WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing regulatory environment

  1. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  2. Evolution of regulatory networks towards adaptability and stability in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Diverse biological networks exhibit universal features distinguished from those of random networks, calling much attention to their origins and implications. Here we propose a minimal evolution model of Boolean regulatory networks, which evolve by selectively rewiring links towards enhancing adaptability to a changing environment and stability against dynamical perturbations. We find that sparse and heterogeneous connectivity patterns emerge, which show qualitative agreement with real transcriptional regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The characteristic scaling behavior of stability reflects the balance between robustness and flexibility. The scaling of fluctuation in the perturbation spread shows a dynamic crossover, which is analyzed by investigating separately the stochasticity of internal dynamics and the network structure differences depending on the evolution pathways. Our study delineates how the ambivalent pressure of evolution shapes biological networks, which can be helpful for studying general complex systems interacting with environments.

  3. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a 60Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille, IRSN); 18

  4. Transforming public utility commissions in the new regulatory environment: Some issues and ideas for managing change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Davis, V.W.; Burns, R.E.; Jones, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    In the face of sweeping changes in utility markets and regulatory practices, public utility commissions are being forced to change in fundamental ways--to substantially transform themselves rather than to make only incremental changes in their operations. Managing this process of radical change is complicated by the fact that for the foreseeable future some portions of utility markets (e.g., water utilities) will function much as they have before. Some envision commissions in the future that are more externally focussed, that rely more on dispute resolution than adjudicatory proceedings, that concentrate on identifying and understanding competitive markets, that are more automated, and that are more likely to question old assumptions and definitions. This report identifies the considerations commissions might apply for identifying what mix of skills or fields of experise should compromise the technical staff. Factors are also identified which point towards a sectoral arrangement of staff and those factors which point toward a functional approach.

  5. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    used to investigate the effects of the various solar generation scenarios given emissions projections that account for changing regulatory environment, economic and population growth, and technological change. The results will help to quantify the potential air quality benefits of promotion of solar electricity generation in regions containing high penetration of coal-fired power generation. Note current national solar incentives that are based only on solar generation capacity. Further investigation of changes to regional climate due to emission reductions of aerosols and relevant precursors will provide insight into the environmental effects that may occur if solar power generation becomes widespread.

  6. Regulatory challenges in today's changing economy - adapting SKI to the new environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden there are 11 operating reactors contributing to about half of electricity demands. The installed capacity is about 10 GW electricity. Challenges facing nuclear safety are economic pressure on utilities due to deregulation, ageing reactors and final disposal of nuclear waste. European integration, enlargement of the European Union and the national energy policy are other challenges. The last one is creating uncertainty for the future of nuclear power in the country. Moreover, there is an increased demand from stakeholders of an efficient, open and transparent regulatory body. A nuclear accident must not happen - nuclear waste must be taken care of safely - nuclear material must be controlled. These are the overriding driving forces behind SKI's mission. SKI is the Swedish nuclear safety regulator employing some 110 persons. In my contribution I will develop some aspects of the new safety challenges, discuss how they manifest themselves and outline SKI's regulatory strategy. SKI continues to act in order to make sure nuclear safety is not compromised through the maintenance of a strong national safety regulator with an active international program. (author)

  7. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  8. Orphan drugs: the regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pedro

    2013-02-01

    The definition of a rare disease is not universal and depends on the legislation and policies adopted by each region or country. The main objective of this article is to describe and discuss the legal framework and the regulatory environment of orphan drugs worldwide. Some reflections and discussions on the need for specific orphan drug legislation or policies are described at length. Furthermore, some aspects of the history of each region in respect of the orphan drug legislation evolution are outlined. This article describes and compares the orphan drug legislation or policies of the following countries or regions: United Sates of America (US), European Union (EU), Japan, Australia, Singapore, Taiwan and Canada. The incentives described in the orphan drug legislations or policies, the criteria for designation of orphan status and the authorisation process of an orphan drug are also described and compared. The legislations and policies are to some extent similar but not the same. It is important to understand the main differences among all available legislative systems to improve the international collaboration in the field of orphan drugs and rare diseases.

  9. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  10. Nuclear reactor decommissioning: an analysis of the regulatory environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next several decades, the electric utility industry will be faced withthe retirement of 50,000 megawatts (mW) of nuclear capacity. Responsibility for the financial and technical burdens this activity entails has been delegated to the utilities operating the reactors. However, the operators will have to perform the tasks of reactor decommissioning within the regulatory environment dictated by federal, state and local regulations. The purpose of this study was to highlight some of the current and likely trends in regulations and regulatory practices that will significantly affect the costs, technical alternatives and financing schemes encountered by the electric utilities and their customers. To identify significant trends and practices among regulatory bodies and utilities, a reviw of these factors was undertaken at various levels in the regulatory hierarchy. The technical policies were examined in reference to their treatment of allowed technical modes, restoration of the plant site including any specific recognition of the residual radioactivity levels, and planning requirements. The financial policies were examined for specification of acceptable financing arrangements, mechanisms which adjust for changes in the important parameters used to establish the fund, tax and rate-base treatments of the payments to and earnings on the fund, and whether or not escalation and/or discounting were considered in the estimates of decommissioning costs. The attitudes of regulators toward financial risk, the tax treatment of the decommissioning fund, and the time distribution of the technical mode were found to have the greatest effect on the discounted revenue requirements. Under plausible assumptions, the cost of a highly restricted environment is about seven times that of the minimum revenue requirement environment for the plants that must be decommissioned in the next three decades

  11. Responding to the changing regulatory scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, P.

    1995-12-31

    The regulatory approach of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is discussed in this paper. Three areas receive emphasis: (1) the changing relations between the US EPA and the states, (2) the new emphasis on pollution prevention techniques, and (3) a new environmental amnesty project. Budgetary considerations, performance partnerships, and nonregulatory compliance assistance are briefly outlined in relation to these topics. Results of the environmental amnesty program for small business, called Clean Break, are briefly reported.

  12. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  13. Regulatory Models and the Environment: Practice, Pitfalls, and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, K. John; Graham, Judith A.; McKone, Thomas; Whipple, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Computational models support environmental regulatory activities by providing the regulator an ability to evaluate available knowledge, assess alternative regulations, and provide a framework to assess compliance. But all models face inherent uncertainties, because human and natural systems are always more complex and heterogeneous than can be captured in a model. Here we provide a summary discussion of the activities, findings, and recommendations of the National Research Council's Committee on Regulatory Environmental Models, a committee funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance on the use of computational models in the regulatory process. Modeling is a difficult enterprise even outside of the potentially adversarial regulatory environment. The demands grow when the regulatory requirements for accountability, transparency, public accessibility, and technical rigor are added to the challenges. Moreover, models cannot be validated (declared true) but instead should be evaluated with regard to their suitability as tools to address a specific question. The committee concluded that these characteristics make evaluation of a regulatory model more complex than simply comparing measurement data with model results. Evaluation also must balance the need for a model to be accurate with the need for a model to be reproducible, transparent, and useful for the regulatory decision at hand. Meeting these needs requires model evaluation to be applied over the"life cycle" of a regulatory model with an approach that includes different forms of peer review, uncertainty analysis, and extrapolation methods than for non-regulatory models.

  14. The local environmental regulatory regime in China: changes in pro-environment orientation, institutional capacity, and external political support in Guangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Francesch-Huidobro; Carlos Wing-Hung Lo; Shui-Yan Tang

    2012-01-01

    In the first decade of this millennium China has demonstrated a stronger commitment to environmental protection. Yet, there remains a significant gap between environmental laws and regulations and the quality of the environment. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework for analysis that we apply to investigate the factors that account for this gap in implementation. We analyse the results of surveys conducted in 2000 and 2006 and interviews carried out in 2006 and 2007 in eleven juri...

  15. Nuclear reactor decommissioning: an analysis of the regulatory environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to highlight some of the current and likely regulations that will significantly affect the costs, technical alternatives and financing schemes for reactor decommissioning encountered by electric utilities and their customers. The paper includes a general review of the decommissioning literature, as well as information on specific regulations at the federal, state, and utility levels. Available estimated costs for the decommissioning of individual reactors are also presented. Finally, classification of the specific policies into common trends and practices among the various regulatory bodies is used to examine more general regulatory environments and their potential financial implications

  16. Favorable genomic environments for cis-regulatory evolution: A novel theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeso, Ignacio; Tena, Juan J

    2016-09-01

    Cis-regulatory changes are arguably the primary evolutionary source of animal morphological diversity. With the recent explosion of genome-wide comparisons of the cis-regulatory content in different animal species is now possible to infer general principles underlying enhancer evolution. However, these studies have also revealed numerous discrepancies and paradoxes, suggesting that the mechanistic causes and modes of cis-regulatory evolution are still not well understood and are probably much more complex than generally appreciated. Here, we argue that the mutational mechanisms and genomic regions generating new regulatory activities must comply with the constraints imposed by the molecular properties of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and the organizational features of long-range chromatin interactions. Accordingly, we propose a new integrative evolutionary framework for cis-regulatory evolution based on two major premises for the origin of novel enhancer activity: (i) an accessible chromatin environment and (ii) compatibility with the 3D structure and interactions of pre-existing CREs. Mechanisms and DNA sequences not fulfilling these premises, will be less likely to have a measurable impact on gene expression and as such, will have a minor contribution to the evolution of gene regulation. Finally, we discuss current comparative cis-regulatory data under the light of this new evolutionary model, and propose that the two most prominent mechanisms for the evolution of cis-regulatory changes are the overprinting of ancestral CREs and the exaptation of transposable elements.

  17. Ionizing radiation sources: very diversified means, multiple applications and a changing regulatory environment. Conference proceedings; Les sources de rayonnements ionisants: des moyens tres diversifies, des applications multiples et une reglementation en evolution. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about ionizing radiation source means, applications and regulatory environment. Twenty eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Overview of sources - some quantitative data from the national inventory of ionizing radiation sources (Yann Billarand, IRSN); 2 - Overview of sources (Jerome Fradin, ASN); 3 - Regulatory framework (Sylvie Rodde, ASN); 4 - Alternatives to Iridium radiography - the case of pressure devices at the manufacturing stage (Henri Walaszek, Cetim; Bruno Kowalski, Welding Institute); 5 - Dosimetric stakes of medical scanner examinations (Jean-Louis Greffe, Charleroi hospital of Medical University); 6 - The removal of ionic smoke detectors (Bruno Charpentier, ASN); 7 - Joint-activity and reciprocal liabilities - Organisation of labour risk prevention in case of companies joint-activity (Paulo Pinto, DGT); 8 - Consideration of gamma-graphic testing in the organization of a unit outage activities (Jean-Gabriel Leonard, EDF); 9 - Radiological risk control at a closed and independent work field (Stephane Sartelet, Areva); 10 - Incidents and accidents status and typology (Pascale Scanff, IRSN); 11 - Regional overview of radiation protection significant events (Philippe Menechal, ASN); 12 - Incident leading to a tritium contamination in and urban area - consequences and experience feedback (Laurence Fusil, CEA); 13 - Experience feedback - loss of sealing of a calibration source (Philippe Mougnard, Areva); 14 - Blocking incident of a {sup 60}Co source (Bruno Delille, Salvarem); 15 - Triggering of gantry's alarm: status of findings (Philippe Prat, Syctom); 16 - Non-medical electric devices: regulatory changes (Sophie Dagois, IRSN; Jerome Fradin, ASN); 17 - Evaluation of the dose equivalent rate in pulsed fields: method proposed by the IRSN and implementation test (Laurent Donadille

  18. Evolution in a changing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baronchelli

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model for genetic adaptation to a changing environment, describing a fitness landscape characterized by two maxima. One is associated with "specialist" individuals that are adapted to the environment; this maximum moves over time as the environment changes. The other maximum is static, and represents "generalist" individuals not affected by environmental changes. The rest of the landscape is occupied by "maladapted" individuals. Our analysis considers the evolution of these three subpopulations. Our main result is that, in presence of a sufficiently stable environmental feature, as in the case of an unchanging aspect of a physical habitat, specialists can dominate the population. By contrast, rapidly changing environmental features, such as language or cultural habits, are a moving target for the genes; here, generalists dominate, because the best evolutionary strategy is to adopt neutral alleles not specialized for any specific environment. The model we propose is based on simple assumptions about evolutionary dynamics and describes all possible scenarios in a non-trivial phase diagram. The approach provides a general framework to address such fundamental issues as the Baldwin effect, the biological basis for language, or the ecological consequences of a rapid climate change.

  19. Electricity distribution networks: Changing regulatory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambini, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed generation and smart grid technologies requires substantial investments. A study proposes an innovative approach that combines four regulatory tools to provide economic incentives for distribution system operators to facilitate these innovative practices.

  20. The role of learning environment on high school chemistry students' motivation and self-regulatory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective self-regulatory learning strategies, with the goal of helping students adapt to future learning situations and become life-long learners. This study identifies key features that may characterize these "powerful learning environments", which I term "high self-regulating learning environments" for ease of discussion, and examine the environment's role on students' motivation and self-regulatory processes. Using direct observation, surveys, and formal and informal interviews, I identified perceptions, motivations, and self-regulatory strategies of 67 students in my high school chemistry classes as they completed academic tasks in both high and low self-regulating learning environments. With social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, I then examined how students' beliefs and processes changed after they moved from low to a high self-regulating learning environment. Analyses revealed that key features such as task meaning, utility, complexity, and control appeared to play a role in promoting positive changes in students' motivation and self-regulation. As embedded cases, I also included four students identified as high self-regulating, and four students identified as low self-regulating to examine whether the key features of high and low self-regulating learning environments played a similar role in both groups. Analysis of findings indicates that key features did play a significant role in promoting positive changes in both groups, with high self-regulating students' motivation and self-regulatory strategies generally remaining higher than the low self-regulating students; this was the case in both environments. Findings

  1. Regulatory aspects of management of change - Summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear licensees are increasingly required to adapt to a more challenging commercial environment as moves to de-regulate electricity markets gather pace. One of the costs that is often perceived as being amenable to control is staffing, and hence there is significant exploration of new strategies for managing staffing levels. This report presents the outputs from a Workshop convened by the Special Experts' Group in Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) of the Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and organised by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). The purpose of the workshop was to facilitate the exchange of views on, and approaches towards, the regulation of organisational change. The major risks associated with organisational change were discussed, and a range of regulatory challenges was identified for detailed discussion. There was agreement that the licensee must retain the responsibility to manage its own business but that organisational issues should be subject to regulatory scrutiny if they have the potential to impact on safety. The regulator should be able to demonstrate an approach to oversight of organisational change which is valid, transparent and consistent, and should inform the licensee of its expectations in terms of information supplied, communication and timing. The workshop confirmed that there is significant agreement between regulators concerning the need for licensees to put in place arrangements to manage organisational change. There was also broad consensus on what should constitute the elements of a licensee's management of change process. Differing views were evident about the balance between regulatory scrutiny of the process, as opposed to the outcomes of change, which largely represents differing regulatory regimes and philosophies. However, it was acknowledged that the regulator must be capable of taking an early view of the adequacy of proposed changes, rather than monitoring outcomes alone

  2. Developing consensus in response to regulatory change: a survival strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years now, the nuclear industry has implemented basic regulatory guides and pursued evolving incremental changes by de facto execution of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission codes or in anticipation of them. The purpose of this paper is to describe a consensus-building process recently employed by industry representatives to respond to changes to 10CFR55, Operator's Licenses and Conforming Amendment. This process resulted from the necessity for industry stakeholders to evaluate the impact of pending regulatory change. It also highlighted the need for more dialogue in the industry and the potential of expanding links with academic representatives. In addition, the paper reports participants; documentation of unnecessary regulatory constraint and vagueness of new terminology and requirements

  3. Changes in the Alpine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  4. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  5. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  6. Regulatory changes raise troubling questions for genomic testing

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Barbara J; Dorschner, Michael O.; Burke, Wylie; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2014-01-01

    By 6 October 2014, many laboratories in the United States must begin honoring new individual data access rights created by recent changes to federal privacy and laboratory regulations. These access rights are more expansive than has been widely understood and pose complex challenges for genomic testing laboratories. This article analyzes regulatory texts and guidances to explore which laboratories are affected. It offers the first published analysis of which parts of the vast trove of data ge...

  7. Inferring slowly-changing dynamic gene-regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Ernst C; Abbruzzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic gene-regulatory networks are complex since the interaction patterns between their components mean that it is impossible to study parts of the network in separation. This holistic character of gene-regulatory networks poses a real challenge to any type of modelling. Graphical models are a class of models that connect the network with a conditional independence relationships between random variables. By interpreting these random variables as gene activities and the conditional independence relationships as functional non-relatedness, graphical models have been used to describe gene-regulatory networks. Whereas the literature has been focused on static networks, most time-course experiments are designed in order to tease out temporal changes in the underlying network. It is typically reasonable to assume that changes in genomic networks are few, because biological systems tend to be stable. We introduce a new model for estimating slow changes in dynamic gene-regulatory networks, which is suitable for high-dimensional data, e.g. time-course microarray data. Our aim is to estimate a dynamically changing genomic network based on temporal activity measurements of the genes in the network. Our method is based on the penalized likelihood with l1-norm, that penalizes conditional dependencies between genes as well as differences between conditional independence elements across time points. We also present a heuristic search strategy to find optimal tuning parameters. We re-write the penalized maximum likelihood problem into a standard convex optimization problem subject to linear equality constraints. We show that our method performs well in simulation studies. Finally, we apply the proposed model to a time-course T-cell dataset.

  8. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

  9. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  10. MANAGEMENT AND CHANGES IN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Jovanoviæ

    2015-01-01

    This study emphasizes the need for managers to promptly and effectively respond to changing business environment. Also, special review on limiting factors in the activities of managers and limiting their ability to anticipate and respond to the challenges of change in the business environment. This study also suggests some ways in which managers and organizations might improve own readiness and flexibility which is needed to respond promptly to business environmental changes. Different types ...

  11. Bulgaria's Policy for Regulatory Reform in the European Union : Converging with Europe's Best Regulatory Environments

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaria's entry into the EU Single Market raises new opportunities and new risks for the national economy. As shown in the rest of Europe, a program of regulatory reform offers an effective strategy for managing the risks of more intense competition while preparing Bulgarian companies to prosper within the largest economy in the world. Bulgaria has already made significant progress in reg...

  12. Changing business environment: implications for farming

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The natural, technological, economic, political and social environment in which farmers farm constantly changes. History has lessons about change in agriculture and about farmers coping with change, though the future is unknowable and thus always surprising. The implication for farm operation is to prepare, do not predict.

  13. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  14. Changes in Cis-regulatory Elements during Morphological Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lee Paul

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available How have animals evolved new body designs (morphological evolution? This requires explanations both for simple morphological changes, such as differences in pigmentation and hair patterns between different Drosophila populations and species, and also for more complex changes, such as differences in the forelimbs of mice and bats, and the necks of amphibians and reptiles. The genetic changes and pathways involved in these evolutionary steps require identification. Many, though not all, of these events occur by changes in cis-regulatory (enhancer elements within developmental genes. Enhancers are modular, each affecting expression in only one or a few tissues. Therefore it is possible to add, remove or alter an enhancer without producing changes in multiple tissues, and thereby avoid widespread (pleiotropic deleterious effects. Ideally, for a given step in morphological evolution it is necessary to identify (i the change in phenotype, (ii the changes in gene expression, (iii the DNA region, enhancer or otherwise, affected, (iv the mutation involved, (v the nature of the transcription or other factors that bind to this site. In practice these data are incomplete for most of the published studies upon morphological evolution. Here, the investigations are categorized according to how far these analyses have proceeded.

  15. Risk assessment: A regulatory strategy for stimulating working environment activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    2001-01-01

    modify this picture by showing how attention has been focussed on physical working environment problems whilst wider psycho-social problems have been ignored. The paper claims there is no evidence from either the quantitative or the qualitative studies that workplace assessment - even though positively...

  16. Regulatory assessment of risk to the environment: Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Health, Safety and Environment' is a familiar catchphrase in today's government departments, universities and industry. This catchphrase is most often associated with terms such as 'risk assessment', 'risk management' and 'hazard identification'. Such grouping demonstrates the underlying assumption that 'risk(s)' to the environment can be dealt with, and are being dealt with, using the same processes as those used for evaluating health and safety risks. This equally applies when the hazard is radiation. Management of risk to the environment is often carried out within a framework of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) incorporating Risk Assessment (RA) processes. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and Risk Management Systems (RMS) also provide frameworks which incorporate RA processes. These systems are often integrated with existing quality and safety systems. The steps in these frameworks have been explained and comparisons have been drawn of how an EIA process and Environmental Management System compare with Environmental Risk Management processes. These comparisons demonstrate the common elements of each framework. The Australian Standard for Risk Management (AS/NZS 4360:1999) describes the risk management process in terms of establishing a risk context, identification, analysis, evaluation and treatment of risks. The application of risk management procedures as described in the Australian Standard for Risk Management have been discussed in relation to how they might apply to a simple case scenario of a historical landfill containing radioactive waste. (author)

  17. 77 FR 13258 - Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the Solicitation of Public Comment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Biotechnology Regulatory Services; Changes Regarding the.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. T. Clint Nesbitt, Chief of Staff, Biotechnology Regulatory...://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/pet_proc_imp.shtml . Current Comment Process for Petitions...

  18. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  19. Sex and adaptation in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, D; Peck, J R

    1999-01-01

    In this study we consider a mathematical model of a sexual population that lives in a changing environment. We find that a low rate of environmental change can produce a very large increase in genetic variability. This may help to explain the high levels of heritability observed in many natural populations. We also study asexuality and find that a modest rate of environmental change can be very damaging to an asexual population, while leaving a sexual population virtually unscathed. Furthermore, in a changing environment, the advantages of sexuality over asexuality can be much greater than suggested by most previous studies. Our analysis applies in the case of very large populations, where stochastic forces may be neglected. PMID:10511577

  20. Changes of Regulatory T Cells in Graves' Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongxiang; ZHAO Shi; TANG Xiaoqiong; LI Jingyuan

    2006-01-01

    The immune mechanism of Graves' diseases (GD) and the roles of regulator T cells were investigated. In 32 patients with GD (GD group) and 20 healthy volunteers (control group), flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of CD4+CD25+ cells, MACS to isolate CD4+ CD25+ cells,RT-PCR to assay the expression of FOXP3, and ELISA to test the level of IL-10, respectively. It was found that there was no significant change in the proportion of CD4+CD25+ T cells between GD group and control group (P>0.05), while secretion of IL-10 and expression of FOXP3 in GD group were lower than control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, though the proportion of regulatory T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes in the patients with GD, the functions of them were significantly weakened, which might be a pathogenic factor in GD.

  1. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  2. Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

  3. Cognitive radio: aligning the regulatory environment with the technology, a business case perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, P.D.C.; Lemstra, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to use the perspective of the business case to deal with the alignment between the introduction of new technology and the regulatory environment. Although this perspective can be used more generally this paper deals with this perspective in the context of the alignment between th

  4. INTELLIGENT ADAPTIVE LEARNING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Valentis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop ever more intelligent and autonomous systems, it is necessary to make them self-learning, since it is impossible to include in their program everything they may encounter during their life-cycle. In this research work, we aim at answering the following: if a system’s environment is modified, how could the system respond to it quickly and appropriately enough? We achieve it by using reinforcement learning to allow the system to rate its decisions, then by developing adaptive learning algorithms for gain and loss rewards. The algorithms include probabilities’ analysis providing to the system ability to adapt its knowledge through time and to respond to a changing environment. Simulations are made for a robot finding its exit in a labyrinth. Results show that reinforcement and adaptive learnings can have many useful applications by offering to a system a reliable possibility of evolution within complex environments in specific situations.

  5. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    . It is suggested that changes in system sensitivity pose a great challenge to the ability of long-term forecasting and additional work on incorporation of more complex features coupled with climate scenarios is needed (Evans et al 2011). Das et al used a high... dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems Science 321 926–9 Evans M A et al 2011 Forecasting hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico: model accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to ecosystem change Environ. Res. Lett. 6 015001 Forrest D...

  6. Inferring slowly-changing dynamic gene-regulatory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Ernst C.; Abbruzzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic gene-regulatory networks are complex since the interaction patterns between their components mean that it is impossible to study parts of the network in separation. This holistic character of gene-regulatory networks poses a real challenge to any type of modelling. Graphical models are a cla

  7. Changing emphasis at the NRC's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the Office of Research is to ensure availability of sound technical information for timely decision making in support of the NRC's safety mission. The Office of Research is changing some of its emphasis to better meet the expected needs of the NRC's regulatory offices. Long-standing programs in support of operating reactors are nearing completion. These programs include plant aging and severe accident research for currently operating plants. This meeting will also address the new challenges faced by the NRC in its review of the advanced light water and non-light water reactors. As plant aging and severe accident research programs are nearing completion, the research activities are coming to focus on the emerging technologies, for example, digital instrumentation and control systems, both as replacement equipment for operating plants and as the technology of choice and necessity for the advanced reactors. Necessity, because analog equipment is becoming obsolete. Other examples include the use of new materials in operating plants, human factors considerations in the design and operation of the advanced plants, thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the advanced reactors, and new construction techniques

  8. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926–9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655–8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). (synthesis and review)

  9. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  10. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  11. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands......, type of work position and seniority). RESULTS: Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality...

  12. EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: A CASE STUDY OF AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-01-01

    The impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows has been analyzed by many recent studies. Corruption can either reduce FDI as a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs or facilitate FDI as a helping hand by "greasing" the wheels of commerce in the presence of a weak regulatory environment. Using the Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) methodology on 1995- 2011 panel data from 53 African countries, this study finds that corruption facilitates FDI in...

  13. Seabed change detection in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Sternlicht, Daniel D.

    2011-06-01

    Automatic Change Detection (ACD) compares new and stored terrain images for alerting to changes occurring over time. These techniques, long used in airborne radar, are just beginning to be applied to sidescan sonar. Under the right conditions ACD by image correlation-comparing multi-temporal image data at the pixel or parcel level-can be used to detect new objects on the seafloor. Synthetic aperture sonars (SAS)-coherent sensors that produce fine-scale, range-independent resolution seafloor images-are well suited for this approach; however, dynamic seabed environments can introduce "clutter" to the process. This paper explores an ACD method that uses salience mapping in a global-to-local analysis architecture. In this method, termed Temporally Invariant Saliency (TIS), variance ratios of median-filtered repeat-pass images are used to detect new objects, while deemphasizing modest environmental or radiometric-induced changes in the background. Successful tests with repeat-pass data from two SAS systems mounted on autonomous undersea vehicles (AUV) demonstrate the feasibility of the technique.

  14. An efficient hybrid planner in changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbehenn, M.; Hutchinson, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Chen, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new hybrid motion planner than is capable of exploiting previous planning episodes when confronted with new planning problems. Our approach is applicable when several (similar) problems are successively posed for the same static environment, or when the environment changes incrementally between planning episodes. At the heart of our system lie two low-level motion planners: a fast, but incomplete planner (which we call LOCAL), and a computationally costly (possibly resolution) complete planner (which we call GLOBAL). When a new planning problem is presented to our planner, a meta-level planner (which we call MANAGER) decomposes the problem into segments that are amenable to solution by LOCAL. This decomposition is made by exploiting a task graph, in which successful planning episodes have been recorded. In cases where the decomposition fails, GLOBAL is invoked. The key to our planner`s success is a novel representation of solution trajectories, in which segments of collision-free paths are associated with the boundary of nearby obstacles.

  15. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  16. Receptors rather than signals change in expression in four physiological regulatory networks during evolutionary divergence in threespine stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Poi, Carole; Bélanger, Dominic; Amyot, Marc; Rogers, Sean; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying behavioural evolution following colonization of novel environments are largely unknown. Molecules that interact to control equilibrium within an organism form physiological regulatory networks. It is essential to determine whether particular components of physiological regulatory networks evolve or if the network as a whole is affected in populations diverging in behavioural responses, as this may affect the nature, amplitude and number of impacted traits. We studied the regulation of four physiological regulatory networks in freshwater and marine populations of threespine stickleback raised in a common environment, which were previously characterized as showing evolutionary divergence in behaviour and stress reactivity. We measured nineteen components of these networks (ligands and receptors) using mRNA and monoamine levels in the brain, pituitary and interrenal gland, as well as hormone levels. Freshwater fish showed higher expression in the brain of adrenergic (adrb2a), serotonergic (htr2a) and dopaminergic (DRD2) receptors, but lower expression of the htr2b receptor. Freshwater fish also showed higher expression of the mc2r receptor of the glucocorticoid axis in the interrenals. Collectively, our results suggest that the inheritance of the regulation of these networks may be implicated in the evolution of behaviour and stress reactivity in association with population divergence. Our results also suggest that evolutionary change in freshwater threespine stickleback may be more associated with the expression of specific receptors rather than with global changes of all the measured constituents of the physiological regulatory networks. PMID:27146328

  17. Natural gas -- The changing competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owners and senior managers don't have to be reminded that the business is getting tougher. Prices aren't behaving as expected, and they are becoming more volatile. Costs are increasing. The futures market is here to stay, not to mention swaps and options. FERC Order 636 is another complicating factor. Whether you are a producer, marketer, pipeline or an LDC, the structure of the market is changing. The answer to the following questions is quite often -- no: Is your company in a position to offer your customers the services they want? Is your company comfortable using hedges? Do you always know your level of risk? Can your company easily track daily positions and P/L and thoughtfully analyze the various business lines? While not all of the above concerns stem from increased price volatility, Order 636 and complexity resulting from the use of more sophisticated risk control instruments, many of them do. There's a cultural change occurring and companies that want to be market leaders must not just ''learn to live'' with this, but install a management process that thrives in this environment. Understanding the meaning of this goal is the focus of this paper

  18. Changing environments: Coping with diversity and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear industry representatives such as WANO and the OECD/NEA should develop a strategic plan to correct this issue. How regulatory authorities should be informed and/or responsible for approving significant organizational change in utilities should be considered by the IAEA and other nuclear organizations to provide consensus guidance in this area

  19. Evolving New Skeletal Traits by cis-Regulatory Changes in Bone Morphogenetic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indjeian, Vahan B; Kingman, Garrett A; Jones, Felicity C; Guenther, Catherine A; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Myers, Richard M; Kingsley, David M

    2016-01-14

    Changes in bone size and shape are defining features of many vertebrates. Here we use genetic crosses and comparative genomics to identify specific regulatory DNA alterations controlling skeletal evolution. Armor bone-size differences in sticklebacks map to a major effect locus overlapping BMP family member GDF6. Freshwater fish express more GDF6 due in part to a transposon insertion, and transgenic overexpression of GDF6 phenocopies evolutionary changes in armor-plate size. The human GDF6 locus also has undergone distinctive regulatory evolution, including complete loss of an enhancer that is otherwise highly conserved between chimps and other mammals. Functional tests show that the ancestral enhancer drives expression in hindlimbs but not forelimbs, in locations that have been specifically modified during the human transition to bipedalism. Both gain and loss of regulatory elements can localize BMP changes to specific anatomical locations, providing a flexible regulatory basis for evolving species-specific changes in skeletal form. PMID:26774823

  20. Nurse leaders' experiences of implementing regulatory changes in sexual health nursing practice in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Stevenson, Janine

    2013-05-01

    Most research about regulatory policy change concerning expanded nursing activities has emphasized advanced practice roles and acute care settings. This study is a contribution to the small pool of research concerned with regulatory policy implementation for nurses undertaking expanded nursing practice activities in a public health context. Using the regulatory changes in certified nursing practice in one Canadian province as our starting point, we investigated the experiences of nurse leaders in implementing this change. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive approach informed by tenets of complexity theory, we examined the experiences of 16 nurse leaders as situated within the larger public health care system in which nurses practice. Two interrelated themes, (a) preparing for certification and (b) the certification process, were identified to illustrate how competing and contrasting demands between health care and regulatory organizations created substantial barriers to policy change. Implications for health service delivery and future research are discussed.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria in a changing legislative environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feord, J.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, pr

  2. Operating the Advanced Test Reactor in today's economic and regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is the US Department of Energy's largest and most versatile test reactor. Base programs at ATR are planned well into the 21st century. The ATR and support facilities along with an overview of current programs will be reviewed, but the main focus of the presentation will be on the impact that today's economic and regulatory concerns have had on the operation of this test reactor. Today's economic and regulatory concerns have demanded more work be completed at lower cost while increasing the margin of safety. By the beginning of the 1990 s, federal budgets for research generally and particularly for nuclear research had decreased dramatically. Many national needs continued to require testing in the ATR; but demanded lower cost, increased efficiency, improved performance, and an increased margin of safety. At the same time budgets were decreasing, there was an increase in regulatory compliance activity. The new standards imposed higher margins of safety. The new era of greater openness and higher safety standards complemented research demands to work safer, smarter and more efficiently. Several changes were made at the ATR to meet the demands of the sponsors and public. Such changes included some workforce reductions, securing additional program sponsors, upgrading some facilities, dismantling other facilities, and implementing new safety programs. (author)

  3. Estimates of post-closure risk in regulatory decision making: environment agency issues and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency of England and Wales (the Agency) is responsible for the authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low-level radioactive waste at a disposal facility near the village of Drigg on the Cumbrian coast, in north-west England. In accordance with Government Policy, the Agency periodically reviews authorizations for the disposal of radioactive waste. The Agency intends to commence its next review of the Drigg authorization in 2003/4. To inform its decision making, the Agency required BNFL to submit new safety cases for the Drigg disposal facility in September 2002. These have been received from BNFL and made publicly available (via national public registers): - The Operational Environmental Safety Case considers the impacts of the facility on the environment and the public in the period whilst the site remains operational and under institutional control, which BNFL estimates might be 2150. - The Post-Closure Safety Case considers the long-term environmental impacts of the facility after 2150 and includes a Post-Closure Radiological Safety Assessment, which is a risk assessment. This paper deals with estimates of post-closure risk, it specifically excludes the operational phase and regulatory controls thereon. The paper summarises work undertaken by the Agency to consider potential regulatory actions against different levels of risk in relation to the risk target set out in the published regulatory guidance. The work was undertaken principally in preparation for review of BNFL's Drigg post-closure safety case and authorization. (authors)

  4. Mapping out the regulatory environment and its interaction with land and property markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances. (author)

  5. Mapping out the regulatory environment and its interaction with land and property markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how the regulatory environment created by planning and building regulations interacts with land and property markets. Since this regulatory environment operates as a form of intervention within property markets in general and the development process in particular, it is essential first to understand the nature, structure and operation of land and property markets. These are covered in the first section. The second section identifies the aims and components of the planning system and building regulations. From this basis, four broad types of policy intervention are reviewed in the third section. These cover policies that seek to shape, regulate or stimulate market activity, and those that aim to build state or market capacity to produce desired outcomes. The final section uses the private residential development process as a case study to explore the extent to which state intervention can influence producer-consumer relationships in one important market sector. The paper argues that effective intervention in land and property markets requires the creation of a broad range of policy tools and their appropriate deployment to suit particular market circumstances

  6. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  7. Changing environments: Coping with diversity and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not surprising that the nuclear community as we know it is becoming more globalized, given that nuclear power has its roots in international cooperation. One only has to go back to the early days, when just over 50 years ago the 'Atoms for Peace' programme was first announced at a plenary meeting of the United Nations General Assembly, to realize that nuclear power really was always a global community. In the years since 1953, we have witnessed the growth of the nuclear industry, which brought with it, among other things: competition between manufacturers from different countries with different design and operating philosophies; individual national cultures and regulatory practices and unique legal systems; and different safety and industrial standards and approaches to technology transfer. Today, the stagnation, or slowdown in construction programmes for nuclear facilities in many countries, combined with the rising costs of R and D, has provided new impetus for the nuclear community to return to a more global outlook. But this new global outlook must grapple with the diversity that grew out of the competition, the individual national cultures, and the unique legal requirements, as well as with the needs of national nuclear industries with different levels of maturity and means. This session will address the new challenges for governments, regulatory authorities, operators, nuclear suppliers, and contractors in facing these and other issues

  8. 78 FR 42991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ...), 78 FR 33876 (June 5, 2013). II. Description DTC filed the proposed rule change to modify its Rules... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; the Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change... Limits by Transaction July 12, 2013. I. Introduction On May 17, 2013, The Depository Trust Company...

  9. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID

  10. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use Oliver and Holzinger?s (2008) conceptual framework on the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercializa...

  11. The Changing Work Environment and Skills Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, June S.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the National Business Education Association's National Standards for Business Education and the Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States' Administrative Support Occupations Skills Standards. Discusses their use in preparing secondary and postsecondary students for the changing workplace. (SK)

  12. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  13. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.H.; Lehnert, L.S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted

  14. Transition Management in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Harold

    1978-01-01

    This case study of organizational change, with transition guidelines, describes how an organization development consultant helped surplus line managers to adjust to reassignments when company retrenchment caused reductions in the number of production workers. (MF)

  15. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Diane

    2013-01-01

    administration: Clinton (122.3 ± 36.4, Bush (29.5 ± 16.2 and Obama (41.7 ± 11.1. Conclusions Most regulatory letters released by FDA headquarters were related to marketing and advertising activities of pharmaceutical companies. The number of regulatory letters was highest during the second Clinton administration, diminished during the Bush administrations, and increased again during the Obama administration. A further assessment of the impact of changes in federal administration on the enforcement activities of the FDA is required.

  16. Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, F.; TEN NAPEL, J.; VISSCHER, J.; VAN SAMBEEK, F.

    2016-01-01

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems. Altho

  17. 17 CFR 240.19b-4 - Filings with respect to proposed rule changes by self-regulatory organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organizations. Preliminary Note: A self-regulatory organization also must refer to Form 19b-4 (17 CFR 249.819... paragraph (e), a self-regulatory organization shall submit Form 19b-4(e) (17 CFR 249.820) to the Commission... proposed rule changes by a self-regulatory organization submitted on Form 19b-4 (17 CFR...

  18. The Environment and Directed Technical Change

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Aghion, Philippe; Bursztyn, Leonardo; Hemous, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces endogenous and directed technical change in a growth model with environmental constraints. A unique final good is produced by combining inputs from two sectors. One of these sectors uses “dirty” machines and thus creates environmental degradation. Research can be directed to improving the technology of machines in either sector. We characterize dynamic tax policies that achieve sustainable growth or maximize intertemporal welfare. We show that: (i) in the ...

  19. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U; A. Brierley

    2014-01-01

    Funding: Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (proposal Nu 253407 (call reference: FP7- PEOPLE-2009-IIF). Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice ...

  20. The roles of regulatory focus and medical recommendation avatars' trustworthiness in virtual environment-based e-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the influence of regulatory focus and medical recommendation avatars' trustworthiness in avatar-based e-health within 3D virtual environments (VEs). Drawing on Higgins's regulatory focus theory and the existing literature on self-construal, a 2 x 2 (regulatory focus: promotion vs. prevention by interdependent self-construal: low vs. high) between-participants factorial design experiment tested the moderating role of health consumers' interdependent self-construal in determining the effects of regulatory focus in VE-based e-health. Results showed an interaction effect of regulatory focus and interdependent self-construal such that VE users with a dominant interdependent self-construal indicated greater issue familiarity and involvement when exposed to a prevention-focused e-health intervention than when exposed to a promotion-focused e-health intervention, whereas the effects of regulatory focus on issue familiarity and involvement among users low in interdependent self-construal demonstrated the opposite pattern. A path analysis further revealed that VE users' evaluation of a medical recommendation avatar's trustworthiness mediated the effects regulatory focus had on their perceived informational and educational values of the health messages. Theoretical contributions and practical implications for VE-based e-health applications are discussed.

  1. Improving the adaptability of simulated evolutionary swarm robots in dynamically changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yao

    Full Text Available One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN. An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store 'good behaviour' and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment.

  2. Robotic technology applications as a compliance enhancement/facilitation tool in a post-Fukushima regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject matter of the presentation is that of robotic technology applications as a regulatory compliance enhancement/facilitation tool in a post-Fukushima regulatory environment. The term post-Fukushima regulatory environment refers to the fact that all of the upgrade measures that have been issues through the different individual and collective safety review process are considered legally binding. In this regard it should be noted that the post-Fukushima regulatory environment has been shaped by intensive comprehensive nuclear safety review through mechanisms like the EU stress-test review and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in collaboration with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning nuclear installations on US soil. Further to this it should be noted that there has been strong collaboration between nuclear energy sector relevant organizations concerning the sharing of knowledge in relation to post-Fukushima safety upgrades on a global level through international conventions channels like the convention on nuclear safety at the extra-ordinary meeting that took place in August of this year.

  3. Packaging requirements under the new regulatory changes and their effects on the shippers quality control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published proposed changes to their current radioactive material transportation regulations (10 CFR Part 71) for comment in the Federal Register. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has also developed changes to their Hazardous Material Regulations dealing with radioactive material. These proposed regulations should soon be published for comment, also in the Federal Register. These regulatory changes are designed to bring the US in line with the international regulations published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Assuming that DOT adopts essentially IAEA regulations, a significant impact of these changes falls in the area of packaging used for the shipment of Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and the new proper shipping category of Surface Contaminated Objects. Since the majority of the shipments made by nuclear power facilities fall into this category, these changes will directly effect the operations of these facilities

  4. The changing winds of atmospheric environment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Changes in atmosphere policies over several decades are analysed. ► Direct regulation is less effective and been complemented by other instruments. ► Policy approaches are more complex and integrated and the scale of the issues has evolved. ► The role of stakeholders has grown and the corporate sector has assumed increased responsibility. ► Governance arrangements have become more complex, multilevel and polycentric. -- Abstract: Atmospheric environmental policies have changed considerably over the last several decades. Clearly the relative importance of the various issues has changed over half a century, for example from smoke, sulphur dioxide and photochemical smog being the top priorities to greenhouse gases being the major priority. The traditional policy instrument to control emissions to the atmosphere has been command and control regulation. In many countries this was successful in reducing emissions from point sources, the first generation issues, and to a lesser extent, emissions from mobile and area sources, the second generation issues, although challenges remain in many jurisdictions. However once the simpler, easier, cheaper and obvious targets had been at least partially controlled this form of regulation became less effective. It has been complemented by other instruments including economic instruments, self-regulation, voluntarism and information instruments to address more complex issues including climate change, a third generation issue. Policy approaches to atmospheric environmental issues have become more complex. Policies that directly focus on atmospheric issues have been partially replaced by more integrated approaches that consider multimedia (water, land, etc.) and sustainability issues. Pressures from stakeholders for inclusion, greater transparency and better communication have grown and non-government stakeholders have become increasingly important participants in governance. The scale of the issues has evolved

  5. The environment and directed technical change: comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the growth model with environmental constraints recently presented in (Acemoglu et al., 2011) which focuses on the redirection of technical change by climate policies with research subsidies and a carbon tax. First, Acemoglu et al.'s model and chosen parameters yield numerical results that do not support the conclusion that ambitious climate policies can be conducted 'without sacrificing (much or any) long-run growth'. Second, they select unrealistic key parameters for carbon sinks and elasticity of substitution. We find that more realistic parameters lead to very different results. Third, the model leads to an unrealistic conclusion when used to analyse endogenous growth, suggesting specification problems. (authors)

  6. Fostering Entrepreneurship in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is the cornerstone of a modern competitive economy. Because of the economic and social importance attributed to entrepreneurship, every country has adopted policies aiming to encourage and to support entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors. Despite the fact that the set of public policy measures is very similar across countries and regions, the outcomes are different. The differences can be observed not only in quantitative terms (i.e. number of newly established ventures, but also in qualitative terms (i.e. proportion of innovative firms, intensity of knowledge and technological level, degree of internationalization etc.. Indeed, entrepreneurship takes different forms ranging from an alternative to employment (self-employed to creation of innovative, competitive and fast growing enterprises. It is also recognized the corporate entrepreneurship, the social entrepreneurship and even the entrepreneurship in the public sector. Different forms of entrepreneurship have a different impact in terms of general progress. Scholars have shown that context is an important factor explaining the variability of entrepreneurship outcomes, calling for a better understanding of the business environment influence on the intensity and quality of the entrepreneurial activity.

  7. Response of Sphagna to the changing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During last decade, considerable interest has been focused to assess the influence of human activities on ecosystems. The increasing trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has been predicted to continue till the next century and the amount of nitrogen deposition in the northern hemisphere has increased markedly. Substantial interest has been focused on predicting how these changes will affect on plants. Most boreal mire ecosystems are dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum, the litter of which constitutes the main component in the peat deposits and is an important CO{sub 2} sink via peat formation. Since virtually nothing was known about the growth response of peat mosses to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and alerting changes in species composition were detected in the sensitive ombrotrophic mire vegetation under increased N deposition in central Europe, this study was established. Laboratory experiments focused on measurements of the patterns of growth, production and plant metabolism at increased CO{sub 2} and N deposition levels in peat moss species. Long term field experiments were established to study the growth response and spatial competition of two interacting Sphagnum species under the increased nitrogen deposition levels

  8. Controlling risk in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competitive pressures in the electric utility industry today demand an unprecedented focus on improving efficiency and cost effectiveness. Work processes and practices that, in some cases, have been in place for years are now being examined and changed in attempts to achieve better results. When such changes are made in nuclear plant work processes, however, the resulting impact on nuclear risk is a potential concern. Two types of risk must be considered: (a) the direct impact of new processes that might inadvertently introduce new safety concerns and (b) the indirect effects on safety due to worker morale and motivation. Work processes and practices at the GPU nuclear stations at Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island (TMI) were developed and put in place in the period following the TMI-2 accident. During this period, great emphasis was placed on installing work processes that attempted to avoid errors through a multiplicity of checks and overchecks. During 1991, GPUN senior management initiated a substantial effort to achieve major improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of key work processes, while maintaining and even enhancing nuclear safety

  9. Efficiency of complex production in changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levanon Erez Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell function necessitates the assemblage of proteins into complexes, a process which requires further regulation on top of the fairly understood mechanisms used to control the transcription and translation of a single protein. However, not much is known about how protein levels are controlled to realize that regulation. Results We integrated data on the composition of yeast protein complexes and the dynamics of their protein building-blocks concentrations to show how the cell regulates protein levels to optimize complex formation. We find that proteins which are subunits of the same complex tend to have similar levels which change similarly following a change in growth conditions, and that abundant proteins undergo larger decrease in their copy number when grown in minimal media. We also study the fluctuations in protein levels and find them to be significantly smaller in large complexes, and in the least abundant subunit of each complex. We use a mathematical model of complex synthesis to explain how all these observations increase the efficiency of complex synthesis, in terms of better utilization of the available molecules and better resilience to stochastic variations. Conclusion In conclusion, these results indicate an intricate regulation at all levels of protein production for the purpose of optimizing complex formation.

  10. 76 FR 24936 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List... (``Managed Fund Shares''): The Meidell Tactical Advantage ETF. The text of the proposed rule change is...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change...

  11. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  12. CNPC to Face Changing Competitive Environments with Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiujuan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010 CNPC(China National Petroleum Corporation)Midyear Working Conference on Engineering Technology(hereafter called the Conference)was held in Beijing on August 10.The theme of the Conference centers on the instructions proposed by CNPC President Jiang Jiemin that a change needs to be done in the field of engineering technology,accelerating the change of development mode of engineering services.

  13. 78 FR 59401 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ....19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-70201 (Aug. 14, 2013), 78 FR 51248 (Aug. 20, 2013... Release No. 34-68955 (Feb. 20, 2013), 78 FR 13130 (Feb. 26, 2013) (SR-ICEEU-2012-11). In anticipation of...\\ directs the Commission to approve a proposed rule change of a self-regulatory organization if it...

  14. 75 FR 8769 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... (December 30, 2009), 75 FR 1109 (``Notice''). \\5\\ In Amendment No. 1, the Exchange replaced the bracketed... Release No. 59039 (December 2, 2008), 73 FR 74770 (December 9, 2008) (SR-NYSEArca-2006-21). It is... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change,...

  15. 78 FR 69694 - Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Diseases: How To Estimate and Reward True Patient... ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and... medical devices for the treatment of morbid obesity and other metabolic diseases and evolving...

  16. 78 FR 60695 - Regulatory Reorganization; Administrative Changes to Regulations Due to the Consolidation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Fiscal Service Bureau of the Fiscal Service 31 CFR Chapter II, Parts 202-391 RIN 1510-AB31 Regulatory Reorganization; Administrative Changes to Regulations Due to the Consolidation of the Financial Management Service and the Bureau of the Public Debt Into the Bureau of the Fiscal Service AGENCY: Bureau of...

  17. Strategic Renewal in Regulatory Environments: How inter- and intra-organisational institutional forces influence European incumbent energy firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Stienstra (Marten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHow do incumbent firms strategically renew in regulatory environments? Assuming that regulation can both constrain and enable a firm’s strategic renewal opportunities, we investigate how and to what extent incumbent firms undertake exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions i

  18. Future improvements and implementation of animal care practices within the animal testing regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittin, Pierre; Decelle, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasingly important concern when considering biomedical experimentation. Many of the emerging regulations and guidelines specifically address animal welfare in laboratory animal care and use. The current revision of the appendix of the European Convention, ETS123 (Council of Europe), updates and improves on the current animal care standardization in Europe. New guidelines from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association focus specifically on safety testing. These guidelines will affect the way toxicity studies are conducted and therefore the global drug development process. With the 3Rs principles taken into account, consideration regarding animal welfare will demand changes in animal care practices in regulatory safety testing. The most significant future improvements in animal care and use practices are likely to be environmental enrichment, management of animal pain and distress, and improved application of the humane endpoints. Our challenge is to implement respective guidelines based on scientific data and animal welfare, through a complex interplay of regulatory objective and public opinion. The current goal is to work toward solutions that continue to provide relevant animal models for risk assessment in drug development and that are science based. In this way, future improvements in animal care and use practices can be founded on facts, scientific results, and analysis. Some of these improvements become common practice in some countries. International harmonization can facilitate the development and practical application of "best scientific practices" by the consensus development process that harmonization requires. Since the implementation of good laboratory practices (GLP) standards in safety testing, these new regulations and recommendations represent a new way forward for animal safety studies.

  19. Development and Delivery of Coursework: The Legal/Regulatory/Policy Environment of Cyberforensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Bagby

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a cyber-forensics course that integrates important public policy and legal issues as well as relevant forensic techniques. Cyber-forensics refers to the amalgam of multi-disciplinary activities involved in the identification, gathering, handling, custody, use and security of electronic files and records, involving expertise from the forensic domain, and which produces evidence useful in the proof of facts for both commercial and legal activities. The legal and regulatory environment in which electronic discovery takes place is of critical importance to cyber-forensics experts because the legal process imposes both constraints and opportunities for the effective use of evidence gathered through cyber-forensic techniques. This paper discusses different pedagogies that can be used (including project teams, research and writing assignments, student presentations, case analyses, class activities and participation and examinations, evaluation methods, problem-based learning approaches and critical thinking analysis. A survey and evaluation is provided of the growing body of applicable print and online materials that can be utilized. Target populations for such a course includes students with majors, minors or supporting elective coursework in law, information sciences, information technology, computer science, computer engineering, financial fraud, security and information assurance, forensic aspects of cyber security, privacy, and electronic commerce.

  20. RECENT CHANGES IN THE CLINICAL TRIALS REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN INDIA; THE ROAD AHEAD FOR AYUSH SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Dua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical trials in India are regulated by Schedule ‘Y’ of the Drug and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 which defines the requirements and guidelines for import and/or manufacture of new drugs for sale or for clinical trials. However, owing to the changing International regulatory scenario, increased awareness about the rights/welfare of the trial participants and recent exposure of certain unethical practices being adopted in the conduct of clinical trials in the country, an overhaul of the clinical research related regulatory framework was long overdue. It has also been reported that due to lack of appropriate regulation in clinical trials, India is losing out to Malaysia, China and Singapore. The health ministry’s proposal for a biomedical and health research bill is, therefore, a welcome step. The proposed law intends to ensure compliance with the regulatory provisions and ethical guidelines to ensure well-being of the clinical trial participants.

  1. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    phenomena. This is why the term 'environmental changes' might be more accurate than climate change. ‘Environmental changes’ suggests that climate changes ought to be understood as extensive environmental changes, with an impact on the built environment. Following this, it is no longer sufficient only...... to assess for example a building, and anthropogenic impacts on the environment, also the impact of the environment on installations, and on the human activities must be included in the analysis and assessments. Based on observations and investigations into climate change adaptation in DK and abroad...... the research project, Waterscape (Vandskab), focus on some of the challenges that the architectural disciplines are facing in relation to climate changes adaptation....

  2. Development of Regulatory Guide for Risk-Informed Tech. Spec. Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy statement on nuclear safety in 1994 encourages use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for integrated safety evaluation and implementation of risk-informed regulation (RIR) for improving regulatory efficiency. RIR is to use PSA results and other risk insights in regulatory decision-making on the licensing basis change. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) developed the implementation plan and principles of RIR in response to the policy statement. One activity under way is to use PSA in support of decisions to modify an individual plant's technical specifications (TS). TS contain the items in the following specific categories: safety limit and limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls. Typically the proposed risk-informed change to TS involves an extension of allowed outage time (AOT) or surveillance test interval (STI). There are many applications for TS change of which review is completed or under way

  3. 75 FR 4438 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change In...), 74 FR 1069 (June 4, 2009) (SR-FINRA-2009-016). BX is adopting the new FINRA rule in full and is re... amended. C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule Change Received...

  4. 77 FR 29721 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending... options so that inconsistent position limits do not produce competitive advantages and disadvantages among... Act. C. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule Change Received...

  5. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  6. The legal and regulatory framework relative to safety and environment in the uranium mines in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining sector holds an important position in Niger economy. Considerable funds have been invested for the promotion, exploration and exploitation of mineral resources since the colonial period. This has resulted in the discovery of numerous deposits among which are those of uranium. Today, uranium represents more than 3/4 of Niger export revenues. The mining sector is supervised by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. The Ministry applies the mining policy as defined by the government. It elaborates legislative and regulatory texts and sees to their implementation. Regarding uranium, mining activities have been governed since 1961 by various orientation laws and implementation decrees. However, to face up to the harmful consequences on national economy of successive drops of price and sales of its major export product, and taking into account the new international requirements relating to economy globalization and sustainable development, Niger set up a diversification strategy of its mining productions as part of which a new mining code particularly incentive has been established in 1993. The new mining code provides significant advantages to investors. These advantages insure them a great cost effectiveness of their investments in Niger and easy and less onerous respect of regulations regarding safety and protection of environment. Tremendous efforts have been, thus, provided by the IAEA, the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the uranium companies for an optimal protection of workers and the public, especially against the hazards of ionizing radiations. This will to improve the situation has resulted in the adoption of several laws and their application decrees as well as various sectorial laws designed by various Ministry departments concerned with environmental issues and risks prevention. Among these texts are the renewal of the order No 31 M/MH which has defined since 1979 the main axis of the Niger regulations as regards to radioprotection and the design of

  7. Impact of a Fragmented Regulatory Environment on Sustainable Urban Development Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Anne London

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The building project development approval process is increasingly complex and fraught with conflict due to the rise of the sustainable urban development movement and inclusive decision making. Coupled with this, government decision-making decentralization has resulted in a fragmented and over-regulated compliance system. Problems arising from the process include wasted resources, excessive time delays, increased holding and litigation costs, inadequate planning coordination, high levels of advocacy costs and a divisive politicized approval process. In Australia, despite attempts by government and industry associations, numerous problems are still unresolved. Design managers increasingly assume a liaison role during the approval phase. There is a long tradition of planning theory literature which provides context for understanding the knowledge-power-participation relationship for this paper. This study investigated the policy, process and practice conflicts during the approval stage in achieving sustainable urban developments. Three regional local government areas within one state jurisdiction and observations from detailed structured focus group interviews involving 23 stakeholders, proposers and assessors were analysed to explore this conflictual environment. As a result of regulatory fragmentation and excessive consultation, various persuasion tactics have been developed by all stakeholders of which `reciprocity' and `authority' were identified as the most common. Two challenges for design managers were thus identified: first, the emergence of the role of a by default central informal arbitrator across conflicting planning instruments; and, second, as a navigator through a set of persuasion tactics. An inclusive knowledge-based design management framework for sustainable urban development is proposed considering Habermas' communicative planning theory, Foucaltian governance and discursive powers thesis and Cialdini's persuasion theory, as

  8. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  9. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  10. The Changing Information Needs of Users in Electronic Information Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Gashaw

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the information needs of users that are changing as a results of changes in the availability of information content in electronic form. Highlights the trend and nature of the physical form in which information content is currently being made available for users' access and use in electronic information environments. (Author/LRW)

  11. Business environment change and decision making mechanism of nuclear generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change magnitude of business environment for Japanese nuclear generators is significant. It is rapidly growing in the last several years. There are possibilities that the change might impact to management model of nuclear generators. In the paper, the impact to management model, especially, decision making mechanism of the generators is discussed. (author)

  12. Molecular determinants of regulatory T cell development: the essential roles of epigenetic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Yohko eKitagawa; Naganari eOhkura; Shimon eSakaguchi

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a distinct T cell subset, which plays a key role in immune tolerance and homeostasis. The transcription factor Foxp3 controls a substantial part of Treg cell development and function. Yet its expression alone is insufficient for conferring developmental and functional characteristics of Treg cells. There is accumulating evidence that concurrent induction of Treg-specific epigenetic changes and Foxp3 expression is crucial for lineage specification and funct...

  13. Regulatory changes to renewable energy support schemes: An international investment law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Paleckaite, Gintare

    2014-01-01

    Thesist analyzes how regulatory changes related to renewable energy investment support schemes can be perceived under international investment law standards and how possible decisions of international investment law tribunals could impact investment in this sector. This research is based on case studies of two states: Spain and the Czech Republic and claims against them. These cases will assist in analyzing the effects of the amendment/revocation of renewable energy support schemes. Answers t...

  14. Fronting Integrated Scientific Web Applications: Design Features and Benefits for Regulatory Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated decision support systems for regulatory applications benefit from standardindustry practices such as code reuse, test-driven development, and modularization. Theseapproaches make meeting the federal government’s goals of transparency, efficiency, and quality assurance ...

  15. Working with Policy and Regulatory Factors to Implement Universal Design in the Built Environment: The Australian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Larkin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice.

  16. Impact of independent directors and the regulatory environment on bank merger prices: evidence from takeover activity in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Brewer; Jackson, William E.; Julapa Jagtiani

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the primary motivation of the bank merger waves in the 1990s. Our investigation of the factors that determine bid premiums paid for target banks focuses on the importance of the financial characteristics of the targets, composition of their boards of directors, and the regulatory environment. ; The value of the target bank to the acquiring bank should reflect its present discounted value of future net cash flows. Thus, at a minimum, the bid price should be a combination ...

  17. Strategic Renewal in Regulatory Environments: How inter- and intra-organisational institutional forces influence European incumbent energy firms

    OpenAIRE

    Stienstra, Marten

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHow do incumbent firms strategically renew in regulatory environments? Assuming that regulation can both constrain and enable a firm’s strategic renewal opportunities, we investigate how and to what extent incumbent firms undertake exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions in order to remain competitive. Exploitative strategic renewal involves those actions that strengthen or optimise a firm’s current resource deployments, whereas explorative strategic renewal relates...

  18. Evaluating model of frozen soil environment change under engineering actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴青柏; 朱元林; 刘永智

    2002-01-01

    The change of frozen soil environment is evaluated by permafrost thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability and the quantitatively evaluating model of frozen soil environment is proposed in this paper. The evaluating model of frozen soil environment is calculated by 28 ground temperature measurements along Qinghai-Xizang Highway. The relationships of thermal thaw sensibility and freezing and thawing processes and seasonally thawing depth, thermal stability and permafrost table temperature, mean annual ground temperature and seasonally thawing depth, and surface landscape stability and freezing and thawing hazards and their forming possibility are analyzed. The results show that thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability can be used to evaluate and predict the change of frozen soil environment under human engineering action.

  19. Vegetation change in dryland environments: understanding changes in fluvial fluxes via changes in hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. The transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage. Functional change is characterised by an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. Connectivity is a key concept in understanding the hydrological response to this vegetation change, with reduced vegetation coverage in woody environments being associated with longer and more connected overland flow pathways. This increase in hydrological connectivity results in an accentuated rainfall-runoff response and increased fluvial fluxes of eroded sediment and associated soil organic carbon and other nutrients. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, characterising ecological structure and monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over bounded plots with different vegetation covering the transitions from C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 creosote (Larrea tridentate) shrubland and C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand woodland. Data collected quantifies

  20. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Sugawara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305 is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. Design: The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×1010 washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. Results: The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively. Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013. The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008, whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003. The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic

  1. 76 FR 28830 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Act Release No. 34-54714 at 4 (November 6, 2006), 71 FR 66352 (November 14, 2006). B. Self-Regulatory... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rule 11.9, Entitled ``Orders and Modifiers'' and BATS Rule...

  2. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  3. Climate Change and China as a Global Emerging Regulatory Sea Power in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassotta Pertoldi-Bianchi, Sandra; Hossain, Kamrul; Ren, Jingzheng;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change in the Arctic Ocean such as ice melting and ice retreat facilitates natural resources extraction. Arctic fossil fuel becomes the drivers of geopolitical changes in the Arctic Ocean. Climate change facilitates natural resource extractions and increases competition...... between states and can result in tensions, even military ones. This article investigates through a political and legal analysis the role of China as an emerging regulatory sea power in the Arctic Ocean given its assertive “energy hungry country behaviour” in the Arctic Ocean. The United Nations Convention...... on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Arctic Council (AC) are taken into consideration under climate change effects, to assess how global legal frameworks and institutions can deal with China’s strategy in the Arctic Ocean. China’s is moving away from its role as “humble power” to one of “informal...

  4. Workplace learning for information professionals in a changing information environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sacchanand, Chutima

    2000-01-01

    Changes are taking place in society, particularly in higher education. The explosionof knowledge and information technology has virtually altered the characteristics of the learning environment, paving the way for new learning experiences. This is having a dramatic impact on the library and information profession, leading to changes in the continuing education of information professionals. This paper focuses on the role that workplace learning plays in the continuing education of library and...

  5. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de, J.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer...

  6. [Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone.

  7. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  8. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed

  9. Management of radioactive pollutants from front-end nuclear fuel cycle for clean environment - a regulatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Front end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle includes mining of low specific active material like uranium and thorium ore, milling of uranium and thorium and fabrication of nuclear fuel assemblies for Nuclear Power Plants. Diverse processes involved in the front-end nuclear fuel cycle lead to handling of wide spectrum of radionuclides. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is entrusted with the responsibility that discharge of the radioactive waste back into the environment does not create any undue hazard to environment and the public. Discharge limits have been prescribed by AERB for front-end fuel cycle facilities such that considering atmospheric, aquatic and terrestrial pathways; the effective dose to members of public does not exceed the yearly limit of 1 mSv. In order to comply with the regulatory limits prescribed by AERB, various treatment measures are adopted by the facilities. For release of conventional pollutants to environment, the limits are prescribed by the State Pollution Control Boards. This paper shall discuss the various treatment procedures adopted by the facilities with respect to radioactivity discharge vis-a-vis the health of the environment around the front-end nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (author)

  10. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  11. Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Ramsey

    2013-01-01

    Book review of Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment. Naomi F. Miller, Katherine M. Moore, Kathleen Ryan, editors. 2011. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Pp. 352, 73 illustrations. $65.00 (cloth). ISBN 9787934536193.

  12. Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ramsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment. Naomi F. Miller, Katherine M. Moore, Kathleen Ryan, editors. 2011. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Pp. 352, 73 illustrations. $65.00 (cloth. ISBN 9787934536193.

  13. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  14. Crafting the change: the role of job crafting and regulatory focus in adaptation to organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Organizations change rapidly nowadays. However, little is known about successful ways in which employees can adapt to the new situation that arises throughout organizational change. The present dissertation addressed job crafting as a proactive employee strategy in order to deal with and

  15. Changing the p53 master regulatory network: ELEMENTary, my dear Mr Watson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, D; Inga, A; Jordan, J J; Resnick, M A

    2007-04-01

    The p53 master regulatory network provides for the stress-responsive direct control of a vast number of genes in humans that can be grouped into several biological categories including cell-cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair. Similar to other sequence-specific master regulators, there is a matrix of key components, which provide for variation within the p53 master regulatory network that include p53 itself, target response element sequences (REs) that provide for p53 regulation of target genes, chromatin, accessory proteins and transcription machinery. Changes in any of these can impact the expression of individual genes, groups of genes and the eventual biological responses. The many REs represent the core of the master regulatory network. Since defects or altered expression of p53 are associated with over 50% of all cancers and greater than 90% of p53 mutations are in the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain, it is important to understand the relationship between wild-type or mutant p53 proteins and the target response elements. In the words of the legendary detective Sherlock Holmes, it is 'Elementary, my dear Mr. Watson'. PMID:17401428

  16. An ontological framework for requirement change management in distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global Software Development (GSD) is getting fame in the software industry gradually. However, in GSD, multiple and diverse stakeholders are involved in the development of complex software systems. GSD introduces several challenges, i.e. physical distance, time zone, culture difference, language barriers. As requirements play a significant role in any software development. The greatest challenge in GSD environment is to maintain a consistent view of the system even if the requirements change. But at the same time single change in the requirement might affect several other modules. In GSD different people use terms and have different ways of expressing the concepts for which people at remote sites are unable to get uniformity regarding the semantics of the terms. In a global environment requires effective communication and coordination. However, to overcome inconsistencies and ambiguities among the team members and to make the team members aware of the consistent view, a shared and common understanding is required. In this paper an approach beneficial to software industry has been proposed, focusing on changing requirements in a Global Software Development environment. A case study has been used for the evaluation of the proposed approach. Therefore, Requirements change management process has been improved by applying the approach of the case study. The proposed approach is beneficial to the software development organizations where frequent changes occur. It guided the software industry to provide the common understandings to all the development teams residing in remote locations. (author)

  17. Regulatory authority on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances - Especially on changes after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011-

    OpenAIRE

    西久保, 裕彦

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory authority on environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances has been changing especially after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. In this article, I tried to summarize the changes on regulatory system before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, starting from the enactment of the Basic Law on Environmental Pollution in 1967, and including the enactment of the law on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Pollution by Radioactive substance...

  18. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  19. Anticipating Changing in Environments: Adaptation in Fluctuating Environments in A Heterogeneous Microbial Communites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Merzu; Bálazsi, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    The environments in which micro-organisms grow often fluctuate. To survive in temporally changing environments, cells have evolved mechanisms to survive environmental changes. One survival mechanism is generating phenotypic differences among identical cells in a given environment, with cells randomly switching between phenotypes. Such cells form subpopulations that proliferate at different rates. Optimal population fitness was attributed before to matching cellular and environmental switching rates. However, the conditions for this optimum are not well understood. In particular, it is unknown how the growth rates of the phenotypes affect the optimum. We use mathematical models to address this question. We find that the existence of the predicted optimum depends on cell growth rates in each phenotype. The predicted optimum exists for wider parameter regimes if the environmental durations are long. In addition, we study how mutants arising among such phenotypically heterogeneous cells spread in the population.

  20. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds. PMID:26553987

  1. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds.

  2. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  3. 76 FR 12180 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ..., cross-references and make technical and grammatical changes to clarify and simplify the By-Laws, Rules... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC...'' or ``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which...

  4. 76 FR 24069 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... grammatical changes to reflect the Exchange's recent conversion from a Delaware corporation to a Delaware... FR at 12184. F. Technical Changes The Exchange proposes to delete definitions and Equity Floor... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change,...

  5. 77 FR 7652 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Revise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Revise... Europe Limited (``ICE Clear Europe'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission... changes described below with its Clearing Members. These changes seek to improve drafting and...

  6. 78 FR 28680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ..., 2013), 78 FR 18646 (Mar. 27, 2013). On May 7, 2013, ICC withdrew the proposed rule change (SR-ICC-2013... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating...

  7. 75 FR 34196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by EDGX Exchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change EDGX proposes to make changes to...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1... Exchange Release No. 61698 (March 12, 2010), 75 FR 13151 (March 18, 2010) (approving File Nos. 10-194...

  8. 75 FR 34189 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by EDGA Exchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change EDGA proposes to make changes to...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1... Exchange Release No. 61698 (March 12, 2010), 75 FR 13151 (March 18, 2010) (approving File Nos. 10-194...

  9. 76 FR 40415 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange, pursuant to... Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change In its filing...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change...

  10. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  11. Global Environments through the Quaternary – Exploring Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Rose Mills

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Born from a series of volumes titled Environmental Change, first printed in 1976, this book is the second edition of a revised history of the global environment published in 2013. It is the collaborative work of David Anderson, Andrew Goudie, and Adrian Parker, all experts in the field of geography, with Parker also having a background in anthropology. Global Environments through the Quaternary provides a general scientific guide to interpreting environmental change. It is aimed at a wide audience and has a full glossary of less well known terms for added clarity. It would be a good accompaniment to a geoarchaeology course or for those interested in the history of environmental fluctuation, with its particular strengths lying in the concise and accessible presentation of scientific data. This enables it to work well as a reference guide that can be used alongside more in-depth research as it provides a key knowledge base with which to formulate personal theories.

  12. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  13. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  14. Plasticity-Mediated Persistence in New and Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baldwin’s synthesis of the Organicist position, first published in 1896 and elaborated in 1902, sought to rescue environmentally induced phenotypes from disrepute by showing their Darwinian significance. Of particular interest to Baldwin was plasticity’s mediating role during environmental change or colonization—plastic individuals were more likely to successfully survive and reproduce in new environments than were nonplastic individuals. Once a population of plastic individuals had become established, plasticity could further mediate the future course of evolution. The evidence for plasticity-mediated persistence (PMP is reviewed here with a particular focus on evolutionary rescue experiments, studies on invasive success, and the role of learning in survival. Many PMP studies are methodologically limited, showing that preexistent plasticity has utility in new environments (soft PMP rather than directly demonstrating that plasticity is responsible for persistence (hard PMP. An ideal PMP study would be able to demonstrate that (1 plasticity preexisted environmental change, (2 plasticity was fortuitously beneficial in the new environment, (3 plasticity was responsible for individual persistence in the new environment, and (4 plasticity was responsible for population persistence in succeeding generations. Although PMP is not ubiquitous, Baldwin’s hypotheses have been largely vindicated in theoretical and empirical studies, but much work remains.

  15. Selection, adaptation, and predictive information in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltgen, Quentin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation by means of natural selection is a key concept in evolutionary biology. Individuals better matched to the surrounding environment outcompete the others. This increases the fraction of the better adapted individuals in the population, and hence increases its collective fitness. Adaptation is also prominent on the physiological scale in neuroscience and cell biology. There each individual infers properties of the environment and changes to become individually better, improving the overall population as well. Traditionally, these two notions of adaption have been considered distinct. Here we argue that both types of adaptation result in the same population growth in a broad class of analytically tractable population dynamics models in temporally changing environments. In particular, both types of adaptation lead to subextensive corrections to the population growth rates. These corrections are nearly universal and are equal to the predictive information in the environment time series, which is also the characterization of the time series complexity. This work has been supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  16. Sustainability of biomass utilisation in changing operational environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the project was to assist in strategic decision-making of public administration and companies, as regards the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. This project continued the work of the BIOVAIKU project by exploring in more details the most critical issues identified in sustainability assessment. These include the need to develop assessment methods and criteria in particular for land use and land-use change due to biomass cultivation and harvesting and indirect impacts due to resource competition.

  17. Recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, K. (Katja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The popularity of nature-based tourism has increased worldwide and peripheral areas with conservational value, like protected areas, are attractive destinations. The recreational use and construction of tourism facilities can cause environmental degradation and decrease the conservational and recreational value of areas if not well planned and managed. The aim of this thesis was to improve our knowledge of recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments. Dir...

  18. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  19. The Role Of Labour Unions In A Changing World Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    Trade unions have been important institutions of industrial society; they have helped deliver significant outcomes in terms of improved living standards, equity and justice to workers all over the world. However, at the end of the twentieth century, unions face a situation marked by the universal trend towards greater liberalization of economic and political regimes. The changing environment requires new approaches and strategies on the part of unions if they are to remain major social actors...

  20. Environment Changes of Lampao Dam Communities in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winyoo Sata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to study the environment change of Lampao Dam communities in Northeast Thailand, being a case study of the Sa-Adnathom community, Lamklong sub-district, Muang, Kalasin province, adjacent to the Lampao Dam. Approach: A qualitative research, it started with a review of literature and related researches. Field data were collected by way of interviews and both participant and non-participant observations, involving 15 informants including senior-villagers, who had lived in the village some 10-20 years. The research data were descriptively analyzed and presented. Results: As a result its was found that the Lampao Dam communities date back 200 years to the era of Chiangsom Kingdom. Deserted due to deadly epidemics, the area was later on repopulated by migrants from Yang Talad district, Kalasin province. A new community, called Sa-Adnathom, was born. Prior to the inception of the National Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961, the environment of this community was complete with fertile land and natural resource abundance. People lived in harmony with nature and relied on resources from it for their livelihood, especially from Nong Waeng reservoir, Phan and Yang streams and Khoke Ngoo forest. But with the implementation of the first Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961-1966 the Thai government started the construction of the Lampao Dam in 1963. Completed in 1968, the Dam took land from the villagers, part of which were simply flooded. This forced the village farmers to change their means of livelihood from relying on forest and rivers to production methods which by necessity involved purchase of machines and usage of chemical fertilizers. In short, a change from farming to fishing in Lampao Dam. Their values also changed from local exchanges of goods to money economy, which only led to household debts, increasing with rising degree of consumerism. Eventually people in the

  1. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  2. Biological approaches to global environment change mitigation and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, F Ian; Bardgett, Richard D; Raven, John A; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2009-07-28

    One of the most pressing and globally recognized challenges is how to mitigate the effects of global environment change brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO(2). In this review we evaluate the potential contribution of four biological approaches to mitigating global environment change: reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations through soil carbon sequestration and afforestation; reducing predicted increases in global surface temperatures through increasing the albedo of crop plants; and fertilizing the oceans to increase primary productivity and CO(2) drawdown. We conclude that none of these biological approaches are 'magic bullets' capable of reversing environmental changes brought about by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, it is possible that increasing crop albedo and soil carbon sequestration might contribute towards mitigation on a regional scale. In the absence of legally binding international agreements to reduce CO(2) emissions, we propose that: increased efforts are made to identify novel biological mitigatory strategies; further research is conducted to minimise the uncertainties present in all four of the biological approaches described; and pilot-level field work is conducted to examine the feasibility of the most promising strategies. Finally, it is essential to engage with the public concerning strategies for mitigating the effects of climate change because the majority of the biological approaches have effects, quite possibly of a negative nature, on ecosystem services and land usage.

  3. Speculative Fictions for Understanding Global Change Environments: Two Thought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Gough

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a thought experiment, as the term was used by quantum and relativity physicists in the early part of the twentieth century, was not prediction (as is the goal of classical experimental science, but more defensible representations of present ‘realities’. Speculative fictions, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to the Star Wars cinema saga, can be read as sociotechnical thought experiments that produce alternative representations of present circumstances and uncertainties, and anticipate and critique possible futures. In this essay I demonstrate how two examples of popular speculative fictions, Frank Herbert's Dune (1965 and Ursula Le Guin's The Telling (2000, function as thought experiments that problematise global transitions in their respective eras. I argue that critical readings of such stories can help us to anticipate, critique, and respond constructively to social and cultural changes and change environments within nation-states that constitute, and are constituted by, global change processes and their effects.

  4. Regulatory and information support for evaluation of biological productivity of Ukrainian forests and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakyda, Petro; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Stabilization and preservation of the planet's climate system today is regarded as one of the most important global political-economic, environmental and social problems of mankind. Rising concentration of carbon dioxide in the planet's atmosphere due to anthropogenic impact is the main reason leading to global climate change. Due to the above mentioned, social demands on forests are changing their biosphere role and function of natural sink of greenhouse gases becomes top priority. It is known that one of the most essential components of biological productivity of forests is their live biomass. Absorption, long-term sequestration of carbon and generation of oxygen are secured by its components. System research of its parametric structure and development of regulatory and reference information for assessment of aboveground live biomass components of trees and stands of the main forest-forming tree species in Ukraine began over twenty-five years ago at the department of forest mensuration and forest inventory of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, involving staff from other research institutions. Today, regulatory and reference materials for evaluation of parametric structure of live biomass are developed for trees of the following major forest-forming tree species of Ukraine: Scots pine of natural and artificial origin, Crimean pine, Norway spruce, silver fir, pedunculate oak, European beech, hornbeam, ash, common birch, aspen and black alder (P.I. Lakyda et al., 2011). An ongoing process on development of similar regulatory and reference materials for forest stands of the abovementioned forest-forming tree species of Ukraine is secured by scientists of departments of forest management, and forest mensuration and forest inventory. The total experimental research base is 609 temporary sample plots, where 4880 model trees were processed, including 3195 model trees with estimates of live biomass components. Laboratory studies conducted

  5. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  6. Persistent Robotic Tasks: Monitoring and Sweeping in Changing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen L; Rus, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    We present controllers that enable mobile robots to persistently monitor or sweep a changing environment. The changing environment is modeled as a field which grows in locations that are not within range of a robot, and decreases in locations that are within range of a robot. We assume that the robots travel on given closed paths. The speed of each robot along its path is controlled to prevent the field from growing unbounded at any location. We consider the space of speed controllers that can be parametrized by a finite set of basis functions. For a single robot, we develop a linear program that is guaranteed to compute a speed controller in this space to keep the field bounded, if such a controller exists. Another linear program is then derived whose solution is the speed controller that minimizes the maximum field value over the environment. We extend our linear program formulation to develop a multi-robot controller that keeps the field bounded. The multi-robot controller has the unique feature that it do...

  7. Preserving the Environment of Outer Space - Legal, Regulatory and Institutional Aspects of Active Orbital Debris Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankata Nyampong, Y. O.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the massive quantities of space debris already deposited in outer space, any effort aimed at guaranteeing the sustainability of mankind's access to outer space and the continued safety of space operations must not be limited exclusively to mitigating the creation of new debris, but must also focus on the active removal of existing pieces of debris from space (remediation) as a matter of necessity. Presently, technologies that will enable active debris removal (ADR) are only just emerging. As the technology develops, however, several legal, regulatory and institutional issues that may hinder the conduct of ADR activities must also be addressed. This paper highlights and explores some of the foregoing issues in an effort to draw international attention to these matters and ultimately to pave the way for the smooth conduct of ADR activities once the technology matures.

  8. The eyes have it: regulatory and structural changes both underlie cichlid visual pigment diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Hofmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of evolutionary biology is to unravel the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie functional diversification and adaptation. We investigated how changes in gene regulation and coding sequence contribute to sensory diversification in two replicate radiations of cichlid fishes. In the clear waters of Lake Malawi, differential opsin expression generates diverse visual systems, with sensitivities extending from the ultraviolet to the red regions of the spectrum. These sensitivities fall into three distinct clusters and are correlated with foraging habits. In the turbid waters of Lake Victoria, visual sensitivity is constrained to longer wavelengths, and opsin expression is correlated with ambient light. In addition to regulatory changes, we found that the opsins coding for the shortest- and longest-wavelength visual pigments have elevated numbers of potentially functional substitutions. Thus, we present a model of sensory evolution in which both molecular genetic mechanisms work in concert. Changes in gene expression generate large shifts in visual pigment sensitivity across the collective opsin spectral range, but changes in coding sequence appear to fine-tune visual pigment sensitivity at the short- and long-wavelength ends of this range, where differential opsin expression can no longer extend visual pigment sensitivity.

  9. Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in Changing operational Environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Hongisto, M.; Koponen, K. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    Sustainability is a multi-faceted and challenging target, but at the same time a crucial issue to assess when setting policies and targets for the future. The main objective of the SUBICHOE project is to assist public administration and companies in strategic decision- making in the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. The project aimed to assess how the sustainability criteria, in particular those set by the EC, ensure the sustainability of biofuels from short and long term perspectives. The project is carried out jointly by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The work plan of the project is divided into four Work Packages. In this article, a summary of main findings of the project is presented. (orig.)

  10. 75 FR 4129 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change In its filing...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1... 27, 2009), 74 FR 106 (June 4, 2009) (SR-FINRA-2009-016). BX is adopting the new FINRA rule in...

  11. 75 FR 80553 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63187 (October 27, 2010), 75 FR 67424 (``Notice''). II. Description of... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to... rule change to: (i) Add to Rule 900.3NY(h) a definition of ``Stock/Complex Order;'' (ii) revise...

  12. 75 FR 2899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ...), 74 FR 64797 (hereinafter referred to as ``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change ] amending its maximum fee for...

  13. 75 FR 48391 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... FR 38583 (``Notice''). In its proposal, Phlx proposed to establish fees for direct 10Gb circuit... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to establish pricing for 10Gb direct circuit connections and...

  14. 78 FR 5518 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose The..., 2009), 74 FR 26750 (June 3, 2009) (SR-Phlx-2009-32) (approval order regarding current electronic... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

  15. 75 FR 48390 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... FR 38571 (``Notice''). In its proposal, BX proposed to establish fees for direct 10Gb circuit... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to establish pricing for 10Gb direct circuit connections and...

  16. 75 FR 65541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 62799 (August 25, 2010), 75 FR 54662 (``Notice''). The Exchange proposes to amend... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. To...\\ a proposed rule change to expand the Exchange's $.50 Strike Price Program (``$0.50 Strike...

  17. 77 FR 27255 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... This rule change permits ICC to make two modifications to its risk model for clearing credit default... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Reduce the Current Level of Risk Mutualization Among Clearing Participants and To Modify the...

  18. 76 FR 36608 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change To List and Trade the Meidell Tactical Advantage ETF June 16, 2011. I. Introduction On April 15, 2011... Tactical Advantage ETF (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600. The proposed rule change...

  19. 77 FR 20087 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Listing and Trading of the PIMCO Global Advantage Inflation-Linked Bond Strategy Fund Under... (February 10, 2012), 77 FR 9281 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The...

  20. 76 FR 38712 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... (May 12, 2011); 76 FR 28830 (``Notice''). II. Description First, the Exchange proposes to change its... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.9, Entitled ``Orders and Modifiers'' and BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...

  1. 76 FR 10418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change... February 8, 2011, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and... Change The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC proposes to amend the By-Laws of its parent corporation, The...

  2. 77 FR 39760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 66777 (April 10, 2012), 77 FR 22623 (April 16, 2012). \\4\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67070 (May 29, 2012), 77 FR 33013 (June 4, 2012). II. Description This rule change will amend... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

  3. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  4. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  5. Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Alex; Kopp, Robert E.; Shouse, Kate C.; Griffiths, Charles; Hodson, Elke L.; Kopits, Elizabeth; Mignone, Bryan K.; Moore, Chris; Newbold, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Wolverton, Ann

    2013-04-01

    The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a monetized metric for evaluating the benefits associated with marginal reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. It represents the expected welfare loss from the future damages caused by the release of one tonne of CO2 in a given year, expressed in consumption equivalent terms. It is intended to be a comprehensive measure, taking into account changes in agricultural productivity, human health risks, loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity, and the frequency and severity of flooding and storms, among other possible impacts. Estimating the SCC requires long-term modeling of global economic activity, the climate system, and the linkages between the two through anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of changing climatic conditions on economic activity and human well-being. The United States government currently uses the SCC in regulatory benefit-cost analyses to assess the welfare effects of changes in CO2 emissions. Consistent application of the SCC to federal rulemaking analyses began in 2009-2010 with the development of a set of global SCC estimates that employed three prominent integrated assessment models (IAMs) -- DICE, FUND, and PAGE. The U.S. government report identified a number of limitations associated with SCC estimates in general and its own assumptions in particular: an incomplete treatment of damages, including potential “catastrophic” impacts; uncertainty regarding the extrapolation of damage functions to high temperatures; incomplete treatment of adaptation and technological change; and the evaluation of uncertain outcomes in a risk-neutral fashion. External experts have identified other potential issues, including how best to model long-term socio-economic and emissions pathways, oversimplified physical climate and carbon cycle modeling within the IAMs, and an inconsistency between non-constant economic growth scenarios and constant discount rates. The U.S. government has committed

  6. Passive sampling in regulatory chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, K.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgess, R.M.; Mayer, P.; Roberts, C.A.; Ahrens, L.; Allan, I.J.; Brant, J.; Jones, L.; Kraus, U.R.; Larsen, M.M.; Lepom, P.; Petersen, J.; Pröfrock, D.; Roose, P.; Schäfer, S.; Smedes, F.; Tixier, C.; Vorkamp, K.; Whitehouse, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the EuropeanUnion, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of themarine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met bypassive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths andshortcoming

  7. The Role of Learning Environment on High School Chemistry Students' Motivation and Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Changes to the global workforce and technological advancements require graduating high school students to be more autonomous, self-directed, and critical in their thinking. To reflect societal changes, current educational reform has focused on developing more problem-based, collaborative, and student-centered classrooms to promote effective…

  8. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  9. An Enabling Regulatory Environment for Sustainable Investment: The Example of Trade Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bürgi, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    There is broad international agreement that investment flows to the agricultural sector in developing countries need to be increased. But there is also agreement that such investments need to be sustainable. For being sustainable, they must not only be beneficial to the public economy, but also to rural households and to the environment in the short and the long run. Whether sustainable investments take place, not least depends on the legal framework within which these investments are situate...

  10. An assessment of the contribution of NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] regulatory growth to nuclear plant cost growth using engineering scope changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of NRC regulations to the growth in nuclear power plant capital costs using the case study method. The two plants selected for the case studies are Florida Power and Light Company's (FP and L) St. Lucie Unit 1 (SL1) and St. Lucie Unit 2 (SL2). SL1 was constructed in the early 1970s and was granted an operating license in 1976. SL2 was constructed in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and was granted an operating license in 1983. The information bases were the amendments to the contracts between FP and L and its architect-engineer/constructor, i.e., the ''scope changes''. These were examined and analyzed for causation, i.e., NRC-initiated or utility-initiated, and all of the costs associated with scope changes of each type were aggregated to determine the contribution of each. Although the scope changes accounted for only a small fraction of the total cost growth for either plant, they were still used to determine the relative contribution of regulatory growth to cost growth. Unexpectedly, a significantly higher percentage of out-of-scope work (approximately 84%) was attributable to NRC regulatory requirements for SL1 than SL2 (approximately 47%). These results were unexpected because SL2 was constructed during a period in which regulation was considered to be particularly unstable. However, a more detailed analysis of causation indicates that a shift occurred from an ad-hoc mode of regulation in the early 1970s to a more prescriptive process in the late 1970s. Thus the number of formal NRC requirements may not be a valid measure of regulatory stability

  11. The regulatory environment past and future--incentive or impediment to developments in food science and technology: a perspective from FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, F R; Carson, K

    1994-01-01

    The best system for protecting public health is one that involves two layers of control before food reaches the consumer. The first layer of control is the industry's clear responsibility to prepare food that is safe. The second layer of control is the monitoring that is provided by government to ensure that the industry is doing its job and is in fact producing safe food. While some may view this "second layer" as an impediment in the development and marketing of new technologies, there is another way to look at the "regulatory environment". The regulatory environment itself, is not an impediment to the development of food science and technology. The regulatory environment, with all its components--scientists, consumers, industry, and Congress--defines "safety" within the context of today's technology, scientific capability, and tolerance level of the lay public. The entire regulatory environment serves to guide the development of food science and technology by providing signposts, in the form of scientifically sound regulatory decisions. The scientific basis of these decisions becomes building blocks on which to rest further refinement of the technology, product, ingredient, or packaging material or on which research in related technologies or research in innovative directions can build. This scientific groundwork becomes very important as more and more companies move away from having self-contained research laboratories toward using commercial laboratories and academic institutions, as well as participating in cooperative research endeavors to meet food safety and product development research needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  13. Sustainability of biomass utilisation in changing operational environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Hongisto, M.; Koponen, K.; Sokka, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi; Antikainen, R.; Manninen, K. (Finnish Environment Inst. SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Thun, R.; Sinkko, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Sustaibability is a multi-faceted and challenging target, but at the same time a crucial issue to assess when setting policies and targets for the future. The main objective of the SUBICHOE project is to assist in strategic decision- making of public administration and companies, as regards the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. In the project the sustainability of biofuels and the criteria, in particular those set by the EC, for ensuring that set requirements can and will be fulfilled are being assessed from short and long term perspectives. The project is carried out jointly by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The project started in June 2009 and it is scheduled to be finalised in June 2011. The work plan of the project is divided into four Work Packages. In this article, a summary of a critical view on the requirements and challenges related to the implementation of the RES Directive is also provided based on the main findings of the WP1. (orig.)

  14. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  15. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan. PMID:26220938

  16. 78 FR 13130 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Model will enhance its own risk management, as discussed below, and thereby facilitate the prompt and... initial margin for CDS Contracts. This reflects the fact that the current CDS Guaranty Fund model is... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change,...

  17. 75 FR 2902 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... member organization that maintains a position on the same side of the market [in excess of 60,000... rule provides that position limits with respect to options on the KBW Bank Index are 44,000 contracts... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

  18. 75 FR 17818 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... definition of Trust Units in Rule 1600 to remove the master/feeder structure requirement and permit the... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...), 75 FR 9265 (``Notice''). I. Description of the Proposal NYSE Amex previously adopted Rule 1600 et...

  19. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan.

  20. 75 FR 30078 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    .... I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change... Release Nos. 48013 (June 11, 2003), 68 FR 35933 (June 17, 2003) (SR-Phlx-2002-55) (approval of pilot program); 49801 (June 3, 2004), 69 FR 32652 (June 10, 2004) (SR-Phlx-2004-38); 51768 (May 31, 2005), 70...

  1. 75 FR 69491 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ...). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62955 (September 20, 2010), 75 FR... operation of the NYBX. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 59282 (January 22, 2009), 74 FR 5009... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange...

  2. 75 FR 76059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange is... Act Release No. 51759 (May 27, 2005), 70 FR 32860 (June 6, 2005) (SR-Phlx-2004-91) (order approving..., 2005), 70 FR 72193 (December 1, 2005) (SR-PCX-2005-56) (order approving certain modifications to...

  3. 75 FR 73145 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... accepted accounting principles in the United States, consistently applied under the accrual method of.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule... the purpose of, and basis for, the proposed rule change and discussed any comments it received on...

  4. 75 FR 71158 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ..., each determined on the basis of generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, consistently applied under the accrual method of accounting. Each Fund's NAV is calculated at 4:15 p.m. (E.T...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change...

  5. 75 FR 36768 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 62252 (June 10, 2010), 75 FR 34186 (June 16, 2010) (SR- BATS-2010-014). The... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.17, entitled ``Clearly Erroneous Executions'' June 21, 2010. Pursuant to Section...

  6. 75 FR 28834 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.18, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility'' May 19, 2010... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on May 18, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or...

  7. 75 FR 22668 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules 2.5 and 17.2 Applicable to Registration Requirements April 22, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 9, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  8. 76 FR 59462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend and Restate the Amended and Restated Bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. September 19, 2011... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on September 7, 2011, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  9. 78 FR 28663 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend and Restate the Amended and Restated By-Laws of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 29, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  10. 76 FR 59472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Amend and Restate the Amended and Restated Bylaws of BATS Global Markets, Inc. September 19, 2011... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on September 7, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange''...

  11. 77 FR 15152 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...). \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 58375 (August 21, 2008), 73 FR 49498 (August 21, 2008...). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62716 (August 13, 2010), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

  12. 78 FR 41138 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...), 78 FR 29411 (``Notice''). II. Description of Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to list and...:30AM to 2:15PM. Sugar World Sugar No. ICE Futures U.S. 112,000 lbs.... 3.884 2:30AM to 11. 2:00PM... Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA''), on behalf of the Exchange,\\29\\ will communicate as...

  13. Private Higher Educational Institutions in a changing South African environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Froneman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems experienced by potential learners is accessibility to education facilities, especially in rural areas and for people with time constraints. The objective of this research is to investigate the role for Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs in South Africa, sharing the task of providing education with government supported institutions. Although distance learning is not a panacea for all educational problems, it holds great promise for driving change in education. The research is based on questionnaires, interviews and literature. Results indicated that traditional residential education couldn't reach all people. Distance learning can relieve the situation. However, both private and public providers of higher education (residential and distance can co-exist in South Africa. Private Higher Distance Learning (PHDL contributes in lowering present levels of unemployment by providing skills, as many prospective students stay in rural areas and townships. This paper emphasizes some of the changes impacting on the future of PHDL and bringing education opportunities to masses by creating an environment of shared responsibility between government institutions and private initiatives, jointly servicing a greater part of the population.

  14. Street environment change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an approach that combines occupancy grids and a distance-based method for change detection from MLS point clouds is proposed. Unlike conventional occupancy grids, our occupancy-based method models space based on scanning rays and local point distributions in 3D without voxelization. A local cylindrical reference frame is presented for the interpolation of occupancy between rays according to the scanning geometry. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is utilized for both intra-data evidence fusion and inter-data consistency assessment. Occupancy of reference point cloud is fused at the location of target points and then the consistency is evaluated directly on the points. A point-to-triangle (PTT) distance-based method is combined to improve the occupancy-based method. Because it is robust to penetrable objects, e.g. vegetation, which cause self-conflicts when modelling occupancy. The combined method tackles irregular point density and occlusion problems, also eliminates false detections on penetrable objects.

  15. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  16. Physiological changes in women during exercise in cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. J.; Shephard, R. J.; Radomski, M. W. M.

    1986-12-01

    Both the stress of exercise and the stress of a cold environment have been shown to increase the mobilization and utilization of body fat, thereby reducing body fat stores. Much of the research has been done on either rats or male human subjects. The purpose of this research was to show the physiological changes which occur to young, relatively obese, women who exercised during five consecutive days, for 200 min per day, in each of three environmental, chamber conditions: (1) warm-warm (WW), +15‡C; (2) cold-cold (CC), -20‡C; and (3) cold-warm (CW), -20‡C ambient temperature, with +18‡C air pumped to face masks for warmed air breathing. Oxygen cost of exercise, respiratory quotients, energy intake and utilization, and body composition changes were measured before, during, and after each environmental condition. While the respiratory quotients and the skinfold measurements decreased in the colder conditions, the underwater weighing determined percentage body fat did not show the same decrement as the skinfold measures, indicating a possible translocation of body fat from the subcutaneous depots to the deep body fat depots. Body mass loss was significant (Pfat in the female, a longer cold exposure would be required to observe the fully developed BAT thermogenesis which would follow after the consequences of fat translocation which we have documented.

  17. Foreign capital, forest change and regulatory compliance in Congo Basin forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropical forest change is driven by demand in distant markets. Equally, investments in tropical forest landscapes by capital originating from distant emerging economies are on the rise. Understanding how forest outcomes vary by investment source is therefore becoming increasingly important. We empirically evaluate the relationship between investment source and deforestation from 2000 to 2010 in the Republic of Congo. A Congolese forestry code was implemented in 2000 to mitigate degradation of production forests by standardizing all logging in the country according to sustainable forest management (SFM) guidelines. Following the implementation of this law, the majority (73%) of Congo’s production forests were managed by European (40%) and Asian (33%) companies. European concessions had the highest rates of total and core deforestation, followed by Asian concessions, indicating that the fragmentation of intact forests in Congo is strongly associated with industrial logging fueled by foreign capital. European concession holders were also far more likely to comply with SFM policies, followed by Asian concessions, suggesting that compliance with Sustainable Forest Management policies may not mitigate degradation in tropical production forests. Further evaluation of the relationship between investment source, regulatory compliance, and outcomes in tropical countries is essential for effective conservation of tropical forest ecosystems. (paper)

  18. Impact of a changing environment on the built heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C. M.; Brimblecombe, P.; Bonazza, A.

    2012-04-01

    Stone monuments are degraded by both climate and pollution. Deterioration by pollution was especially intense from the 1700s and until the late 20th century the dominant impact of air pollution was the sulfation of surfaces. The parallel deposition of soot caused blackening and on some surfaces dark coloured crusts. The decrease of sulfur and soot from coal combustion during the last decades of the 20th century led to cleaner air in cities, a decrease of pollution-decay rates on building stones and a public desire for cleaner buildings. Although there were decreases in SO2, it was replaced by ozone, nitrogen oxides and particles richer in organic compounds, the result of an extensive use of automobiles. Deposited organic compounds can oxidise in modern urban environments in a yellowing process. The future may reveal variation in building colour from biological growth in a changing climate. In urban atmospheres with less sulfur, biological growth is more effective. A greater rate of delivery of nitrate to building surfaces that acts as "airborne fertiliser" favours colonisation. Depending on climate, there might be different processes (e.g. greening or reddening) and patterns of colouration. Climate is also a relevant factor in the weathering of monuments. Recent research suggests the concept of Heritage Climatology in the study of climate interactions with monuments, materials and sites. These parameters concentrate on aspects and combinations of meteorological variables that relate to material damage. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification can be a good approximation for some heritage risks. For instance, the number of salt transitions shows distinct seasonality which can be related to Köppen-Geiger climate types and their change during the 21th century. The study of changing pollution and climate impacts on the built heritage needs the output of pollution emissions and climate change models, which are prone to uncertainties. The use of multiple climate models

  19. Photoprotection in changing times - UV filter efficacy and safety, sensitization processes and regulatory aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, C; Schwack, W

    2015-02-01

    As excessive sun exposure is tightly associated with different pathological changes of the skin, for example premature skin ageing or the development of skin cancer, an appropriate protection of the skin against UV radiation is of particular importance. Sun protection products and UV filter substances have evolved continuously in the past few decades. New developments and improved technical conditions of production have led to increasingly effective and efficient products with broadband protection ability. Accordingly, legal requirements have also changed and expanded. Although certain trends exist to harmonize the regulation of sunscreens at a global level, there are still large differences how UV absorbers are approved, which testing methods are prescribed, and which general requirements sun protection products must fulfil. Modern UV filters provide efficient protection against UVA and UVB radiation, are heat and photostable, user-friendly, cost-effective, water resistant and non-toxic. As inorganic and organic UV filters are topically applied to the skin in relatively high concentrations (up to 25%), especially the assessment of their (photo)sensitization potential is of particular importance. Accordingly, skin sensitization is a key endpoint for the legally required safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients in Europe and many other countries. This review will summarize the current regulatory status of different approved UV filters, will describe their beneficial and adverse properties and will give an overview of how the efficacy of sunscreens can be evaluated. Finally, an insight into the basic mechanism of (photo)allergic reactions and existing skin sensitization test methods will be provided. PMID:25256657

  20. Changing environments: Coping with diversity and globalization [Session summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This session explored issues and challenges arising from the globalization of the nuclear industry. There was recognition that the industry has moved towards a smaller number of vendors and nuclear safety standards needed to evolve towards more harmonized international requirements. Also, in the future, nuclear regulatory systems need to approach common, harmonized approaches to deliver consistent nuclear safety regulations. There was also recognition that to support new nuclear design concepts, and new regulatory approaches, new research and development is needed. There was also a need for R and D to be widely shared. New approaches based upon international design certification processes were proposed as a way of providing effective and efficient harmonization of regulatory standards for new reactor systems. The key issues to emerge were: (1) Globalization calls for more harmonization of regulatory requirements, where appropriate. Efforts in this direction are pursued at the regional levels, acknowledging that harmonization does not mean uniformity. The role of the IAEA safety standards in building an international nuclear safety regime has also increased. (2) The regulatory community will benefit strongly from cross-fertilization between regional and multinational efforts, and the international developments of more user friendly safety standards that take into account the feedback from different users. Consideration should also be given to mapping the coverage and identifying differences and gaps between IAEA and industrial safety standards. (3) There is a need to build on the IAEA safety standards to provide vendors, operators and regulators with international standards for design and operation of nuclear installations: - There is a need to develop a process whereby regulatory bodies can get together to assess and agree on a design so that the design can be accepted in any country; - There was disagreement as to whether design certification was an

  1. Changes in FDA enforcement activities following changes in federal administration: the case of regulatory letters released to pharmaceutical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Diane; Seoane-Vazquez Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio Rosa; Montagne Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the protection of the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness and security of human drugs and biological products through the enforcement of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) and related regulations. These enforcement activities include regulatory letters (i.e. warning letters and notice of violation) to pharmaceutical companies. A regulatory letter represents the FDA’s fi...

  2. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  3. A REVIEW OF CHANGES IN RUSSIA’S REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN AUGUST 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Tolmacheva; Yulia Grunina

    2014-01-01

    The following key amendments to the Russian regulatory framework were made in August 2014. Owners of living quarters will be legally bound to noti fy the Federal Migrati on Service of Russia of other individuals residing in the living quarters in legally established cases; under the Federal Law Concerning Special Evaluation of Working Conditions, the Government of Russia will streamline its regulatory framework; educational institutions will submit their students to social-physiological testi...

  4. Negotiating structural vulnerability following regulatory changes to a provincial methadone program in Vancouver, Canada: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, M J; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-05-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of social-structural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose(®) (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of 'structural vulnerability'. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose(®) precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and co-dispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  5. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  6. Strategic Renewal in Regulatory Environments. How inter- and intra-organisational institutional forces influence European incumbent energy firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How do incumbent firms strategically renew in regulatory environments? Assuming that regulation can both constrain and enable a firm's strategic renewal opportunities, we investigate how and to what extent incumbent firms undertake exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions in order to remain competitive. Exploitative strategic renewal involves those actions that strengthen or optimise a firm's current resource deployments, whereas explorative strategic renewal relates to actions that generate new sources of value creation for the firm. Based on old institutional theory, new institutional theory, neo-institutional theory and institutional entrepreneurship literature, a multi-level framework that combines selection and adaptation arguments has been developed and applied to investigate strategic renewal behaviour of a sample of European energy incumbents. At industry level of analysis, results show how inter-organisational institutional forces significantly impact firms' choices of exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions through regulative, normative and cognitive forces. At organisational unit level of analysis, we find that the extent of intra-organisational regulative forces is positively related to exploitative strategic renewal actions. In addition, entrepreneurial proclivity appears to be a catalyst of both exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions. Finally, our results provide insights how environmental selection and firm level adaptation are interrelated in the context of regulation. The extent of inter-organisational regulative forces positively moderates the relationship between intra-organisational regulative forces and exploitative strategic renewal actions.

  7. Strategic Renewal in Regulatory Environments. How inter- and intra-organisational institutional forces influence European incumbent energy firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stienstra, M.

    2008-11-20

    How do incumbent firms strategically renew in regulatory environments? Assuming that regulation can both constrain and enable a firm's strategic renewal opportunities, we investigate how and to what extent incumbent firms undertake exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions in order to remain competitive. Exploitative strategic renewal involves those actions that strengthen or optimise a firm's current resource deployments, whereas explorative strategic renewal relates to actions that generate new sources of value creation for the firm. Based on old institutional theory, new institutional theory, neo-institutional theory and institutional entrepreneurship literature, a multi-level framework that combines selection and adaptation arguments has been developed and applied to investigate strategic renewal behaviour of a sample of European energy incumbents. At industry level of analysis, results show how inter-organisational institutional forces significantly impact firms' choices of exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions through regulative, normative and cognitive forces. At organisational unit level of analysis, we find that the extent of intra-organisational regulative forces is positively related to exploitative strategic renewal actions. In addition, entrepreneurial proclivity appears to be a catalyst of both exploitative and explorative strategic renewal actions. Finally, our results provide insights how environmental selection and firm level adaptation are interrelated in the context of regulation. The extent of inter-organisational regulative forces positively moderates the relationship between intra-organisational regulative forces and exploitative strategic renewal actions.

  8. Using Nematostella vectensis to study the interactions between genome, epigenome and bacteria in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fraune

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotype of an animal cannot be explained entirely by its genes. It is now clear that factors other than the genome contribute to the ecology and evolution of animals. Two fundamentally important factors are the associated microbiota and epigenetic regulations. Unlike the genes and regulatory regions of the genome, epigenetics and microbial composition can be rapidly modified, and may thus represent mechanisms for rapid acclimation to a changing environment. At present, the individual functions of epigenetics, microbiomes, and genomic mutations are largely studied in isolation, particularly for species in marine ecosystems. This single variable approach leaves significant questions open for how these mechanisms intersect in the acclimation and adaptation of organisms in different environments. Here, we propose that the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, is a model of choice to investigate the complex interplay between adaptation as well as physiological and molecular plasticity in coastal ecosystems. N. vectensis’ geographic range spans four distinct coastlines, including a wide thermocline along the Atlantic coast of North America. N. vectensis is a particularly powerful invertebrate model for studying genome-environment interactions due to (1 the availability of a well-annotated genome, including preexisting data on genome methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs, (2 an extensive molecular toolkit including well-developed protocols for gene suppression and transgenesis, and (3 the simplicity of culture and experimentation in the laboratory. Taken together, N. vectensis has the tractability to connect the functional relationships between a host animal, microbes, and genome modifications to determine mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation.

  9. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTING IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT: HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Salvary

    2005-01-01

    Over time, a changing environment has produced changes in the types of accounting information and in the dissemination of such information (financial reporting). Certain changes in the environment do impel changes in accounting. This paper examines various theoretical issues in accounting in a historical setting and provides some insight on the manner in which the accounting profession has responded to problems.

  10. Changes in peripheral blood level of regulatory T cells in patients with malignant melanoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H;

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-a and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high) , was prospecti......In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-a and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high) , was...

  11. Changes in peripheral blood level of regulatory T cells in patients with malignant melanoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H;

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-α and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high) , was prospecti......In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-α and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high) , was...

  12. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    OpenAIRE

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-01-01

    The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments...

  13. Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    It is taking longer than expected to realize the immense potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)for civil applications due to the complexity of regulations being developed by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) that can be applied to both manned and unmanned flight in the National Airspace System (NAS). As a result, FAA has required that for all UAV flights in the NAS, an external pilot must maintain line-of-sight contact with the UAV. Properly trained observers must also be present to assist the external pilot in collision avoidance. Additionally, in order to fly in the NAS, formal approval must be requested from FAA through application for a Certificate of Authorization (COA for government applicants or a Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC) in the experimental category for non-government applicants. Flight crews of UAVs must pass exams also required for manned airplane pilots. Although flight crews for UAVs are not required to become manned airplane pilots, UAV flight missions are much more efficient if one or two of the UAV flight crew are also manned aircraft pilots so they can serve as the UAV mission commander. Our group has performed numerous UAV flights within the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Two developments with Jornada UAVs can be recommended to other UAV operators that would increase flight time experience and study areas covered by UAV images. First, do not overlook the possibility of obtaining permission to fly in Restricted Military Airspace (RMA). At the Jornada, our airspace is approximately 50% NAS and 50% RMA. With experiments ongoing in both types of airspace, we can fly in both areas and continue to increase UAV flights. Second, we have developed an air- and-ground vehicle approach for long distance, continuous pilot transport that always maintains line-of-sight requirements. This allows flying several target areas on a single mission and increasing the number of acquired UAV images - over 90,000 UAV images have now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

  14. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  15. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  16. 76 FR 69120 - Regulatory Changes To Implement the United States/Australian Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher, telephone: (301) 492- 3668; email: Carol.Gallagher@nrc.gov . FOR... by the Commission on June 30, 1997, and published in the Federal Register on September 3, 1997 (62 FR..., Maryland, this 13th day of October 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michael F. Weber,...

  17. The impact of business environment changes on recent costing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧涓

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The acceleration of globalization and the prosperity of information technology benefit business a great deal.But with the speeding up of economic development,firms are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their business.The heated debate is on about whether traditional management accounting practices and techniques are irrelevant to the current business environment and this essay will explore the causes for using some traditional management accounting practices and techniques in the current business environment are inappropriate and put forward some contemporary management accounting techniques which is relevant to the current business environment.Thus,the essay will be divided into three sections to discuss the traditional management accounting practices and techniques and contemporary management accounting techniques in current business environment.

  18. A recurrent regulatory change underlying altered expression and Wnt response of the stickleback armor plates gene EDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brown, Natasha M; Summers, Brian R; Jones, Felicity C; Brady, Shannon D; Kingsley, David M

    2015-01-01

    Armor plate changes in sticklebacks are a classic example of repeated adaptive evolution. Previous studies identified ectodysplasin (EDA) gene as the major locus controlling recurrent plate loss in freshwater fish, though the causative DNA alterations were not known. Here we show that freshwater EDA alleles have cis-acting regulatory changes that reduce expression in developing plates and spines. An identical T → G base pair change is found in EDA enhancers of divergent low-plated fish. Recreation of the T → G change in a marine enhancer strongly reduces expression in posterior armor plates. Bead implantation and cell culture experiments show that Wnt signaling strongly activates the marine EDA enhancer, and the freshwater T → G change reduces Wnt responsiveness. Thus parallel evolution of low-plated sticklebacks has occurred through a shared DNA regulatory change, which reduces the sensitivity of an EDA enhancer to Wnt signaling, and alters expression in developing armor plates while preserving expression in other tissues. PMID:25629660

  19. Designing for change: mash-up personal learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, Fridolin; Mödritscher, Felix; Sigurdarson, Steinn

    2008-01-01

    Institutions for formal education and most work places are equipped today with at least some kind of tools that bring together people and content artefacts in learning activities to support them in constructing and processing information and knowledge. For almost half a century, science and practice have been discussing models on how to bring personalisation through digital means to these environments. Learning environments and their construction as well as maintenance makes up the most cruci...

  20. Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

    2012-06-01

    The objective is to identify and test regulatory options for creating supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating among local governments in Victoria, Australia. A literature review identified nine potential areas for policy intervention at local government level, including the walking environment and food policy. Discussion documents were drafted which summarized the public health evidence and legal framework for change in each area. Levels of support for particular interventions were identified through semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from local government. We conducted 11 key informant interviews and found support for policy intervention to create environments supportive of physical activity but little support for policy changes to promote healthy eating. Participants reported lack of relevance and competing priorities as reasons for not supporting particular interventions. Promoting healthy eating environments was not considered a priority for local government above food safety. There is a real opportunity for action to prevent obesity at local government level (e.g. mandate the promotion of healthy eating environments). For local government to have a role in the promotion of healthy food environments, regulatory change and suitable funding are required.

  1. Changes in the perceived neighborhood environment in relation to changes in physical activity: A longitudinal study from childhood into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; De Meester, Femke; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to investigate how physical activity and the perceived neighborhood environment in children change when they enter adolescence. Also the relation between changes in the perceived environment and changes in children's physical activity was investigated. In total, 321 children and one of their parents filled out a physical activity questionnaire and the NEWS-Y at two time points (last grade of elementary school and 2 years later). Children also wore an activity monitor. Changes in children's physical activity were dependent on the physical activity domain. Only less than half of children's perceived neighborhood factors changed and about half of the parental perceived neighborhood factors changed. Most of these factors changed towards higher activity friendliness. Changes in the perceived environment were only limitedly related to changes in children's physical activity. PMID:25840351

  2. Department of Energy LLW disposal; adapting to a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's philosophy is evolving to meet the challenge of providing safe and cost-effective LLW management. The DOE expects to use a system approach by obtaining consensus on performance requirements with all of the involved regulatory agencies and by applying these performance requirements to the best available site. Engineered features will be added either through the stabilization of the waste or site improvements as required to meet the performance requirements. Necessary waste stabilization will be incorporated into the waste acceptance criteria relieving the operator from making waste treatment decisions on a strict cost-effectiveness basis. The initial analysis to determine a configuration which meets minimum performance requirements will also serve as the baseline for additional analyses to meet the ALARA requirements

  3. Economic analyses of the Dutch greenhouse chain in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, D.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Horticultural greenhouse firms operate in a changing environment. This thesis has investigated the socio-economic consequences of market environment changes on supply, demand and prices throughout the Dutch greenhouse horticulture chain. The following market changes were studied: the increasing need

  4. Current and new developments in transport and regulatory issues concerning radioisotopes: managing change for minimum business impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Neil; Coppell, David; Rogers, David; Schrader, John

    2004-09-01

    Changes in the regulatory framework governing the Radiation Processing Industry have the potential to make a real business impact on day-to-day profitability. Many areas of the Radiation Processing Industry are affected by changes in the regulatory framework within which these areas are managed. When planning for such changes the transportation element in the shipment of sealed cobalt radiation sources is an area that is often neglected by some parts of the distribution chain. A balance must be struck between the cobalt supplier and the facility operator/customer that rests upon how much the customer needs to know about the intricacies of cobalt shipment. The objective of this paper is to highlight areas of possible business impact and reassure the users of sealed radiation sources that the global suppliers of these products are used to negotiating local variations in regulations governing the physical transportation of radiation sources, changes in regulations governing the design, manufacture and use of transportation containers and changes in the availability of commercial shippers and shipping routes. The major suppliers of industrial quantities of cobalt-60 are well placed to lead their customers through this complex process as a matter of routine.

  5. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  6. Changing the regulation for regulating the change: Innovation-driven regulatory developments for smart grids, smart metering and e-mobility in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time considered as technologically mature, electric systems are now facing a period of rapid evolution, inspired by climate change concerns. Several studies show that current regulation of natural monopolies does not offer sufficient incentives for network operators (and network users) to participate in this process. Taking Italy as a case study, this paper analyses how energy regulation can change to support the current transformation. We describe the recent regulatory interventions in the domain of smart grids, smart metering and electromobility, with a specific emphasis on the provisions aimed at fostering innovation—an issue that until recently has received almost no attention in the literature nor in the practice of regulation. The progress we observe is considerable in all new areas of concern, and, above all, in the regulator's commitment to provide the right incentives for investments in demonstration projects: the acquisition of experience is regarded as essential to move to more sophisticated regulatory instruments. Finally, regulation is also increasingly concerned with network users, both traditional and new, with the objective to stimulate more active behaviours. - Highlights: ► Regulatory changes in Italy: smart grids, smart metering and electromobility. ► Identification of indicators for regulating innovative investments. ► Demonstration projects for smart grids and EV recharging infrastructures. ► Proposal of an output-based regulation for smart grids. ► Time of Use pricing for residential and small commercial consumers

  7. How Changes in the Federal Register Can Help Improve Regulatory Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    See Hahn for a more recent analysis published in the Administrative Law Review. Congress has recently become more receptive to using economic analysis in regulatory decisionmaking. To improve regulation, an important first step is to provide useful information that is accessible to the public and other interested parties. The government is an essential source of that information for many federal regulations. Within the government, a central repository of information on regulation is the Feder...

  8. Designing Learning Environments To Promote Conceptual Change in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella; Ioannides, Christos; Dimitrakopoulou, Aggeliki; Papademetriou, Efi

    2001-01-01

    Studied the use of research-based principles to create a learning environment for teaching mechanics to one class of Greek fifth and sixth graders. Students were encouraged to take active control of their learning, make predictions, and test their own hypotheses. Results show significant differences between experimental and control groups,…

  9. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  10. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  11. Organizing corruption controls after a scandal: Regaining legitimacy in complex and changing institutional environments

    OpenAIRE

    Schembera, Stefan; Scherer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study the corruption control strategies at three Multinational companies (MNC) before, during, and after the disclosure of corruption scandals and the initiation of legal procedures. In particular, we want to explore why some MNCs after a corruption scandal exceed regulatory expectations, choose proactive strategies, and influence their environment as institutional entrepreneurs that define best practices and new industry standards. Other companies, by contrast, act in a more incremental a...

  12. Diatoms in peat – dominant producers in a changing environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, Ulla; Struyf, Eric; Randsalu, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Changes in hydrology and temperature can induce rapid changes in boreal wetland ecosystems. Factors such as hydrosere, permafrost, climate and human interference may disturb the prevailing mire vegetation, whereby a new dominant assemblage can develop. At the transition from one vegetation type...... content. Biogenic silica and other nutrients that would otherwise be lost during mineralization in runoff are in this way retained in the ecosystem. Our results imply that silica storage originating from diatoms can be expected to increase in today's rapidly changing boreal wetlands. The impacts...

  13. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren S Proppe

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  14. Simulation of machine interference in randomly changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztrik J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation tool lcpSim can be used to investigate special level crossing problems of queuing systems of type HYPOk / HYPOr / 1 // n embedded in different Markovian environments (recently referred to as Markov modulated ones. Our observed system consists of n heterogeneous machines (requests and a server that 'repairs' the broken machines according to the most commonly used service disciplines, such as FIFO, LIFO, PPS, HOL, Preemptive Priorities (Resume, Repeat, Transfer, Polling, Nearest. We specify a maximum number of stopped machines for an operating system and our aim is to give the main steady-state performance measures of the system, such as, server utilization, machine utilization, mean waiting times, mean response times, the probability of an operating system and the mean operating time of the system. These values can be calculated by lcpSim level crossing problem Simulation package for different random environment types and service disciplines.

  15. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  16. A look at the changing environment along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Das, V.K.

    Increased human activity along the Indian coastline has exerted pressure on its morphology and ecology. The factors responsible for morphological changes like subsidence, rising sea level, storms, storm surges, sediment input from rivers, sediment...

  17. Within-woman change in regulatory T cells from pregnancy to the postpartum period

    OpenAIRE

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Bobbitt, Kevin R.; Woodcroft, Kimberley J.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are an important area of investigation in human health and disease. In this study, the trajectory of percentage of Treg cells (defined as CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127− lymphocytes) was measured in the blood of 208 women during pregnancy and up to 3 additional times in the postpartum period (1, 6 and 12 months postpartum). Whether the trajectory was affected by gravidity, parity, neonatal sex, pet exposure, maternal atopic and asthma status, smoking, maternal race or ot...

  18. Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1999-09-01

    In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

  19. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  20. Communicating Climate Change to Visitors of Informal Science Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfler, Jes A.; Heimlich, Joe E.; Yocco, Victor S.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings on visitors' preferences for content presentation of a future global warming and climate change exhibit. The study was conducted with two groups: one from the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, and the other at the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio. The…

  1. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  2. The Networked University: The Structure, Culture, and Policy of Universities in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The universities in Europe are finding themselves in a turbulent environment. They are exposed to global and European developments. This article links changes in the structure, culture, and policy of universities to these developments and changes in the broader-than-national environment. The central question is, in short: what is globalisation…

  3. Changing heartbeat perception to induce anxiety in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose a general technique to induce anxiety in virtual environments (VEs) which exploits auditory heartbeat perception and biofeedback. Then, we consider a VE that reproduces a real-world anxiety-inducing experience (being suddenly surrounded by smoke during a fire evacuation of a building), and we describe an experiment that contrasts 3 conditions: (i) an augmentation of the VE with a bar that indicates when the user's avatar gets hurt, (ii) an augmentation of the VE with the typical audio visual stimuli which are employed in violent videogames when the user's avatar gets hurt, (iii) introduction of the proposed biofeedback technique in the previous condition. We carry out an electrodermal analysis showing that the introduction of the proposed technique produces much higher physiological arousal in terms of skin conductance level (SCL) than the other two conditions. Subjective measures of users' state anxiety are consistent with the recorded physiological reactions. PMID:22954850

  4. Changing heartbeat perception to induce anxiety in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose a general technique to induce anxiety in virtual environments (VEs) which exploits auditory heartbeat perception and biofeedback. Then, we consider a VE that reproduces a real-world anxiety-inducing experience (being suddenly surrounded by smoke during a fire evacuation of a building), and we describe an experiment that contrasts 3 conditions: (i) an augmentation of the VE with a bar that indicates when the user's avatar gets hurt, (ii) an augmentation of the VE with the typical audio visual stimuli which are employed in violent videogames when the user's avatar gets hurt, (iii) introduction of the proposed biofeedback technique in the previous condition. We carry out an electrodermal analysis showing that the introduction of the proposed technique produces much higher physiological arousal in terms of skin conductance level (SCL) than the other two conditions. Subjective measures of users' state anxiety are consistent with the recorded physiological reactions.

  5. An ever-changing systemic environment for migrating workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, Nikitas A.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper we present the concept of the systemic and dynamic environment for migrating workflows, and the considerations related to the implementation of this concept. Migrating workflows are a computational metaphor for the way most people conduct their daily business: they visit a place, use a service (perhaps after some negotiation), and move on to the next place. A migrating workflow behaves similarly: it transfers its code (specification) and its execution state to a site, negotiates a service to be executed on its behalf, receives the results, and moves on. Dialog between the workflow and individual sites may influence the workflow's migration. Thus the actual workflow instance is defined during run-time, as an effect of merging the static workflow specification and the local site rules and policies.

  6. How the American, Degree-Granting For-Profit Higher Education Sector Manages the Regulatory Environment: An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Caulyne Nichole

    2013-01-01

    This intrinsic case study examined the context of the American, degree-granting for-profit higher education sector between 2009 and 2012, applying institutional theory and resource dependency theory to develop an understanding of how the degree-granting for-profit sector of American higher education manages regulatory pressures. The study examines…

  7. Leveraging Environment and Climate Change Initiatives for Corporate Excellence

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatachalam ANBUMOZHI; Kimura, Mari; Isono, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    As an integral part of sustainable development, the impacts from climate change, including increasing water stress, more extreme weather events, the potential for high levels of migration and the disruption of international markets are critical challenges for all Asian countries. With rapid economic growth and modernization, the countries in the region are increasing production and consumption, calling for critical adaption measures. With the Asian countries and the energy sector exceedingly ...

  8. Mining and the environment: driving forces for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public perceptions of the mining industry and its environmental, economic and socio-cultural impacts are of basic importance with regard to the development of regulations and of company strategies. Identifying those public attitudes (expressed either formally or informally) that will become widespread forces for change can be difficult, as can choosing the correct response. There is a need for the industry as a whole to define generally applicable social and environmental principles. (author)

  9. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  10. INIST : Tracking Grey Literature in a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2000-01-01

    The Institute of Scientific & Technical Information (INIST, www.inist.fr), founded in '88 and part of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS, www.cnrs.fr), is a major public database producer (Pascal, Francis) and document supply center. Since 1998, INIST has engaged in a collective reflection on its databases, services and acquisition policy to face up with electronic document and rapidly changing needs. Our approach to "non-conventional literature" (reports, theses, confer...

  11. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  12. Changes of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Xiao; Yu-Lan Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the changes of CD8+ T subsets especially CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of experimental colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofiuorobenzene (DNFB).METHODS: The rat model of experimental colitis was induced by enema with DNFB. Ten days later, colonic intraepithelial and splenic lymphocytes were isolated from colitis animals (n=16) and controls (n=8). The proportion of CD8+ T cells, CD8+CD28+ T cells and CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells were determined by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The model of experimental colitis was successfully established by DNFB that was demonstrated by bloody diarrhea, weight loss and colonic histopathology. The proportion of CD8+ T cells in either splenic or colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes was not significantly different between colitis animals and controls (spleen: 34.6±7.24 % vs33.5±9.41%,colon: 14.0±8.93 % vs 18.0±4.06 %, P>0.05). But CD8+CD28-T regulatory cells from colitis animals were significantly more than those from controls (spleen: 11.3±2.26 % vs5.64±1.01%,colon: 6.50±5.37 % vs 1.07±0.65 %, P<0.05). In contrast,CD8+CD28+ T cells from colitis animals were less than those from controls (spleen: 23.3±6.14 % vs27.8±9.70 %, P=0.06;colon: 7.52±4.18 % vs 16.9±4.07 %, P<0.05). The proportion of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in splenic and colonintraepithelial CD8+ T cells from colitis animals was higher than that from controls (spleen: 33.3±5.49 % vs 18.4±7.26 %,colon: 46.0±14.3 % vs6.10±3.72 %, P<0.005).CONCLUSION: Experimental colitis of rats can be induced by DNFB with simplicity and good reproducibility. The proportion of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rats with experimental colitis is increased, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colitis.

  13. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  14. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  15. On the world's ice ages and changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All known ice ages during the earth's history are reviewed. The oldest glaciation occurred around 2.3 billion years ago, followed by a series of large glaciations 950-650, 450-430 and 310-270 million years ago. Continental drift played a major role in these long-term climatic changes. The present Quaternary ice age actually began 17 million years ago, when a large ice mass grew over Antarctica. A detailed account is given of the climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary period (over 2.5 million years). Different stratigraphic records, and the relationship of climatic variations to orbital forcing are discussed. Large environmental changes took place in the course of the climate oscillations. Large ice sheets waxed and waned, global sea-levels fluctuated, forests disappeared from many regions during cold times and advanced during favourable times. The ice masses depressed the earth's crust markedly, and this then rose rapidly when the ice melted. The extent of glacial erosion is also discussed. Finally the postglacial climatic history of the earth is described and the consequences of the possible greenhouse effect are considered.(orig.)

  16. Climate change and the cultural environment: Recognized impacts challenges in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    BerghÀll, Jonna; Pesu, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts the cultural heritage of Finland. Adaptation and mitigation measures are posing challenges along with the consequences of climate change. Cultural landscapes, the built cultural environment and the archaeological heritage all will be affected. The impacts of climate change that Finland will face and the challenges posed by them for the care of the cultural environment also apply to the Boreal Zone of Northern Europe in more general terms. This report charts the chall...

  17. A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jones Adam G

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even th...

  18. Do changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in single-family houses result in the expected energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 pct. reduction in natural gas consumption. For comparison the ex ante expectation was 25 pct. reduction in heating demand...

  19. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, P.S. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  20. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Downard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they are located. Managers have acquired water rights and constructed infrastructure while cultivating collaborative relationships with other water users to increase the adaptive capacity of the region and decrease conflict. Historically, water management involved diversion and impoundment of water within wetland units timed around patterns of agricultural water needs. In the last 20 years, managers have learned from flood and drought events and developed a long-term adaptive management plan that specifies alternative management actions managers can choose each year based on habitat needs and projected water supply. Each alternative includes habitat goals and target wetland water depth. However, wetland management adapted to agricultural return-flow availability may prove insufficient as population growth and climate change alter patterns of land and water use. Future management will likely depend more on negotiation, collaboration, and learning from social developments within the SES than strictly focusing on water management within refuge boundaries. To face this problem, managers have worked to be included in negotiations with regional water users, a strategy that may prove instructive for other wetland managers in agriculture-dominated watersheds.

  1. 77 FR 3531 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... proposed rule change in Section II below. II. Description The rule change will enhance the risk management... To Enhance Risk Management Controls Associated With the Receiver Authorized Delivery Function January... enhance the risk management controls associated with the RAD function to reduce Participant...

  2. Regulatory Implications of Structural Changes in Tyr201 of the Oxygen Sensor Protein FixL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Takeo; Ishikawa, Haruto; Mizuno, Misao; Nakamura, Hiro; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-07-26

    FixL is a heme-based oxygen-sensing histidine kinase that induces the expression of nitrogen fixation genes under hypoxic conditions. Oxygen dissociation from heme iron in the sensor domain of FixL initiates protein conformational changes that are transmitted to the histidine kinase domain, activating autophosphorylation activity. Conversely, oxygen binding inhibits FixL kinase activity. It is essential to elucidate the changes that occur in the protein structure upon this oxygen dissociation for understanding of the allosteric transduction mechanism. We measured ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra of FixL and its mutants for deoxy, oxy, and carbonmonoxy forms to examine the changes in protein structure upon oxygen dissociation. The observed spectral changes indicated that Tyr201 and its neighboring residues undergo structural changes upon oxygen dissociation. Kinase assays showed that substitution of Tyr201 significantly decreased the inhibition of kinase activity upon oxygen binding. These data mean that weakening of the hydrogen bond of Tyr201 that is induced by oxygen dissociation is essential for inhibition of kinase activity. We also observed spectral changes in Tyr residues in the kinase domain upon oxygen dissociation from FixL, which is the first observation of oxygen-dependent structural changes in the kinase domain of FixL. The observed structural changes support the allosteric transduction pathway of FixL which we proposed previously [ Yano, S., Ishikawa, H., Mizuno, M., Nakamura, H., Shiro, Y., and Mizutani, Y. ( 2013 ) J. Phys. Chem. B 117 , 15786 - 15791 ]. PMID:27367650

  3. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  4. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  5. Respiratory changes due to extreme cold in the Arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, P.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1993-03-01

    Effects of acute exposure and acclimatisation to cold stress on respiratory functions were investigated in healthy tropical Indian men ( n=10). Initial baseline recordings were carried out at Delhi and thereafter serially thrice at the arctic region and once on return to Delhi. For comparison the respiratory functions were also evaluated on Russian migrants (RM; n=7) and Russian natives (RN; n=6). The respiratory functions were evaluated using standard methodology on a Vitalograph: In Indians, there was an initial decrease in lung vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume 1st s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) on acute exposure to cold stress, followed by gradual recovery during acclimatisation for 4 weeks and a further significant improvement after 9 weeks of stay at the arctic region. On return to India all the parameters reached near baseline values except for MVV which remained slightly elevated. RM and RN showed similar respiratory functions at the beginning of acute cold exposure at the arctic zone. RN showed an improvement after 10 weeks of stay whereas RM did not show much change. The respiratory responses during acute cold exposure are similar to those of initial altitude responses.

  6. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  7. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  8. Ages of celiac disease: From changing environment to improved diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Tommasini; Tarcisio Not; Alessandro Ventura

    2011-01-01

    From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into manyages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeperknowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time,these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the diseasein population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was notknown; later, the disease was proven to depend on anintolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosalchanges in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten(AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presenta-tion. More recently, the characterization of autoantibod-ies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disor-ders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further devel-opments for the next celiac age will be proposed.

  9. COST EFFECTIVE REGULATORY APPROACHES TO ENHANCE DOMESTIC OIL & GAS PRODUCTION AND ENSURE THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Grunewald; Paul Jehn; Tom Gillespie; Ben Binder

    2004-12-21

    The Environmental Information Management Suite/Risk Based Data Management System (EIMS/RBDMS) and Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA) programs continue to be successful. All oil and gas state regulatory programs participate in these efforts. Significant accomplishments include: streamline regulatory approaches, enhancing environmental protection, and making oil and gas data available via the Internet. Oil and gas companies worldwide now have access to data on state web sites. This reduces the cost of exploration and enables companies to develop properties in areas that would have been cost prohibited for exploration. Early in project, GWPC and State Oil and Gas agencies developed the EIMS and CERA strategic plan to prioritize long term development and implementation. The planning process identifies electronic commerce and coal bed methane as high priorities. The group has involved strategic partners in industry and government to develop a common data exchange process. Technical assistance to Alaska continues to improve their program management capabilities. New initiatives in Alaska include the development of an electronic permit tracking system. This system allows managers to expedite the permitting process. Nationwide, the RBDMS system is largely completed with 22 states and one Indian Nation now using this nationally accepted data management system. Additional remaining tasks include routine maintenance and the installation of the program upon request for the remaining oil and gas states. The GWPC in working with the BLM and MMS to develop an XML schema to facilitate electronic permitting and reporting (Appendix A, B, and C). This is a significant effort and, in years to come, will increase access to federal lands by reducing regulatory barriers. The new initiatives are coal bed methane and e-commerce. The e-commerce program will provide industry and BLM/MMS access to the millions of data points housed in the RBDMS system. E-commerce will streamline

  10. The cricket and the ant : Organizational trade-offs in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peli, Gabor; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Organizations face trade-offs when they adopt strategies in changing resource environments. The type of trade-off depends on the type of resource change. This paper offers an organizational trade-off model for quantitative resource changes. We call it the "Cricket and Ant" (CA) model, because the pe

  11. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    Numerous reports demand changes in college and university teaching practices. This is especially true for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. STEM stakeholders are concerned about student retention within STEM majors, as well as the lack of sufficient graduates with the knowledge to advance these fields. A common conclusion of these reports is that teaching practices must change. Although these calls for change have occurred for decades, STEM fields have yet to experience widespread change. Thus, there is a need for more effective change strategies. Recently, researchers have suggested that effective change strategies should focus on changing the environments of academic departments. This is in contrast to most commonly-used change strategies that focus on individual instructors. Environmentfocused change strategies have two main varieties: those that have a goal of implementing prescribed outcomes, and those that expect the outcomes to emerge from the change process. Yet, little is known about how to enact environment-focused change strategies. The goal of this research is to provide guidance for change agents and researchers by analyzing a large-scale change initiative from the perspective of two environment-focused change strategies: Kotter's eight-stage leadership process (prescribed) and complexity leadership theory (emergent). This analysis was guided by two research questions. 1. Within the context of a higher education change initiative, how is the change process described from the perspectives of two distinct leadership theories? 2. How do these descriptions frame problems and solutions associated with change? Each change strategy identified different activities as contributing to change as well as different missed opportunities. For example, when the change vision was not communicated effectively, the eight-stage leadership process indicated that the involvement of the department chair was needed, while complexity

  12. Changes in Translational Efficiency is a Dominant Regulatory Mechanism in the Environmental Response of Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Ronald C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Serres, Margrethe H.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wiley, H. S.

    2013-09-23

    To understand how cell physiological state affects mRNA translation, we used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown under steady state conditions at either aerobic or suboxic conditions. Using a combination of quantitative proteomics and RNA-Seq, we generated high-confidence data on >1000 mRNA and protein pairs. By using a steady state model, we found that differences in protein-mRNA ratios were primarily caused by differences in the translational efficiency of specific genes. When oxygen levels were lowered, 28% of the proteins showed at least a 2-fold change in expression. Altered transcription levels appeared responsible for 26% of the protein changes, altered translational efficiency appeared responsible for 46% and a combination of both were responsible for the remaining 28%. Changes in translational efficiency were significantly correlated with the codon usage pattern of the genes and measurable tRNA pools changed in response to altered O2 levels. Our results suggest that changes in the translational efficiency of proteins, in part caused by altered tRNA pools, is a major determinant of regulated protein expression in bacteria.

  13. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Krushelnitsky, A. D.; Ogorodniychuk, I. V.; Ivanko, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers  the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  14. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    OpenAIRE

    Krushelnitsky A.D.; Ogorodniychuk I.V.; Ivanko O.M.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  15. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  16. Regulatory mechanism of radiation-induced cancer cell death by the change of cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Soo Jin; Jeong, Min Ho; Jang, Ji Yeon [College of Medicine, Donga Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    cycle regulatory activites. In this study, we present a unique and reproducible model in which for investigating the mechanisms of various, radiation-induced, cancer cell death patterns. Further evaluation by using this model will provide a potent target for a new strategy of radiotherapy.

  17. Climate change – health impacts due to changes in the indoor environment; research need

    OpenAIRE

    Crump, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    People in industrialised countries spend approximately 80% of their time indoors and the young and the elderly and people in poor health are likely to spend considerably more time indoors, particularly at home. Therefore all aspects of health that are related to environmental conditions can be impacted by the quality of the indoor environment. The indoor environment should provide shelter from the extremes of the outdoors and maintain a comfortable indoor climate, particular...

  18. 76 FR 68238 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... expected to result in a shorter liquidation period and reduced execution risk. During Lehman Brothers.... 64982 (July 28, 2011), 76 FR 46867 (August 3, 2011). \\4\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65370 (September 21, 2011), 76 FR 59750 (September 27, 2011). The proposed rule change as originally filed...

  19. 75 FR 69150 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Depository Trust Company; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., 2010), 75 FR 60158. II. Description DTC's Security Position Report (``SPR'') service provides valuable... November 4, 2010. I. Introduction On September 14, 2010, The Depository Trust Company (``DTC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') proposed rule change SR-DTC-2010-12...

  20. 78 FR 8640 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    .... 65619 (October 25, 2011), 76 FR 67238 (October 31, 2011) (order approving proposed rule change by BATS...\\ \\7\\ See Notice supra note 3, at 76 FR 75460. \\8\\ BATS Rule 11.23(a)(23) defines ``Volume Based Tie....\\23\\ \\22\\ See Notice supra note 3, at 77 FR at 75460. BATS Rule 11.23(a)(22) defines a RHO order as...

  1. Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Miguel Chevin

    Full Text Available Many species are experiencing sustained environmental change mainly due to human activities. The unusual rate and extent of anthropogenic alterations of the environment may exceed the capacity of developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms that populations have evolved to deal with environmental change. To begin to understand the limits to population persistence, we present a simple evolutionary model for the critical rate of environmental change beyond which a population must decline and go extinct. We use this model to highlight the major determinants of extinction risk in a changing environment, and identify research needs for improved predictions based on projected changes in environmental variables. Two key parameters relating the environment to population biology have not yet received sufficient attention. Phenotypic plasticity, the direct influence of environment on the development of individual phenotypes, is increasingly considered an important component of phenotypic change in the wild and should be incorporated in models of population persistence. Environmental sensitivity of selection, the change in the optimum phenotype with the environment, still crucially needs empirical assessment. We use environmental tolerance curves and other examples of ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to illustrate how these mechanistic approaches can be developed for predictive purposes.

  2. RISK ENVIRONMENT AS SOCIAL REALITY CHANGE FACTOR: THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    ZUBOK YU. A.; CHUPROV V.I.

    2015-01-01

    The article explains the theoretical concept of modern environment study transformation based on risk approach. The risks occurring in the environment are conceptualized as the environmental and the activity phenomenon appearing during the transition from certainty to uncertainty and vice versa. The dialectical relationship of uncertainty and non-linearity is argued in changing social reality of modern risk society. The problems of risk social regulation in a changing reality.Reflecting in th...

  3. Optimisation of product change process and demand-supply chain in high tech environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information and communications technology (ICT) companies face challenges in an unpredictable business environment, where demand-supply forecasting is not accurate enough. How to optimally manage product change process and demand-supply chain in this type of environment? Companies face pressures to simultaneously be efficient, responsive and innovative, i.e. to minimise costs, and shorten order delivery and product change periods. This thesis included three action research c...

  4. Changes in built environment and in vernacular architecture through globalization: Case of Battalgazi inTurkiye

    OpenAIRE

    Yildirim, Mucahit; Korkmaz, Mahir

    2012-01-01

    Housing and its architectural characteristics physically change in step with changes in culture, social demographics, behavior and environmental structures. These physical changes influence the environment and housing because of contemporary life-styles and behaviors. The cultural identity which has been created in a long period of time is going to be lost rapidly. Cultural changes also include migration. The migration from rural areas to the downtowns causes variety in traditions and the arc...

  5. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  6. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke;

    methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...... from a product system being studied in an LCA must be seen in context with the changing future background situation. This background situation is among other things affected by e.g. cumulative atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions of yet unknown magnitude. Here, we define climate change damage...... on the natural environment as climate change driven environmental changes. The man-made environment such as cultivated land, infrastructure and urban areas is not considered. Hypothetical climate change damage functions representing both sensitive and robust responses were analyzed in relation to cumulative...

  7. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  8. Regulatory Changes of N-Acetylgalactosamine Terminal Sugar in Early Mouse Embryonic Paraxial Mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Miri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The development of vertebrae is a complex phenomenon that is correlated with distinct morphological and biochemical alterations in the paraxial mesenchyme and glycoconjugates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the glycosylation pattern in paraxial mesenchyme-forming vertebrae by using the lectin histochemical technique.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, B4G fixed paraffin sections of 9 to 15 day Balb/c mouse embryos were processed for histochemical studies using seven different HRP-labelled lectins: Glycin max (SBA, Maclura pomifera (MPA, Wistaria floribunda (WFA, Vicia villosa (VVA which all of them are specific for N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, Ulex europius (UEA1, binds to α-L-fucose, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, binds to sialic acid, and Griffonia simplicifolia (GSA1-B4, binds to galactose terminal sugars. The sections were observed separately by three examiners who were blinded to the lectins. Grading was done according to the intensity of the tested lectins’ reactions with the specimen, from negative (- to severe (+++. Data was analysed with SPSS software (version 11.5 and the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test; p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Our findings showed that among the tested lectins, only GalNAc residue sensitive lectins showed regulated changes in paraxial mesenchyme. Reactions of WFA and MPA lectins with paraxial mesenchyme were severe on GD9. Reactions of WFA continued to GD15 constantly, while MPA reactions continued strongly to GD12, significantly decreased thereafter (p<0.001, and then disappeared. VVA and SBA bindings initiated weakly on GD10 and continued to GD12 without changing. These reactions increased significantly (p<0.001 thereafter, became severe to GD14, and later disappeared. The other tested lectins did not reveal regulated changes.Conclusion: According to these findings it can be concluded that only the GalNAc terminal sugar showed temporally regulated

  9. Dynamic changes of the Th17/Tc17 and regulatory T cell populations interfere in the experimental autoimmune diabetes pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaochite, Juliana Navarro Ueda; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Davanso, Mariana Rodrigues; Carlos, Daniela; Malmegrim, Kelen Cristina Ribeiro; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Palma, Patricia Vianna Bonini; da Silva, João Santana; Cunha, Fernando Queiróz; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Voltarelli, Júlio César

    2013-03-01

    A balance between proinflammatory (Th17 and Tc17) and anti-inflammatory (regulatory T cells) subsets of T cells is essential to maintain immunological tolerance and prevent the onset of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. However, the kinetics of these subsets and disease severity during the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes course has not been determined. Thus, susceptible C57BL/6 mice were administrated with multiple low doses of STZ and we evaluated the frequency/absolute number of these T cell subsets in the pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) and spleen and Th1, Th17, Treg cytokine production in the pancreatic tissue. At different time points of the disease progression (6, 11, 18 and 25 days after the last STZ administration), the histopathological alterations were also evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. During the initial phase of diabetes development (day 6), we noted increased numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in spleen and PLNs. At the same time, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in PLNs were also enhanced. In addition, the early augment of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumoral necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-17 levels in pancreatic tissue correlated with pancreatic islet inflammation and mild β-cell damage. Notably, the absolute number of Treg cells increased in PLNs during over time when compared to control group. Interestingly, increased IL-10 levels were associated with control of the inflammatory process during the late phase of the type 1 diabetes (day 25). In agreement, mice lacking the expression of IL-17 receptor (Il17r) showed impairment in STZ-induced diabetes progression, reduced peri-insulitis and beta cells preservation when compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that dynamic changes of pathogenic Th17/Tc17 and regulatory T cell subsets numbers is associated with early strong inflammation in the pancreatic islets followed by late regulatory profile during the experimental STZ

  10. Managing Evolution and Change in Web-Based Teaching and Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the design and maintenance of computer-based teaching and learning environments and illustrates consequences of evolution and change in Web-based courses. Focuses on changes in content; format of the course; infrastructure, including hardware, systems, and software; and pedagogy, or instructional design, including knowledge modeling,…

  11. Communication in troubled waters : responses of fish communication systems to changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, Inke; Gray, Suzanne M.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.; Barber, Iain; Candolin, Ulrika; Hendry, Andrew P.; Krahe, Ruediger; Maan, Martine E.; Utne-Palm, Anne Christine; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly being subjected to anthropogenic changes to their sensory environments. The impact of these changes on inter- and intra-specific communication, and its evolutionary consequences, has only recently started to receive research attention. A disruption of the sensory en

  12. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how diff

  13. Impact of recent DOT regulatory changes (HM-169A) on D ampersand D packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Thursday, September 28, 1995, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) issued docket HM-169A, open-quotes Hazardous Materials Transportation Regulations; Compatibility with Regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency.close quotes In the words of the DOT, open-quotes This final rule amends the Hazardous Materials Regulations pertaining to the transportation of radioactive materials to harmonize them with those of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and, thus most of the nuclear nations of the world.close quotes This docket introduces several significant changes that will dramatically affect the packaging and transport of radioactive materials, especially the categories of waste/materials generated as a result of the extensive decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) programs under way throughout the U.S. Department of Energy and the nuclear industry as a whole, and the upcoming decommissioning of the nuclear power plants

  14. Change: Threat or opportunity for human progress? V. 5. Ecological change: Environment, development and poverty linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume consists of 18 articles that examine the changing ecological balance of the world and its effect on human prosperity. The problems caused by global warning, climate change and environmental degradation will have serious effects in both the short and the long term. Two of the 18 articles fall within INIS scope: these have been indexed separately. Tabs

  15. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  16. Dynamics of evolutionary rescue in changing environments and the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Saddler, Clare A; Valckenborgh, Frank; Tanaka, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Populations can go extinct when their environments deteriorate, but evolutionary rescue occurs when a shrinking population adapts to the new environmental conditions. The emergence of resistance from a drug sensitive bacterial population under treatment can be regarded as an instance of evolutionary rescue. Understanding evolutionary rescue in a particular context such as drug resistance requires knowledge of how the environment changes and how selection coefficients change as a result. In this study, we propose a model for evolutionary rescue under three different scenarios of environmental change: abrupt change, periodic fluctuation and gradual decay. The model makes use of the notion of reaction norms to describe fitness values that depend on both genotype and environmental state. We find that although drug sensitive bacterial populations may be large, allowing them to generate resistant mutants frequently, a harsh abrupt change due to the drug usually drives them extinct. Evolutionary rescue occurs far more frequently under the milder forms of environmental change we investigated. Rescue is favoured when the absolute fitnesses of individuals remain sufficiently high over the range of environment qualities experienced by the population. The minimum environment quality, which is inversely related to drug dose in the antibiotic context, is thus an important factor. Interestingly, in the periodic fluctuation model, the inter-dose period is less influential in promoting rescue through resistance unless the minimum environment quality is in a particular range. We also investigated fitness trade-offs across environments including the case of a resistant allele not subject to any trade-off (a "superbug"). This fitness trade-off affects the probability of rescue in decaying environments, but surprisingly has only a weak effect in the periodic fluctuation scenario. Finally, we use the model to show how niche construction, whereby organisms are the source of environmental

  17. Vulnerability of the Barents Sea environment to climate changes: a review of the current assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfan, A.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.

    2009-07-15

    Authors' conclusion: Climate change is not considered to be just 'one more stress' on the ecosystem, but rather it will create complex and dynamic changes in the environment that may alter the level of its vulnerability. Cumulative effects can be defined as changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions (Environment Canada 2003). The magnitude and effects of multiple stresses can be equal to the sum of the individual effects (additive effects) or they may strengthen or weaken each other (positive or negative feedbacks). To understand complex interactions within the system atmosphere-land surface-ocean at regional scales and to assess influence of the environmental changes on the ecological conditions, sophisticated models should be developed allowing to account for regional peculiarities of these systems. Development of such models is considered as one of the main challenge of the Earth system science. (author)

  18. Changes of microRNA profile and microRNA-mRNA regulatory network in bones of ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Ohn, Jung Hun; Song, Jung Ah; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Park, Hyojung; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Park, Woog-Yang; Shin, Chan Soo

    2014-03-01

    Growing evidence shows the possibility of a role of microRNAs (miRNA) in regulating bone mass. We investigated the change of miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles in bone tissue in an ovariectomized mice model and evaluated the regulatory mechanism of bone mass mediated by miRNAs in an estrogen-deficiency state. Eight-week-old female C3H/HeJ mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation (Sham-op), and their femur and tibia were harvested to extract total bone RNAs after 4 weeks for microarray analysis. Eight miRNAs (miR-127, -133a, -133a*, -133b, -136, -206, -378, -378*) were identified to be upregulated after OVX, whereas one miRNA (miR-204) was downregulated. Concomitant analysis of mRNA microarray revealed that 658 genes were differentially expressed between OVX and Sham-op mice. Target prediction of differentially expressed miRNAs identified potential targets, and integrative analysis using the mRNA microarray results showed that PPARγ and CREB pathways are activated in skeletal tissues after ovariectomy. Among the potential candidates of miRNA, we further studied the role of miR-127 in vitro, which exhibited the greatest changes after OVX. We also studied the effects of miR-136, which has not been studied in the context of bone mass regulation. Transfection of miR-127 inhibitor has enhanced osteoblastic differentiation in UAMS-32 cells as measured by alkaline phosphatase activities and mRNA expression of osteoblast-specific genes, whereas miR-136 precursor has inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, transfection of both miR-127 and miR-136 inhibitors enhanced the osteocyte-like morphological changes and survival in MLO-Y4 cells, whereas precursors of miR-127 and -136 have aggravated dexamethasone-induced cell death. Both of the precursors enhanced osteoclastic differentiation in bone marrow macrophages, indicating that both miR-127 and -136 are negatively regulating bone mass. Taken together, these results suggest a novel insight into the

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations of conformation changes of HIV-1 regulatory protein on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daohui; Li, Libo; He, Daohang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The fragment of viral protein R (Vpr), Vpr13-33, plays an important role in regulating nuclear importing of HIV genes through channel formation in which it adopts a leucine-zipper-like alpha-helical conformation. A recent experimental study reported that helical Vpr13-33 would transform to β-sheet or random coil structures and aggregate on the surface of graphene or graphene oxide through hydrophobic interactions. Due to experimental limitations, however, there is still a considerable lack of understanding on the adsorption dynamics at the early stage of the conformational transition at water-graphene interface and the underlying driving force at molecular level. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the conformation transition phenomena. Vpr13-33 kept α-helical structure in solution, but changed to β-sheet structure when strongly adsorbed onto graphene. Preferential adsorption of Vpr13-33 on graphene is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. The cluster analysis identified the most significant populated conformation and the early stage of structure conversion from α-helical to β-sheet was found, but the full β-sheet propagation was not observed. Free energy landscape analysis further complemented the transformation analysis of peptide conformations. These findings are consistent with experimental results, and give a molecular level interpretation for the reduced cytotoxicity of Vpr13-33 to some extent upon graphene exposure. Meanwhile, this study provides some significant insights into the detailed mechanism of graphene-induced protein conformation transition.

  20. Learning and assessment credibility: The design of examination strategies in a changing learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Diprose

    2013-01-01

    Learning environments for higher education have changed considerably in the last 20 years, especially since the advent of the internet. In addition to the change in learning technologies has come an increasing politicisation of higher education and in the UK a change from being virtually free in the 1980s to one where annual costs (Sheffield Press Release, 2012) can now be in excess of £9000 p.a. Since there are various routes to attaining higher education and commercialisation and competitio...

  1. A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to

  2. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  3. Description of Multimedia Environment Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) version 3.2 modification for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a software tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to allow DOE to conduct human health risk analyses nation-wide. This report describes modifications to the MEPAS to meet the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff in their analyses of Site Decommissioning Management Plan sites. In general, these modifications provide the MEPAS, Version 3.2, with the capability of calculating and reporting annual dose/risk information. Modifications were made to the exposure pathway and health impact modules and the water and atmospheric transport modules. Several example cases used to test the MEPAS, Version 3.2, are also presented. The MEPAS, Version 3.2, also contains a new source-term release component that includes models for estimating contaminant loss from three different types of source zones (contaminated aquifer, contaminated pond/surface impoundment, and contaminated vadose zone) due to decay/degradation, leaching, wind suspension, water erosion, overland flow, and/or volatilization. When multiple loss routes are assumed to occur simultaneously, the models account for their interaction and calculate an appropriate pollutant mass budget to each loss route over time

  4. ARPANSA's regulatory role in the protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Licensing the remediation of abandoned uranium mine workings in Kakadu National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARPANSA was established by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 to perform a number of specific functions including the licensing of those activities involving radioactive material that are undertaken by Commonwealth entities. This paper describes the role of the regulator in the rehabilitation of an area of Kakadu National Park, which has been licensed as a Prescribed Radiation Facility. When making a decision on whether to issue a licence, the CEO of ARPANSA is obliged by the ARPANS Act to consider, inter alia, whether it has been established that the proposed conduct can be carried on without undue risk to the health and safety of people, and to the environment. However, when licensing the remediation of environmental and radiological consequences of mining activities special difficulties may arise in determining the regulatory approach to be adopted with regard to an intervention of this nature. One specific example is the limited internationally accepted objective radiological criteria on which to base regulation of any remediation. In the particular case of an intervention in Kakadu National Park, the multiplicity of interest groups directly or indirectly involved in management of the affairs of this world heritage listed area adds an extra element to the regulatory equation. (author)

  5. Adaptive management of irrigated rice in the changing environments of the Sahel

    OpenAIRE

    De, Vries

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Alternate wetting and drying, Climate change adaptation, Crop growth simulation models, Genotype × environment interaction, N use efficiency,  Oryza sativa L., Phenology, Sahelian irrigation schemes, Sowing date, Spikelet sterility, Temperature increase, Water productivity, Weed control. In the vulnerable environment of the Sahel with its erratic rainfall pattern, irrigated rice production is of major importance. To aid Sahelian rice farmers to sustain irrigated rice pro...

  6. The future of marketing: an appropriate response to the environment changes

    OpenAIRE

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-01-01

    The future landscape of the business worldwide will have the marketing evolutions as a driver. These evolutions will be the response to the changes of business and marketing environment. The paper aims to analyze both the key trends that are shaping the macro environment, markets and consumers and their impact on the marketing at business level. First, these issues are presented as they result of both theoretical and applied various researches performed by numerous international and national ...

  7. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  8. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change. PMID:18282177

  9. Effects of lipid environment on the conformational changes of an ABC importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Austin J; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-01-01

    In order to shuttle substrates across the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins undergo a series of conformation changes that are influenced by protein structure, ligands, and the lipid environment. To test the effect of lipid on conformation change of the ABC transporter MolBC, EPR studies were conducted in lipids and detergents of variable composition. In both a detergent and lipid environment, MolBC underwent the same general conformation changes as detected by site-directed EPR spectroscopy. However, differences in activity and the details of the EPR analysis indicate conformational rigidity that is dependent on the lipid environment. From these observations, we conclude that native-like lipid mixtures provide the transporter with greater activity and conformational flexibility as well as technical advantages such as reconstitution efficiency and protein stability.

  10. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...... for the contrasting findings for the two richness-environment relationships. In conclusion, we find support for the idea that Plio-Pleistocene climate change may sometimes affect current species richness-environment relationships via its effects on regional species pools. However, further studies integrating...... affected richness-topographic heterogeneity and richness-water-energy availability relationships, causing steeper relationships in southern Europe. We investigated these hypotheses using data from Atlas Florae Europaeae on the distribution of 3069 species and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our...

  11. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  12. Changes in 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Are Associated With Maturation of Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Brandt, Lea; Benfield, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the impact of changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and fat malabsorption in a prospective clinical trial. METHODS: The patients were randomized to 1 of ...

  13. Population transcriptomics uncovers the regulation of gene expression variation in adaptation to changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Zhu, Caiyun; Fan, Yangyang; Song, Zhihong; Xing, Shilai; Liu, Wei; Yan, Juan; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Expression variation plays an important role in plant adaptation, but little is known about the factors impacting the expression variation when population adapts to changing environment. We used RNA-seq data from 80 individuals in 14 Miscanthus lutarioriparius populations, which were transplanted into a harsh environment from native habitat, to investigate the expression level, expression diversity and genetic diversity for genes expressed in both environments. The expression level of genes with lower expression level or without SNP tended to be more changeable in new environment, which suggested highly expressed genes experienced stronger purifying selection than those at lower level. Low proportion of genes with population effect confirmed the weak population structure and frequent gene flow in these populations. Meanwhile, the number of genes with environment effect was the most frequent compared with that with population effect. Our results showed that environment and genetic diversity were the main factors determining gene expression variation in population. This study could facilitate understanding the mechanisms of global gene expression variation when plant population adapts to changing environment. PMID:27150248

  14. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Carothers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  15. The Role of Aerosol in Climate Change,the Environment,and Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol is an important component of the atmosphere,and its source,composition,distribution,and effects are highly complicated.Governments and scientists have given much attention to aerosol problems,and it has become a hot topic due to the important role it plays in climate change and the Earth's environment.In this paper,1) the importance of aerosol in climate change,the atmospheric environment,and human health is summarized;2) the recent serious problems of aerosol pollution and the shortage of current aerosol research in China are pointed out;and 3) the necessity to enhance aerosol research in China is emphasized.

  16. Changing the learning environment to promote deep learning approaches in first year accounting students

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew; Ramsay, Alan; Raven, John

    2004-01-01

    Developing deep approaches to learning is claimed to enhance students' engagement with their subject material and result in improved analytical and conceptual thinking skills. Numerous calls have been made for accounting educators to adopt strategies that produce such results. This paper reports on changes to the learning environment centring on the introduction of group learning activities that were designed to improve the quality of students' learning outcomes. The impact of changes in the ...

  17. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  18. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  19. Foreign direct investment in a changing political environment : Finnish investment decisions in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Kristiina

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to an understanding of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a changing political environment. The theoretical framework of the study is positioned to the geography of enterprise approach, but it has been contributed with theories from the fields of strategic management, international business, and political economy. The research problem of the study asks how transnational corporations (TNCs) perceive and react to the change in the host country’s political environme...

  20. Deregulation of the Swedish Audit Industry and Changes in the Competitive Environment : Conflict, Imitation, and Innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Sebhatu, Abiel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deregulation of the audit industry in Sweden, the changing competitive environment and innovativeness, a research gap that has not yet been bridged. This paper raises the question of how the innovativeness of firms within the audit industry have changed after deregulation. The ambition of this research is to have both theoretical and practical knowledge contribution. The theoretical framework constructed for this research is rooted in the literature review of thre...

  1. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Imam, B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins wi...

  2. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem...... computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  3. Organic fertilisers of the mac trial and their impact on soil quality, environment and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, C.J.; Zanen, M.; Bokhorst, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    After 8 years, the MAC field trial in Lelystad, the Netherlands, shows the effects of different fertiliser strategies, ranging from animal manure to plant compost to mineral fertiliser. The impact on yield, soil quality, soil health, environment and climate change is discussed. The trial is unique i

  4. The path: sustainable development in conjunction with meeting the demands of a changing environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaular, Irene; Murua, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    In the context of severe economic recession, the Library is compelled to adapt to this changing environment, in order to meet the requirements and demands of users with very specific needs. Taking the pillars of sustainable development as a reference point, and extrapolating them to our domain, we establish the next main goals

  5. The central role of the construction sector for climate change adaptions in the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roders, M.J.; Straub, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, research has clearly enunciated the necessity of adaptation to climate change in the built environment. Policy is being developed on national and municipal levels to have adaptations implemented. However, for the actual application of the measures, property owners are the actors

  6. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  7. Effects of Conceptual Change Text Based Instruction on Ecology, Attitudes toward Biology and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Gülcan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the conceptual change text based instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of ecological concepts, and attitudes toward biology and environment. Participants were 82 ninth grade students in a public high school in the Northwestern Turkey. A treatment was employed over a…

  8. Adapting the Icelandic Education System to a Changing Environment. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 516

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppanz, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Iceland's performance in skills accumulation against the backdrop of a rapidly changing economic environment and discusses directions for further improvements. Since the late 1990s, the government has considerably raised expenditure on education, which is now among the highest in the OECD relative to GDP. Nonetheless, Iceland…

  9. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical…

  10. Change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: analysis of antecedents centered on regulatory theory focus at the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María; Fernández Alarcón, Vicenç; Enache, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between a challenging dimension of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and self-regulatory focus in an academic work setting. Job performance indicators were included to assess the nomological validity of regulatory focus measures. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using a questionnaire conducted with 251 Spanish academic workers. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Fi...

  11. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort under Thermal Environment Ramp Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇赟喆; 涂光备; 孙琳

    2004-01-01

    Set points of the indoor air temperature and relative humidity in short-term staying location were studied. In this condition, the thermal reaction of human body varied with the ramp changes of the environmental thermal parameters.The change rules of about 60 subjects'thermal reaction to the ramp change of environment were surveyed, and the effect of air movement on the thermal reaction during transient condition was considered by using a questionnaire. With the experimental results and research findings under stable condition, a way to set environmental parameters of short-time staying location was recommended.

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mironescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Change is a factor of impact on managerial functions especially upon those related to the coordination and training of the human resources. Change management is a broad spectrum of means, referring to different types of change , however, it is generally used in the processing management and in the strategic management, in the information management , including the electronic one. The analysis of changes inside the organization is very important , these changes allow the organizations to be more adaptable and innovative. However, some changes may suddenly occur and will independently act of the managers’will. If we are talking about the human change, then we should mention that the importance of this dimension of the organizational change is essential. The way people relate to change can be affected by the position they occupy inside the organization and the attitudes they adopt facing the change influence the role that they assume with the greatest ease in the change processes. Leadership and the organizational culture are in a tight relationship. Manager evaluates its business, in addition to a number of work processes and products, and the cultural environment too, so conducive, in his view, that it should activate and record the organizational and work performance.

  13. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    Environmental degradation and unsustainable development were addressed on a global scale at the UN Summits in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Johannesburg in 2002. This article presents analyses of Danish television coverage of these two summits and related topics viewing the media stories as exemplary...... cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...... development towards post-environmentalism. Already ecological modernisation can be perceived as post-environmentalist, but this article wants to suggest a downfall also for ecological modernisation as a prominent discourse and a more direct challenge to the legitimacy of environmental concern and thus...

  14. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian;

    . Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...... to issues covered by the Danish CSR reporting requirement, which in addition to environment and climate change mitigation measures broadly applies to human rights, social issues such as working conditions, and anti-corruption measures. The ‘mapping paper’ by way of introduction describes the context...... for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section...

  15. Dynamic changes in binding of immunoglobulin heavy chain 3' regulatory region to protein factors during class switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sanjukta; Ju, Zhongliang; Hassan, Rabih; Volpi, Sabrina A; Emelyanov, Alexander V; Birshtein, Barbara K

    2011-08-19

    The 3' regulatory region (3' RR) of the Igh locus works at long distances on variable region (V(H)) and switch region (I) region promoters to initiate germ line (non-coding) transcription (GT) and promote class switch recombination (CSR). The 3' RR contains multiple elements, including enhancers (hs3a, hs1.2, hs3b, and hs4) and a proposed insulator region containing CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) binding sites, i.e. hs5/6/7 and the downstream region ("38"). Notably, deletion of each individual enhancer (hs3a-hs4) has no significant phenotypic consequence, suggesting that the 3' RR has considerable structural flexibility in its function. To better understand how the 3' RR functions, we identified transcription factor binding sites and used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor their occupancy in splenic B cells that initiate GT and undergo CSR (LPS±IL4), are deficient in GT and CSR (p50(-/-)), or do not undergo CSR despite efficient GT (anti-IgM+IL4). Like 3' RR enhancers, hs5-7 and the 38 region were observed to contain multiple Pax5 binding sites (in addition to multiple CTCF sites). We found that the Pax5 binding profile to the 3' RR dynamically changed during CSR independent of the specific isotype to which switching was induced, and binding focused on hs1.2, hs4, and hs7. CTCF-associated and CTCF-independent cohesin interactions were also identified. Our observations are consistent with a scaffold model in which a platform of active protein complexes capable of facilitating GT and CSR can be formed by varying constellations of 3' RR elements.

  16. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  17. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment.

  18. Agreement Maintenance Based on Schema and Ontology Change in P2P Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Banowosari, L Y; Mutiara, A B

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concern about developing a semantic agreement maintenance method based on semantic distance by calculating the change of local schema or ontology. This approach is important in dynamic and autonomous environment, in which the current approach assumed that agreement or mapping in static environment. The contribution of this research is to develop a framework based on semantic agreement maintenance approach for P2P environment. This framework based on two level hybrid P2P model architecture, which consist of two peer type: (1) super peer that use to register and manage the other peers, and (2) simple peer, as a simple peer, it exports and shares its contents with others. This research develop a model to maintain the semantic agreement in P2P environment, so the current approach which does not have the mechanism to know the change, since it assumed that ontology and local schema are in the static condition, and it is different in dynamic condition. The main issues are how to calculate the change of...

  19. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment. PMID:2074075

  20. Climate Change and Regulation in International and Regional Level, Especially the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnoki Zsuzsanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief insight into the history of climate change, with a scope on the international and legal aspects of ever-changing regulations. The regional level is in the article is The European Union, as the only regional economic integration organization under the Kyoto Protocol. It deals with the United Nation’s international agreements like UNFCCC its Kyoto’s Protocol and the Post-Kyoto era. It also analyses the EU’s system in the climate change law with correspondence the international rules. Comparison between international and regional legislation in the climate change is used as a tool of analysis. Finally an insight is given into a special field in the climate change, the build environment, reflecting on the related United Nation’s recommendation and the EU’s regulation.

  1. Climate change and our environment: the effect on respiratory and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barne, Charles; Alexis, Neil E; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Cohn, John R; Demain, Jeffrey G; Horner, Elliot; Levetin, Estelle; Nei, Andre; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is a constant and ongoing process. It is postulated that human activities have reached a point at which we are producing global climate change. It provides suggestions to help the allergist/environmental physician integrate recommendations about improvements in outdoor and indoor air quality and the likely response to predicted alterations in the earth's environment into his or her patient's treatment plan. It incorporates references retrieved from Pub Med searches for topics, including:climate change, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gasses, air pollution, particulates, black carbon, soot and sea level, as well as references contributed by the individual authors. Many changes that affect respiratory disease are anticipated.Examples of responses to climate change include energy reduction retrofits in homes that could potentially affect exposure to allergens and irritants, more hot sunny days that increase ozone-related difficulties, and rises in sea level or altered rainfall patterns that increase exposure to damp indoor environments.Climate changes can also affect ecosystems, manifested as the appearance of stinging and biting arthropods in new areas.Higher ambient carbon dioxide concentrations, warmer temperatures, and changes in floristic zones could potentially increase exposure to ragweed and other outdoor allergens,whereas green practices such as composting can increase allergen and irritant exposure. Finally, increased energy costs may resultin urban crowding and human source pollution, leading to changes in patterns of infectious respiratory illnesses. Improved governmental controls on airborne pollutants could lead to cleaner air and reduced respiratory diseases but will meet strong opposition because of their effect on business productivity. The allergy community must therefore adapt, as physician and research scientists always have, by anticipating the needs of patients and by adopting practices and research methods to

  2. Feature Optimization for Long-Range Visual Homing in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidan Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a feature optimization method for robot long-range feature-based visual homing in changing environments. To cope with the changing environmental appearance, the optimization procedure is introduced to distinguish the most relevant features for feature-based visual homing, including the spatial distribution, selection and updating. In the previous research on feature-based visual homing, less effort has been spent on the way to improve the feature distribution to get uniformly distributed features, which are closely related to homing performance. This paper presents a modified feature extraction algorithm to decrease the influence of anisotropic feature distribution. In addition, the feature selection and updating mechanisms, which have hardly drawn any attention in the domain of feature-based visual homing, are crucial in improving homing accuracy and in maintaining the representation of changing environments. To verify the feasibility of the proposal, several comprehensive evaluations are conducted. The results indicate that the feature optimization method can find optimal feature sets for feature-based visual homing, and adapt the appearance representation to the changing environments as well.

  3. A theoretical quantitative genetic study of negative ecological interactions and extinction times in changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Adam G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid human-induced changes in the environment at local, regional and global scales appear to be contributing to population declines and extinctions, resulting in an unprecedented biodiversity crisis. Although in the short term populations can respond ecologically to environmental alterations, in the face of persistent change populations must evolve or become extinct. Existing models of evolution and extinction in changing environments focus only on single species, even though the dynamics of extinction almost certainly depend upon the nature of species interactions. Results Here, I use a model of quantitative trait evolution in a two-species community to show that negative ecological interactions, such as predation and competition, can produce unexpected results regarding time to extinction. Under some circumstances, negative interactions can be expected to hasten the extinction of species declining in numbers. However, under other circumstances, negative interactions can actually increase times to extinction. This effect occurs across a wide range of parameter values and can be substantial, in some cases allowing a population to persist for 40 percent longer than it would in the absence of the species interaction. Conclusion This theoretical study indicates that negative species interactions can have unexpected positive effects on times to extinction. Consequently, detailed studies of selection and demographics will be necessary to predict the consequences of species interactions in changing environments for any particular ecological community.

  4. Nanotribological and Nanomechanical Properties Changes of Tooth After Bleaching and Remineralization in Wet Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Gao, Shanshan; Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    Teeth bleaching cases had increased with people's desire for oral aesthetic; however, bleached teeth would still undertake chewing actions and remineralizing process in saliva. Nanotribological and nanomechanical properties are proper displays for dental performance of bleached teeth. The purpose of the research was to reveal the effect of bleaching and remineralization on the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of teeth in wet environment. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the bleaching products used: 12 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) (12HP group); 15 % carbamide peroxide (CP) (15CP group); 35 % CP (35CP group); and artificial saliva (control group). The nanotribological and nanomechanical property changes of tooth enamel after bleaching and remineralization were evaluated respectively by nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests in wet environment, imitating the wet oral environment. The morphology changes were evaluated by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After bleaching, 12HP group and 15CP group showed increased scratch depth with more pile ups on the scratch edges, decreased nanohardness, and corroded surface appearance. While the 35CP group showed an increase in nanoscratch depth, no change in nanohardness and surface appearance was observed. The control group showed no change in these measurements. After remineralization, the three bleaching groups showed decreased nanoscratch depth and no change of nanohardness compared with the bleached teeth. And the control group showed no changes in nanotribological and nanomechanical properties. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of the 12HP group and 15CP group were affected by bleaching, but the nanotribological properties recovered partly and the nanomechanical properties got no change after 1 week of remineralization. As for the 35CP group, the nanotribological properties were influenced and the nanomechanical properties were not

  5. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  6. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  7. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. DOE responses to comments from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains responses by the US Department of Energy to comments from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on the Naturita remedial action plan. This was done in an attempt to clarify information. The site is an inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado

  8. Assessing conservation relevance of organism-environment relations using predicted changes in response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; White, Joseph D.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Cade, Brian S.; Zygo, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Organism–environment models are used widely in conservation. The degree to which they are useful for informing conservation decisions – the conservation relevance of these relations – is important because lack of relevance may lead to misapplication of scarce conservation resources or failure to resolve important conservation dilemmas. Even when models perform well based on model fit and predictive ability, conservation relevance of associations may not be clear without also knowing the magnitude and variability of predicted changes in response variables. 2. We introduce a method for evaluating the conservation relevance of organism–environment relations that employs confidence intervals for predicted changes in response variables. The confidence intervals are compared to a preselected magnitude of change that marks a threshold (trigger) for conservation action. To demonstrate the approach, we used a case study from the Chihuahuan Desert involving relations between avian richness and broad-scale patterns of shrubland. We considered relations for three winters and two spatial extents (1- and 2-km-radius areas) and compared predicted changes in richness to three thresholds (10%, 20% and 30% change). For each threshold, we examined 48 relations. 3. The method identified seven, four and zero conservation-relevant changes in mean richness for the 10%, 20% and 30% thresholds respectively. These changes were associated with major (20%) changes in shrubland cover, mean patch size, the coefficient of variation for patch size, or edge density but not with major changes in shrubland patch density. The relative rarity of conservation-relevant changes indicated that, overall, the relations had little practical value for informing conservation decisions about avian richness. 4. The approach we illustrate is appropriate for various response and predictor variables measured at any temporal or spatial scale. The method is broadly applicable across ecological

  9. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  10. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  11. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  12. Flocking for swarm systems with fixed topology in a changing environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zonggang LI; Yingmin JIA

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to the flocking of a class of swarm with fixed topology in a changing environment.Firstly,the controller for each agent is proposed by employing the error terms between the state of the agent and the average state of its neighbors.Secondly,a sufficient condition for the swarm to achieve flocking is presented under assumptions that the gradient of the environment is bounded and the initial position graph is connected.Thirdly,as the environment is a plane,it is further proved that the velocity of each agent finally converges to the velocity of the swarm center although not one agent knows where the center of the group is.Finally,numerical examples are included to illustrate the obtained results.

  13. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  14. Dynamic changes in CD45RA−Foxp3high regulatory T-cells in chronic hepatitis C patients during antiviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqin Li; Yu Ping; Zujiang Yu; Meng Wang; Dongli Yue; Zhen Zhang; Jianbin Li; Bin Zhang,; Xuezhong Shi; Yi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) are known to accumulate under certain pathological conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of and dynamic changes in Treg cells in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients during antiviral therapy. Methods: One hundred and forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study, including 105 CHC patients and 40 healthy donors. The phenotypes and functions of Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: A significan...

  15. Late Oligocene sedimentary environments and provenance abrupt change event in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A significant change in composition was recorded in late Oligocene sediments from the northern South China Sea.This abrupt event coincided with the seafloor spreading axis jump across the Oligocene/Miocene boundary,leading to sedimentation breaks and slumps as well as obvious changes in sediment geochemical composition,and representing the greatest tectonic activity in the South China Sea region since the Oligocene.Through this tectonic event,the sedimentary environment in the Baiyun sag area transformed from a continental shelf in the late Oligocene to a continental slope since the early Miocene,the provenance of the sediments changed from neighboring areas to the hinterland of the South China block,and the sea level rose since the early Miocene in the area.Therefore,this abrupt change event has a profound influence on the evolution of petroleum offshore in the northern South China Sea.

  16. Recruitment in a changing environment: the 2000s North Sea herring recruitment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Hatfield, E.M.C.; Dickey-Collas, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been an unpreced......Environmentally induced change appears to be impacting the recruitment of North Sea herring (Clupea harengus). Despite simultaneously having a large adult population, historically low exploitation, and Marine Stewardship Council accreditation (implying sustainability), there have been....... Fishing mortality is currently outside the agreed management plan, and forecasts show a high risk of the stock moving outside safe biological limits soon, potentially precipitating another collapse of the stock. However, bringing the realized fishing mortality back in line with the management plan would...... likely alleviate the problem. This illustrates again that recruitment is influenced by more than just spawning-stock biomass, and that changes in other factors can be of equal, or even greater, importance. In such dynamically changing environments, recent management success does not necessarily guarantee...

  17. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: guptanidhi12@gmail.com; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); George, Saji, E-mail: saji_george@nyp.gov.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  18. The Changing Farming Environment in Tanzania: The Case of Selected Villages in Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Bee, Faustine K; NGAILO, Legnard N.; Yoshida, Masao

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the changing farming environment among the small-holder farmers in Tanzania under the ongoing world-wide economic reform measures. Various economic reform measures being implemented have far-reaching effects on farming behaviour. Small farmers have increasingly done away with the production of the traditional export crops and instead have shifted to the product of quick-selling crops such as vegetables and paddy. It was observed that most farmers are facing serious economi...

  19. Managing Price Risk in a Changing Policy Environment: The Case of the EU Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Declan; Keane, Michael; Barnes, Edel

    2008-01-01

    The EU dairy industry faces an unprecedented level of change. The anticipated removal of milk quotas and the move to a less restricted global trade environment will provide the industry with both opportunities and challenges. The primary challenge will be the need for the industry to deal with more volatile prices. Active management of the risks associated with these more volatile prices will help to place the industry in a more competitive position. However this will require the industry and...

  20. Metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment under pH changes in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Torre, C; PAYAN, C; Verbinnen, B; Coz, A.; Ruiz, G.; Vandecasteele, C; Viguri, R

    2015-01-01

    The contaminant release from estuarine sediment due to pH changes was investigated using a modified CEN/TS 14429 pH-dependence leaching test. The test is performed in the range of pH values of 0–14 using deionised water and seawater as leaching solutions. The experimental conditions mimic different circumstances of the marine environment due to the global acidification, carbon dioxide (CO2) leakages from carbon capture and sequestration technologies, and accidental chemical spills in seawater...

  1. Changes in Marine Environments and Responses of Ecosystem Dynamics in the East Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Ju, Se-Jong

    2014-02-01

    At an international symposium on the marine systems of the Pacific region of East Asia, scientists concluded that changes in the ocean environment are having a significant effect on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems and, consequently, on humans and the food supply. The meeting, the 6th China-Japan-Korea (CJK) Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research symposium, was held in Japan at the University of Tokyo.

  2. The development and change study of cost accounting in the IT environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilian Li; Qiumei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Relative to costs of computerized accounting, the cost accounting information further to get rid of the shackles of artificial accounting, reflecting a pure information management thinking, which contains a richer content, and traditional cost accounting theory a profound impact on the system. Clear understanding of the environment in the IT development process cost accounting will help us actively to promote cost accounting change, innovation and development.

  3. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment. PMID:27093125

  4. 3. Neural changes in different gravity and ecophysiological environments - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Neural changes or neuronal plasticity occur after and during different stimulations and inputs in general. Gravity is one major input to the brain transferred from the vestibular system. However, often also direct effects of gravity on the cellular level are discussed. Our group was investigating the influence of different gravity environments on a large variety of neuronal enzymes in the developing fish brain. Long-term space travel or bases on Moon and Mars will have to deal not only with neural changes based on the different gravity environment, but also with potential negative or even toxic changes in the respective life support system. Our goal is now to identify reported enzyme activity changes in the brain based for example on potential toxic drugs or endocrine disruptors in combination with gravity induced changes. In this paper a survey will be undertaken discussing recent results obtained in ecotoxicology, gravitational biology combined with new data from our group regarding potential differences in brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of medaka and zebrafish.

  5. A Governing Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Mazmanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing an approach to governing adaptation to climate change is severely hampered by the dictatorship of the present when the needs of future generations are inadequately represented in current policy making. We posit this problem as a function of the attributes of adaptation policy making, including deep uncertainty and nonstationarity, where past observations are not reliable predictors of future outcomes. Our research links organizational decision-making attributes with adaptation decision making and identifies cases in which adaptation actions cause spillovers, free riding, and distributional impacts. We develop a governing framework for adaptation that we believe will enable policy, planning, and major long-term development decisions to be made appropriately at all levels of government in the face of the deep uncertainty and nonstationarity caused by climate change. Our framework requires that approval of projects with an expected life span of 30 years or more in the built environment include minimum building standards that integrate forecasted climate change impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC intermediate scenario. The intermediate IPCC scenario must be downscaled to include local or regional temperature, water availability, sea level rise, susceptibility to forest fires, and human habitation impacts to minimize climate-change risks to the built environment. The minimum standard is systematically updated every six years to facilitate learning by formal and informal organizations. As a minimum standard, the governance framework allows jurisdictions to take stronger actions to increase their climate resilience and thus maintain system flexibility.

  6. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment.

  7. Complexity in organizations and environment - adaptive changes and adaptive decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of complexity are ever more present in modern organizations and in environments in which they operate, trying to survive and be as competitive as possible. In the processes of, the so-called emergence, the formal organizational structure, designed purposefully and with a plan, is going through a change due to complexity and the need for adaptation. As a result, there is a variety of new informal groups. At the same time, the intended structural changes and business process changes occur because of the perception that the leadership and senior organizational management have of the strategic situation. Managers in modern organizations often use business intelligence (BI systems when making important business decisions. These systems offer support to the decision-making by gathering and processing relevant data and information about the company performance, but also about the data on conditions in close and remote environment. A modern company is characterized by the complex adaptive system, but the environment in which it operates together with other business subjects (agents is also complex. Consequently, the requirements for appropriate or optimal decisions and successfully completed activities are hard to meet. Given that expected future events and circumstances often occur in nonlinear mechanisms, the decisions made by following the models of traditional predicting and planning are not satisfactory. This calls for new approaches to decision making and acting.

  8. Population-environment drivers of H5N1 avian influenza molecular change in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret A; Emch, Michael; Nguyen, Tung; Todd Jobe, R; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    This study identifies population and environment drivers of genetic change in H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) in Vietnam using a landscape genetics approach. While prior work has examined how combinations of local-level environmental variables influence H5N1 occurrence, this research expands the analysis to the complex genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses. A dataset of 125 highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV isolated in Vietnam from 2003 to 2007 is used to explore which population and environment variables are correlated with increased genetic change among viruses. Results from non-parametric multidimensional scaling and regression analyses indicate that variables relating to both the environmental and social ecology of humans and birds in Vietnam interact to affect the genetic character of viruses. These findings suggest that it is a combination of suitable environments for species mixing, the presence of high numbers of potential hosts, and in particular the temporal characteristics of viral occurrence, that drive genetic change among H5N1 AIV in Vietnam. PMID:22652510

  9. 77 FR 36307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Corporate Governance Code that would be added, given that Holdco was formed under and subject to the laws of... corporate governance and regulatory obligations that are addressed by means of ownership and voting... balanced board composition and promote various other important corporate governance objectives, such...

  10. 77 FR 36324 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... independence standards and criteria in the Dutch Corporate Governance Code that would be added, given that... subsidiaries, it is subject to various corporate governance and regulatory obligations that are addressed by... important corporate governance objectives, such as ensuring appropriate expertise and experience on...

  11. 75 FR 38576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... directors.'' Under the Corporation's corporate governance guidelines previously adopted by the Board of... in the Bylaws the existing policy of the Corporation aimed at ensuring better corporate governance.... 61947 (April 20, 2010), 75 FR 22169 (April 27, 2010) (SR-NYSE-2010-18). II. Self-Regulatory...

  12. 76 FR 21085 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... NASDAQ in its filing, the other Boards of Directors of the regulatory subsidiaries of NASDAQ OMX have... Act Release No. 63925 (February 17, 2011), 76 FR 10418 (February 24, 2011) (``Notice''). II... limited liability company.\\4\\ \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62783 (August 27, 2010), 75...

  13. 77 FR 22019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... capital'' as the amount reported on Form 1-FR-FCM or FOCUS Report or as otherwise reported to the CFTC... regulated for capital adequacy by a competent authority such as the CFTC, SEC, Federal Reserve Board, Office... capital adequacy regulatory requirement and is subject to consolidated holding company group...

  14. 78 FR 1281 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... single-name CDS): Replacing standard deviation with mean absolute deviation (MAD) as a measure of credit... appropriate portfolio margining between related index and single-name CDS positions. II. Self-Regulatory... single-name CDS) and (2) provide appropriate portfolio margin treatment between index CDS and...

  15. Differential roles of epigenetic changes and Foxp3 expression in regulatory T cell-specific transcriptional regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morikawa, Hiromasa; Ohkura, Naganari; Vandenbon, Alexis; Itoh, Masayoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Forrest, Alistair R R; Standley, Daron M; Date, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring regulatory T (Treg) cells, which specifically express the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), are engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. By transcriptional start site cluster analysis, we assessed here how genome-wide patterns of DNA

  16. 77 FR 74528 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Exchange notes that some institutional investors have raised concerns that by not executing against larger... legitimate trading interest entered on behalf of institutional investors. B. Self-Regulatory Organization's... investors. While the Exchange continues to believe that the purpose of the PL Select Order not to...

  17. 77 FR 31053 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... relationship between PHLX and NOS, its member, raises the issue of an exchange's affiliation with a member of... advantage and potential conflicts of interest between an exchange's self-regulatory obligations and its... Release No. 57478 (March 12, 2008), 73 FR 14521 (March 18, 2008) (SR-NASDAQ-2007-004 and...

  18. 76 FR 28826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Act Release No. 34-54714 at 4 (November 6, 2006), 71 FR 66352 (November 14, 2006). B. Self-Regulatory... (``IOC'') \\6\\ offer to sell 100 shares at $10.11 is entered into the BATS Book, such order will be... incoming order was not an IOC, and thus, was eligible for posting, then the offer would be posted to...

  19. Changing tides: Adaptive monitoring, assessment, and management of pharmaceutical hazards in the environment through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sally; Brooks, Bryan W

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Adaptive monitoring, assessment, and management programs will be required to reduce the environmental hazards of pharmaceuticals of concern. Potentially underappreciated factors that drive the environmental dose of pharmaceuticals include regulatory approvals, marketing campaigns, pharmaceutical subsidies and reimbursement schemes, and societal acceptance. Sales data for 5 common antidepressants (duloxetine [Cymbalta], escitalopram [Lexapro], venlafaxine [Effexor], bupropion [Wellbutrin], and sertraline [Zoloft]) in the United States from 2004 to 2008 were modeled to explore how environmental hazards in aquatic ecosystems changed after patents were obtained or expired. Therapeutic hazard ratios for Effexor and Lexapro did not exceed 1; however, the therapeutic hazard ratio for Zoloft declined whereas the therapeutic hazard ratio for Cymbalta increased as a function of patent protection and sale patterns. These changes in therapeutic hazard ratios highlight the importance of considering current and future drivers of pharmaceutical use when prioritizing pharmaceuticals for water quality monitoring programs. When urban systems receiving discharges of environmental contaminants are examined, water quality efforts should identify, prioritize, and select target analytes presently in commerce for effluent monitoring and surveillance. PMID:26412644

  20. Using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling for regulatory benefit-cost analysis: application to the Western hemisphere travel initiative in the land environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Henry H; LaTourrette, Tom

    2008-04-01

    This article presents a framework for using probabilistic terrorism risk modeling in regulatory analysis. We demonstrate the framework with an example application involving a regulation under consideration, the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative for the Land Environment, (WHTI-L). First, we estimate annualized loss from terrorist attacks with the Risk Management Solutions (RMS) Probabilistic Terrorism Model. We then estimate the critical risk reduction, which is the risk-reducing effectiveness of WHTI-L needed for its benefit, in terms of reduced terrorism loss in the United States, to exceed its cost. Our analysis indicates that the critical risk reduction depends strongly not only on uncertainties in the terrorism risk level, but also on uncertainty in the cost of regulation and how casualties are monetized. For a terrorism risk level based on the RMS standard risk estimate, the baseline regulatory cost estimate for WHTI-L, and a range of casualty cost estimates based on the willingness-to-pay approach, our estimate for the expected annualized loss from terrorism ranges from $2.7 billion to $5.2 billion. For this range in annualized loss, the critical risk reduction for WHTI-L ranges from 7% to 13%. Basing results on a lower risk level that results in halving the annualized terrorism loss would double the critical risk reduction (14-26%), and basing the results on a higher risk level that results in a doubling of the annualized terrorism loss would cut the critical risk reduction in half (3.5-6.6%). Ideally, decisions about terrorism security regulations and policies would be informed by true benefit-cost analyses in which the estimated benefits are compared to costs. Such analyses for terrorism security efforts face substantial impediments stemming from the great uncertainty in the terrorist threat and the very low recurrence interval for large attacks. Several approaches can be used to estimate how a terrorism security program or regulation reduces the

  1. Measuring Change in Arctic Coastal Environments Using Repeat Aerial Photography and SfM Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, A.; Nolan, M.; Kinsman, N.; Richmond, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial- and ground-based photography can provide valuable information about coastal environments in space and time including the presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics and morphology, high-water indicators produced during storm surge events, bluff failure mechanisms, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry and construction of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms allow for improved mapping and analysis of coastal change in 3-dimensions at a relatively low cost. For example, analyses can include delineating shorelines based on a tidal datum, mapping inundation extent based on a known or modeled flood level, or quantifying volumetric change. Repeat aerial surveys and associated orthophoto and DEM construction serve as a powerful monitoring tool that can provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change. Along the extensive and remote coast of Alaska, high-quality imagery and elevation data are rare, in part because traditional methods of acquiring the data are cost prohibitive. Here we evaluate the usefulness of data sets acquired using small aircraft and SfM techniques for evaluating seasonal change to the beach and permafrost bluffs at Barter Island, Alaska during the summer of 2014. Considerable bluff retreat and morphological change were measured along a 2.7 km stretch of coast with net mean volume loss of approximately 28,000 ± 540 m3 between the top and the base of the bluffs. The pattern of change was dominantly landward retreat of the top of the bluffs and removal of the debris fan at the base of the bluffs. Barrier-spit overwash and migration and deposition of storm berms were also observed and accurately measured. Our results suggest that this is a cost-effective method for mapping coastal change in remote environments leading to a similar data acquisition effort for the State of Alaska, primarily for shoreline and coastal hazard mapping purposes

  2. Interview about nuclear regulatory supervision with Stefan Mappus, Baden-Wuerttemberg State Minister for the Environment and for Transport; Interview zur Kernenergieaufsicht mit Stefan Mappus, Minister fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-02-01

    Stefan Mappus, member of the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Parliament, has been State Minister for the Environment since July 14, 2004. He has criticized deficiencies in nuclear power plants, but also has expressed himself in favor of continuing to use nuclear power. This interview covers the safety of nuclear power plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg; the fines to be imposed within the framework of nuclear regulatory supervision; and ''new accents'' in supervision, among others. Mr. Mappus also comments on the activities of his Ministry in connection with events at the Philippsburg nuclear power station and the consequences drawn by the regulatory authority. (orig.)

  3. Making decisions in an ever-changing environment - A research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Pataki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon recognized the limitations of the classical normative decision theory and established descriptive theory. His concept of bounded rationality and administrative behavior was a big step ahead, but the world has changed dramatically since then. Multiple, continuous changes have become normal, which brings up new problems on the decision maker’s and on the organization’s level as well. It became usual that the decision maker is not able to define preferences for lack of knowledge and have to learn or delegate much more frequently than before. In the same time the organization should be more resilient or nimble in this ever-changing environment. The authors outline a research agenda on both levels: some about the continuous learning and frequent delegating, and some about the HRM and IT-management issues of organizational nimbleness.

  4. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  5. Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5oC, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

  6. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  7. The Working Environment and Changing Role of Corporate Librarians in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-hua Chen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by the concept of “Knowledge Economics”, knowledge management (KM is getting a lot of attention in the field of business administration recently. Corporate centers are mostly affected by KM either in their working environment or in the role of their daily operation in the field of Library and Information Science. In the United States, the Special Library Association (SLA conducted numerous studies about the working environment and the changing role of corporate librarians in the past ten years. Due to the differences in politics, economics, and culture between Taiwan and the western countries, the organizational structure and corporate culture of the enterprise will not be exactly the same. Therefore, local studies on similar topics are needed. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of the KM on the working environment and the changing roles of the corporate librarians in Taiwan based on the result of National Science Council Research Project executed by the authors.[Article content in Chinese

  8. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  9. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  10. Integrated assessment and changes of ecological environment in the Daning River Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ruimin; SHEN Zhenyao

    2007-01-01

    Based on Remote Sensing (RS),Geographical Information Systems (GIS),and the Spatial Principal Component Analysis (SPCA) method,the integrated assessment and changes in the ecological environment of Daning River Watershed are studied in this paper.The watershed is located in the Three Gorge Area in China.The result of the integrated assessment showed that level 9 had the biggest proportion in the year 1990,which was about 40%.In the year 2000,however,there were no levels with a proportion significantly bigger than the others.By comparing the assessment results in 1990 and 2000,it is discovered that the ecological environment in Daning River Watershed in 1990 was better than that in 2000.

  11. Pancreatic B-cell behaviour after changing the natural environment of sand rats (Psammomys obesus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H J; Jutzi, E; Köhler, E; Schäfer, H

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the blood glucose increase during the capitivity sand rats born in the desert were classified as normals, protodiabetics and diabetics, indicating a different adaptation to the new environment within a definite period. Isolated islets of animals, which did not develop a hyperglycemia, enhanced their insulin content during the adaptation period. The absolute insulin secretion rates in response to 16.5 mM glucose were rather similar between the three investigated groups and not modified by the insulin as well as glucagon content of pancreatic islets. But, since islets of hyperglycemic sand rats could not increase the insulin content, a significantly enhanced fractional secretion (as % of the content) could be observed. The results let us assume that the B-cell reaction during the adaptation period can be modified by further factors additionally to the changed environment. PMID:795642

  12. The future of marketing: an appropriate response to the environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The future landscape of the business worldwide will have the marketing evolutions as a driver. These evolutions will be the response to the changes of business and marketing environment.The paper aims to analyze both the key trends that are shaping the macro environment, markets and consumers and their impact on the marketing at business level. First, these issues are presented as they result of both theoretical and applied various researches performed by numerous international and national organizations, universities, consulting and global companies, scholars and authors. These researches are read from the author’s scientific point of view, on the other hand, and some own considerations are revealed. They could be found mainly in the systematic approach by using the marketing paradigm and practices around the world, in order to keep successful the organizations. These organizations should give the proper skillful response to each of main futures challenges of marketing.

  13. Changing the environment to improve population health: a framework for considering exposure in natural experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, David K; Panter, Jenna; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-09-01

    There is renewed optimism regarding the use of natural experimental studies to generate evidence as to the effectiveness of population health interventions. Natural experimental studies capitalise on environmental and policy events that alter exposure to certain social, economic or environmental factors that influence health. Natural experimental studies can be useful for examining the impact of changes to 'upstream' determinants, which may not be amenable to controlled experiments. However, while natural experiments provide opportunities to generate evidence, they often present certain conceptual and methodological obstacles. Population health interventions that alter the physical or social environment are usually administered broadly across populations and communities. The breadth of these interventions means that variation in exposure, uptake and impact may be complex. Yet many evaluations of natural experiments focus narrowly on identifying suitable 'exposed' and 'unexposed' populations for comparison. In this paper, we discuss conceptual and analytical issues relating to defining and measuring exposure to interventions in this context, including how recent advances in technology may enable researchers to better understand the nature of population exposure to changes in the built environment. We argue that when it is unclear whether populations are exposed to an intervention, it may be advantageous to supplement traditional impact assessments with observational approaches that investigate differing levels of exposure. We suggest that an improved understanding of changes in exposure will assist the investigation of the impact of complex natural experiments in population health. PMID:27056683

  14. Joint imaging and change detection for robust exploitation in interrupted SAR environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Joshua N.

    2013-05-01

    Modern radar systems equipped with agile-beam technology support multiple modes of operation, including, for example, tracking, automated target recognition (ATR), and synthetic aperture radar imaging (SAR). In a multimode operating environment, the services compete for radar resources and leave gaps in the coherent collection aperture devoted to SAR imaging. Such gapped collections, referred to as interrupted SAR, typically result in significant image distortion and can substantially degrade subsequent exploitation tasks, such as change detection. In this work we present a new form of exploitation that jointly performs imaging and coherent change detection in interrupted environments. We adopt a Bayesian approach that inherently accommodates different interrupt patterns and compensates for missing data via exploitation of 1) a partially coherent model for reference-pass to mission-pass pixel transitions, and 2) the a priori notion that changes between passes are generally sparse and spatially clustered. We employ approximate message passing for computationally efficient Bayesian inference and demonstrate performance on measured and synthetic SAR data. The results demonstrate near optimal (ungapped) performance with pulse loss rates up to ˜ 50% and highlight orders of magnitude reduction in false alarm rates compared to traditional methods.

  15. The Analysis of Moonborne Cross Track Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Global Environment Change Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced to the earth observation requirement of large scale global environment change, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) antenna system is proposed to set on Moon's surface for interferometry in this paper. With several advantages superior to low earth obit SAR, such as high space resolution, large range swath and short revisit interval, the moonborne SAR could be a potential data resource of global changes monitoring and environment change research. Due to the high stability and ease of maintenance, the novel system is competent for offering a long and continuous time series of remote sensing imagery. The Moonborne SAR system performance is discussed at the beginning. Then, the peculiarity of interferometry is analyzed in both repeat pass and single pass cases. The chief distinguishing feature which is worth to research the potentiality of repeat pass interferometry is that the revisit interval is reduced to one day in most cases, and in worst case one month. Decorrelation deriving from geometry variety is discussed in detail. It turns out that the feasibility of moonborne SAR repeat pass interferometry depends on the declination of Moon. The severity of shift effects in radar echoes increased as Moon approaches to the equatorial plane. Moreover, referring to the single pass interferometry, two antennas are assumed to set on different latitude of Moon. There is enough space on Moon to form a long baseline, which is highly related to the interferogram precision

  16. Complexity analysis of precipitation in changing environment in Chien River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hua LUAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrologic process influenced by the multi-action of climate, geography, vegetation and human activities becomes more and more complex, which is the important characteristic of hydrologic system. The different complexity distributions of precipitation process of Chien River Basin (sub-basin of MinChiang Basin in two periods(one is from 1952 to 1980 and the other is from 1981 to 2009 are illustrated respectively in this paper in which the fractal based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT is used. The results are indicated as follows: first, in basin scale the precipitation process in the latter period is more complex than that in the former period; second, the maximum value of the complexity distribution moved from the east to the middle and last, through analyzing the time-information and space-information concealed in this complexity change, the precipitation characteristics in changing environment are illuminated in study Basin. This study would provide reference for the research of disaster pre-warning in the changing environment and for the integrated water resources management in the local basin.

  17. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  18. ECO-ENVIRONMENT CHANGE AND SOIL EROSION PROCESS IN THE RECLAIMED FORESTLAND OF THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Xiao-chun; TANG Ke-li

    2003-01-01

    Serious soil erosion has made the eco-environment fragile in the Loess Plateau. Based on the 10-year da-ta observed from 1989 to 1998 in the Ziwuling Survey Station in loess hilly region, the eco-environment change and soil erosion process in reclaimed forestland were studied in this paper. The results showed that the intensity of man-made soil erosion caused by forestland reclamation was 1000 times more than that of the natural erosion. From the analysis of soil physical and mechanical properties, in the 10th year after forestland was reclaimed, the clay content and physical clay content decreased 2.74 percentage point and 3.01 percentage point respectively, the >0.25mm water-stable aggregate content decreased 31.59 percentage point, the soil bulk density increased and soil shear strength de-creased, all of which were easier to cause soil erosion. The correlation analysis showed that >0.25mm waterstable ag-gregate content was the key factor affecting soil erosion, and the secondary factors were soil coarse grain and soil shear strength. The relation between the >0.25mm waterstable aggregate content, the soil sheer strength and the soil erosion intensity were analyzed, which showed that the first year and the seventh erosion year were the turn years of the soil erosion intensity after the forestland was reclaimed, revealed that the change ofeco-environment was the main cause to accelerate soil erosion, and the worse environment caused soil erosion to be serious rapidly.

  19. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The built environment consists of components that have been made by humans at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. The impacts of climate change on the built environment, therefore, may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, there may be feedback mechanisms wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Besides having a host of such interactions, the impacts of climate change on urban areas will likely have thresholds, below which effects are incidental or of mild consequence, but beyond which the effects quickly become major. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. Moreover, urban areas may be affected by changes in daily and seasonal high or low temperatures or precipitation, which may have a much more prolonged impact than the direct effect of these events. Thus, the cumulative impacts of multiple events may be more severe than those of any single event. Primary hazards include sea level rise and coastal storms, heat waves, intense precipitation, drought, extreme wind events, urban heat islands, and secondary air pollutants, and cold air events including frozen precipitation. Indicators need to be developed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities. Overall, indicators of climate change on the built environment

  20. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  1. How does a fish's metabolic rate influence its performance in a changing environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Metcalfe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish provide some of the best-studied examples of marked intraspecific variation in metabolic rate: after accounting for variation in size and age, there can typically be a 2-3 fold variation among individual fish for both standard and maximum metabolic rate (SMR and MMR, and also in their aerobic scope (AS, the difference between SMR and MMR and hence a fish’s capacity to increase its aerobic metabolism. These differences are relatively stable over time, although individual fish differ in the extent to which they can alter their metabolism when environmental conditions change. In this presentation I will briefly consider the extent and causes of individual variation in SMR, MMR and AS, considering both the mechanistic basis (e.g. individual variation in mitochondrial performance and its origins, including a consideration of genetic and maternal effects. I will then describe both documented and potential links between metabolism, behaviour and performance. Intraspecific variation in metabolism has been found to be related to other traits. As an example, fish with a relatively high SMR tend to be more dominant, digest food faster and grow faster than those with a low SMR, but these advantages only apply in environments where the food supply is high and predictable; in less favourable environments they lose their advantage, and are more prone to risk-taking when conditions deteriorate. Less is known about the ecological consequences of individual variation in MMR and AS, although fish with a higher AS are known to have advantages in some contexts. This is especially important in the context of climate change, since it has been suggested that constraints on AS may underlie the poor performance of fishes at higher temperatures. Given these links between metabolism and measures of performance, understanding the metabolic responses of individuals to changing environments will be a key area for future research.

  2. Changes in body fluids of the cocooning fossorial frog Cyclorana australis in a seasonally dry environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Christian, Keith A; Tracy, Christopher R; Hutley, Lindsay B

    2011-11-01

    We investigated changes in the lymph (equivalent to plasma) and urine of the cocooning frog Cyclorana australis during the dry season in monsoonal northern Australia. Frogs in moist soil for two days were fully hydrated (lymph 220 mOsm kg(-1), urine 49 mOsm kg(-1)). From five weeks onwards the soil was dry (matric potential soil, osmolality increase in C. australis was not severe. Aestivation in a cocoon facilitates survival in shallow burrows, but such a strategy may only be effective in environments with seasonally reliable rainfall. PMID:21777688

  3. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas;

    2014-01-01

    and potential of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment and 2) to reconcile process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modelling at comprehensive forest research sites. In particular, MAFor translated the existing European knowledge on climate and air...... pollution dynamics into prospects for forest research and monitoring, with focus on the carbon, ozone, nitrogen and water budgets. The aim of this paper is to summarize scientific activities and achievements of MAFor: the creation of a meta-database for highlighting the available data and integrating...

  4. Welfare Mix and Hybridity. Flexible Adjustments to Changed Environments. Introduction to the Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Zimmer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Present day welfare societies rely on a complex mix of different providers ranging from the state, markets, family, and non-profit organizations to unions, grassroots organizations, and informal networks. At the same time changing welfare discourses have opened up space for new partnerships...... organizations and organizational fields adjust to a new environment that is increasingly dominated by the logic of the market, and how in particular nonprofit organizations, as hybrids by definition, are able to cope with new demands, funding structures, and control mechanisms....

  5. Malaria vectors in the changing environment of the southern Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; Konradsen, Flemming; Herrel, Nathaly;

    2004-01-01

    irrigation system in the southern Punjab, was analysed. Our findings suggest that Anopheles stephensi has increased in prevalence and became more common than A. culicifacies during the 1980s. This shift in species dominance may be due to the large-scale ecological changes that have taken place in the Punjab......, where irrigation-induced waterlogging of soil with related salinization has created an environment favourable for the more salt-tolerant A. stephensi. Some biotypes of A. stephensi are suspected of being less efficient vectors and, therefore, the shift in species dominance might have played a role...

  6. Crowded, cell-like environment induces shape changes in aspherical protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Margaret

    2009-03-01

    How the crowded environment inside cells affects the structures of proteins with aspherical shapes is a vital question because many proteins and protein--protein complexes in vivo adopt anisotropic shapes. Here we address this question by combining computational and experimental studies of a football-shaped protein (i.e. Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE) under crowded, cell-like conditions. The results show that macromolecular crowding affects protein-folding dynamics as well as overall protein shape. In crowded milieus, distinct conformational changes in VlsE are accompanied by secondary structure alterations that lead to exposure of a hidden antigenic region. Our work demonstrates the malleability of ``native'' proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo.

  7. Metadata in the changing learning environment: developing skills to achieve the blue skies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Foster-Jones

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This short paper will examine the importance of metadata and its role in the changing learning environment, beginning with an introduction about what metadata is, and the benefits to be gained from applying it to all academic resources. Two Open University projects, Portfolio and the Reusable Educational Software Library, will be described and used to illustrate how the IMS Learning Resource Metadata scheme is being applied, and the issues that have been encountered by the Open University and how it is attempting to resolve them. The need for change in organizational culture so that metadata becomes part of the creation process, rather than an afterthought, will then be discussed The paper concludes with a glimpse into the blue skies of the future - where all resources will have metadata as standard practice, and institutions can share and utilize their resources effectively.

  8. A life-history perspective on the demographic drivers of structured population dynamics in changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, David N; Iles, David T; Schaub, Michael; Caswell, Hal

    2016-09-01

    Current understanding of life-history evolution and how demographic parameters contribute to population dynamics across species is largely based on assumptions of either constant environments or stationary environmental variation. Meanwhile, species are faced with non-stationary environmental conditions (changing mean, variance, or both) created by climate and landscape change. To close the gap between contemporary reality and demographic theory, we develop a set of transient life table response experiments (LTREs) for decomposing realised population growth rates into contributions from specific vital rates and components of population structure. Using transient LTREs in a theoretical framework, we reveal that established concepts in population biology will require revision because of reliance on approaches that do not address the influence of unstable population structure on population growth and mean fitness. Going forward, transient LTREs will enhance understanding of demography and improve the explanatory power of models used to understand ecological and evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27401966

  9. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Modeling the Interaction of Directional Selection and Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation constrains the range of many species, making them unable to respond to climate change by moving. For such species to avoid extinction, they must respond with some combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. Haldane's "cost of natural selection" limits the rate of adaptation, but, although modeling has shown that in very large populations long-term adaptation can be maintained at rates substantially faster than Haldane's suggested limit, maintaining large populations is often an impossibility, so phenotypic plasticity may be crucial in enhancing the long-term survival of small populations. The potential importance of plasticity is in "buying time" for populations subject to directional environmental change: if genotypes can encompass a greater environmental range, then populations can maintain high fitness for a longer period of time. Alternatively, plasticity could be detrimental by lessening the effectiveness of natural selection in promoting genetic adaptation. Here, I modeled a directionally changing environment in which a genotype's adaptive phenotypic plasticity is centered around the environment where its fitness is highest. Plasticity broadens environmental tolerance and, provided it is not too costly, is favored by natural selection. However, a paradoxical result of the individually advantageous spread of plasticity is that, unless the adaptive trait is determined by very few loci, the long-term extinction risk of a population increases. This effect reflects a conflict between the short-term individual benefit of plasticity and a long-term detriment to population persistence, adding to the multiple threats facing small populations under conditions of climate change.

  10. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes, mainly urbanization and climatic change, leads to increased runoff and peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to reduce potential damage and inconvenience. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the conveyance capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. Contemporary practice is to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in the climate- and the urban environment, this approach is no longer appropriate, and explicit consideration of gradual changes during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and responses over the analysis period. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  11. Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maharjan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban flooding causes large economic losses, property damage and loss of lives. The impact of environmental changes mainly, the urbanization and the climatic change leads to increased runoff and increased peak flows which the drainage system must be able to cope with to overcome possible damage and inconveniences caused by the induced flooding. Allowing for detention storage to compliment the capacity of the drainage system network is one of the approaches to reduce urban floods. The traditional practice was to design systems against stationary environmental forcings – including design rainfall, landuse, etc. Due to the rapid change in climate-environment, this approach is no longer economically viable and safe, and explicit consideration of changes that gradually take place during the life-time of the drainage system is warranted. In this paper, a staged cost optimization tool based on the hydraulic performance of the drainage system is presented. A one dimensional hydraulic model is used for hydraulic evaluation of the network together with a genetic algorithm based optimization tool to determine optimal intervention timings and amounts throughout the lifespan of the drainage network. The model was applied in a case study area in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. It was concluded that considerable financial savings and/or additional level of flood-safety can be achieved by approaching the design problem as a staged plan rather than one-off scheme.

  12. Adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture). The interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons). The annual cycles of interacting pathogen and host biology is regulated in part by highly synchronized temperature and photoperiod changes during seasonal transitions (e.g., freezeup and breakup). With a warming climate, only one of these key biological cues will undergo drastic changes, while the other will remain fixed. This uncoupling can theoretically have drastic consequences on host-pathogen interactions. These poorly understood cues together with a changing climate by itself will challenge host populations that are adapted to pathogens under the historic and current climate regime. We will review adaptations of both host and pathogens to the extreme conditions at high latitudes and explore some potential consequences of rapid changes in the Arctic. PMID:21392401

  13. Proceedings of the workshop cum nineteenth national symposium on environment: climate change and its impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is now recognized as the major environmental problem facing the mankind. The impacts are being felt in the form of melting ice caps in the Polar Regions and increased variability in temperature, rainfall and storms in virtually all regions. In addition to global impacts pollution in India can also be attributed to rapid industrialization, energy production, urbanization and increase in the number of motorized vehicles. Similarly, untreated water from urban settlements and industrial activities, run off from agricultural lands carrying chemicals are primarily responsible for the deterioration of water quality and contamination of lakes, rivers and groundwater aquifers. Other environmental issues such as loss of biodiversity, land degradation and hazardous waste disposal are also a cause of concern. The continuous deterioration of environment is the result of unsustainable patterns of production and consumption processes. Actions to mitigate climate change are only possible with strong policies and technology development and appropriate pollution control measures need to be adopted to mitigate the pollutants in order to achieve a clean environment. Control of air pollution should include promotion of cleaner technologies, strengthening emission standards and monitoring systems. Water pollution control should include technological intervention to enhance effective treatment of wastewater. The discussions of the symposium covered the topics like: Climate change and mitigation strategies, air, water and soil pollution, monitoring and modeling of pollutants and their transport, aerosol characterization and health effects, environmental radioactivity including NORM, speciation studies of toxic pollutants, remote sensing - GIS studies, ecology, environmental awareness and education, bioremediation, waste management and other related areas. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. 77 FR 62547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... compensation decisions in today's corporate governance environment. Since responsibility for executive... already subject to a pervasive system of federal regulation in certain areas of corporate governance, and... formal committee structure may help promote accountability to stockholders for executive...

  15. Developing an Understanding of Vegetation Change and Fluvial Carbon Fluxes in Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. Transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage and an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over six bounded plots with different vegetation coverage. The experiment takes advantage of a natural abundance stable 13C isotope shift from C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand through a C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 shrub (Larrea tridentata). Data collected quantify fluvial fluxes of sediment and associated soil organic matter and carbon that is lost from across the grass-to-shrub and grass-to-woodland transition (where change in space is taken to indicate a similar change through time). Results collected during the 2010 and 2011 monsoon seasons will be presented, illustrating that soil and carbon losses are greater as the ecosystem becomes more dominated by woody plants. Additionally this project utilises novel

  16. Learning and assessment credibility: The design of examination strategies in a changing learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Diprose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning environments for higher education have changed considerably in the last 20 years, especially since the advent of the internet. In addition to the change in learning technologies has come an increasing politicisation of higher education and in the UK a change from being virtually free in the 1980s to one where annual costs (Sheffield Press Release, 2012 can now be in excess of £9000 p.a. Since there are various routes to attaining higher education and commercialisation and competition are being introduced, the output of the systems, i.e. a student’s learning, is a factor which needs very careful attention and a moderating system is required, external to the educational providers, to ensure even quality. This should test a candidate’s learning, not the educational process. Academic skills are one measure of a candidate, but other qualities are often sought by employers, such as flexibility and breadth of learning to ensure that a company is able to respond to new market challenges and opportunities. Traditional examinations do not always test such skills. It is suggested in this paper, that in order to accommodate the wide variety of routes to education, some candidates might register only for examinations at a university and not the course itself. In addition some ways of obtaining more information about a candidate’s abilities are suggested.

  17. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  18. Porter's generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance: a longitudinal study of changing strategies in the hospital industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, B T; Marlin, D; Hoffman, J J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Changes in generic strategies in response to discontinuous environments have been relatively ignored in the management literature. This study reports an examination of the relationships between Porter's (1980) generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance. DATA SOURCES. Archival data for 1984 and 1988 were collected for 172 acute care hospitals in Florida in order to test these relationships. STUDY DESIGN. To examine fully the performance impact of changes in stra...

  19. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  20. Energy in a changing environment: Do ``big dog`` strategies always work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.S.K.

    1997-11-01

    There have been a number of innovative retail wheeling pilot programs offered by investor-owned utilities and their local regulators. These programs are providing retail consumers with energy options heretofore unavailable. These offerings are just the beginning. The business environment in the energy business is rapidly changing with new entrants vying for their share of the new business. The question is what should be the strategies used by these new entrants and how should they be applied. The answer can be found by examining the lessons learned from recent pilot projects, applying one of three generic strategies offered by Michael Porter, and looking for the resultant opportunities. Each part of the answer is described below. In addition, advice for the energy engineer is provided and recommendations for the buyer are offered.

  1. Genetic and demographic parameters determining population persistence after a discrete change in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulding, E G; Hay, T

    2001-03-01

    Field studies suggest that populations often go extinct following discrete changes in the environment. However, populations may avoid extinction by rapidly adapting to their altered environment. We used a stochastic finite-locus model to estimate the distance the optimal value of a quantitative trait could shift in a single step Delta theta(c) without causing more than 5% of the replicate populations to go extinct. We found that evolution increased the magnitude of Delta theta(c) by at least two phenotypic standard deviations and that such evolution could take place within 5--10 generations. Indeed (Delta theta(c))(2) increased approximately linearly with the logarithm of the initial population size and the rate of this increase was much greater when heritability was high or when stabilizing selection was weak. (Delta theta(c))(2) also increased approximately linearly with the logarithm of per capita fecundity. To our surprise there was no 'demographic rescue' effect from migration; a population augmented with migrants from a neighbouring population where environmental conditions were unchanged was always more likely to go extinct. The addition of mutation, more loci, density-dependence, or environmental stochasticity had only small effects on the outcome. We were able to compare our results for closed populations with density-independent population growth to those from an analytical model and found good agreement so long as the proportion of the offspring surviving selection in the initial generations was at least 1%. PMID:11488968

  2. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  3. Minor Allele Frequency Changes the Nature of Genotype by Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Neale, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    In the classical twin study, phenotypic variation is often partitioned into additive genetic (A), common (C) and specific environment (E) components. From genetical theory, the outcome of genotype by environment interaction is expected to inflate A when the interacting factor is shared (i.e., C) between the members of a twin pair. We show that estimates of both A and C can be inflated. When the shared interacting factor changes the size of the difference between homozygotes' means, the expected sibling or DZ twin correlation is .5 if and only if the minor allele frequency (MAF) is .5; otherwise the expected DZ correlation is greater than this value, consistent (and confounded) with some additional effect of C. This result is considered in the light of the distribution of minor allele frequencies for polygenic traits. Also discussed is whether such interactions take place at the locus level or affect an aggregated biological structure or system. Interactions with structures or endophenotypes that result from the aggregated effects of many loci will generally emerge as part of the A estimate. PMID:27105628

  4. Whose environment?: the end of nature, climate change and the process of post-politicization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how the elevation of the environmental question, in particular the problem of climate change, to a global and consensually established public concern is both a marker of and constituent force in the production of de-politicization. The paper has four parts. First, I problematize the question of Nature and the environment. Second, the case of climate change policy is presented as cause célèbre of de-politicization. The third part relates this argument to the views of political theorists who argue that the political constitution of western democracies is increasingly marked by the consolidation of post-political and post-democratic arrangements. Fourth, I discuss the climate change consensus in light of the post-political thesis. I conclude that the matter of the environment and climate change in particular, needs to be displaced onto the terrain of the properly political.Este artigo explora como a eminência da questão ambiental, particularmente da problemática das mudanças climáticas, para uma preocupação pública global e consensualmente vigente é ao mesmo tempo um marco e uma força constituinte na produção da despolitização. Este artigo tem quatro partes. Primeiro, eu problematizo a questão da natureza e do meio ambiente. Segundo, o caso das políticas de mudanças climáticas é apresentado como cause célèbre da despolitização. A terceira parte relaciona este argumento com as visões de teóricos políticos que argumentam que a constituição política das democracias ocidentais é, cada vez mais, marcada pela consolidação de arranjos pós-politicos e pós-democráticos. Na quarta parte eu discuto o consenso das mudanças climáticas à luz da tese pós-política. Eu concluo que a questão do meio ambiente e, particularmente, das mudanças climáticas precisam ser deslocadas para o terreno do propriamente político.

  5. 14. Internal symposium on secular change of structural materials for nuclear energy. Secular change mechanism in light water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this symposium, lectures were given on the embrittlement by neutron irradiation of LWR pressure vessel steel, the effect that neutron irradiation exerts to austenitic stainless steel becoming sensitive, the mechanism of the occurrence and development of stress corrosion cracking in the water environment of LWRs, the effect that the water environment of LWRs exerts to fatigue life, and the environment-promoted cracking in LWR environment and its forecast. Thereafter, panel discussion was held by the lecturers. In this book, the summaries of the lectures are collected. (K.I.)

  6. 76 FR 67012 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... use on PSX. Today's cash equities markets are characterized by high levels of automation and speed, both in the systems employed by exchanges and by their market participants. In such an environment, the degree to which displayed orders reflect committed trading sentiment has become less predictable,...

  7. 78 FR 75423 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Adviser believes to be ``sound'' monetary policy and gold.\\12\\ Sound monetary policy is ] defined by the Investment Adviser as a monetary policy providing an environment fostering long-term price stability. The... sound monetary policy, ``hard currencies'' include, without limitation: Argentine Peso (ARS),...

  8. 78 FR 75585 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... in Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct... change (the ``Proposed Rule Change'') in connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below, involving its parent company, BATS Global Markets, Inc....

  9. 78 FR 48732 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Organization's Statement of the Terms of the Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes... Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose In... Exchange Act Release Nos. 67004 (May 17, 2012), 77 FR 30581 (May 23, 2012) (SR-Phlx-2012-64)...

  10. 76 FR 38226 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend Chapter V, (Doing Business... only one execution mechanism for the execution of two-sided crossing transactions--the Price... developed additional auction mechanisms. This rule change proposes implementation on BOX of a...

  11. 77 FR 14578 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been prepared primarily by ICC. The... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change ICC proposes rule amendments that are intended to...

  12. 77 FR 51599 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ..., ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the... by ICC. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit comments on the proposed rule change from..., ICC included statements concerning the purpose of and basis for the proposed rule change and...

  13. 77 FR 67412 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Committee may revise the Benchmark's policy covering rules for selecting companies, treatment of dividends...), 77 FR 58889 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to list... factors remain constant or have negligible changes). This, in turn, causes the level of the VIX Index...

  14. 77 FR 59423 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Structure of the Company September 21, 2012. I. Introduction On July 25, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (``NYSE MKT'' or... changes to the capital structure of the company. The proposed rule change was published for comment in the... capital structure of the Company based on three transactions that have occurred or will occur since...

  15. 75 FR 8164 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... interest rate risk or how sensitive an investment or a fund is to changes in interest rates. Generally, a fund or instrument with a longer effective duration is more sensitive to interest rate fluctuations and... holdings or average effective duration based on actual or anticipated changes in interest rates or...

  16. Climate change and its impact on public health – A review of the global environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ambu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a product of human actions.The extreme events such as flash floods, droughts,heat waves, earthquakes, volcano eruptions andtsunamis seen in the world today are the result ofindiscriminate human intrusion into the environment.Vulnerable countries and populations are the mostaffected by these climatic events. This places a burdenon the resources of these countries. The Kyoto Protocolis a milestone in environmental management and theimpetus created by it must be maintained by carryingout the much needed research into appropriatemitigating measures that will alleviate the climatechange impact globally. A paradigm shift is needed inaddressing the associated risks on human health to assesssocioeconomic determinants and the related impactson disease burden. Some wealthy nations emphasizeeconomic benefits and downplay sustainability goals,health and equality. However the rising cost of energyis beginning to influence their outlook towards thisissue. The implications on economics, human healthand wellbeing are implicit. In order to strike a balancebetween disadvantaged and privileged nations, manyinternational agencies are spearheading various researchagenda to improve adaptation programmes on effectsof changing climatic conditions on health. Malaysiatoo has such programmes initiated under its 5-yeardevelopment plans.

  17. Ecological environment changes in Daya Bay, China, from 1982 to 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Youshao [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China)], E-mail: yswang@scsio.ac.cn; Lou Zhiping; Sun Cuici [Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Sun Song [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Data collected from 12 marine monitoring stations in Daya Bay from 1982 to 2004 reveal a substantial change in the ecological environment of this region. The average N/P ratio increased from 1.377 in 1985 to 49.09 in 2004. Algal species changed from 159 species of 46 genera in 1982 to 126 species of 44 genera in 2004. Major zooplankton species went from 46 species in 1983 to 36 species in 2004. The annual mean biomass of benthic animals was recorded at 123.10 g m{sup -2} in 1982 and 126.68 g m{sup -2} in 2004. Mean biomass and species of benthic animals near nuclear power plants ranged from 317.9 g m{sup -2} in 1991 to 45.24 g m{sup -2} in 2004 and from 250 species in 1991 to 177 species in 2004. A total of 12-19 species of hermatypic corals and 13 species of mangrove plants were observed in Daya Bay from 1984 to 2002.

  18. How catchment characteristics determine hydrological sensitivity to climate change in a mountainous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köplin, Nina; Viviroli, Daniel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    The anticipated climate change in Switzerland will result in changing precipitation patterns and increasing temperatures during the first half of the 21st century (OcCC 2007). These changes will have an impact on the hydrological systems, too, in particular in mountainous regions. The objective of our study is to determine those catchments that exhibit sensitivity towards a change in climate, and to identify specific catchment characteristics causing this sensitivity. Both issues will be addressed in the framework of the joint research project 'Climate Change in Switzerland - Hydrology' (CCHydro) which was initiated by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). In the present study, the hydrological modelling system PREVAH (Precipitation-Runoff-EVAporation-HRU related model, Viviroli et al. 2009a) is used to examine mesoscale catchments in Switzerland. It is a semi-distributed and conceptual yet process-oriented model run on the basis of hourly meteorological input, and at a spatial resolution of 500 x 500 m2. This spatial and temporal resolution is a necessary prerequisite to meet the high degree of heterogeneity of mountainous environments. Where measured discharge is available, catchments were successfully calibrated both for standard and flood conditions using an iterative search algorithm designed to maximize objectivity of the calibration procedure (Viviroli et al. 2009b). The parameter values thus obtained were transferred to ungauged catchments subsequently. For this, a regionalisation scheme was used (Viviroli et al. 2009c) to arrive at a comprehensive set of model parameters for the entire area of Switzerland. A total of 17 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES-project (Hewitt & Griggs 2004) were interpolated to meteorological station locations at the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science (IAC) at ETH Zurich (Bosshard et al. 2009) using the Delta Approach (Prudhomme et al. 2002). The Delta Change Signal was calculated for the

  19. B7-H4-Ig treatment of normal mice changes lymphocyte homeostasis and increases the potential of regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna N; Schmidt, Esben G W; Rasmussen, Susanne;

    2013-01-01

    professional antigen-presenting cells. By delivering signal 2 during T cell activation, it inhibits T cell proliferation and inflammation. In this study, we have used a newly developed B7-H4-Ig fusion protein and evaluated its effect on eAg-activated effector and regulatory T cells (Treg) in vitro and in vivo....... T cells were recovered from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of untreated or B7-H4-Ig-treated BALB/c mice. Treatment of cells in vitro did neither affect the proliferation of effector T cells nor the function of Tregs. In vivo, B7-H4 treatment increased the total number of MLN-derived CD4⁺ and CD8......⁺ T cell subsets as well as the functional activity of MLN-derived Tregs, whereas the proliferative activity of eAg or alloantigen specific effector T cells was not influenced, although treatment resulted in less secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines from these cells. B7-H4-Ig treatment...

  20. Changes of the soil environment affected by fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Gwizdz, Marta; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Debicka, Magdalena; Kocowicz, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    In this study the effect of fly ash dumping site of the electric power plant on the surrounding soil environment was investigated. The fly ash dumping site collect wastes form brown coal combustion of Belchatow electric power station, central Poland. The dumping site is surrounding by forest, where pine trees overgrow Podzols derived from loose quartz sands. The soil profiles under study were located at a distance of 50, 100, 400 and 500 m from the dumping site, while control profiles were located 8 km away from the landfill. In all horizons of soil profiles the mpain hysico-chemical and chemical properties were determined. The humic substances were extracted from ectohumus horizons by Shnitzer's method, purified using XAD resin and freeze-dried. The fulvic acids were passed through a cation exchange column and freeze-dried. Optical density, elemental composition and atomic ratios were determined in the humic and fulvic acids. Organic carbon by KMnO4 oxidation was also determined in the organic soil horizons. The fly ash from the landfill characterized by high salinity and strong alkaline reaction (pH=10), which contributed significantly to the changes of the pH values in soils horizons. The alkalization of soils adjacent to the landfill was found, which manifested in increasing of pH values in the upper soil horizons. The impact of the landfill was also noted in the changes of the soil morphology of Podzols analysed. As a result of the alkalization, Bhs horizons have been converted into a Bs horizons. Leaching of low molecular humus fraction - typical for podzolization - has been minimized as a result of pH changes caused by the impact of the landfill, and originally occurring humic substances in the Bhs horizon (present in the control profiles) have been probably transported out of the soil profile and then into the groundwater.

  1. The Nature and Impact of Changes in Home Learning Environment on Development of Language and Academic Skills in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined changes in the early home learning environment as children approached school entry and whether these changes predicted the development of children's language and academic skills. Findings from a national sample of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

  2. 77 FR 32161 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Release No. 66753 (April 6, 2012), 77 FR 21827 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change... primary financial markets regulator, the Comissao de Valores Mobiliarios, is a signatory to...

  3. 76 FR 66339 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ..., soybean meal, canola, sugar, cocoa, coffee, cotton, live cattle, feeder cattle and lean hogs. Each...), 76 FR 55956 (``Notice''). ] II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to...

  4. 77 FR 67427 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Rules provide updates related to anti-money laundering legislation applicable to customers, clarify... does not believe that the proposed rule change will have any impact or impose any burden on...

  5. Balanced Integrated Regulatory Oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor safety, protecting the public health and safety, and protecting the environment must always be the nuclear regulator's top priorities. Enabling the use of nuclear power for the benefit of society, while protecting the public and the environment requires the regulator to balance many factors. In addition, the regulator is only one part of the overall government that must consider many factors as it carries out its societal responsibilities. Some of the factors that must be balanced and the practical impacts on how the regulator carries out its responsibilities will be addressed. The first International Conference on Effective Regulatory Systems, held in Moscow, Russian Federation, in 2006, focused on safety and security challenges with a goal of improving regulatory effectiveness through cooperation and sharing of information and best practices. The challenge of meeting both safety and security objectives is one example of potentially competing programmes that must be balanced. Other balances that must be evaluated include the benefits of safety improvements compared to the cost of implementation, the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, communication openness balanced with the protection of information that could be used for detrimental purposes, and timeliness of regulatory decision making balanced with the need to perform quality work in support of oversight responsibilities. A balanced and integrated approach to regulatory oversight is vital to ensuring that the regulatory body remains effective in its mission to enable the use of nuclear power while protecting the public and the environment. This concept is applicable to nations beginning a nuclear programme as well as established and experienced regulatory bodies. (author)

  6. Up in smoke: regulatory immortality for 'grandfathered' power plants under the NSR rule changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad G. Schneider [Clean Air Task Force (USA)

    2004-01-01

    The US New Source Review (NSR) program requires power plant owners to install modern pollution control whenever they upgrade their plants in a way that will cause more pollution. The Clean Air Task Force and other environmental organizations and dozens of states and municipalities have challenged changes to the NSR rule change exempting grandfathered power plants under certain conditions. The author discussed this legislation and whether the Clear Skies Act will be effective. 9 refs.

  7. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  8. Sediment lithostratigraphy and past changes in sedimentary environment in isolated lakes in Satakunta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate lacustrine sediment sections in lakes isolated from the Baltic Sea basin and appearing in Satakunta region. One of the aims was to characterize their sediment composition and structures (sediment lithostratigraphy) and to describe their past and present sedimentary environment. Altogether, 8 lakes were selected for the study based on their variable appearance and catchment environmental conditions, i.e. properties such as lake shape, size, and morphometry, as well as altitude and geology of the drainage basin. The primary research methods applied included use of ground penetrating radar, sediment coring and physical sedimentological applications. Sediment erosion, transportation and deposition (re-deposition) are significant but often slowly-appearing processes in lacustrine environment, such as the one presently studied. The rate of erosion and sediment yield depend primarily on water depth in different parts of a lake, wind and current action, and hydrological (palaeohydrological) changes. All the presently studied sediment sections were characterized by erosion and redeposition horizons. However, this is not surprising considering their isolation history from the Baltic Sea basin and current rather shallow nature. All presently studied lakes contained 2-8 meters thick section of post-glacial sediments. Being rather shallow and filled with sediments, these lakes were considered to be prone to erosion by wind and wave actions as well as sediment re-deposition. Some of the presently studied sediment sections were characterized by 10 to 50 cm thick (sandy) erosion horizons in their type-stratigraphies. However, sections were not discovered to contain massive discontinuity surfaces that would indicate fault-type sediment structures during the past 8000 years. Neither did the ground penetrating radar data show significant faults. (orig.)

  9. Population dynamics in the presence of quasispecies effects and changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Robert Burke

    2006-12-01

    This thesis explores how natural selection acts on organisms such as viruses that have either highly error-prone reproduction or face variable environmental conditions or both. By modeling population dynamics under these conditions, we gain a better understanding of the selective forces at work, both in our simulations and hopefully also in real organisms. With an understanding of the important factors in natural selection we can forecast not only the immediate fate of an existing population but also in what directions such a population might evolve in the future. We demonstrate that the concept of a quasispecies is relevant to evolution in a neutral fitness landscape. Motivated by RNA viruses such as HIV, we use RNA secondary structure as our model system and find that quasispecies effects arise both rapidly and in realistically small populations. We discover that the evolutionary effects of neutral drift, punctuated equilibrium and the selection for mutational robustness extend to the concept of a quasispecies. In our study of periodic environments, we consider the tradeoffs faced by quasispecies in adapting to environmental change. We develop an analytical model to predict whether evolution favors short-term or long-term adaptation and validate our model through simulation. Our results bear directly on the population dynamics of viruses such as West Nile that alternate between two host species. More generally, we discover that a selective pressure exists under these conditions to fuse or split genes with complementary environmental functions. Lastly, we study the general effects of frequency-dependent selection on two strains competing in a periodic environment. Under very general assumptions, we prove that stable coexistence rather than extinction is the likely outcome. The population dynamics of this system may be as simple as stable equilibrium or as complex as deterministic chaos.

  10. A changing gastric environment leads to adaptation of lipopolysaccharide variants in Helicobacter pylori populations during colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoglund

    Full Text Available The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression.

  11. A Changing Gastric Environment Leads to Adaptation of Lipopolysaccharide Variants in Helicobacter pylori Populations during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Christina; Björkholm, Britta; Normark, Staffan; Engstrand, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG) with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS) decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression. PMID:19517017

  12. Changes of CD4+CD25+Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and the Effects of Atorvastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhenping; LI Dazhu; HU Yingfeng; YANG Keping

    2007-01-01

    The function of CD4+CD25+regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the effects of atorvastatin were investigated. Forty-eight patients with ACS were randomly divided into two groups: group C receiving conventional therapy (n=24), and group C+A receiving conventional therapy+atorvastatin (10 mg/day, n=24). T lymphocytes from ACS patients (before and 2 weeks after the treatment) or 18 healthy subjects were separated and the flow cytometry was used to measure the percentage of Treg. The inhibitory ability of Treg on effector T cells was determined by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). ELISA was used to measure the serum levels of cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β1 and IFN-γ) before and after treatment. The results showed that as compared with normal control group, Treg percentage was decreased significantly (P<0.01), the in- hibitory ability of Treg on the T lymphocytes proliferation was reduced (P<0.01), IFN-γ, levels were increased and IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels were lowered in ACS patients. After treatment with atorvas- tatin, Treg percentage and the inhibitory ability of Treg on T lymphocytes proliferation were signifi- cantly increased in ACS patients. Serum IFN-γ, was decreased significantly, while IL-10 and TGF-β1 were elevated significantly as compared with the non-atorvastatin group. The number of Treg was positively correlated with serum TGF-β1, but negatively with serum IFN-γ and CRP. It was concluded that ACS was associated with decreased number and defected function of Treg, which may play an important role in initiating immune-inflammatory response in ACS. The inhibitory ef- fects of atorvastatin on inflammation in ACS may be due to its beneficial effects on Treg and restora- tion of immune homeostasis.

  13. Physiological plasticity of the thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii in response to a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, T.; Johnson, A.; Gelsinger, D.; de la Torre, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in high temperature environments underwent a dramatic revision with the discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). The importance of AOA to the global nitrogen cycle came to light when recent studies of marine AOA demonstrated the dominance of these organisms in the ocean microbiome and their role as producers of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Understanding how AOA respond to fluctuating environments is crucial to fully comprehending their contribution to global biogeochemical cycling and climate change. In this study we use the thermophilic AOA Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii strain HL72 to explore the physiological plasticity of energy metabolism in these organisms. Previous studies have shown that HL72 grows autotrophically by aerobically oxidizing ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-). Unlike studies of marine AOA, we find that HL72 can grow over a wide ammonia concentration range (0.25 - 10 mM NH4Cl) with comparable generation times when in the presence of 0.25 to 4 mM NH4Cl. However, preliminary data indicate that amoA, the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), is upregulated at low ammonia concentrations (urea transporter. Urea ((NH2)2CO) is an organic compound ubiquitous to aquatic and soil habitats that, when hydrolyzed, forms NH3 and CO2. We examined urea as an alternate source of ammonia for the ammonia oxidation pathway. HL72 grows over a wide range of urea concentrations (0.25 - 10 mM) at rates comparable to growth on ammonia. In a substrate competition experiment HL72 preferentially consumed NH3 from NH4Cl when both substrates were provided in equal molar concentrations. However, the urease alpha subunit ureC was expressed in both the presence and absence of urea. One consequence of urea hydrolysis is consumption of intracellular protons during the reaction. As ammonia oxidation produces H+, leading to a decrease in pH, the hydrolysis of urea prior to ammonia oxidation may help alleviate

  14. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  15. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching

    2016-01-01

    tenuiremis was likely an introduced species. There was no significant loss in species richness of copepods despite the dramatic changes in community structure. Discussion. Sea warming and other human-induced effects such as eutrophication, acidification and coastal habitat degradation are likely the main factors that have altered copepod community structure. The large-bodied estuarine and coastal calanoid copepods are surmised to be vulnerable to eutrophication and hypoxia, while both resilient and opportunistic species are largely unaffected by, or adaptable to, degraded coastal environments and observed sea surface temperature (SST) rise. It is forecasted that SST rise with unmitigated anthropogenic impacts will further reduce large-bodied copepod species the favoured food for fish larvae with dire consequences for coastal fish production. PMID:27257540

  16. Changing Formulations of the Man-Environment Relationship in Anglo-American Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    The following six formulations of the Man-Environment relationship have held successive favor in Geography since the 1900's: Economic Determinism, Possibilism, Cultural Relativism, the Landscape School, Perception of Environment, and Ecological Approach. (JH)

  17. Remote sensing based change analysis of rice environments in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Mohanty, Samarendu; Nelson, Andrew; Arnel, Rala; Mohammed, Irshad A; Das, Satya Ranjan

    2015-01-15

    The rainfed rice-growing environment is perhaps one of the most vulnerable to water stress such as drought and floods. It is important to determine the spatial extent of the stress-prone areas to effectively and efficiently promote proper technologies (e.g., stress-tolerant varieties) to tackle the problem of sustainable food production. This study was conducted in Odisha state located in eastern India. Odisha is predominantly a rainfed rice ecosystem (71% rainfed and 29% canal irrigated during kharif-monsoon season), where rice is the major crop and staple food of the people. However, rice productivity in Odisha is one of the lowest in India and a significant decline (9%) in rice cultivated area was observed in 2002 (a drought year). The present study analyzed the temporal rice cropping pattern in various ecosystems and identified the stress-prone areas due to submergence (flooding) and water shortage. The spatial distribution of rice areas was mapped using MODIS (MOD09Q1) 250-m 8-day time-series data (2000-2010) and spectral matching techniques. The mapped rice areas were strongly correlated (R(2) = 90%) with district-level statistics. Also the class accuracy based on field-plot data was 84.8%. The area under the rainfed rice ecosystem continues to dominate, recording the largest share among rice classes across all the years. The use of remote-sensing techniques is rapid, cost-effective, and reliable to monitor changes in rice cultivated area over long periods of time and estimate the reduction in area cultivated due to abiotic stress such as water stress and submergence. Agricultural research institutes and line departments in the government can use these techniques for better planning, regular monitoring of land-use changes, and dissemination of appropriate technologies.

  18. 78 FR 48528 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... to provide more robust business continuity planning for NYSE MKT that is consistent with NYSE... change would substantially strengthen business continuity planning for itself and its Affiliated... definition of ``Affiliated Exchange.'' Current Rule In 2009, the Exchange amended Rule 2.100 to provide...

  19. 76 FR 75924 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65605 (October 21, 2011), 76 FR 67015. After careful review, the... (``Board'') to determine the size of its Audit Committee, so long as the Audit Committee includes at least... does not change any other compositional requirements of either the Audit Committee or the...

  20. 77 FR 44291 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Relating to Listing and Trading of the First Trust CBOE VIX Tail Hedge Index Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities... Hedge Index Fund (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 5.2(j)(3). The proposed rule change was... the CBOE S&P VIX Tail Hedge Index (``Index''). The Fund will normally invest at least 90% of its...

  1. 76 FR 60957 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... securities that best represent each of the desired investment types. The strategy also calls for periodic... evaluates ETFs based on their underlying costs. The Adviser employs a buy and hold strategy, meaning that it...), 76 FR 53004 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Commission...

  2. 76 FR 814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...), 75 FR 70331 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The purpose of the proposed rule change is... limited value in the Exchange's current specialist review process. Instead, the Exchange believes that the... Exchange's integrity or impair the Exchange's reputation for maintaining efficient, fair and...

  3. 78 FR 21650 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... (February 20, 2013), 78 FR 13103 (``Notice''). \\4\\ In approving the proposed rule changes, the Commission... Commission, along with other corporate governance documents.\\8\\ \\7\\ See Section 3(a)(27) of the Act, 15 U.S.C... NYSE Arca Holdings Bylaws, along with other corporate documents, are rules of the Exchange \\7\\ and...

  4. 77 FR 39785 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Changes To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... this notice to solicit comments on the proposed rule changes from interested persons. \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s... promote just and equitable principles of trade, to foster cooperation and coordination with persons... customization and segmentation experience may be less transparent and objective. While non-routable orders...

  5. 78 FR 75607 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of a Proposed Rule Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Connection With the Proposed Business Combination Involving BATS Global Markets, Inc. and Direct Edge... (the ``Proposed Rule Change'') in connection with the proposed business combination (the ``Combination''), as described in more detail below, involving its parent company, BATS Global Markets, Inc. and...

  6. 76 FR 79729 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... of these changes include: Replacing standard deviation with mean absolute deviation as a measure of... 7, 2011), 76 FR 70206 (November 10, 2011). In its filing with the Commission, ICC included... modifications are collectively referred to as the ``Portfolio Decomposition Model.'' A fundamental aspect of...

  7. 77 FR 4079 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ....g., 3 month local price momentum), risk (e.g., change in 30-day standard deviation), and valuation... Release No. 65862 (December 1, 2011), 76 FR 76457 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule... Advisers is the Fund's sub-adviser (``Sub-Adviser'') and provides day-to-day portfolio management of...

  8. 78 FR 75406 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... (October 8, 2013), 78 FR 62751 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange...%); British Pound (9.9%); Mexican Peso (8.5%); Australian Dollar (5.5%); Swiss Franc (4.9%); Korean Won (3.6... Core Trading Session on the Exchange, the Trust will disclose on its Web site the identities...

  9. 77 FR 39554 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... (May 11, 2012), 77 FR 29429 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange... strategy in an attempt to reduce risk and increase overall performance. Prior to making an investment for... diversification among and across economic sectors, industries, and countries. The Sub-Adviser will consider...

  10. 77 FR 70500 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of such Fund, each determined on the basis of generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, consistently applied under the accrual method of accounting. In particular, NAV will include any... Organization's Statement of the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change In its...

  11. 76 FR 80433 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... total liabilities of such Fund, each determined on the basis of generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, consistently applied under the accrual method of accounting. In particular, NAV..., and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change In its filing with the Commission, the...

  12. 78 FR 68480 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been prepared primarily by ICC. The Commission is... provide the basis for ICC to clear additional credit default swap contracts. Specifically, ICC...

  13. 76 FR 65763 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Add...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ...-65259 (September 2, 2011), 76 FR 55984 (September 9, 2011). In its filing with the Commission, ICC... 30, 2011, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change SR-ICC-2011-01 pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities...

  14. 76 FR 55984 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... is hereby given that on August 30, 2011, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and..., which Items have been prepared primarily by ICC. The Commission is publishing this notice to solicit... The purpose of the proposed rule change is to adopt new rules that will provide the basis for ICC...

  15. 78 FR 76358 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Act Release No. 70826 (Nov. 7, 2013), 78 FR 68480 (Nov. 14, 2013). On December 2, 2013, ICC withdrew the proposed rule change (SR-ICC- 2013-08). For the Commission, by the Division of Trading and Markets... Existing Rules December 11, 2013. On October 25, 2013, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with...

  16. 76 FR 76457 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... returns. Investment Process and Portfolio Construction According to the Registration Statement, through... local price momentum), risk (e.g., change in 30-day standard deviation), and valuation (e.g., earnings...-adviser (``Sub-Adviser'') and provides day-to-day portfolio management of the Fund. Foreside Fund...

  17. 77 FR 44294 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... NMS Rule 611-Compliant Tool for Floor Brokers July 23, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... provides a Regulation NMS Rule 611-compliant tool for Floor Brokers. The text of the proposed rule change... processes used by Floor Brokers to manually cross orders in compliance with Regulation NMS Rule 611...

  18. 75 FR 43597 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    .... 61345 (January 13, 2010), 75 FR 32631 (January 20, 2010) (SR-NASDAQ-2008-104). If NASDAQ's rules are... Relating to the Establishment of NASDAQ OMX PSX as a Platform for Trading NMS Stocks July 16, 2010... new electronic platform for trading NMS stocks. The text of the proposed rule change is available...

  19. 75 FR 14644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... access to the Exchange's trading and execution systems that is separate or superior than Users that do... equitable allocation of reasonable dues, fees, and other charges among its members and other persons using... Statement on Comments on the Proposed Rule Change Received From Members, Participants, or Others No...

  20. 75 FR 28844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Amend EDGX Rule 11.14, Entitled ``Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility'' May 19, 2010... Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility.'' The text of the proposed rule change is available at the... trading halt described in Rule 11.14 applies to all stocks traded on the Exchange, the Exchange has...