumay, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses how institutional logics are translated, maintained, or disrupted by actors and their (inter)actions within schools. The changing policy environment for mentoring beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium) provides a fertile context for answering this question. Combining neoinstitutional and sensemaking lenses and analyzing…

  8. Toward Development Work: The Workplace as a Learning Environment. EEE701 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Michael

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, The Changing Workplace: Part B, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document constructs a framework for exploring the concept of the workplace as a learning environment that is in fact the primary school for adult learning and…

  9. Straight from the Mouths of Horses and Tapirs: Using Fossil Teeth to Clarify How Ancient Environments Have Changed over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Larisa

    2009-01-01

    Clarifying ancient environments millions of years ago is necessary to better understand how ecosystems change over time, providing insight as to the potential impacts of current global warming. This module engages middle school students in the scientific process, asking them to use tooth measurement to test the null hypothesis that horse and tapir…

  10. Longitudinal changes of peripheral blood DC subsets and regulatory T cells in Chinese chronic HIV-1-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available It has been emphasized that chronic generalized immune dysfunction is the leading event in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, in which the contribution of dendritic cells (DCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs should not be underestimated. In current study, we assessed the longitudinal changes of peripheral blood DC subsets and Tregs in chronically asymptomatic treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients during 60 weeks of antiretroviral therapy (ART, and compared with those in healthy controls and long term non-progressors (LTNPs. Blood samples were collected at week 0, 4, 12, 24, 48 and 60 of treatment to measure the counts of DC subsets and Tregs by flow cytometry and IFN-a plasma levels by ELISA. The counts of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs increased during ART, reaching similar levels to healthy controls at week 60 post ART but still lower than those of LTNPs. In HIV-1-infected patients, the mDCs counts were directly correlated with CD4 counts during ART. Changes in mDCs at week 8 were positively correlated with the changes in CD4 counts at week 60 post ART. However, the counts and function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs remained relatively stable during ART, and similar to those in healthy controls and LTNPs. The percentage of Tregs increased before ART and normalized after ART. Importantly, we found pDCs counts were associated with percentage of Tregs during ART, which may help in understanding of the role of these cells in HIV infection.

  11. Changes of Regulatory T Cells and of Proinflammatory and Immunosuppressive Cytokines in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-chao Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of regulatory T cells (Treg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. We performed a comprehensive search up to July 2016 for all clinical studies about the changes of Treg, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, and TNF-α in T2DM patients versus healthy controls. Results. A total of 91 articles (5642 cases and 7378 controls were included for this meta-analysis. Compared with the controls (all p<0.001, the patients had increased serum levels of IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α but decreased the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg and serum IL-10 level. Furthermore, the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg (p<0.001 and serum IL-10 level (p=0.033 were significantly lower in the patients with complication and in the patients without complication, respectively. No significant changes about the percentage of CD4+CD25+Treg (p=0.360 and serum IL-17 level (p=0.459 were found in T2DM patients. Conclusions. T2DM patients have decreased the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg and levels of serum IL-10 but elevated serum levels of IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. Presence of diabetic complications further lowers the peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg number.

  12. Influenza A virus infection causes alterations in expression of synaptic regulatory genes combined with changes in cognitive and emotional behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraki, S; Aronsson, F; Karlsson, H; Ogren, S O; Kristensson, K

    2005-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a link between certain neuropsychiatric diseases and exposure to viral infections. In order to examine long-term effects on behavior and gene expression in the brain of one candidate virus, we have used a model involving olfactory bulb injection of the neuro-adapted influenza A virus strain, WSN/33, in C57Bl/6 mice. Following this olfactory route of invasion, the virus targets neurons in the medial habenular, midline thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei as well as monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem. The mice survive and the viral infection is cleared from the brain within 12 days. When tested 14-20 weeks after infection, the mice displayed decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and impaired spatial learning in the Morris water maze test. Elevated transcriptional activity of two genes encoding synaptic regulatory proteins, regulator of G-protein signaling 4 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha, was found in the amygdala, hypothalamus and cerebellum. It is of particular interest that the gene encoding RGS4, which has been related to schizophrenia, showed the most pronounced alteration. This study indicates that a transient influenza virus infection can cause persistent changes in emotional and cognitive functions as well as alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of synaptic activities.

  13. 40 CFR 73.86 - State regulatory autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State regulatory autonomy. 73.86 Section 73.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... regulatory autonomy. Nothing in this subpart shall preclude a State or State regulatory authority...

  14. Hydro-environmental changes and their influence on the subsurface environment in the context of urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikoshi, Akihisa; Adachi, Itsu; Taniguchi, Tomomasa; Kagawa, Yuichi; Kato, Masahiro; Yamashita, Akio; Todokoro, Taiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    The relationship between urban development and hydro-environmental change, particularly with regard to the subsurface environment is examined for three coastal cities affected by Asian monsoons (Tokyo and Osaka in Japan, and Bangkok in Thailand). Major differences in subsurface changes among these cities are closely related to city size, urban structure, and the timing, stage and extent of urbanization as well as the natural environment. The work shows that the urban development has not affected the Bangkok subsurface hydro-environment in the same way it has in Tokyo and Osaka. Three reasons for the difference account for this, (1) Bangkok's abundant annual rainfall, (2) Bangkok has the smallest ratio of impervious pavement surface area, meaning that surface water can more easily infiltrate underground., (3) the degree and extent of urbanization. Bangkok's subsurface hydro-environment has not been heavily affected because underground development has not yet reached deep subterranean areas. By researching yet more cities, at different stages of urbanization to that of Tokyo, Osaka and Bangkok, we plan to quantitatively examine urbanization and its influence on subsurface hydro-environments. This research will help limit damage to developing cities that are not yet experiencing subsurface failures but which are expected to confront these problems in the future.

  15. Climate change in the Netherlands : Challenges for a safe and attractive urban environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döpp, S.P.; Bosch, P.R.; Deelen, C.L. van

    2009-01-01

    Climate change in cities has so far been underexposed in Dutch research on climate change adaptation. High population density and high economic values make Dutch urban areas nevertheless vulnerable to climate change. Even with stringent mitigation policies Dutch cities will be subject to warmer summ

  16. Changes in the built environment and changes in the amount of walking over time: longitudinal results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Moore, Kari A; Clarke, Philippa J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Brines, Shannon J; Zagorski, Melissa A; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-10-15

    Lack of longitudinal research hinders causal inference on the association between the built environment and walking. In the present study, we used data from 6,027 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were 45-84 years of age at baseline to investigate the association of neighborhood built environment with trends in the amount of walking between 2000 and 2012. Walking for transportation and walking for leisure were assessed at baseline and at 3 follow-up visits (median follow-up = 9.15 years). Time-varying built environment measures (measures of population density, land use, number of destinations, bus access, and street connectivity) were created using geographic information systems. We used linear mixed models to estimate the associations between baseline levels of and a change in each built environment feature and a change in the frequency of walking. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that higher baseline levels of population density, area zoned for retail, social destinations, walking destinations, and street connectivity were associated with greater increases in walking for transportation over time. Higher baseline levels of land zoned for residential use and distance to buses were associated with less pronounced increases (or decreases) in walking for transportation over time. Increases in the number of social destinations, the number of walking destinations, and street connectivity over time were associated with greater increases in walking for transportation. Higher baseline levels of both land zoned for retail and walking destinations were associated with greater increases in leisure walking, but no changes in built environment features were associated with leisure walking. The creation of mixed-use, dense developments may encourage adults to incorporate walking for transportation into their everyday lives.

  17. A review of the effect of the psychosocial working environment on physiological changes in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Rugulies, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    -based studies. The studied exposures in work place/population-based studies included: job demands (26/8 studies), job control (24/10 studies), social support and/or leadership behaviour (12/3 studies), effort-reward imbalance (three/one studies), occupational changes (four studies), shift work (eight studies...... the anabolic indicators defined as constructive building up energy resources were decreased when the psychosocial working environment was perceived as poor. In conclusion, in this review the association between an adverse psychosocial working environment and HbA(1c), testosterone and fibrinogen in serum...

  18. Unsupervised change detection in VHR remote sensing imagery - an object-based clustering approach in a dynamic urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtle, Tobias; Geiß, Christian; Wurm, Michael; Lakes, Tobia; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2017-02-01

    Monitoring of changes is one of the most important inherent capabilities of remote sensing. The steadily increasing amount of available very-high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery requires highly automatic methods and thus, largely unsupervised concepts for change detection. In addition, new procedures that address this challenge should be capable of handling remote sensing data acquired by different sensors. Thereby, especially in rapidly changing complex urban environments, the high level of detail present in VHR data indicates the deployment of object-based concepts for change detection. This paper presents a novel object-based approach for unsupervised change detection with focus on individual buildings. First, a principal component analysis together with a unique procedure for determination of the number of relevant principal components is performed as a predecessor for change detection. Second, k-means clustering is applied for discrimination of changed and unchanged buildings. In this manner, several groups of object-based difference features that can be derived from multi-temporal VHR data are evaluated regarding their discriminative properties for change detection. In addition, the influence of deviating viewing geometries when using VHR data acquired by different sensors is quantified. Overall, the proposed workflow returned viable results in the order of κ statistics of 0.8-0.9 and beyond for different groups of features, which demonstrates its suitability for unsupervised change detection in dynamic urban environments. With respect to imagery from different sensors, deviating viewing geometries were found to deteriorate the change detection result only slightly in the order of up to 0.04 according to κ statistics, which underlines the robustness of the proposed approach.

  19. Adaptation by Plasticity of Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Naama

    2007-03-01

    Genetic regulatory networks have an essential role in adaptation and evolution of cell populations. This role is strongly related to their dynamic properties over intermediate-to-long time scales. We have used the budding yeast as a model Eukaryote to study the long-term dynamics of the genetic regulatory system and its significance in evolution. A continuous cell growth technique (chemostat) allows us to monitor these systems over long times under controlled condition, enabling a quantitative characterization of dynamics: steady states and their stability, transients and relaxation. First, we have demonstrated adaptive dynamics in the GAL system, a classic model for a Eukaryotic genetic switch, induced and repressed by different carbon sources in the environment. We found that both induction and repression are only transient responses; over several generations, the system converges to a single robust steady state, independent of external conditions. Second, we explored the functional significance of such plasticity of the genetic regulatory network in evolution. We used genetic engineering to mimic the natural process of gene recruitment, placing the gene HIS3 under the regulation of the GAL system. Such genetic rewiring events are important in the evolution of gene regulation, but little is known about the physiological processes supporting them and the dynamics of their assimilation in a cell population. We have shown that cells carrying the rewired genome adapted to a demanding change of environment and stabilized a population, maintaining the adaptive state for hundreds of generations. Using genome-wide expression arrays we showed that underlying the observed adaptation is a global transcriptional programming that allowed tuning expression of the recruited gene to demands. Our results suggest that non-specific properties reflecting the natural plasticity of the regulatory network support adaptation of cells to novel challenges and enhance their evolvability.

  20. Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth.

    Early home learning environments are the result of interactions between the developing child and the opportunity structures provided by the family. Income is one of several resources that affect the cognitive stimulation that children experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the influence of…

  1. Income Changes and Cognitive Stimulation in Young Children's Home Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Examines influence of household income on cognitive stimulation during the transition to school. Cross-sectional and longitudinal fixed effects regressions are estimated to examine income's effect. Household income was positively related to level of cognitive stimulation in children's home environments across both sets of analyses. Implication for…

  2. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial and grain size change in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Holthaus, K.I.E.; Trannum, H.C.; Neff, J.M.; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, G.; Jak, R.G.; Singsaas, I.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Hendriks, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognost

  3. Spatial perception changes associated with space flight: implications for adaptation to altered inertial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Preparation for extended travel by astronauts within the Solar System, including a possible manned mission to Mars, requires more complete understanding of adaptation to altered inertial environments. Improved understanding is needed to support development and evaluation of interventions to facilitate adaptations during transitions between those environments. Travel to another planet escalates the adaptive challenge because astronauts will experience prolonged exposure to microgravity before encountering a novel gravitational environment. This challenge would have to be met without ground support at the landing site. Evaluation of current adaptive status as well as intervention efficacy can be performed using perceptual, eye movement and postural measures. Due to discrepancies of adaptation magnitude and time-course among these measures, complete understanding of adaptation processes, as well as intervention evaluation, requires examination of all three. Previous research and theory that provide models for comprehending adaptation to altered inertial environments are briefly examined. Reports from astronauts of selected pre- in- and postflight self-motion illusions are described. The currently controversial tilt-translation reinterpretation hypothesis is reviewed and possible resolutions to the controversy are proposed. Finally, based on apparent gaps in our current knowledge, further research is proposed to achieve a more complete understanding of adaptation as well as to develop effective counter-measures.

  4. Nanoconfinement-enhanced conformational response of single DNA molecules to changes in ionic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, Walter; Beech, J. P.; Larsen, Niels Bent;

    2007-01-01

    We show that the ionic environment plays a critical role in determining the configurational properties of DNA confined in silica nanochannels. The extension of DNA in the nanochannels increases as the ionic strength is reduced, almost tripling over two decades in ionic strength for channels around...

  5. Three types of rescue can avert extinction in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setting aside high quality, large areas of habitat to protect threatened populations is becoming increasingly difficult as humans fragment and degrade the environment. Biologists and managers therefore must determine the best way to shepherd small populations through the dual challenges of reduction...

  6. Environments for Change in a Faculty of Arts: The Impact of Teaching Off Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefoe, Geraldine; Albury, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    For a university in regional Australia, a new degree program offered through a remote campus and access centres, provided a supportive environment for faculty to try out new teaching and learning methods, specifically making use of a learning management system (WebCT) for aspects of communication and content. This article examines the impact this…

  7. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  8. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  9. Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

    2012-12-01

    What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives

  10. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2 and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4 and control (n =4 conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1 eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2 develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE, and 3 promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach. Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2 were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2 children

  11. The landscape of farmer cooperatives in China: functions and diversity in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Leeuwis, C.; Lie, R.; Song, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural sector and the rural sector in China have experienced fundamental changes from the 1980s onward, and farmer cooperatives have emerged in response to these changes. Beginning in 1990, a series of different policies have been implemented by the Chinese government to promote farmer coo

  12. Economic analysis of Dutch agricultural land use in a changing policy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study empirically investigates farmers’ decision-making on agricultural land use change in the Netherlands. Five driving factors influencing decision making on both on-farm land adjustments and changes to the size of the farm are selected: increased price volatil

  13. Enrollment Management with Academic Portfolio Strategies: Preparing for Environment-Induced Changes in Student Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Michael B.

    1990-01-01

    A marketing model of enrollment management focusing on relationships between changes in the macroenvironment, target market student preferences, college marketing mix, and enrollment is presented. Application of the model illustrates how institutions can offset, enhance, or neutralize potential enrollment effects of job market changes through…

  14. Trust, Isolation, and Presence: The Virtual Work Environment and Acceptance of Deep Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Laurence Michael

    2013-01-01

    The primary focus of this research was to explore through the use of a grounded theory methodology if the human perceptions of trust, isolation, and presence affected the virtual workers ability to accept deep organizational change. The study found that the virtual workers in the sample defined their acceptance of deep organizational change by…

  15. Predicting Intraindividual Changes in Teacher Burnout: The Role of Perceived School Environment and Motivational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline; Austin, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study proposes and tests a motivational model of intraindividual changes in teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment). Participants were 806 French-Canadian teachers in public elementary and high schools. Results show that changes in teachers' perceptions…

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of the mechanisms that enable migrating cells to sustain motility upon changes in matrix environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozluoglu, Melda; Mao, Yanlan; Bates, Paul A; Sahai, Erik

    2015-05-06

    Cells can move through extracellular environments with varying geometries and adhesive properties. Adaptation to these differences is achieved by switching between different modes of motility, including lamellipod-driven and blebbing motility. Further, cells can modulate their level of adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) depending on both the level of force applied to the adhesions and cell intrinsic biochemical properties. We have constructed a computational model of cell motility to investigate how motile cells transition between extracellular environments with varying surface continuity, confinement and adhesion. Changes in migration strategy are an emergent property of cells as the ECM geometry and adhesion changes. The transition into confined environments with discontinuous ECM fibres is sufficient to induce shifts from lamellipod-based to blebbing motility, while changes in confinement alone within a continuous geometry are not. The geometry of the ECM facilitates plasticity, by inducing shifts where the cell has high marginal gain from a mode change, and conserving persistency where the cell can continue movement regardless of the motility mode. This regulation of cell motility is independent of global changes in cytoskeletal properties, but requires locally higher linkage between the actin network and the plasma membrane at the cell rear, and changes in internal cell pressure. In addition to matrix geometry, we consider how cells might transition between ECM of different adhesiveness. We find that this requires positive feedback between the forces cells apply on the adhesion points, and the strength of the cell-ECM adhesions on those sites. This positive feedback leads to the emergence of a small number of highly adhesive cores, similar to focal adhesions. While the range of ECM adhesion levels the cell can invade is expanded with this feedback mechanism; the velocities are lowered for conditions where the positive feedback is not vital. Thus

  17. Cost–benefit analysis of the mechanisms that enable migrating cells to sustain motility upon changes in matrix environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozluoglu, Melda; Mao, Yanlan; Bates, Paul A.; Sahai, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Cells can move through extracellular environments with varying geometries and adhesive properties. Adaptation to these differences is achieved by switching between different modes of motility, including lamellipod-driven and blebbing motility. Further, cells can modulate their level of adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) depending on both the level of force applied to the adhesions and cell intrinsic biochemical properties. We have constructed a computational model of cell motility to investigate how motile cells transition between extracellular environments with varying surface continuity, confinement and adhesion. Changes in migration strategy are an emergent property of cells as the ECM geometry and adhesion changes. The transition into confined environments with discontinuous ECM fibres is sufficient to induce shifts from lamellipod-based to blebbing motility, while changes in confinement alone within a continuous geometry are not. The geometry of the ECM facilitates plasticity, by inducing shifts where the cell has high marginal gain from a mode change, and conserving persistency where the cell can continue movement regardless of the motility mode. This regulation of cell motility is independent of global changes in cytoskeletal properties, but requires locally higher linkage between the actin network and the plasma membrane at the cell rear, and changes in internal cell pressure. In addition to matrix geometry, we consider how cells might transition between ECM of different adhesiveness. We find that this requires positive feedback between the forces cells apply on the adhesion points, and the strength of the cell–ECM adhesions on those sites. This positive feedback leads to the emergence of a small number of highly adhesive cores, similar to focal adhesions. While the range of ECM adhesion levels the cell can invade is expanded with this feedback mechanism; the velocities are lowered for conditions where the positive feedback is not vital. Thus

  18. An Exploration of Gardens in Maycoba, Mexico: Change in the Environment of a Population Genetically Prone to Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begay, R Cruz; Chaudhari, Lisa S; Esparza-Romero, Julian; Romero, Rene Urquidez; Schulz, Leslie O

    2011-03-01

    Gardens are an important part of the environment as they play multiple roles and are central to the lifestyle and economy of many communities. The investigators use qualitative methods to explore patterns and perceptions about changes in gardening and cultivation in the community of Maycoba, Mexico. Maycoba is home to a large community of Pima Indians, an Indigenous population genetically prone to diabetes. Pima Indians living in the United States have been shown to have an extremely high prevalence of diabetes, but the genetically comparable Pimas in Maycoba, Mexico, were found to have little diabetes in the early 1990s. The authors examine home gardens and other cultivation in the area as an element of a changing environment and lifestyle during the past 15 years. Methods include interviews and focus groups. Preliminary findings are presented in this paper.

  19. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression in brain is affected by age but not by hormones or metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenjirou; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2006-04-07

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that regulates the expression of several genes involved in cellular fatty acid synthesis in the peripheral tissues, including liver. Although SREBP-1 is expressed in brain, little is known about its function. The aim of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat brain under various nutritional and hormonal conditions. In genetically obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, expression of SREBP-1 mRNA was greater in liver than in hypothalamus or cerebrum compared to the lean littermates of these rats. Fasting for 45 h and refeeding for 3 h did not affect expression in brains of Wistar rats of SREBP-1 mRNA or the mRNAs of lipogenic enzymes that are targets of SREBP-1, i.e., fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Infusion of 2.0 mIU insulin or 3.0 microg leptin into the third cerebroventricle did not affect SREBP-1 mRNA expression in either hypothalamus or cerebrum. SREBP-1 mRNA expression in brains of transgenic mice that overexpressed leptin did not differ from that of wild-type mice. However, we observed a unique age-related alteration in SREBP-1 mRNA expression in brains of Sprague-Dawley rats. Specifically, SREBP-1 mRNA expression increased between 1 and 20 months of age, while there was no such change in the expression of FAS or ACC. This raises the possibility that increased SREBP-1 expression secondary to aging-related decline of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) might compensate for the reduction of FAS expression in brain. These findings suggest that the expression of SREBP-1 and downstream lipogenic enzymes in brain is probably not regulated by peripheral nutritional conditions or humoral factors. Aging-related changes in SREBP-1 mRNA expression may be involved in developmental changes in brain lipid metabolism.

  20. Impact of hydroelectric projects on river environment: Analysis of water quality changes in Ningxia Reach of Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Dongpo; Lu Ruili; Song Yongjun; Yan Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between hydroelectric projects and the river environment is analyzed. Recently, the large-scale regulation of runoff by large hydroelectric projects in the Ningxia Reach of the Yellow River has altered natural runoff processes, causing an increase in the probability of low discharge and an overall adjustment of riverbed evolution and river characteristics. During low-flow years, the combined effects of these two changes can weaken the self-purification capacity...