WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing information environment

  1. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  2. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    skills and techniques typically associated with digital research tools and related ... into a word-processed document, thus not using IT tools merely as information ... translated full-text of Hugo Grotius 1625 De Jure Belli ac Pacis (Law of War and ... 20 There exists a large number of legal research experts who share this view, ...

  3. Selection, adaptation, and predictive information in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltgen, Quentin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation by means of natural selection is a key concept in evolutionary biology. Individuals better matched to the surrounding environment outcompete the others. This increases the fraction of the better adapted individuals in the population, and hence increases its collective fitness. Adaptation is also prominent on the physiological scale in neuroscience and cell biology. There each individual infers properties of the environment and changes to become individually better, improving the overall population as well. Traditionally, these two notions of adaption have been considered distinct. Here we argue that both types of adaptation result in the same population growth in a broad class of analytically tractable population dynamics models in temporally changing environments. In particular, both types of adaptation lead to subextensive corrections to the population growth rates. These corrections are nearly universal and are equal to the predictive information in the environment time series, which is also the characterization of the time series complexity. This work has been supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  4. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey ...

  5. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-05-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites—blogs, government, and general sites—are conducted.

  6. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2010-05-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-010-9860-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  7. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical…

  8. Information Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    The objective of GRC CNIS/IE work is to build a plug-n-play infrastructure that provides the Grand Challenge Applications with a suite of tools for coupling codes together, numerical zooming between fidelity of codes and gaining deployment of these simulations onto the Information Power Grid. The GRC CNIS/IE work will streamline and improve this process by providing tighter integration of various tools through the use of object oriented design of component models and data objects and through the use of CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture).

  9. Environments of change: a design solution for an informal settlement in Mamelodi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gottsmann, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available material with the argument that it can withstand extreme weather conditions, is fire resistant and quicker to erect than when using conventional building technologies? (Shirley 2009). 7. The suggested construction method It is important to note... symbol of hope and progressive change. 2. A need for building systems suitable for environments in constant flux Informal settlements are flux by nature. Even when settlement boundaries have been met, a change in urban fabric continually manifests...

  10. Long-term changes of information environments and computer anxiety of nurse administrators in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yukie; Izumi, Takako

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, medical information systems, including electronic medical records, are being introduced increasingly at medical and nursing fields. Nurse administrators, who are involved in the introduction of medical information systems and who must make proper judgment, are particularly required to have at least minimal knowledge of computers and networks and the ability to think about easy-to-use medical information systems. However, few of the current generation of nurse administrators studied information science subjects in their basic education curriculum. It can be said that information education for nurse administrators has become a pressing issue. Consequently, in this study, we conducted a survey of participants taking the first level program of the education course for Japanese certified nurse administrators to ascertain the actual conditions, such as the information environments that nurse administrators are in, their anxiety attitude to computers. Comparisons over the seven years since 2004 revealed that although introduction of electronic medical records in hospitals was progressing, little change in attributes of participants taking the course was observed, such as computer anxiety.

  11. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Iain Brown

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government...

  12. Quantifying spectral changes experienced by plasmonic nanoparticles in a cellular environment to inform biomedical nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen L.; Hu, Ying S.; Jackson, Meredith A.; Lin, Adam Y.; Young, Joseph K.; Langsner, Robert J.; Drezek, Rebekah A.

    2014-08-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) scatter and absorb light in precise, designable ways, making them agile candidates for a variety of biomedical applications. When NPs are introduced to a physiological environment and interact with cells, their physicochemical properties can change as proteins adsorb on their surface and they agglomerate within intracellular endosomal vesicles. Since the plasmonic properties of metal NPs are dependent on their geometry and local environment, these physicochemical changes may alter the NPs' plasmonic properties, on which applications such as plasmonic photothermal therapy and photonic gene circuits are based. Here we systematically study and quantify how metal NPs' optical spectra change upon introduction to a cellular environment in which NPs agglomerate within endosomal vesicles. Using darkfield hyperspectral imaging, we measure changes in the peak wavelength, broadening, and distribution of 100-nm spherical gold NPs' optical spectra following introduction to human breast adenocarcinoma Sk-Br-3 cells as a function of NP exposure dose and time. On a cellular level, spectra shift up to 78.6 ± 23.5 nm after 24 h of NP exposure. Importantly, spectra broaden with time, achieving a spectral width of 105.9 ± 11.7 nm at 95% of the spectrum's maximum intensity after 24 h. On an individual intracellular NP cluster (NPC) level, spectra also show significant shifting, broadening, and heterogeneity after 24 h. Cellular transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electromagnetic simulations of NPCs support the trends in spectral changes we measured. These quantitative data can help guide the design of metal NPs introduced to cellular environments in plasmonic NP-mediated biomedical technologies.

  13. Adaptation for a Changing Environment: Developing learning and teaching with information and communication technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kirkwood

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational, and technological make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. The need to adapt, however, can be perceived as being technology-led and primarily concerned with requiring academic staff to develop their skills in using ICT. We provide a critique of continuing professional development (CPD for using ICT in teaching and learning that does not entail examining the impact of environmental changes upon the assumptions, goals, and strategies which underlie and shape an organisation’s educational practices. In particular, we oppose CPD that concentrates on the individual teacher and their use of ICT. Instead, we contend that professional development should focus upon the scholarship of teaching and learning, and must also reflect the wider organisational context within which ICT is managed and used.

  14. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  15. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  16. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and collec

  17. 2012 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  18. 2013 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  19. Information retrieval in digital environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dinet, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval is a central and essential activity. It is indeed difficult to find a human activity that does not need to retrieve information in an environment which is often increasingly digital: moving and navigating, learning, having fun, communicating, informing, making a decision, etc. Most human activities are intimately linked to our ability to search quickly and effectively for relevant information, the stakes are sometimes extremely important: passing an exam, voting, finding a job, remaining autonomous, being socially connected, developing a critical spirit, or simply surviv

  20. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

  1. The Information Environment of Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzer, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Patricia T.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the information environment of managers by presenting a model and by reviewing pertinent literature. Structural components of the model include general managerial behaviors, management roles, managerial activities, decision making, problem dimensions, and characteristics of the person and of the organization. (Contains 192 references.)…

  2. Evolution in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Florien A.

    2017-01-01

    Directional environmental change in the form of global climate change and human-induced pollution is one of the most pressing problems facing society today. While species can sometimes adapt to such change by means of phenotypic plasticity and range shifts, there is considerable concern that these

  3. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of smartphones and the accompanying profusion of mobile data services have had a profound effect on individuals' lives. One of the most influential service categories is location-based services (LBS). Based on insights from behavioural decision-making, a conceptual framework is d...... on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  4. Institutional Change in a Higher Education Environment: Factors in the Adoption and Sustainability of Information Technology Project Management Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, John

    2012-01-01

    The public higher education economic and competitive environments make it crucial that organizations react to the circumstances and make better use of available resources (Duderstadt, 2000; Floyd, 2008; Shulman, 2007; State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO), 2009). Viewing higher education through the perspective of new institutionalism…

  5. Institutional Change in a Higher Education Environment: Factors in the Adoption and Sustainability of Information Technology Project Management Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, John

    2012-01-01

    The public higher education economic and competitive environments make it crucial that organizations react to the circumstances and make better use of available resources (Duderstadt, 2000; Floyd, 2008; Shulman, 2007; State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO), 2009). Viewing higher education through the perspective of new institutionalism…

  6. Information Assurance Security in the Information Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.

  7. Evolution in a changing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baronchelli

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model for genetic adaptation to a changing environment, describing a fitness landscape characterized by two maxima. One is associated with "specialist" individuals that are adapted to the environment; this maximum moves over time as the environment changes. The other maximum is static, and represents "generalist" individuals not affected by environmental changes. The rest of the landscape is occupied by "maladapted" individuals. Our analysis considers the evolution of these three subpopulations. Our main result is that, in presence of a sufficiently stable environmental feature, as in the case of an unchanging aspect of a physical habitat, specialists can dominate the population. By contrast, rapidly changing environmental features, such as language or cultural habits, are a moving target for the genes; here, generalists dominate, because the best evolutionary strategy is to adopt neutral alleles not specialized for any specific environment. The model we propose is based on simple assumptions about evolutionary dynamics and describes all possible scenarios in a non-trivial phase diagram. The approach provides a general framework to address such fundamental issues as the Baldwin effect, the biological basis for language, or the ecological consequences of a rapid climate change.

  8. THE INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT OF RURAL GBAGYI WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated information environment of rural Gbagyi women in ... in so many ways; their contributions have not been adequately acknowledged by .... for information, the lack of a specific place to get information, ignorance resulting.

  9. Information Infrastructure, Information Environments, and Long-Term Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S.; Pennington, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Information infrastructure that supports collaborative science is a complex system of people, organizational arrangements, and tools that require co-management. Contemporary studies are exploring how to establish and characterize effective collaborative information environments. Collaboration depends on the flow of information across the human and technical system components through mechanisms that create linkages, both conceptual and technical. This transcends the need for requirements solicitation and usability studies, highlighting synergistic interactions between humans and technology that can lead to emergence of group level cognitive properties. We consider the ramifications of placing priority on establishing new metaphors and new types of learning environments located near-to-data-origin for the field sciences. In addition to changes in terms of participant engagement, there are implications in terms of innovative contributions to the design of information systems and data exchange. While data integration occurs in the minds of individual participants, it may be facilitated by collaborative thinking and community infrastructure. Existing learning frameworks - from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to organizational learning - require modification and extension if effective approaches to decentralized information management and systems design are to emerge. Case studies relating to data integration include ecological community projects: development of cross-disciplinary conceptual maps and of a community unit registry.

  10. ENERGIC OD Geopan application using Virtual Hub: multi-temporal knowledge oriented information on built environment and riverbed changes to geologist community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Brumana, R.; Previtali, M., Jr.; Mazzetti, P., Sr.; Cuca, B., Sr.; Barazzetti, L., Sr.; Camagni, R.; Santoro, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Built Environment (BE) is intended as the sum of natural and human activities in dynamic transformations in the past, in the present and in the future: it calls for more informed decisions to face the challenging threats (climate change, natural hazards, anthropic pressures) by exploiting resilience, sustainable intervention and tackling societal opportunities, as heritage valorization and tourism acknowledgment; thus, it asks for awareness rising among circular reflective society. In the framework of ENERGIC OD project (EU Network for Redistributing Geographic Information - Open Data), this paper describes the implementation of an application (GeoPAN Atl@s app) addressed to improve a circular multi-temporal knowledge oriented generation of information, able to integrate and take in account historic and current maps, as well as products of satellite image processing to understand on course and on coming phenomena and relating them with the ones occurred in the ancient and recent past in a diachronic approach. The app is focused on riverbeds-BE and knowledge generation for the detection of their changes by involving geologist community and providing to other user the retrieved information (architects and urban planner, tourists and citizen). Here is described the implementation of the app interfaced with the ENERGIC OD Virtual Hub component, based on a brokering framework for OD discovery and access, to assure interoperability and integration of different datasets, wide spread cartographic products with huge granularity (national, regional environmental Risk Maps, i.e. PAI, on site local data, i.e. UAV data, or results of Copernicus Programme satellite data processing, i.e. object-based and time series image analysis for riverbed monitoring using Sentinel2): different sources, scales and formats, including historical maps needing metadata generation, and SHP data used by the geologist in their daily activities for hydrogeological analysis, to be both usable as

  11. Information needs changing over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show...... that “information need changing over time” is a very complex concept and only understandable if we distinguish between changes in the world, situation/context, user, types of information need and interpretation of data. Clarity of writing is essential in scientific writing and authors using the concept “information...

  12. Information needs changing over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show...... that “information need changing over time” is a very complex concept and only understandable if we distinguish between changes in the world, situation/context, user, types of information need and interpretation of data. Clarity of writing is essential in scientific writing and authors using the concept “information...

  13. Machine actionable information about observed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Markus; Nativi, Stefano; Pearlman, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Data, information, and knowledge are terms commonly used in earth and environmental sciences, as well as in informatics supporting these sciences. The Lindstrom et al. Framework for Ocean Observing highlights the "challenge of delivering ocean information for societal benefit" and suggests that a key framework concept is to promote the "transformation of observational data organized in [Essential Ocean Variables] into information." A flyer presenting the Integrated Carbon Observation System says "Knowledge through observations." Writing about Oceans 2.0, Ocean Networks Canada highlights that the system is able to mine "data streams to detect trends, classify content and extract features [...] thereby turning raw data into information and setting the stage to allow the information to be transformed into knowledge." At 2016 AGU Fall Meeting, Rebecca Moore presented the vision of monitoring a changing planet and "generating precise, actionable information and knowledge." Yet, what exactly are these entities in the context of earth sciences and environmental research infrastructures? Can they be defined? To which processes are they input and output? How are they represented and managed? Can we extend Moore's vision to machine actionable information and knowledge? Information Systems research has for long struggled with defining data, information, and knowledge. Literature on the Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy underscores the challenge of defining these terms. Some scholars have even suggested that providing general definitions is beyond the scope of the discipline. This may be particularly true at the higher levels, where wisdom should be considered in the context of the societal environment and may not be quantifiable out of context. While reaching consensus is hard, to obtain a better understanding for what the terms mean, how they are applied, and to what processes they are relevant in the context of earth sciences and environmental research

  14. Information security of educational environments of school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyatkovskaya Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The information as an important ecological factor, which defines the security, development and health of children is considered. The article raises the problem of distortion of the information environment of childhood in the post-industrial era. The aim is to ensure information security educational environment for all participants in the educational process. It is proved that the hygienic approach to solving problems is insufficient. Adaptive-developing strategy for information security of the educational environments for children was theoretically justified and proved by the practical results of medical, physiological and neuropsychological research. It provides the school work on the compensation of violations of the information environment of childhood; development resources of students’ resistance to information stress; expanding the sphere of their adaptation to the information load (adaptive norm; the principles and structure of management of educational process on the basis of system-wide control of complex, self-regulating systems.

  15. Environment server. Digital field information archival technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Nobuyuki; Kita, Yasuyo; Yang, Hai-quan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Intelligent Systems Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    For the safety operation of nuclear power plants, it is important to store various information about plants for a long period and visualize those stored information as desired. The system called Environment Server is developed for realizing it. In this paper, the general concepts of Environment Server is explained and its partial implementation for archiving the image information gathered by inspection mobile robots into virtual world and visualizing them is described. An extension of Environment Server for supporting attention sharing is also briefly introduced. (author)

  16. Redundant Information Presentation in Hypertext Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezdan, Eniko; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Bezdan, E., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 29 August). Redundant Information Presentation in Hypertext Learning Environments. Presentation at the pre-conference of the Junior Researchers of EARLI, Exeter, United Kingdom.

  17. Analysis of methods. [information systems evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J. (Editor); Ackley, Keith A.; Wells, M. Sue; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Decker, Louis P.; Toland, Joel A.; Crump, J. Wesley; Menzel, Christopher P.; Bodenmiller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Information is one of an organization's most important assets. For this reason the development and maintenance of an integrated information system environment is one of the most important functions within a large organization. The Integrated Information Systems Evolution Environment (IISEE) project has as one of its primary goals a computerized solution to the difficulties involved in the development of integrated information systems. To develop such an environment a thorough understanding of the enterprise's information needs and requirements is of paramount importance. This document is the current release of the research performed by the Integrated Development Support Environment (IDSE) Research Team in support of the IISEE project. Research indicates that an integral part of any information system environment would be multiple modeling methods to support the management of the organization's information. Automated tool support for these methods is necessary to facilitate their use in an integrated environment. An integrated environment makes it necessary to maintain an integrated database which contains the different kinds of models developed under the various methodologies. In addition, to speed the process of development of models, a procedure or technique is needed to allow automatic translation from one methodology's representation to another while maintaining the integrity of both. The purpose for the analysis of the modeling methods included in this document is to examine these methods with the goal being to include them in an integrated development support environment. To accomplish this and to develop a method for allowing intra-methodology and inter-methodology model element reuse, a thorough understanding of multiple modeling methodologies is necessary. Currently the IDSE Research Team is investigating the family of Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) DEFinition (IDEF) languages IDEF(0), IDEF(1), and IDEF(1x), as well as ENALIM, Entity

  18. 大数据环境下信息检索的变革%The Changes of Information Retrieval in the Big Data Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓艳; 李慧颖

    2015-01-01

    This paper simply introduces the concept of information retrieval, analyzes the problems existing in the current network information retrieval, mainly explores the changes of information retrieval brought about by the big data, predicts the information retrieval in the age of big data, and points out some problems existing in information retrieval tools based on the big data.%介绍了信息检索的概念,分析了目前网络信息检索中存在的问题,重点探讨了大数据对信息检索带来的变革,对大数据时代的信息检索进行了展望,并指出了基于大数据的信息检索工具存在的问题。

  19. Changes in the Alpine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schoeneich

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’évolution de l’environnement alpin au XXIe siècle sera conditionnée par le changement climatique. Celui-ci pourrait conduire à des climats inconnus à ce jour dans les Alpes, avec comme conséquence une crise environnementale majeure et durable. Face à ces défis, les financements de recherche restent insuffisants pour la recherche appliquée aux milieux de montagne. Les financements nationaux privilégient souvent la recherche polaire au détriment des hautes altitudes, alors que les financements de type Interreg prennent insuffisamment en compte les besoins de recherche fondamentale, préalable nécessaire à l’élaboration de scénarios. Une évolution se dessine depuis deux ou trois ans vers des projets en réseau à l’échelle alpine. Le présent article fait le point sur les principaux enjeux qui attendent la recherche environnementale alpine et sur la capacité des programmes de recherche à répondre aux besoins. La première partie sur les changements climatiques est fondée sur les rapports récents : rapport de synthèse IPCC 2007 (IPCC 2007, rapport IPCC sur l’Europe (Alcamo et al. 2007, rapport de synthèse du programme ClimChAlp (Prudent-Richard et al., 2008. On y trouvera des bibliographies complètes et circonstanciées. La deuxième partie se base sur une analyse des appels d’offres récents ou en cours, et des projets soumis et financés.The way the Alpine environment will evolve in the 21st century depends upon climate change. This could lead to climates never before seen in the Alps, resulting in a major and lasting environmental crisis. In the face of these challenges, funding is still insufficient for specialised research on mountain environments. State funding often prioritises polar research at the expense of high altitude areas, whereas funding schemes from bodies such as Interreg do not sufficiently address the need for fundamental research, which is nevertheless a necessary first step prior to

  20. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  1. Information Seeking in a Virtual Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Suzanne M.; Young, Jon I.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Kuhlthau's Information Search Process Model in the context of a virtual learning environment at the University of North Texas that used virtual collaborative software. Highlights include cognitive and affective aspects of information seeking; computer experience and confidence; and implications for future research.…

  2. Integrated Information Services in University Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykoff, Leslie W.

    2001-01-01

    Explores integration of information services at universities. Provides a history of integrated information services, details successful mergers, and explores professional and organizational issues that create conflict instead of collaboration. Discusses how newer, more flexible higher education environments may be more conducive to integration,…

  3. Quantum process discrimination with information from environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In quantum metrology we usually extract information from the reduced probe system but ignore the information lost inevitably into the environment. However, K. Mølmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 040401 (2015)] showed that the information lost into the environment has an important effect on improving the successful probability of quantum process discrimination. Here we reconsider the model of a driven atom coupled to an environment and distinguish which of two candidate Hamiltonians governs the dynamics of the whole system. We mainly discuss two measurement methods, one of which obtains only the information from the reduced atom state and the other obtains the information from both the atom and its environment. Interestingly, for the two methods the optimal initial states of the atom, used to improve the successful probability of the process discrimination, are different. By comparing the two methods we find that the partial information from the environment is very useful for the discriminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274043, 11375025, and 11005008).

  4. Managing change in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, L

    1993-01-01

    Change comes from different directions and must be managed in different ways. Change may come from the top down (eg, from parents to children) or from the bottom up (eg, from staff to management). Introduced change is initiated by you; imposed change is initiated by someone else. Change is necessary to move forward and remain effective. If change is resisted, there is the risk of becoming complacent, outdated, or obsolete. There is no room for obsolescence in health care. Even under the best of circumstances, change will be met with resistance. To overcome resistance, involve people in planning for the change and ensure understanding through verbal and written communications. Be prepared to revise the plan, and always remain flexible.

  5. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  6. Opinion Change: Information or Partisanship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens K.; Klemmensen, Robert; Leavitt, Thomas

    Currently two paradigms seek to explain how voters change their opinion when they are confronted with new information. One school argues that voters are bayesian updaters who rationally change their opinion. Another school argues that voters are inherently biased in their evaluation of new...... information. According to this line of thought voters are more likely to accept information that con_rms their opinion compared to information that contradict their point of view. Using a quasi experiment we investigate the extent to which voters rely on bayesian updating or on motivated reasoning when...

  7. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  8. Scalable Networked Information Processing Environment (SNIPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-11-01

    SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.

  9. Effective Hierarchical Information Management in Mobile Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmin Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the performance of mobile devices is developed highly, several kinds of data is stored on mobile devices. For effective data management and information retrieval, some researches applying ontology concept to mobile devices are progressed. However, in conventional researches, they apply conventional ontology storage structure used in PC environment to mobile platform. Conclusion/Recommendations: Therefore, performance of search about data is low and not effective. Therefore, we suggested new ontology storage schema with ontology path for effective hierarchical information in mobile environment.

  10. Information Literacy: The Changing Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitzke, Cushla

    2001-01-01

    Articulates key changes occurring around information literacy and raises issues just recently considered such as: what libraries will become; what students need to learn about navigating the new library space; how the role of the librarian is changing; and what these new roles and capacities imply for the relation between teacher and librarian and…

  11. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  12. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  13. Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano

    safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord...

  14. Information Environment of Preschool Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Anna Pavlovna

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the elements of the information environment of preschool educational institutions by the example of the Ulyanovsk region. The article describes the interconnected system of factors that includes qualified personnel, logistics support, methodological basis, and management structures that affect the development of the information…

  15. Thinking about the environment and theorising change: how could Life History Strategy Theory inform mHealth interventions in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Barak; Hunt, Xanthe; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is a growing body of literature outlining the promise of mobile information and communication technologies to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts. Methods: We reviewed the literature related to mobile information and communication technologies which aim to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts, in order to glean general observations regarding the state of mHealth in high-income countries (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Results: mHealth interventions in LMIC often differ substantively from those in HIC, with the former being simpler, delivered through a single digital component (an SMS as opposed to a mobile phone application, or ‘app’), and, as a result, targeting only one of the many factors which impact on the activation (or deactivation) of the target behaviour. Almost as a rule, LMIC mHealth interventions lack an explicit theory of change. Conclusion: We highlight the necessity, when designing mHealth interventions, of having a theory of change that encompasses multiple salient perspectives pertaining to human behaviour. To address this need, we explore whether the concept of Life History Strategy could provide the mHealth field with a useful theory of change. Life History Strategy Theory may be particularly useful in understanding some of the problems, paradoxes, and limitations of mHealth interventions found in LMIC. Specifically, this theory illuminates questions regarding ‘light-weight’ programmes which solely provide information, reminders, and other virtual ‘nudges’ that may have limited impact on behaviours governed by extrinsic structural factors. PMID:28617198

  16. Information literacy experiencies inside virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Salazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suggest the use of virtual learning environments as an Information Literacy (IL alternative. Method. Analysis of the main elements of web sites. To achieve this purpose the article includes the relationship between IL and the learning virtual environment (by defining both phrases; phases to create virtual IL programs; processes to elaborate didactic media; the applications that may support this plan; and the description of eleven examples of learning virtual environments IL experiences from four countries (Mexico, United States of America, Spain and United Kingdom these examples fulfill the conditions expressed. Results. We obtained four comparative tables examining five elements of each experience: objectives; target community; institution; country; and platform used. Conclusions. Any IL proposal should have a clear definition; IL experiences have to follow a didactic systematic process; described experiences are based on IL definition; the experiences analyzed are similar; virtual learning environments can be used as alternatives of IL.

  17. Participation and Collaboration in New Information Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the opportunities and possibilities the new information environment offers for collaboration and participation in learning processes. The findings are based on four major sources: “Scenarios in computer-mediated and net-based education” , CLIENT – Collaborative Learning...... in an International Environment , “Construction and Communication of Knowledge” and RUC-online . Because of trends in late modern society traditional ways of acquiring knowledge are no longer efficient. Instead students should collaboratively work on projects with a high degree of mo-tivation. Competencies like...

  18. Participation and Collaboration in New Information Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the opportunities and possibilities the new information environment offers for collaboration and participation in learning processes. The findings are based on four major sources: “Scenarios in computer-mediated and net-based education” , CLIENT – Collaborative Learning...... in an International Environment , “Construction and Communication of Knowledge” and RUC-online . Because of trends in late modern society traditional ways of acquiring knowledge are no longer efficient. Instead students should collaboratively work on projects with a high degree of mo-tivation. Competencies like...... negotiating of meaning, being part of dialogical communities and involving themselves in social-constructivist activities are crucial....

  19. A colalborative environment for information driven safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mark R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michel, Kelly D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    For two decades, the IAEA has recognized the need for a comprehensive and strongly integrated Knowledge Management system to support its Information Driven Safeguards activities. In the past, plans for the development of such a system have progressed slowly due to concerns over costs and feasibility. In recent years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a knowledge management system that could serve as the basis for an IAEA Collaborative Environment (ICE). The ICE derivative knowledge management system described in this paper addresses the challenge of living in an era of information overload coupled with certain knowledge shortfalls. The paper describes and defines a system that is flexible, yet ensures coordinated and focused collaboration, broad data evaluation capabilities, architected and organized work flows, and improved communications. The paper and demonstration of ICE will utilize a hypothetical scenario to highlight the functional features that facilitate collaboration amongst and between information analysts and inspectors. The scenario will place these two groups into a simulated planning exercise for a safeguards inspection drawing upon past data acquisitions, inspection reports, analyst conclusions, and a coordinated walk-through of a 3-D model of the facility. Subsequent to the conduct of the simulated facility inspection, the detection of an anomaly and pursuit of follow up activities will illustrate the event notification, information sharing, and collaborative capabilities of the system. The use of a collaborative environment such as ICE to fulfill the complicated knowledge management demands of the Agency and facilitate the completion of annual State Evaluation Reports will also be addressed.

  20. Chasing information to search in random environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masson, J-B; Vergassola, M [Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA 2171, Unit In Silico Genetics, 75724 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Bechet, M Bailly [Universite C Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, 69622, Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: jbmasson@pasteur.fr

    2009-10-30

    We discuss search strategies for finding sources of particles transported in a random environment and detected by the searcher(s). The mixing of the particles in the environment is supposed to be strong, so that strategies based on concentration-gradient ascent are not viable. These dilute conditions are common in natural environments typical of searches performed by insects and birds. The sparseness of the detections constitutes the major stumbling block in developing efficient olfactory robots to detect mines, chemical leaks, etc. We first discuss a search strategy, 'infotaxis', recently introduced for the search of a single source by a single robot. Decisions are made by locally maximizing the rate of acquisition of information on the location of the source and they balance exploration and exploitation. We present numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of the method and, most importantly, its robustness to lack of detailed modeling of the transport of particles in the random environment. We then introduce a novel formulation of infotaxis for collective searches where a swarm of robots is available and must be coordinated. Gains in the search time are impressive and the method can be further generalized to deal with conflicts arising in the identification of multiple sources.

  1. Enterprise Information Technology Organizational Flexibility: Managing Uncertainty and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Karen Prast

    2009-01-01

    Chief Information Officers (CIOs) lead enterprise information technology organizations (EITOs) in today's dynamic competitive business environment. CIOs deal with external and internal environmental changes, changing internal customer needs, and rapidly changing technology. New models for the organization include flexibility and suggest that CIOs…

  2. Building Information Modelling for Smart Built Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM provides architectural 3D visualization and a standardized way to share and exchange building information. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using BIM, not only for design and construction, but also the post-construction management of the built facility. With the emergence of smart built environment (SBE technology, which embeds most spaces with smart objects to enhance the building’s efficiency, security and comfort of its occupants, there is a need to understand and address the challenges BIM faces in the design, construction and management of future smart buildings. In this paper, we investigate how BIM can contribute to the development of SBE. Since BIM is designed to host information of the building throughout its life cycle, our investigation has covered phases from architecture design to facility management. Firstly, we extend BIM for the design phase to provide material/device profiling and the information exchange interface for various smart objects. Next, we propose a three-layer verification framework to assist BIM users in identifying possible defects in their SBE design. For the post-construction phase, we have designed a facility management tool to provide advanced energy management of smart grid-connected SBEs, where smart objects, as well as distributed energy resources (DERs are deployed.

  3. Critical connections: personal learning environments and information literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments (PLEs and critical information literacies (CILs are two concepts that have been presented as responses to the challenges of the rich and complex information landscape. While both approaches support learners’ critical engagement with new information environments, each was developed within a different field. This paper connects and contrasts PLEs and CILs in order to explore the design of pedagogical responses to the information environment. Through a careful examination of PLE and CIL literature, the paper demonstrates that information literacy education intersects with the concepts and goals of PLEs. As such, the authors suggest that PLE scholarship informed by CIL scholarship, and vice versa, will yield a deeper understanding of modern learning contexts as well as a more holistic and responsive learner framework. The example of the research assignment will be used to demonstrate the viability of this approach. With these propositions, the authors invite educators, librarians and information technologists to engage in a dialogue about these concepts and the potential for pedagogical change.

  4. Changing trends in informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Consent is defined as the “voluntary agreement to or acquiescence in what another person proposes or desires”. In the context of medical practice it is now universally accepted that every human being of adult years and of sound mind has the right to determine what shall be done with his or her own body. Informed consent is now a central part of medical ethics and medical law. There has been a change in the public’s expectations of their role in medical decision making. The paternalistic approach by doctors is no longer acceptable. Today the patient has the right to receive and the doctor the obligation to give sufficient and appropriate information so that the patient can make an informed decision to accept or refuse a treatment option. This has led to higher standards of practice in the process of informed consent taking. Consent taking is both a legal and moral requirement. Failure to comply with standards of practice can result in criminal prosecution, civil litigation or disciplinary action by the relevant professional authority. Consent taking is a process and not merely a one-off affixation of the patient’s signature on a consent form. It involves a continuous discussion to reflect the evolving nature of treatment from before the treatment is given to the post-operative or discharge period. The regulatory authorities in many countries have established standards for consent taking which would include the capacity of the patient, the person who should seek consent, the information to be provided and the necessary documentation.

  5. The Air Force Records Management Program: A Paradigm Shift from Compliance to Guiding Principles in an Ever-Changing Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-22

    Many of the overarching theories and ideas involved in RM are highly romanticized . However, leaders must change their perspective to embody RM less as a...encompass useful business services that make the mission flow better however, it’s important to realize that the romanticized view of the topic may not be...involved in RM are highly romanticized ; leaders must change their perspective to embody RM less as a set of instructions or expensive mandates and more as

  6. Sex and adaptation in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, D; Peck, J R

    1999-01-01

    In this study we consider a mathematical model of a sexual population that lives in a changing environment. We find that a low rate of environmental change can produce a very large increase in genetic variability. This may help to explain the high levels of heritability observed in many natural populations. We also study asexuality and find that a modest rate of environmental change can be very damaging to an asexual population, while leaving a sexual population virtually unscathed. Furthermore, in a changing environment, the advantages of sexuality over asexuality can be much greater than suggested by most previous studies. Our analysis applies in the case of very large populations, where stochastic forces may be neglected. PMID:10511577

  7. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  8. EnviroNET - The Space Environment Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of EnviroNET, the Space Environment Information Service, is discussed. The activities pursued by the Space Shuttle Working Group to establish a user-friendly database of current information on the Space Shuttle environment are described.

  9. Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

  10. Optimizing cardiothoracic surgery information for a managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, T A; Matloff, J M

    1995-11-01

    The rapid change occurring in American healthcare is a direct response to rising costs. Managed care is the fastest growing model that attempts to control escalating costs through limitations in patient choice, the active use of guidelines, and placing providers at risk. Managed care is an information intensive system, and those providers who use information effectively will be at an advantage in the competitive healthcare marketplace. There are five classes of information that providers must collect to be competitive in a managed care environment: patient satisfaction, medical outcomes, continuous quality improvement, quality of the decision, and financial data. Each of these should be actively used in marketing, assuring the quality of patient care, and maintaining financial stability. Although changes in our healthcare system are occurring rapidly, we need to respond to the marketplace to maintain our viability, but as physicians, we have the singular obligation to maintain the supremacy of the individual patient and the physician-patient relationship.

  11. Scanning The Business Environment For Information: a Grounded Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Correia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the principal findings of research that sought to provide a comprehensive understanding of the environmental scanning process. The methodology used was of major importance in obtaining data that are grounded largely in the personal experience of managers, but also in documentary evidence and in direct observation by the researcher. The purpose of the study was to investigate how managers in the Portuguese chemical industry scan their environment for information, what are the contextual factors that affect this activity, and also how managers' perceptions of environmental change affect the strategic change they implement.

  12. Probabilistic adaptation in changing microbial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarden Katz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes growing in animal host environments face fluctuations that have elements of both randomness and predictability. In the mammalian gut, fluctuations in nutrient levels and other physiological parameters are structured by the host’s behavior, diet, health and microbiota composition. Microbial cells that can anticipate environmental fluctuations by exploiting this structure would likely gain a fitness advantage (by adapting their internal state in advance. We propose that the problem of adaptive growth in structured changing environments, such as the gut, can be viewed as probabilistic inference. We analyze environments that are “meta-changing”: where there are changes in the way the environment fluctuates, governed by a mechanism unobservable to cells. We develop a dynamic Bayesian model of these environments and show that a real-time inference algorithm (particle filtering for this model can be used as a microbial growth strategy implementable in molecular circuits. The growth strategy suggested by our model outperforms heuristic strategies, and points to a class of algorithms that could support real-time probabilistic inference in natural or synthetic cellular circuits.

  13. Managing change within the healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipcamon, James D

    2003-01-01

    In the healthcare environment, there are many catalysts for change, including federal and state regulations, increased utilization, patients' expectations, competition, declining reimbursement and the technologist shortage. Regardless of what organization you work in, change creates pressure internally. This is especially true of organizations that have not had to deal with much change. The three most common responses are: 1) senior managers tend to isolate themselves from the effects of change on staff members; 2) middle managers tend to feel squeezed between the need to implement change and the need to support staff members; and 3) employees tend to feel attacked and betrayed by change. The following five steps will help you work with your staff as you introduce and implement change: prepare your employees, plan thoroughly, develop a transitional line of authority, stay flexible during implementation, and encourage self-management, acknowledging those who helped make the change work. When change is implemented, it is important to understand that people will move through four stages of reaction: denial, resistance, exploration and commitment. As a general rule, individuals will go through all four stages, but the speed at which they move through them will be different. Managers need to assist employees who get stuck in certain stages. To implement change as successfully as possible, follow these four steps: communicate about change, deal with resistance, increase team involvement, and use visionary leadership.

  14. Clinician perceptions of a changing hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Denise J; Burger, Kristina J; O'Donnell, Patricia A; Parnell, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe how a move into a new hospital influenced the work environment, how long it takes clinicians to adjust to such a significant change, and how much a new hospital work environment helps the practice shift toward patient- and family-centered care (PFCC). Creating a healthy work environment to keep patients safe and staff engaged in the mission of the organization is perhaps one of the most important roles of hospital administrators and nursing leaders. A descriptive and comparative design was used to investigate how clinicians perceive, evaluate, and adjust to a new hospital environment, and how much a healthy work environment helps the practice shift toward patient- and family-centered care. Perceived stress was significantly higher than baseline 15 months after the move into the new hospital (p employees with 3 or more years of service had significantly higher stress than others (p stress score (x = 12.5). The PFCC score increased significantly (p stress increased after 15 months. There were additional burdens not measured that also may have added to the stress of the participants. The new hospital enabled a significant practice shift toward PFCC. Healing environments, organizational transformation, patient-centered care, pediatric, satisfaction.

  15. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  16. Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age by Todd A. Beltz CDR USN A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War...reiterated that a SJFHQ is an important step in increasing the ability to respond to… the global security environment.1 This organizational change is an

  17. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    ’ recommendations. Using a large data of analysts’ recommendations from Asian emerging markets, we show that local analysts issue more optimistic recommendations than their foreign counterparts. However, optimism difference between the two groups is greater for firms with poor information environment. Our results......Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts...... show that optimism difference between the two groups is more than twice as much in firms with poor information environment than in firms with better information environment. We argue that poor information environment pose greater information asymmetries to foreign analysts regarding local firms...

  18. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  19. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  20. [An incentive mechanism for environment management under unsymmetrical information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Zheng, Z; Fu, G

    2001-01-01

    Information unsymmtry is a big obstacle in environment management. In this paper, an incentive mechanism for implementation of effluent charge under unsymmetrical information was designed. This mechanism will provide incentives for true information and lower down the transaction cost in environment management.

  1. Critical Connections: Personal Learning Environments and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison; Sinkinson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Personal learning environments (PLEs) and critical information literacies (CILs) are two concepts that have been presented as responses to the challenges of the rich and complex information landscape. While both approaches support learners' critical engagement with new information environments, each was developed within a different field. This…

  2. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  3. Amplification, Decoherence, and the Acquisition of Information by Spin Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes the role of the environment as a communication channel: Decoherence can selectively amplify information about the pointer states of a system of interest (preventing access to complementary information about their superpositions) and can make records of this information accessible to many observers. This redundancy explains the emergence of objective, classical reality in our quantum Universe. Here, we demonstrate that the amplification of information in realistic spin environments can be quantified by the quantum Chernoff information, which characterizes the distinguishability of partial records in individual environment subsystems. We show that, except for a set of initial states of measure zero, the environment always acquires redundant information. Moreover, the Chernoff information captures the rich behavior of amplification in both finite and infinite spin environments, from quadratic growth of the redundancy to oscillatory behavior. These results will considerably simplify experimental testing of quantum Darwinism, e.g., using nitrogen vacancies in diamond.

  4. Information seeking behaviour in the digital environment: information science vs. non-information science students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Furi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents selected findings of a small-scale pilot study on the actual information-seeking behaviour of the Osijek University students in the digital environment.Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research was conducted on the sample of six graduate students of different social science disciplines (information sciences, psychology, economy, cultural management who were asked to perform searches in order to provide answers to several information tasks. The research method used in the research was a think-aloud method where the respondents were asked to verbalise their thoughts and feelings while performing the simulated search tasks. The respondents were video-recorded and the transcripts of video material were subsequently analysed and interpreted.Research limitations: The small and convenient sample limits the findings.Originality/Value: The results provide the useful insight into the information behaviour of students in the electronic environment (their search strategy, search steps, feelings, etc. but surprisingly reveals the poor information seeking skills of information-science students.Keywords: students, information seeking behaviour, digital environment, University of Osijek

  5. Seabed change detection in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Sternlicht, Daniel D.

    2011-06-01

    Automatic Change Detection (ACD) compares new and stored terrain images for alerting to changes occurring over time. These techniques, long used in airborne radar, are just beginning to be applied to sidescan sonar. Under the right conditions ACD by image correlation-comparing multi-temporal image data at the pixel or parcel level-can be used to detect new objects on the seafloor. Synthetic aperture sonars (SAS)-coherent sensors that produce fine-scale, range-independent resolution seafloor images-are well suited for this approach; however, dynamic seabed environments can introduce "clutter" to the process. This paper explores an ACD method that uses salience mapping in a global-to-local analysis architecture. In this method, termed Temporally Invariant Saliency (TIS), variance ratios of median-filtered repeat-pass images are used to detect new objects, while deemphasizing modest environmental or radiometric-induced changes in the background. Successful tests with repeat-pass data from two SAS systems mounted on autonomous undersea vehicles (AUV) demonstrate the feasibility of the technique.

  6. Family Connections: Family Conversations in Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article begins with two examples that demonstrate adult interactions with young learners during conversations in informal learning environments. Family visits to informal learning environments provide opportunities to learn together, interact, engage in conversations, and learn more about one another. This article explores family learning in…

  7. MEANS OF INFORMATION IN THE ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasenţe, Tănase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to aproach the issues related to the use of the new technologies of Web 2.0 in informing the academia. We aim to identify students’ opinions about the means of information used by universities, the frequency of accessing the official websites and the Facebook page of universities. Another objective of the study is to investigate the interaction of the students on the university’s official Facebook page. The research method used is an online survey on a sample of 100 students of the major fields of study: Journalism, Communication and Public Relations from “Constantin Brâncoveanu” University of Pitesti (University Center of Brăila and “Andrei Şaguna” University of Constanţa. The relevant result of the research is given by the fact that, despite the frequent accessing of their university’s Facebook page, the feedback given by the students is modest, only 35% have used a simplistic form of feedback, the “like” button. Information is an important link in the process of creating and maintaining the organizational image, therefore, the investigation of the means of information used by universities in the context of the new technologies becomes part of the university management strategy.

  8. Scholarly information discovery in the networked academic learning environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, LiLi

    2014-01-01

    In the dynamic and interactive academic learning environment, students are required to have qualified information literacy competencies while critically reviewing print and electronic information. However, many undergraduates encounter difficulties in searching peer-reviewed information resources. Scholarly Information Discovery in the Networked Academic Learning Environment is a practical guide for students determined to improve their academic performance and career development in the digital age. Also written with academic instructors and librarians in mind who need to show their students how to access and search academic information resources and services, the book serves as a reference to promote information literacy instructions. This title consists of four parts, with chapters on the search for online and printed information via current academic information resources and services: part one examines understanding information and information literacy; part two looks at academic information delivery in the...

  9. Changing Sources of Published Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1995-04-01

    We looked at the types of references in papers published during the first month of 1972, 1982, and 1992 in the Astrophysical Journal and Astronomy & Astrophysics; also those published in the former journal during the first half-years of 1952 and 1962. Some of the results are qualitatively predictable, such as the decrease (from 12% to 1%) in references to observatory publications and inhouse technical reports, and the increase (from 1% to 10%) in references to conference papers. But what are surprising are (1) the low (less than 3%) reference rate to preprints, showing that they are not replacing journal papers (78%) as the primary source for reliable information, (2) the low (1%) reference rate to theses, showing that they are not cited more frequently than average research papers, (3) the low (1%) reference rate to review papers, showing that contrary to popular belief, very few people cite review papers instead of the original research papers, and (4) the slightly decreasing reference rate (from 6% to 4%) to monographs, showing that despite their greatly increased publication rate, they are gradually being quoted less for research use (as contrasted to tutorial use). (SECTION: Astronomical Sociology)

  10. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and analyst following for biotechnology firms listed at the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. Design/methodology/approach: Intellectual capital disclosure wa...... regarding their intellectual capital in financial statements. Originality/value: Our findings shed light on the importance of intellectual capital in biotechnology sector for analysts....... was computed from financial statements, while analyst following data was retrieved from I/B/E/S. Findings: The results show that analysts are more likely to follow firms with high intellectual capital disclosure. This finding is consistent with the fact that analysts wish to follow those firms for which...... they have more information. Our results also show that intellectual capital disclosure related to employees and strategic statements are the most important disclosures for analysts. Research limitations/implications: More relevant methods, such as survey or interviews with management, may be used to improve...

  11. Environment-assisted quantum-information correction for continuous variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, R.; Leuchs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum-information protocols are inevitably affected by decoherence which is associated with the leakage of quantum information into an environment. In this article we address the possibility of recovering the quantum information from an environmental measurement. We investigate continuous-varia...

  12. Paper, Piles, and Computer Files: Folklore of Information Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Laura J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews literature to form a folklore of information workspace and emphasizes the importance of studying folklore of information work environments in the context of the current shift toward removing work from any particular place via information systems, e-mail, and the Web. Discusses trends in workplace design and corporate culture. Contains 84…

  13. Government information collections in the networked environment new issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Cheverie, Joan F

    2013-01-01

    This insightful book explores the challenging issues related to effective access to government information.Amidst all the chaos of today's dynamic information transition period, the only constants related to government information are change and inconsistency, yet with Government Information Collections in the Networked Environment: New Issues and Models, you will defeat the challenging issues and take advantage of the opportunities that networked government information collections have to offer. This valuable book gives you a fresh opportunity to rethink collecting activities and to

  14. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  15. Benefits of Informal Learning Environments: A Focused Examination of STEM-Based Program Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Cameron D.; Austin Stallworth, Chandra; Hailey, Christine; Householder, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines STEM-based informal learning environments for underrepresented students and reports on the aspects of these programs that are beneficial to students. This qualitative study provides a nuanced look into informal learning environments and determines what is unique about these experiences and makes them beneficial for students. We…

  16. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  17. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  18. Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2008). Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Environments. Presentation given at Doctoral Symposium at ACM Recommender Systems 2008. October, 23-25, 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland.

  19. Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society (CLICHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, J.; Korhola, A.; Väliranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Luoto, M.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Leppäranta, M.; Kahilainen, K.; Saarinen, J.; Heikkinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The predicted climate warming has raised many questions and concerns about its impacts on the environment and society. As a respond to the need of holistic studies comprising both of these areas, The Academy of Finland launched The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) in spring 2010 with the main aim to focus on the interaction between the environment and society. Ultimately 11 national consortium projects were funded (total budget 12 million EUR). Here we shortly present the main objectives of the largest consortium project "Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society" (CLICHE). The CLICHE consortium comprises eight interrelated work packages (treeline, diversity, peatlands, snow, lakes, fish, tourism, and traditional livelihoods), each led by a prominent research group and a team leader. The research consortium has three main overall objectives: 1) Investigate, map and model the past, present and future climate change-induced changes in central ecosystems of the European Arctic with unprecedented precision 2) Deepen our understanding of the basic principles of ecosystem and social resilience and dynamics; identify key taxa, structures or processes that clearly indicate impending or realised global change through their loss, occurrence or behaviour, using analogues from the past (e.g. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Warm Period), experiments, observations and models 3) Develop adaptation and mitigation strategies to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on local communities, traditional livelihoods, fisheries, and tourism industry, and promote sustainable development of local community structures and enhance the quality of life of local human populations. As the project has started only recently no final results are available yet. However, the fieldwork as well as the co-operation between the research teams has thus far been very successful. Thus, the expectations for the final outcome of the project

  20. Review: The impact of changing human environment and climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: The impact of changing human environment and climate change on ... and evaluation, have after completion caused untold public health problems. ... rapid international travels, changes in food handling and processing as well as ...

  1. A Framework of Semantic Information Representation in Distributed Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An information representation framework is designed to overcome the problem of semantic heterogeneity in distributed environments in this paper. Emphasis is placed on establishing an XML-oriented semantic data model and the mapping between XML data based on a global ontology semantic view. The framework is implemented in Web Service, which enhances information process efficiency, accuracy and the semantic interoperability as well.

  2. Agile Scheduling for MES in a Complex Information Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-xia; RAOYun-qing; ZHANGChao-yong

    2005-01-01

    Since Manufacturing Execution System (MES) is a bridge which links the upper planning system of the enterprise and the control system of the shop floor, various kinds of the information with different characteristics flow through the system. The information environment of MES and its effect on MES scheduling are analyzed. A methodological proposal is given to address the problem of agile scheduling in a complex information environment, based on which a microeconomic market and game theoretic model-based scheduling approach is presented. The future development of this method is also discussed.

  3. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Heerwagen, J.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  4. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  5. Operationalizing the Joint Information Environment: Achieving Information Dominance with the Undersea Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding...Royal Navy ships to combat pirates attacking British shipping. The development of information and communication technologies ( ICT ) have made it possible...Approved for public release. OPERATIONALIZING THE JOINT INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT: ACHIEVING INFORMATION DOMINANCE WITH THE UNDERSEA CONSTELLATION* Captain

  6. Implementation HR information system – part of a unified information environment of MPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Krepkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the unified information environment of National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute” (MPEI, and its most important component – the HR information system. The article describes the architecture of the unified information space of MPEI. The main objective of the development of the HR information system – to provide access to users, including other information systems, to actual information about employees of MPEI.HR information system are based on many years of operating experience of the previous system and the like, are available on the market today, taking into account the decisions of personnel. The earlier HR information system was developed in 1995–1997 and used until mid-2015. In the process of its using it has accumulated a large number of «patches» and requests for revision that was stopped by limitations in the platform and solutions architecture. Comparative analysis of 1C and SAP products showed that the cost of implementation, configuration and maintenance of these products is higher than developing new solutions. Package of Microsoft technology software was chosen as a platform. These technologies have proven themselves in the development of similar projects, and vendor solutions for a long time support all key processes of information systems. Important is the presence of the selected software Microsoft FSTEC certificates (Federal Service for Technical and Export Control, which support the use of these products for storing and processing information in accordance with the laws of the Russian Federation. The MPEI has already implemented a number of systems on the Microsoft platform – postgraduate register, an Internet portal, etc. The use of technology of one supplier facilitates the integration processes and products into a unified information environment. The article details the technical and hardware specifications of the HR information system. The result of the work on

  7. Adaptable Information Models in the Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, B.; Buddenberg, A.; Aulenbach, S.; Wolfe, R.; Goldstein, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US Global Change Research Program has sponsored the creation of the Global Change Information System () to provide a web based source of accessible, usable, and timely information about climate and global change for use by scientists, decision makers, and the public. The GCIS played multiple roles during the assembly and release of the Third National Climate Assessment. It provided human and programmable interfaces, relational and semantic representations of information, and discrete identifiers for various types of resources, which could then be manipulated by a distributed team with a wide range of specialties. The GCIS also served as a scalable backend for the web based version of the report. In this talk, we discuss the infrastructure decisions made during the design and deployment of the GCIS, as well as ongoing work to adapt to new types of information. Both a constrained relational database and an open ended triple store are used to ensure data integrity while maintaining fluidity. Using natural primary keys allows identifiers to propagate through both models. Changing identifiers are accomodated through fine grained auditing and explicit mappings to external lexicons. A practical RESTful API is used whose endpoints are also URIs in an ontology. Both the relational schema and the ontology are maleable, and stability is ensured through test driven development and continuous integration testing using modern open source techniques. Content is also validated through continuous testing techniques. A high degres of scalability is achieved through caching.

  8. Climate Change, Indoor Environment and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  9. USGCRP's Geocuration of Global Change Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. E.; Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Goldstein, J.; Newman, B.; Akamine, B.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program's (USGCRP's) developed the Global Change Information System (GCIS) to provide specialists and the general public with accessible and usable global change information. GCIS focus is on the cross-cutting theme of Global Change Information that is spread across federal government repositories and the broader research community. An open source web-based resource, the GCIS provides human and programmable interfaces, relational and semantic representations of information, and discrete identifiers for various resources. GCIS's capabilities demonstrated with the release of the NCA have been extended to support a set of USGCRP Global Change Indicators and will support future USGCRP scientific reports and assessments such as the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health: A Scientific Assessment. GCIS provides named sources and contacts for figures, images and data sources, with the provenance continuing to the platforms and instruments or other observations on which the these documents are based. The GCIS team has been working with the U. S. Climate Data and Tools (CDAT) teams to demonstrate that by extending the GCIS ontology links can be provided between assessments, data and tools, as well as, help curate climate sub-themes such as those focused on a specific societal benefit area (e.g. health) or region (e.g. Arctic).

  10. Environment Changes of Lampao Dam Communities in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winyoo Sata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to study the environment change of Lampao Dam communities in Northeast Thailand, being a case study of the Sa-Adnathom community, Lamklong sub-district, Muang, Kalasin province, adjacent to the Lampao Dam. Approach: A qualitative research, it started with a review of literature and related researches. Field data were collected by way of interviews and both participant and non-participant observations, involving 15 informants including senior-villagers, who had lived in the village some 10-20 years. The research data were descriptively analyzed and presented. Results: As a result its was found that the Lampao Dam communities date back 200 years to the era of Chiangsom Kingdom. Deserted due to deadly epidemics, the area was later on repopulated by migrants from Yang Talad district, Kalasin province. A new community, called Sa-Adnathom, was born. Prior to the inception of the National Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961, the environment of this community was complete with fertile land and natural resource abundance. People lived in harmony with nature and relied on resources from it for their livelihood, especially from Nong Waeng reservoir, Phan and Yang streams and Khoke Ngoo forest. But with the implementation of the first Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961-1966 the Thai government started the construction of the Lampao Dam in 1963. Completed in 1968, the Dam took land from the villagers, part of which were simply flooded. This forced the village farmers to change their means of livelihood from relying on forest and rivers to production methods which by necessity involved purchase of machines and usage of chemical fertilizers. In short, a change from farming to fishing in Lampao Dam. Their values also changed from local exchanges of goods to money economy, which only led to household debts, increasing with rising degree of consumerism. Eventually people in the

  11. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; van Keulen, Mike; Coles, Rob G

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass meadows are valuable ecosystem service providers that are now being lost globally at an unprecedented rate, with water quality and other localised stressors putting their future viability in doubt. It is therefore critical that we learn more about the interactions between seagrass meadows and future environmental change in the anthropocene. This needs to be with particular reference to the consequences of poor water quality on ecosystem resilience and the effects of change on trophic interactions within the food web. Understanding and predicting the response of seagrass meadows to future environmental change requires an understanding of the natural long-term drivers of change and how these are currently influenced by anthropogenic stress. Conservation management of coastal and marine ecosystems now and in the future requires increased knowledge of how seagrass meadows respond to environmental change, and how they can be managed to be resilient to these changes. Finding solutions to such issues also requires recognising people as part of the social-ecological system. This special issue aims to further enhance this knowledge by bringing together global expertise across this field. The special issues considers issues such as ecosystem service delivery of seagrass meadows, the drivers of long-term seagrass change and the socio-economic consequences of environmental change to seagrass.

  12. Communication Skills Required for Information Specialist in Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Atti Alsulami, Ph.D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a tangible attention to communication skills of information specialists which increased in recent years, especially after the emergence of social networks, though studies prepared by specialists in the field of libraries and information on this topic is still very low compared to studies dealing with the rehabilitation of the information specialist to work in a Web environment, which focuses on skills in the field of Computer and its uses. In this paper it will be reviewed previous studies the subject, in addition to reviewing the concept of skill and concept of communication, information specialists, and the concept of Web 2.0 and technologies. Also, this article try to identify the most important specifications and digital skills needed information specialist to adapt to this new environment as prerequisites for the exercise of the profession and office contemporary one hand, and to strengthen its role in the world today is the variable that distinguishes the intense competition between the various markets and organizations, including those working The right of libraries and information as a result of globalization. The research also tries to identify the main difficulties and challenges facing the information specialist in the digital environment

  13. Heterogeneity and Change in European Financial Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Stoneman, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to provide a background for other research relating to the impact of the financial environment on the diffusion of new technology in Europe. The issues addressed are: relative sizes and importance of banks and capital markets in the "financial sector" per se; the roles of banks and capital markets in how savers hold their wealth and how corporations fund their investments; corporate governance structures, comparing insider and outsider controlled governance syste...

  14. Combating Childhood Obesity: Changing Our Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Anna,

    2007-01-01

    A review of literature was conducted to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for childhood obesity. Factors contributing to childhood obesity include poor food choices, physical inactivity, and genetics. Complications of obesity include respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, cancer, gallbladder disease, poor health status, depression, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Since childhood obesity, largely due to the environment that children live in ...

  15. Evaluation of the JISC Information Environment: student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian R. Griffiths

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC Information Environment (IE, a development from the DNER - Distributed National Electronic Resource, is intended to help users in the UK academic sector maximise the value of published information resources by developing a coherent environment out of the confusing array of systems and services currently available. The EDNER Project (Formative Evaluation of the DNER is funded to undertake ongoing evaluation of the developing IE over the full three years of the JISC 5/99 Learning & Teaching and Infrastructure Programme i.e. from 2000 to 2003. The EDNER Project is led by the Centre for Research in Library & Information Management (CERLIM at the Manchester Metropolitan University; the Centre for Studies in Advanced Learning Technologies (CSALT at Lancaster University is a partner. This paper reports on work in progress and some of the initial findings of the evaluation team.

  16. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.H.; Lehnert, L.S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted

  17. Transition Management in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Harold

    1978-01-01

    This case study of organizational change, with transition guidelines, describes how an organization development consultant helped surplus line managers to adjust to reassignments when company retrenchment caused reductions in the number of production workers. (MF)

  18. Industrialised timber frame housing:managing customisation, change, and information

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Max

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to develop an increased understanding of industrialised timber frame housing (timber frame housing construction fully or partially conducted in a controlled environment utilising industrial processes and machinery). Of specific interest is how industrialised timber frame housing companies manage customisation, change, and information. Three single case studies (at a medium-sized industrialised timber frame housing company), one multiple-case study, and one su...

  19. Information Environment of Tutors in Public Secondary Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    online environment shapes their information seeking behavior and was main avenue through ... The society exists with various classes and groups of individuals such as farmers, tutors, civil ... organization they work for, by the nature of their work or profession, by age sex or other social .... Buying newspapers / magazines.

  20. Personnel Performance Assessment in Information Systems Outsourcing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a tool which uses semantic technologies for personnel performance and workplace learning assessment in outsourced information technology environments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the tool from a technical perspective and introduces a use case that depicts the main features related to…

  1. Personnel Performance Assessment in Information Systems Outsourcing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a tool which uses semantic technologies for personnel performance and workplace learning assessment in outsourced information technology environments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the tool from a technical perspective and introduces a use case that depicts the main features related to…

  2. Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, F.; TEN NAPEL, J.; VISSCHER, J.; VAN SAMBEEK, F.

    2016-01-01

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems.

  3. Change Management and its Influence in the Business Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj; M.Sc. Halit Karaxha; MSc. Hidajet Karaxha

    2014-01-01

    The changes that are happening in businesses dictate the changes in all kinds of needed resources to develop the organization. The environment in which the organizations operate is in constant change and becomes more and more unpredictable. Managing these changes is a challenge that all enterprises face. The rapid changes that are happening in business are increasing the need to manage these changes. Enterprises have to develop and use different kinds of management models so that they can gro...

  4. Enabling information management systems in tactical network environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marco; Uszok, Andrzej; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.; Ceccio, Philip J.; Hanna, James P.; Sinclair, Asher

    2009-05-01

    Net-Centric Information Management (IM) and sharing in tactical environments promises to revolutionize forward command and control capabilities by providing ubiquitous shared situational awareness to the warfighter. This vision can be realized by leveraging the tactical and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) which provide the underlying communications infrastructure, but, significant technical challenges remain. Enabling information management in these highly dynamic environments will require multiple support services and protocols which are affected by, and highly dependent on, the underlying capabilities and dynamics of the tactical network infrastructure. In this paper we investigate, discuss, and evaluate the effects of realistic tactical and mobile communications network environments on mission-critical information management systems. We motivate our discussion by introducing the Advanced Information Management System (AIMS) which is targeted for deployment in tactical sensor systems. We present some operational requirements for AIMS and highlight how critical IM support services such as discovery, transport, federation, and Quality of Service (QoS) management are necessary to meet these requirements. Our goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of the impact of underlying assumptions of availability and performance of some of the critical services supporting tactical information management. We will also propose and describe a number of technologies and capabilities that have been developed to address these challenges, providing alternative approaches for transport, service discovery, and federation services for tactical networks.

  5. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Haas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  6. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N; O. Boebel; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K. H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U; Brierley, A

    2014-01-01

    Funding: Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (proposal Nu 253407 (call reference: FP7- PEOPLE-2009-IIF). Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice ...

  7. INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT WITH VIRTUAL MACHINE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem D. Beresnev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. Information infrastructure for the training environment with application of technology of virtual computers for small pedagogical systems (separate classes, author's courses is created and investigated. Research technique. The life cycle model of information infrastructure for small pedagogical systems with usage of virtual computers in ARIS methodology is constructed. The technique of information infrastructure formation with virtual computers on the basis of process approach is offered. The model of an event chain in combination with the environment chart is used as the basic model. For each function of the event chain the necessary set of means of information and program support is defined. Technique application is illustrated on the example of information infrastructure design for the educational environment taking into account specific character of small pedagogical systems. Advantages of the designed information infrastructure are: the maximum usage of open or free components; the usage of standard protocols (mainly, HTTP and HTTPS; the maximum portability (application servers can be started up on any of widespread operating systems; uniform interface to management of various virtualization platforms, possibility of inventory of contents of the virtual computer without its start, flexible inventory management of the virtual computer by means of adjusted chains of rules. Approbation. Approbation of obtained results was carried out on the basis of training center "Institute of Informatics and Computer Facilities" (Tallinn, Estonia. Technique application within the course "Computer and Software Usage" gave the possibility to get half as much the number of refusals for components of the information infrastructure demanding intervention of the technical specialist, and also the time for elimination of such malfunctions. Besides, the pupils who have got broader experience with computer and software, showed better results

  8. Performance Analysis of Information Services in a Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Information Service is a fundamental component in a grid environment. It has to meet a lot of requirements such as access to static and dynamic information related to grid resources, efficient and secure access to dynamic data, decentralized maintenance, fault tolerance etc., in order to achieve better performance, scalability, security and extensibility. Currently there are two different major approaches. One is based on a directory infrastructure and another one on a novel approach that exploits a relational DBMS. In this paper we present a performance comparison analysis between Grid Resource Information Service (GRIS and Local Dynamic Grid Catalog relational information service (LDGC, providing also information about two projects (iGrid and Grid Relational Catalog in the grid data management area.

  9. Redundant imprinting of information in nonideal environments: Objective reality via a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2010-06-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the objective, classical world from the quantum substrate. The key to this emergence is the proliferation of redundant information throughout the environment where observers can then intercept it. We study this process for a purely decohering interaction when the environment, E, is in a nonideal (e.g., mixed) initial state. In the case of good decoherence, that is, after the pointer states have been unambiguously selected, the mutual information between the system, S, and an environment fragment, F, is given solely by F’s entropy increase. This demonstrates that the environment’s capacity for recording the state of S is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Environments that remain nearly invariant under the interaction with S, either because they have a large initial entropy or a misaligned initial state, therefore have a diminished ability to acquire information. To elucidate the concept of good decoherence, we show that, when decoherence is not complete, the deviation of the mutual information from F’s entropy change is quantified by the quantum discord, i.e., the excess mutual information between S and F is information regarding the initial coherence between pointer states of S. In addition to illustrating these results with a single-qubit system interacting with a multiqubit environment, we find scaling relations for the redundancy of information acquired by the environment that display a universal behavior independent of the initial state of S. Our results demonstrate that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to nonideal initial states of the environment: the environment almost always acquires redundant information about the system but its rate of acquisition can be reduced.

  10. Fostering Entrepreneurship in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is the cornerstone of a modern competitive economy. Because of the economic and social importance attributed to entrepreneurship, every country has adopted policies aiming to encourage and to support entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors. Despite the fact that the set of public policy measures is very similar across countries and regions, the outcomes are different. The differences can be observed not only in quantitative terms (i.e. number of newly established ventures, but also in qualitative terms (i.e. proportion of innovative firms, intensity of knowledge and technological level, degree of internationalization etc.. Indeed, entrepreneurship takes different forms ranging from an alternative to employment (self-employed to creation of innovative, competitive and fast growing enterprises. It is also recognized the corporate entrepreneurship, the social entrepreneurship and even the entrepreneurship in the public sector. Different forms of entrepreneurship have a different impact in terms of general progress. Scholars have shown that context is an important factor explaining the variability of entrepreneurship outcomes, calling for a better understanding of the business environment influence on the intensity and quality of the entrepreneurial activity.

  11. Department Chairs as Change Agents: Leading Change in Resistant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.; Ensminger, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Change process research often discusses barriers that impede organizational change (e.g., Banta, 1997; Cavacuiti and Locke, 2013; Mutchler, 1990; Stewart et al., 2012); however, no empirical research has addressed how behaviors established in leadership models counteract these barriers. This study explored these two interconnected constructs of…

  12. Department Chairs as Change Agents: Leading Change in Resistant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.; Ensminger, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Change process research often discusses barriers that impede organizational change (e.g., Banta, 1997; Cavacuiti and Locke, 2013; Mutchler, 1990; Stewart et al., 2012); however, no empirical research has addressed how behaviors established in leadership models counteract these barriers. This study explored these two interconnected constructs of…

  13. Response of Sphagna to the changing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During last decade, considerable interest has been focused to assess the influence of human activities on ecosystems. The increasing trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has been predicted to continue till the next century and the amount of nitrogen deposition in the northern hemisphere has increased markedly. Substantial interest has been focused on predicting how these changes will affect on plants. Most boreal mire ecosystems are dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum, the litter of which constitutes the main component in the peat deposits and is an important CO{sub 2} sink via peat formation. Since virtually nothing was known about the growth response of peat mosses to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and alerting changes in species composition were detected in the sensitive ombrotrophic mire vegetation under increased N deposition in central Europe, this study was established. Laboratory experiments focused on measurements of the patterns of growth, production and plant metabolism at increased CO{sub 2} and N deposition levels in peat moss species. Long term field experiments were established to study the growth response and spatial competition of two interacting Sphagnum species under the increased nitrogen deposition levels

  14. The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)—the structure of website information—is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ra...

  15. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  16. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) “Real changes” (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) “Floristic changes” (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) “Taxonomic changes” (species are discovered...... and described, taxonomic revisions change the status of previously known species). The Linnaean taxonomic methods for describing and naming plant species, which we still use today in a refined form, were developed in the middle of the 18th century. The Nordic flora was one of the first that was subjected...... to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period...

  17. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  18. Asian Urban Environment and Climate Change: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Julian; Wu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The Asian Network on Climate Science and Technology (www.ancst.org), in collaboration with Tsinghua University, held a conference on environmental and climate science, air pollution, urban planning and transportation in July 2015, with over 40 Asian experts participating and presentation. This was followed by a meeting with local government and community experts on the practical conclusions of the conference. Of the papers presented at the conference a selection are included in this special issue of Journal of Environmental Science, which also reflects the conclusions of the Paris Climate meeting in Dec 2015, when the major nations of the world agreed about the compelling need to reduce the upward trend of adverse impacts associated with global climate change. Now is the time for urban areas to work out the serious consequences for their populations, but also how they should work together to take action to reduce global warming to benefit their own communities and also the whole planet! Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. From School to Work and from Work to School: Information Environments and Transferring Information Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study, based in a Scottish secondary school, aimed to examine the views of students who were completing work experience, on their information literacy practices, and the differences they found between the school and workplace information environments while on work experience. The views of guidance teachers were also explored.…

  20. EnviroNET: An interactive space-environment information resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampola, Alfred L.; Hall, William N.; Lauriente, Michael

    1988-01-01

    EnviroNET is an interactive menu-driven system set up as an information resource for experimenters, program managers, and design and test engineers involved in space missions. Its basic use is as a fundamental single source of data for the environment encountered by Shuttle and Space Station payloads, but it also has wider applicability in that it includes information on environments encountered by other satellites in both low altitude and high altitude (including geosynchronous) orbits. It incorporates both a text-retrieval mode and an interactive modeling code mode. The system is maintained on the ENVET MicroVAX computer at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Its services are available at no cost to any user who has access to a terminal and modem. It is a tail-node on SPAN, and so it is accessible either directly or through BITNET, ARPANET, and GTE/TELENET via NPSS.

  1. EnviroNET - An interactive space-environment information resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampola, A. L.; Hall, William N.; Lauriente, Michael

    1989-01-01

    EnviroNET is an interactive menu-driven system set up as an information resource for experimenters, program managers, and design and test engineers involved in space missions. Its basic use is as a fundamental single source of data for the environment encountered by Shuttle and Space Station payloads, but is also has wider applicability in that it includes information on environments encountered by other satellites in both low altitude and high altitude (including geosynchronous) orbits. It incorporates both a text-retrieval mode and an interactive modeling code mode. The system is maintained on the ENVET MicroVAX computer at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Its services are available at no cost to any user who has access to a terminal and modem. It is a tail-node on SPAN, and so it is accessible either directly or through BITNET, ARPANET, and GTE/TELENET via NPSS.

  2. Research Environment and Information Service of the Space Weather Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To optimize space weather research and information services, it is important to establish a comprehensive system that enables us to analyze observation and simulation data in an integrated manner. For this, we recently constructed a new computing environment called the "Space Weather Cloud Computing System" of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT. Currently, the Space Weather Cloud contains a high performance computer, a distributed mass storage system using the Grid Data Farm (Gfarm technology, servers for analysis and visualization of data, a job service based on the RCM (R&D Chain Management system, servers for Solar-Terrestrial data Analysis, and the Reference System (STARS.

  3. Utilization of a virtual environment for combat information center training

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, John J

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Recent fiscal and personnel cutbacks have placed significant restrictions on surface ship training opportunities. As a result, additional methods of training must be established in order to maintain current operational readiness. This thesis research investigates the use of a workstation based shipboard virtual environment (VE) as complementary training for naval personnel, in particular, in the combat information center (CIC). The app...

  4. Department of Defense Synchronization and Coordination via Joint Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    characterized the strategic environment as one that is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous ( VUCA ). The events also present broad National Security...information technology,”1 has facilitated free nations, open markets, and social growth throughout the world . It has also enabled nations, non-state...and businesses, and the massive grids that power our nation; the classified military and intelligence networks that keep us safe and the World Wide

  5. Hierarchical Architecture for Enterprise Information System under Dynamic Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In a dynamic environment, it is vital for enterpris e to have flexible information system architecture to integrate ERP, Supply Chain Management (SCM) and E-Commerce (EC). The traditional systems are established o n the ERP-centered flat architecture. This architecture has some disadvantages in supporting the dynamics of enterprises. Firstly, ERP is already a very expens ive and complex system; the extension based on it can only increase the complexi ty and make the implementation more expensive and risk...

  6. Investigating Changes in Coastal Environment Using Internet-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating Changes in Coastal Environment Using Internet-Based ... of the coastal areas was modified from water body to residential areas, 1.10% from ... of the people (marine, tourism and fishing activities) has been adversely affected.

  7. Visualization for Information Retrieval in Regional Distributed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Information retrieval (IR is the task of representing, storing, organizing, and offering access to information items. The problem for search engines is not only to find topic relevant results, but results consistent with the user’s information need. How to retrieve desired information from the Internet with high efficiency and good effectiveness is become the main concern of internet user-based. The interface of the systems does not help them to perceive the precision of these results. Speed, resources consuming, searching and retrieving process also aren't optimal. The search engine's aim is developing and improving the performance of information retrieval system and gifting the user whatever his culture' level. The proposed system is using information visualization for interface problems, and for improving other side of web IR system's problems, it uses the regional crawler on distributed search environment with conceptual query processing and enhanced vector space information retrieval model (VSM. It is an effective attempt to match renewal user's needs and get a better performance than ordinary system.

  8. Climate Change Conceptual Change: Scientific Information Can Transform Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav

    2016-01-01

    Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition."

  9. The effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su-Jung; Park, Eun-Young

    2017-04-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is connected with every aspect of social, cultural, economic, educational, and commercial activity. Smart devices in particular have changed society and are necessary goods for modern people. Smart device usage is rapidly growing in everyday life, so the ability to use a smart device is increasingly important, yet there is little data supporting increased digital inclusion of people with disabilities in mobile device use. This study investigates the effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities. Data from the 2013 Information Divide Index Data of the National Information Society Agency was analyzed regarding three aspects: access, skill, and competence. The accessibility difference was investigated by comparing access to a PC or smart device in two groups. The effects of a smart environment on the information divide were analyzed using General Linear Modeling (GLM). The access rate was higher for the general group than for that of those with disabilities, and this difference appeared to be greater in the smart environment. The results of the GLM showed that disability and device access had statistically significant effects on skill and all aspects of competence. These results provide evidence that the smart environment further creates the information divide for people with disabilities. Strategies should be formed to reduce this divide, particularly within smart environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. National Environmental Change Information System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Ritschard, R.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Hatch, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Hydrology and Climate Center and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a fact-finding case study for the Data Management Working Group (DMWG), now referred to as the Data and Information Working Group (DIWG), of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to determine the feasibility of an interagency National Environmental Change Information System (NECIS). In order to better understand the data and information needs of policy and decision makers at the national, state, and local level, the DIWG asked the case study team to choose a regional water resources issue in the southeastern United States that had an impact on a diverse group of stakeholders. The southeastern United States was also of interest because the region experiences interannual climatic variations and impacts due to El Nino and La Nina. Jointly, with input from the DIWG, a focus on future water resources planning in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basins of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida was selected. A tristate compact and water allocation formula is currently being negotiated between the states and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) that will affect the availability of water among competing uses within the ACF River basin. All major reservoirs on the ACF are federally owned and operated by the U.S. Army COE. A similar two-state negotiation is ongoing that addresses the water allocations in the adjacent Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT) River basin, which extends from northwest Georgia to Mobile Bay. The ACF and ACT basins are the subject of a comprehensive river basin study involving many stakeholders. The key objectives of this case study were to identify specific data and information needs of key stakeholders in the ACF region, determine what capabilities are needed to provide the most practical response to these user requests, and to identify any limitations in the use of federal data and information. The NECIS case study followed the terms of reference

  11. Change Management and its Influence in the Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that are happening in businesses dictate the changes in all kinds of needed resources to develop the organization. The environment in which the organizations operate is in constant change and becomes more and more unpredictable. Managing these changes is a challenge that all enterprises face. The rapid changes that are happening in business are increasing the need to manage these changes. Enterprises have to develop and use different kinds of management models so that they can grow their performance in order to ensure a competitive position in the market. The changes in enterprises sometimes are not accepted by the organization employees, and seem to have negative effects towards them (exemption from work, reduction of working hours, reduction of income. Changes have negative and positive effects. Successful and rational managers can achieve having successful changes and minimizing the negative effects that come due to changes. Changes are vital for organizations so that they can replace the old plans and models with new and successful ones. In this paper we talk about the role and importance of managing the changes, the types of changes, models of changes, the resistance against changes and also the obtained results of the paper are introduced. Literature was used to support the research in the study field, and based on that to explain the role of changes in the business environment. There are quantitative methods and an inductive analysis used in this paper.

  12. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  13. Overwriting information: Correlations, physical costs, and environment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neal G.

    2012-03-01

    In this sequel to our previous study of the entropic and energetic costs of information erasure [N.G. Anderson, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 5552], we consider direct overwriting of classical information encoded in a quantum-mechanical memory system interacting with a heat bath. Lower bounds on physical costs of overwriting - in both “single-shot” and “sequential” overwriting scenarios - are obtained from globally unitary quantum dynamics and entropic inequalities alone, all within a referential approach that grounds information content in correlations between physical system states. A heterogeneous environment model, required for consistent treatment of sequential overwriting, is introduced and used to establish and relate bounds for various cases.

  14. Public Agility and Change in a Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Engers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by changes in the law; changes in the organization’s environment often create a need to redesign business processes, reallocate roles and responsibilities, and reorder tasks. Moreover, preparations for change are not limited to the internal processes and systems of these organizations. Propagation of changes to network partners and redesign of network arrangements can be an enormous challenge. In the AGILE project, we develop a design method, distributed service architecture, and supporting tools that enable organizations - administrative and otherwise - to orchestrate their law-based services in a networked environment. This paper explains the Agile approach and describes some of its key principles.

  15. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  16. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  17. 670 investigating changes in coastal environment using internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    change, population pressure, urbanization and disasters are getting worse, ... give more attention to means of sustaining the human environment, especially the coastal areas. ... presents the result of investigation carried out in Okrika coastal areas of ..... Table 3 Trends in changes investigated in Okrika Land Use distribution ...

  18. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  19. ACCOUNTANCY REFLECTION OF ENVIRONMENT INFORMATION REGARDING THE ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources, especially energetical ones, have continuously influenced the evolution of human society, including the economical developement, and so the problem of their deficiency and their limited character is a problem of major interest for the human kind in their quest to find the balance betwen the need of economical expansion and the environment protection. The purpose of this paper work is to show the importancy of energy eficiency by asuming two main action directions: to encrease the quantity of renewable energy and to emprove the energetical efficiency. After the researches we made, we brought in attention the main mechanisms used in the insurance of sustainability security and competitiveness of the energy sector. These practices the objectives of the sustainable development principle, exemplified from accountancy point of view through a new instrument in the economical theory: environmental accountancy which ensures the background regarding the recognition, evaluation and presentation of environment information.

  20. Multiscale Regional Formula Fertilization Considering Environment Information Incompleteness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianqian ZHANG; Yan LIANG

    2015-01-01

    Conventional formula fertilization tends to calculate regional rate of fertilizer application by means of analyzing spatial distribution of regional cultivated land productivity combined with experiment data. However,as environment information of cultivated land is incomplete due to limitation of traditional cultivated land management technology and data acquisition,uncertainty of rate of fertilizer makes it hard to define the interval of formula fertilization and support the regional fertilization task. With the technique of spatial analysis and multiscale uncertainty theory,conventional fertilization can be optimized. Four steps are involved to calculate regional formula fertilization interval based on conventional formula fertilization:( i) To simulate cultivated land productivity according to EGLSN Model,and make it crop target field;( ii) To determine rate of fertilizer according to target field to define cultivated land productivity fertilizer interval and mid-value;( iii) To define region fertilizer interval length and value of region varying with scales as environment information becomes complete gradually;( iv) To apply block fertilizer combined with conventional formula by soil testing. Multiscale optimizing formula fertilization system has been established by using the Arc Engine as a platform to integrate the methods,which is applied in Xinjiang County,Shanxi Province,in order to optimize the existing fertilization formula in study area. It showed that the optimized formula fertilization had more spatial details of productivity than the original one.And the new method is available to support formula fertilization in any region or the block with uncertain environment information. It is therefore concluded that the proposed method has the potential for popularity,which provides a multiscale,multiple-factor and standardized formula fertilization method.

  1. Scientific climate change information by collaborative venture and digital portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubelaar-Versluis, W.

    2010-09-01

    Klimaatportaal is the digital entry of Dutch ‘climate' knowledge centres, which are collaborated in the Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC). This collaborative venture was established in 2003 by the Dutch climate research community to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of the communication of Dutch climate research. By now, eight Dutch knowledge centres are participating and still more want to join. The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) supports the PCCC and the project is implemented in collaboration with the BSIK ‘Climate Changes Spatial Planning' programme. The website provides actual and background climate change information for a wide audience on the national scale from policy makers, media to general public. By supplying integral climate information, such as observations of climate change, causes and consequences of climate system, adaptation, mitigation and energy issues, a wide spectrum of target groups will be served. The information is offered in different forms, because of the needs of different target groups. Klimaatportaal contains therefore news on climate issues, frequently asked questions and popular science reports, like the annually brochure De Staat van het Klimaat (‘The State of the Climate'). Recently, also a portal for students is added, where they can find information for their assignments. Beside the website, PCCC is organising activities as symposia and workshops and is supplying information on international issues, for example the content of the Kyoto protocol and the IPCC fourth assessment report (2007). Finally, informing the public through contacts with the media is also an important part of the PCCC. The presentation will address the strengths and weaknesses of this approach which may serve as an example for combining knowledge in outreach activities in other countries.

  2. Gemini: Extending Information Management for Real Time Tactical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    access to multiple other aircraft and the  Global  Information Grid (GIG). On these  UAS, Gemini may be installed in the form of a small payload or onto an...There are several technologies specifically designed for compressing XML data (for example XGrind,  XML‐ Xpress , and XMill). A general purpose...Future Force Warrior (US Army)  GIG  Global  Information Grid  GNOME  GNU Object Model Environment  GNU  GNU’s Not Unix  IDL  Interface Definition

  3. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  4. The information architecture of behavior change websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

    2005-05-18

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)-the structure of website information--is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research.

  5. Linked Open Data in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will centralize access to data and information related to global change across the U.S. federal government. The first implementation will focus on the 2013 National Climate Assessment (NCA) . (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the USGCRP; analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The NCA has received over 500 distinct technical inputs to the process, many of which are reports distilling and synthesizing even more information, coming from thousands of individuals around the federal, state and local governments, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations. The GCIS will present a web-based version of the NCA including annotations linking the findings and content of the NCA with the scientific research, datasets, models, observations, etc. that led to its conclusions. It will use semantic tagging and a linked data approach, assigning globally unique, persistent, resolvable identifiers to all of the related entities and capturing and presenting the relationships between them, both internally and referencing out to other linked data sources and back to agency data centers. The developing W3C PROV Data Model and ontology will be used to capture the provenance trail and present it in both human readable web pages and machine readable formats such as RDF and SPARQL. This will improve visibility into the assessment process, increase

  6. Anesthesia-related changes in information transfer may be caused by reduction in local information generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollstadt, Patricia; Sellers, Kristin K; Hutt, Axel; Frohlich, Flavio; Wibral, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In anesthesia research it is an open question how general anesthetics lead to loss of consciousness (LOC). It has been proposed that LOC may be caused by the disruption of cortical information processing, preventing information integration. Therefore, recent studies investigating information processing under anesthesia focused on changes in information transfer, measured by transfer entropy (TE). However, often this complex technique was not applied rigorously, using time series in symbolic representation, or using TE differences without accounting for neural conduction delays, or without accounting for signal history. Here, we used current best-practice in TE estimation to investigate information transfer under anesthesia: We conducted simultaneous recordings in primary visual cortex (V1) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of head-fixed ferrets in a dark environment under different levels of anesthesia (awake, 0.5% isoflurane, 1.0 % isoflurane). To elucidate reasons for changes in TE, we further quantified information processing within brain areas by estimating active information storage (AIS) as an estimator of predictable information, and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) as an estimator of signal entropy. Under anesthesia, we found a reduction in information transfer (TE) between PFC and V1 with a stronger reduction for the feedback direction (PFC to V1), validating previous results. Furthermore, entropy (LZC) was reduced and activity became more predictable as indicated by higher values of AIS. We conclude that higher anesthesia concentrations indeed lead to reduced inter-areal information transfer, which may be partly caused by decreases in local entropy and increases in local predictability. In revealing a possible reason for reduced TE that is potentially independent of inter-areal coupling, we demonstrate the value of directly quantifying information processing in addition to focusing on dynamic properties such as coupling strength.

  7. Evaluating model of frozen soil environment change under engineering actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai(吴青柏); ZHU; Yuanlin(朱元林); LIU; Yongzhi(刘永智)

    2002-01-01

    The change of frozen soil environment is evaluated by permafrost thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability and the quantitatively evaluating model of frozen soil environment is proposed in this paper. The evaluating model of frozen soil environment is calculated by 28 ground temperature measurements along Qinghai-Xizang Highway. The relationships of thermal thaw sensibility and freezing and thawing processes and seasonally thawing depth, thermal stability and permafrost table temperature, mean annual ground temperature and seasonally thawing depth, and surface landscape stability and freezing and thawing hazards and their forming possibility are analyzed. The results show that thermal stability, thermal thaw sensibility and surface landscape stability can be used to evaluate and predict the change of frozen soil environment under human engineering action.

  8. Information and Education Environment of Cabinet of Russian Language and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritarova Zhanna N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We talk about introduction of the concept of “information and education environment”(IEE in education space and its relation to the study of Russian language and Literature in the article. Subject IEE, along with a range of equipment and information resources, must include a system of modern pedagogical technologies providing training in this field. The need for rethinking the role of a teacher in the education process is described in the article due to the fact that the methodological science is behind quickly evolving information and education environment. IEE of teaching Russian language and Literature includes elements such as purpose, content, methods, techniques, forms and training tools. However, their meanings have been changed in multimedia information and education environment. New approaches in the organization of student learning and achievement of planned results at lessons of Russian language and Literature in terms of IEE were revealed in the article.

  9. Vegetation change in dryland environments: understanding changes in fluvial fluxes via changes in hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, A.; Brazier, R. E.; Dungait, J. A. J.; Bol, R.; Macleod, C. J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dryland environments are estimated to cover around 40% of the global land surface (Okin et al, 2009) and are home to approximately 2.5 billion people (Reynolds et al. 2007). Many of these areas have recently experienced extensive land degradation. One such area and the focus of this project is the semi-arid US Southwest, where degradation over the past 150 years has been characterised by the invasion of woody vegetation into grasslands. The transition from grass to woody vegetation results in a change in ecosystem structure and function (Turnbull et al, 2008). Structural change is typically characterised by an increased heterogeneity of soil and vegetation resources, associated with reduced vegetation coverage. Functional change is characterised by an increased vulnerability to soil erosion and the potential loss of key nutrients to adjacent fluvial systems. Such loss of resources may impact heavily upon the amount of carbon that is sequestered by these environments and the amount of carbon that is lost as the land becomes more degraded. Therefore, understanding these vegetation transitions is significant for sustainable land use and global biogeochemical cycling. Connectivity is a key concept in understanding the hydrological response to this vegetation change, with reduced vegetation coverage in woody environments being associated with longer and more connected overland flow pathways. This increase in hydrological connectivity results in an accentuated rainfall-runoff response and increased fluvial fluxes of eroded sediment and associated soil organic carbon and other nutrients. This project uses an ecohydrological approach, characterising ecological structure and monitoring natural rainfall-runoff events over bounded plots with different vegetation covering the transitions from C4 pure-grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) to C3 creosote (Larrea tridentate) shrubland and C3 piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) mixed stand woodland. Data collected quantifies

  10. [Hormonal changes in response to extreme environment factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubassov, R V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper presented current state about hormonal changes in sympathetic-adrenal, hypophysis-adrenal, hypophysis-gonads and thyroid levels from extreme environment factors. It's shown that hypophysis gonads and thyroid endocrine links along with sympathetic adrenal, hypophysis adrenal axes are very important relevance in response to extreme environment factors and organism adaptation. In this time a hormonal secretion changes corresponds as interrelated reactions cascade in mechanisms of homeostasis maintenance. A studying of this mechanisms and revealing of its role in stress pathogenesis is fundamental biomedical investigation task. A problem solving allow to perfect prophylactic and treatment methods against stress diseases.

  11. Constant Change: The Ever-Evolving Personal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Kompen, Ricardo; Monguet, Josep Ma.; Brigos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    There are several definitions for the term "personal learning environment" (PLE); in this article, PLE refers to a group of web technologies, with various degrees of integration and interaction, that helps users and learners manage the flow of information that relates to the learning process, the creation of knowledge, and the…

  12. Communicating climate change adaptation information using web-based platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Eleni; Mattern, Kati

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate progress in climate change adaptation policy and practice, it is important not only to ensure the production of accurate, comprehensive and relevant information, but also the easy, timely and affordable access to it. This can contribute to better-informed decisions and improve the design and implementation of adaptation policies and other relevant initiatives. Web-based platforms can play an important role in communicating and distributing data, information and knowledge that become constantly available, reaching out to a large group of potential users. Indeed in the last decade there has been an extensive increase in the number of platforms developed for this purpose in many fields including climate change adaptation. This short paper concentrates on the web-based adaptation platforms developed in Europe. It provides an overview of the recently emerged landscape, examines the basic characteristics of a set of platforms that operate at national, transnational and European level, and discusses some of the key challenges related to their development, maintenance and overall management. Findings presented in this short paper are discussed in greater detailed in the Technical Report of the European Environment Agency Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe.

  13. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  14. The impact of business environment changes on recent costing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧涓

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The acceleration of globalization and the prosperity of information technology benefit business a great deal.But with the speeding up of economic development,firms are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their business.The heated debate is on about whether traditional management accounting practices and techniques are irrelevant to the current business environment and this essay will explore the causes for using some traditional management accounting practices and techniques in the current business environment are inappropriate and put forward some contemporary management accounting techniques which is relevant to the current business environment.Thus,the essay will be divided into three sections to discuss the traditional management accounting practices and techniques and contemporary management accounting techniques in current business environment.

  15. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  16. Integrating complementary information for photorealistic representation of large-scale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhui

    2007-12-01

    A wealth of datasets from different sensors exists for environment representation. The key observations of this thesis are that the different datasets are complementary and that fusing information from complementary datasets reduces errors in processing each dataset. In addition, a fusion method benefits from the merit of each dataset, hence helps us to represent large-scale environments in an efficient and accurate way. This thesis presents a hybrid approach fusing information from four complementary datasets, LiDAR data, aerial images, ground images and videos, to photorealistically represent large-scale environments. LiDAR data samples are dense in surface points and they directly measure model heights with accuracy up to centimeters. However, edges from LiDAR data are jaggy due to the relatively low sampling rate (usually one meter) of the sensor and reconstruction results from LiDAR lack color information. On the other hand, aerial images provide detailed texture and color information in high-resolution, making them necessary for texture data and appealing for extracting detailed model features. However, reconstruction from stereo aerial images often generates sparse points, making them unsuitable for reconstruction of complex surfaces, such as curved surfaces and roofs with slopes. Ground images offer high-resolution texture information and details of model facades, but they are local, static and lack the capability to provide information of the most recent changes in the environment. Live videos are real-time, making them ideal for updating the information of the environment, however, they are often low-resolution. A natural conclusion is to combine the geometry, photometry, and other sensing sources to compensate for the shortcomings of each sensing technology and obtain a more detailed and accurate representation of the environment. In this thesis, we first fuse information from both LiDAR and an aerial image to create urban models with accurate surfaces

  17. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  18. Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ramsey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Book review of Sustainable Lifeways: Cultural Persistence in an Ever-Changing Environment. Naomi F. Miller, Katherine M. Moore, Kathleen Ryan, editors. 2011. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Pp. 352, 73 illustrations. $65.00 (cloth. ISBN 9787934536193.

  19. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  20. Student's Mobile Information Prototype for the Higher Education Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji S. Alzaza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: M-learning is considered as the next form of e-learning using mobile technologies to facilitate education for teachers and learners. Students need to keep in touch with their education services anytime regardless the place. Engaging the m-learning services in the Malaysian higher education will improve the availability of education. This study discusses the development and user’s evaluation of Student’s Mobile Information Prototype (SMIP. The study aims to utilize mobile learning services to facilitate education for students in the higher education environment. Approach: The Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM was adapted to develop the SMIP. The evaluation was conducted to determine users’ perception on the usability aspect of the SMIP. Results: Results of user’s evaluation on the SMIP indicate that most of the participants highly agreed on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, learn ability, functionality and didactic efficiency. Moreover, the results confirm that SMIP is useful for users to make their transactions easy, direct and successful, regardless of location and time. Conclusion: It is hoped that the findings of this study will encourage students to keep in touch with their education environment anywhere and anytime.

  1. The Nature of Information Science: Changing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…

  2. Changes in heliophysical parameter influence on environment of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Ma, W.

    2007-12-01

    Terrestrial as well as extraterrestrial satellite data and environmental parameter records were correlated. It has been observed that some relationship exists in between the changes in environment and extraterrestrial phenomenon. The star flare changes the cosmic parameters. The nearest star of earth, the Sun, is found to be under the influence of the star flare. It has been observed that there is some relationship in between the planetary indices (Kp) Electron flux (E flux) Proton flux (P-flux) of Sun-Earth environment with the changes in thermosphere, ionosphere, atmosphere and geosphere. The tsunami of 26 December 2004, abnormal snowfall in 2004-2005, sudden hike in global temperature and erratic monsoon in India and irregular rainfall in other parts of the world in 2006-2007 followed by snowfall and torrential rain are the impact of the star-sun-earth relationship.

  3. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  4. Interfacing remote sensing and geographic information systems for global environmental change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae K.; Randolph, J. C.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Because changes in the Earth's environment have become major global issues, continuous, longterm scientific information is required to assess global problems such as deforestation, desertification, greenhouse effects and climate variations. Global change studies require understanding of interactions of complex processes regulating the Earth system. Space-based Earth observation is an essential element in global change research for documenting changes in Earth environment. It provides synoptic data for conceptual predictive modeling of future environmental change. This paper provides a brief overview of remote sensing technology from the perspective of global change research.

  5. The development and change study of cost accounting in the IT environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilian Li; Qiumei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Relative to costs of computerized accounting, the cost accounting information further to get rid of the shackles of artificial accounting, reflecting a pure information management thinking, which contains a richer content, and traditional cost accounting theory a profound impact on the system. Clear understanding of the environment in the IT development process cost accounting will help us actively to promote cost accounting change, innovation and development.

  6. Predator-prey interactions and changing environments: who benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Mark V; Mangel, Marc; Hedges, Kevin

    2007-11-29

    While aquatic environments have long been thought to be more moderate environments than their terrestrial cousins, environmental data demonstrate that for some systems this is not so. Numerous important environmental parameters can fluctuate dramatically, notably dissolved oxygen, turbidity and temperature. The roles of dissolved oxygen and turbidity on predator-prey interactions have been discussed in detail elsewhere within this issue and will be considered only briefly here. Here, we will focus primarily on the role of temperature and its potential impact upon predator-prey interactions. Two key properties are of particular note. For temperate aquatic ecosystems, all piscine and invertebrate piscivores and their prey are ectothermic. They will therefore be subject to energetic demands that are significantly affected by environmental temperature. Furthermore, the physical properties of water, particularly its high thermal conductivity, mean that thermal microenvironments will not exist so that fine-scale habitat movements will not be an option for dealing with changing water temperature in lentic environments. Unfortunately, there has been little experimental analysis of the role of temperature on such predator-prey interactions, so we will instead focus on theoretical work, indicating that potential implications associated with thermal change are unlikely to be straightforward and may present a greater threat to predators than to their prey. Specifically, we demonstrate that changes in the thermal environment can result in a net benefit to cold-adapted species through the mechanism of predator-prey interactions.

  7. Anticipating Changing in Environments: Adaptation in Fluctuating Environments in A Heterogeneous Microbial Communites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Merzu; Bálazsi, Gábor

    2015-03-01

    The environments in which micro-organisms grow often fluctuate. To survive in temporally changing environments, cells have evolved mechanisms to survive environmental changes. One survival mechanism is generating phenotypic differences among identical cells in a given environment, with cells randomly switching between phenotypes. Such cells form subpopulations that proliferate at different rates. Optimal population fitness was attributed before to matching cellular and environmental switching rates. However, the conditions for this optimum are not well understood. In particular, it is unknown how the growth rates of the phenotypes affect the optimum. We use mathematical models to address this question. We find that the existence of the predicted optimum depends on cell growth rates in each phenotype. The predicted optimum exists for wider parameter regimes if the environmental durations are long. In addition, we study how mutants arising among such phenotypically heterogeneous cells spread in the population.

  8. Making decisions in a complex information environment: evidential preference and information we trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L

    2013-01-01

    Informed decision making requires that those individuals making health and health-care decisions understand the advantages and disadvantages associated with particular health options. Research and theory suggest factors that contribute to the decision-making process: data on the likelihood of risks and benefits, level of certainty about outcomes, familiarity with the health issue, characteristics of information sources and presentation, and patient values and beliefs. As the health information environment increases in complexity, it becomes important to understand how interactions among information sources, family, and friends may affect the processing of health information and choices and their alignment with available evidence. This paper discusses the potential interactions among social networks, information sources and evidential preferences for health information as they influence health decisions. The role of family and friends who increasingly search for health information for others and the potential for information filtering influenced by second- or third-party attitudes and preferences is explored. Evidential preferences suggestive of the potential value of social math (creatively presented statistics) strategies for presenting data, the information-processing factors that may make personal experiences, anecdotes and testimonials that are often shared within social networks and may exert powerful influences on health decisions are examined in this article. The paper concludes with recommendations for revised health-communication practices, health professional training to improve patient understanding in the clinical encounter, and directions for future research. Simple, direct, and socially relevant communications that avoid conflicts with the values and beliefs of the individual, as well as those of the family and social network, are recommended.

  9. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  10. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  11. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  12. Human emotions track changes in the acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Thompson, William Forde

    2015-11-24

    Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds.

  13. Testing take-the-best in new and changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Blanco, Gabrielle; Bo, Nikole

    2017-08-01

    Take-the-best is a decision-making strategy that chooses between alternatives, by searching the cues representing the alternatives in order of cue validity, and choosing the alternative with the first discriminating cue. Theoretical support for take-the-best comes from the "fast and frugal" approach to modeling cognition, which assumes decision-making strategies need to be fast to cope with a competitive world, and be simple to be robust to uncertainty and environmental change. We contribute to the empirical evaluation of take-the-best in two ways. First, we generate four new environments-involving bridge lengths, hamburger prices, theme park attendances, and US university rankings-supplementing the relatively limited number of naturally cue-based environments previously considered. We find that take-the-best is as accurate as rival decision strategies that use all of the available cues. Secondly, we develop 19 new data sets characterizing the change in cities and their populations in four countries. We find that take-the-best maintains its accuracy and limited search as the environments change, even if cue validities learned in one environment are used to make decisions in another. Once again, we find that take-the-best is as accurate as rival strategies that use all of the cues. We conclude that these new evaluations support the theoretical claims of the accuracy, frugality, and robustness for take-the-best, and that the new data sets provide a valuable resource for the more general study of the relationship between effective decision-making strategies and the environments in which they operate.

  14. Plasticity-Mediated Persistence in New and Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baldwin’s synthesis of the Organicist position, first published in 1896 and elaborated in 1902, sought to rescue environmentally induced phenotypes from disrepute by showing their Darwinian significance. Of particular interest to Baldwin was plasticity’s mediating role during environmental change or colonization—plastic individuals were more likely to successfully survive and reproduce in new environments than were nonplastic individuals. Once a population of plastic individuals had become established, plasticity could further mediate the future course of evolution. The evidence for plasticity-mediated persistence (PMP is reviewed here with a particular focus on evolutionary rescue experiments, studies on invasive success, and the role of learning in survival. Many PMP studies are methodologically limited, showing that preexistent plasticity has utility in new environments (soft PMP rather than directly demonstrating that plasticity is responsible for persistence (hard PMP. An ideal PMP study would be able to demonstrate that (1 plasticity preexisted environmental change, (2 plasticity was fortuitously beneficial in the new environment, (3 plasticity was responsible for individual persistence in the new environment, and (4 plasticity was responsible for population persistence in succeeding generations. Although PMP is not ubiquitous, Baldwin’s hypotheses have been largely vindicated in theoretical and empirical studies, but much work remains.

  15. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity.

  16. The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Environment: A Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The Center for Global Security Research and Global Security Principal Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop in July 2016 to consider “The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Security Environment.” We took a broad view of nonproliferation, encompassing not just the treaty regime but also arms control, threat reduction, counter-­proliferation, and countering nuclear terrorism. We gathered a group of approximately 60 experts from the technical, academic, political, defense and think tank communities and asked them what—and how much—can reasonably be accomplished in each of these areas in the 5 to 10 years ahead. Discussion was on a not-­for-­attribution basis. This document provides a summary of key insights and lessons learned, and is provided to help stimulate broader public discussion of these issues. It is a collection of ideas as informally discussed and debated among a group of experts. The ideas reported here are the personal views of individual experts and should not be attributed to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Detecting changes in dynamic and complex acoustic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubenec, Yves; Lawlor, Jennifer; Górska, Urszula; Shamma, Shihab; Englitz, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Natural sounds such as wind or rain, are characterized by the statistical occurrence of their constituents. Despite their complexity, listeners readily detect changes in these contexts. We here address the neural basis of statistical decision-making using a combination of psychophysics, EEG and modelling. In a texture-based, change-detection paradigm, human performance and reaction times improved with longer pre-change exposure, consistent with improved estimation of baseline statistics. Change-locked and decision-related EEG responses were found in a centro-parietal scalp location, whose slope depended on change size, consistent with sensory evidence accumulation. The potential's amplitude scaled with the duration of pre-change exposure, suggesting a time-dependent decision threshold. Auditory cortex-related potentials showed no response to the change. A dual timescale, statistical estimation model accounted for subjects' performance. Furthermore, a decision-augmented auditory cortex model accounted for performance and reaction times, suggesting that the primary cortical representation requires little post-processing to enable change-detection in complex acoustic environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24910.001 PMID:28262095

  18. Creativity and Information Systems in a Hypercompetitive Environment: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Ulrich, Frank

    2013-01-01

    to stimulate creativity and spur innovation in modern organizations. For that purpose, we use Rhodes’ 4-Ps model (1961) distinguishing between creative environments (called press), people, products, and processes. Through a review of 110 journals on the AIS journal list, this article offers insights......In today’s hypercompetitive environment in which markets change rapidly and competitive advantages are difficult to sustain, companies are forced to innovate and identify new business opportunities. However, innovation requires ingenuity and creativity. Product and service development depends......, for example by building virtual environments that strengthen collaboration and creativity across organizational boundaries. Researchers are encouraged to investigate the relationship between strategy and information systems (IS) usage in fostering creativity....

  19. Organization of educational process as a part of the information environment of the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оksana S. Savelyeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions concerning the insurance of openness and transparency of the educational process, monitoring the provision of educational services and the quality of learning within a unified information environment of Odessa National Polytechnic University are considered. It is proposed to consider the organization of the educational process as a major component of the educational process, that is a system of activities covering the distribution of the academic load between departments, recruitment of teachers, the formation of class schedules, consultation, final control and state certification. The analysis and the forming of set of parameters are carried out, the main components of the functional subsystem "The organization of educational process" as one of the components of the information environment of university are identified. Building a system hierarchically ensures the effective management of subsystems of organization of educational process and interaction between participants of the educational process and allows the system to change quickly if it is necessary.

  20. Joint Information Environment: DOD Needs to Strengthen Governance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    implementing JRSS to enable the single security architecture. The effort, which is managed by the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), involves...18Defense Information Systems Agency, Information Services Acquisition Oversight and Management , DISA Instruction 610-225-2 (Feb. 19, 2015) and...24Defense Information Systems Agency, Information Services Acquisition Oversight and Management , DISA Instruction

  1. Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara P.

    This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests

  2. The changing face of informed surgical consent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether procedure-specific brochures improve patients\\' pre-operative knowledge, to determine the amount of information expected by patients during the consenting process, and to determine whether the recently proposed \\'Request for Treatment\\' consenting process is viable on a large scale.

  3. Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote

  4. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment.

  5. Speculative Fictions for Understanding Global Change Environments: Two Thought Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Gough

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a thought experiment, as the term was used by quantum and relativity physicists in the early part of the twentieth century, was not prediction (as is the goal of classical experimental science, but more defensible representations of present ‘realities’. Speculative fictions, from Mary Shelley's Frankenstein to the Star Wars cinema saga, can be read as sociotechnical thought experiments that produce alternative representations of present circumstances and uncertainties, and anticipate and critique possible futures. In this essay I demonstrate how two examples of popular speculative fictions, Frank Herbert's Dune (1965 and Ursula Le Guin's The Telling (2000, function as thought experiments that problematise global transitions in their respective eras. I argue that critical readings of such stories can help us to anticipate, critique, and respond constructively to social and cultural changes and change environments within nation-states that constitute, and are constituted by, global change processes and their effects.

  6. Persistent Robotic Tasks: Monitoring and Sweeping in Changing Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen L; Rus, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    We present controllers that enable mobile robots to persistently monitor or sweep a changing environment. The changing environment is modeled as a field which grows in locations that are not within range of a robot, and decreases in locations that are within range of a robot. We assume that the robots travel on given closed paths. The speed of each robot along its path is controlled to prevent the field from growing unbounded at any location. We consider the space of speed controllers that can be parametrized by a finite set of basis functions. For a single robot, we develop a linear program that is guaranteed to compute a speed controller in this space to keep the field bounded, if such a controller exists. Another linear program is then derived whose solution is the speed controller that minimizes the maximum field value over the environment. We extend our linear program formulation to develop a multi-robot controller that keeps the field bounded. The multi-robot controller has the unique feature that it do...

  7. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.

  8. The Changing Face of Serials Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Kitty

    2012-01-01

    The EBSCOhost is a Z39.50 compliant, multi-database client/server host featuring full-text for over 1,000 titles. Currently available in UNIX character cell and Windows formats, this presentation will preview the new WEB interface scheduled to be available during the Summer. EBSCOhost features an optional link to EBSCOdoc, a document delivery and current awareness service. EBSCOhost and EBSCOdoc are part of the EBSCO Information Services group.

  9. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children's dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children's saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children's saturated fat intake. Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30 minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment--Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children's dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (pfood availability (β=-0.2) at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2), restriction (β=0.3) and pressure to eat (β=0.3) were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2), perceived responsibility (β=-0.3) and restriction (β=-0.3) from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake. The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of

  10. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  11. Geographic Information Systems for assessment of climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographic Information Systems for assessment of climate change effects on teff in Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The value of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for assessing climate ... Article Metrics.

  12. Assessing and managing stressors in a changing marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter M

    2016-10-16

    We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions. Agreed protection goals and considering both the negatives (risks) and the positives (benefits) of all any and all actions are required, as is judicious and appropriate use of the Precautionary Principle. Researchers and managers need to focus on: determining tipping points (alternative stable points); maintaining ecosystem services; and, managing competing ecosystem services. Marine (and other) scientists are urged to focus their research on wicked problems to allow for informed decision-making on a planetary basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    WORKSHOP REPORT Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions in the Underwater Environment DECEMBER 2014 SERDP and...SUBTITLE Informal Workshop on Burial and Mobility Modeling of Munitions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER in the Underwater Environment 5b. GRANT...relevant project efforts. Quite often, underwater environments can be dynamic locations where munitions are more likely subject to mobility, burial , and

  14. A Simple Example of ``Quantum Darwinism'': Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2005-11-01

    As quantum information science approaches the goal of constructing quantum computers, understanding loss of information through decoherence becomes increasingly important. The information about a system that can be obtained from its environment can facilitate quantum control and error correction. Moreover, observers gain most of their information indirectly, by monitoring (primarily photon) environments of the "objects of interest." Exactly how this information is inscribed in the environment is essential for the emergence of "the classical" from the quantum substrate. In this paper, we examine how many-qubit (or many-spin) environments can store information about a single system. The information lost to the environment can be stored redundantly, or it can be encoded in entangled modes of the environment. We go on to show that randomly chosen states of the environment almost always encode the information so that an observer must capture a majority of the environment to deduce the system's state. Conversely, in the states produced by a typical decoherence process, information about a particular observable of the system is stored redundantly. This selective proliferation of "the fittest information" (known as Quantum Darwinism) plays a key role in choosing the preferred, effectively classical observables of macroscopic systems. The developing appreciation that the environment functions not just as a garbage dump, but as a communication channel, is extending our understanding of the environment's role in the quantum-classical transition beyond the traditional paradigm of decoherence.

  15. INFORMATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A PLATFORM FOR IMPLEMENTING BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla P. Kobysia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization of blended learning for students on the basis of information educational environment using electronic teaching methods courses. It was considered the use of modern information technology, interactive learning, the use of computer-oriented technologies for structuring educational information and presenting it in different formats, creating an electronic notebook - portfolio of student’s work on appropriate discipline. The portfolio does not only qualitatively assess the performance of students and their level of competence, but also intensify educational interests through the reflection of their professional activity, self-control and self-monitoring their achievement, analysis, reasoning and planning future actions, decisions, and finally changes personal success.

  16. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization's Culture: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth T. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction professionals have identified public contract law and bureaucratic procurement/contract offices as a source of problems in the construction industry. The culture within the United State's Federal Government Acquisitions is based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs and its interpretation, often placing organizations/agencies in the price-based environment and continuously resulting in poor performance. The United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM (approximately $100 M in construction renovation awards per year attempted to overcome this obstacle through a partnership with the Performance-Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG at Arizona State University. The MEDCOM implemented the information environment portion of the Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS into Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ contracts through the specifications. Without controlling the various contract/procurement processes, the developed information environment stimulated an atmosphere of accountability to all parties involved, while reducing the client's internal bureaucratic resistance. The concept has met with preliminary success, minimizing construction management issues by over 50%, raising owner satisfaction by 9%, resulting in 99% of projects ending with no contractor-generated change orders, and assisting MEDCOM leadership in measuring the performance of their infrastructure revitalization program.

  17. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  18. Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment Information Management Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The CARPE Information Management Tool (CARPE IMT), available in both French and English, organizes information and reports from its partners for the 12 CARPE/CBFP...

  19. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  20. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven, A.B.J.M.; Dietz, P.; Amrit, C.; Hercheui, M

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate the increased need for energy of information technology. This paper approaches the problem not from a technical perspective, but from the perspective of information value and the opportunities to d...

  1. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem...... disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system includes a total of 565 individual hazard evaluations, each graduated into four different hazard levels based on a scientific literature review. The framework uses a simple assessment methodology with limited data...

  2. Correlation Method for Public Security Information in Big Data Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the gradual improvement of the informationization level in public security area, the concept "Information led policing" has been formed, many information systems have been built and vast amounts of business data have been accumulated down, But these systems and data are isolated and becoming the isolated information islands. This thesis proposes an architecture of information analysis system on big data platform, then discuss the question of data integration, finally proposes the correlation method for public security information: direct association and indirect association.

  3. An interactive learning environment in Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are computer-based tools for the input, management, analysis, modelling and display of geographical data. GIS are applied in a wide range of organizations and disciplines, including central and local government, environmental agencies, transport planning and vehicle navigation, education and research, utilities management, resource management, and the financial and retail sectors. GIS is a field of constantly changing technology, and it has been recognized that GIS education needs to be more than a 'once in a lifetime' event (Muller, 1993. Consequently, GIS teachers have developed computer-based materials for learners at all levels, from school students to postgraduates, and for the independent professional updating their skills and knowledge. To date, these materials have followed a number of approaches. Initially demonstrations of GIS software and its capabilities addressed the need to increase awareness of GIS and its applications (DoE, 1987. Arcdemo (Green, 1987 was an innovative early example, providing a demonstration of the software package Arc/Info online. Training in particular software, and the need for hands-on experience, have been addressed with the production of software-specific educational materials which use primarily traditional text-based instructions for exercises with specially prepared data. Examples include Getting started in GIS (Langford, 1993, the Unitar workbooks for Idrisi (for example McKendry et al, 1992 and Understanding GIS: the Arc/Info Method (ESRI, 1990. These have proved particularly popular, and by directing learners through structured exercises allow new users to become familiar with complex software in a relatively short time. More recently, they have migrated to CD-ROM, with training materials such as Getting to know Arcview (ESRI, 1995 provided in this format, and combining software, data and demonstrations.

  4. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas;

    2014-01-01

    The COST Action FP0903 “Climate Change and Forest Mitigation and Adaptation in a Polluted Environment (MAFor)” involved 29 countries and created a platform for information exchange with experts from different fields, with the following main objectives: 1) to increase understanding of the state an....... The action also increased European capacity building in this sector by organizing five conferences, granting 64 short-term scientific missions, organizing four training schools and publishing more than 100 papers....

  5. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  6. Quantum Darwinism: Amplification and the Acquisition of Information by Spin Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwolak, Michael P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States) Dept. of Physics; Riedel, Jess [IBM, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-09

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes the role of the environment as a communication channel: Decoherence can amplify select informationinformation about the pointer states of a system of interest (preventing access to complementary information about superpositions of those states). We examine the amplification process for a spin environment under a variety of conditions. For initially pure environment states, the contribution to decoherence and the partial record deposited in an environment spin are both determined by the overlap of conditional states generated on the spin. For mixed environments, however, decoherence and a partial record are no longer directly related. The partial record, though, is given by a generalized measure of overlap – the quantum Chernoff information. The latter quantity is a measure of distinguishability and gives the efficiency of the amplification process. We calculate the Chernoff information and show explicitly that, except for a set of measure zero, there is always redundant information acquired by the environment.

  7. 28 CFR 811.10 - Changes in registration information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes in registration information. 811... DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.10 Changes in registration information. (a)(1) A sex... moves to a different address; (ii) leaves a job or obtains a new job, or leaves a school or enrolls in...

  8. Conceptual Modeling of Events as Information Objects and Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    as a totality of an information object and a change agent. When an event is modeled as an information object it is comparable to an entity that exists only at a specific point in time. It has attributes and can be used for querying and specification of constraints. When an event is modeled as a change agent...

  9. Communication of Context in Multi-Echelon Information Exchange Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    effective information exchange. Introduction A fundamental aspect of Network-centric command decision-making is the exchange of information so as to...exchange (Oonk, Schermerhorn , Glaser, & Manes, 2003). In order to manipulate mental models in an experimental setting, one must have an...and consumers’ tasks and information requirements), and on the development of technologies and business rules to help manage the effects of such

  10. Consumer behaviour and the environment: Which role for information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis will be on the importance of information for creating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving environmental problems that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information......My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for promoting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this workshop is organized by a network of economists, I will start with the importance...

  11. Sources of Developmental Change in the Efficiency of Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Lombrozo, Tania; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Children are active learners: they learn not only from the information people offer and the evidence they happen to observe, but by actively seeking information. However, children's information search strategies are typically less efficient than those of adults. In two studies, we isolate potential sources of developmental change in how children…

  12. Geometric structure and information change in phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    We propose a toy model for a cyclic order-disorder transition and introduce a geometric methodology to understand stochastic processes involved in transitions. Specifically, our model consists of a pair of forward and backward processes (FPs and BPs) for the emergence and disappearance of a structure in a stochastic environment. We calculate time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and the information length L , which is the total number of different states that a system undergoes during the transition. Time-dependent PDFs during transient relaxation exhibit strikingly different behavior in FPs and BPs. In particular, FPs driven by instability undergo the broadening of the PDF with a large increase in fluctuations before the transition to the ordered state accompanied by narrowing the PDF width. During this stage, we identify an interesting geodesic solution accompanied by the self-regulation between the growth and nonlinear damping where the time scale τ of information change is constant in time, independent of the strength of the stochastic noise. In comparison, BPs are mainly driven by the macroscopic motion due to the movement of the PDF peak. The total information length L between initial and final states is much larger in BPs than in FPs, increasing linearly with the deviation γ of a control parameter from the critical state in BPs while increasing logarithmically with γ in FPs. L scales as |lnD | and D-1 /2 in FPs and BPs, respectively, where D measures the strength of the stochastic forcing. These differing scalings with γ and D suggest a great utility of L in capturing different underlying processes, specifically, diffusion vs advection in phase transition by geometry. We discuss physical origins of these scalings and comment on implications of our results for bistable systems undergoing repeated order-disorder transitions (e.g., fitness).

  13. Information dissemination, environment and scientific information; Informazione, ambiente e scienza. Studi di caso e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, G.; Marchetti, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Belli, M. [WWF, Fondo Mondiale per la Natura, Rome (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    Among ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment) activities, one deals with analysis and strategies of environmental and scientific information. A questionnaire, created in collaboration with AIGA (Italian Environmental Journalist Association) and UGIS (Italian Scientific Journalist Association) and WWF has been realized. Purpose of the work was to check the level of sensitivity of the Italian journalists on environmental and scientific issues and to investigate the main obstacle facing to their professional activity.Environmental and scientific problems are usually not correctly perceived by the public. These problems, in fact, undergo a `closeness/distance` perception syndrome despite the fact that they are often presented and discussed in the media. The dichotomy may be explained according to the following phenomenology: 1. the existence of the problem is well known but the scientific and technological contest results to be of hard comprehension; 2. better and prolonged debating about the problem increments the attendance echo but simultaneously decrements the real understanding of it. The public opinion response to the diffusion of news related to environmental and scientific themes of no immediate understanding is of great concern; 3. media organizations are not always suited for dealing with the advanced matter of environmental and scientific information.

  14. The Value of Information for Populations in Varying Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Olivier; Leibler, Stanislas

    2011-04-01

    The notion of information pervades informal descriptions of biological systems, but formal treatments face the problem of defining a quantitative measure of information rooted in a concept of fitness, which is itself an elusive notion. Here, we present a model of population dynamics where this problem is amenable to a mathematical analysis. In the limit where any information about future environmental variations is common to the members of the population, our model is equivalent to known models of financial investment. In this case, the population can be interpreted as a portfolio of financial assets and previous analyses have shown that a key quantity of Shannon's communication theory, the mutual information, sets a fundamental limit on the value of information. We show that this bound can be violated when accounting for features that are irrelevant in finance but inherent to biological systems, such as the stochasticity present at the individual level. This leads us to generalize the measures of uncertainty and information usually encountered in information theory.

  15. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, A.B.J.M.; Dietz, P.; Amrit, C.; Hercheui, M.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate

  16. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Dietz, Pim; Amrit, Chintan; Hercheui, Magda David; Whitehouse, Diane; McIver Jr., William J.; Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate

  17. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F.; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  18. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  19. Processing of remote sensing information in cooperative intelligent grid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Ma, Hongchao; Zhong, Liang

    2008-12-01

    In order to raise the intelligent level and improve cooperative ability of grid. This paper proposes an agent oriented middleware, which is applied to the traditional OGSA architecture to compose a new architecture named CIG (Cooperative Intelligent Grid) and expounds the types of cooperative processing of remote sensing, the architecture of CIG and how to implement the cooperation in the CIG environment.

  20. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit...... associated with bronchitis risk. LT-α SNP rs2844484 was related to dermatitis susceptibility and was significantly influenced by the place of residence. The observed gene-phenotype relationships were exclusively present in one population and absent in the other population. We conclude that the genotype......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  1. Individuals’ changes in their lifestyle to build a sustainable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Lacerda Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The unsustainable use of natural resources is not a current issue and it began since the Agricultural Revolution, which characterizes the change in the relationship between man and nature. The first major environmental impacts emerged and as a result of this new way of life that went from nomadism to sedentary lifestyles, there was an increase of human productive capacity and the emergence of other crafts that were not directly related to food production. This paper provides a complete definition of the key concepts, suggest a few alternatives which people can apply on their daily lives, and relate them to the framework that rules sustainability. The main arguments for this work are that citizens in the developed world can reduce the pressure being placed on the state of the environment and contribute to sustainable development by saving energy and water, reducing waste, and choosing a transportation which emits less pollutants.

  2. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  3. Access to Government Information in a Digital Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Relyea, Harold C.; Dugan, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses factors that scholars, teachers, and students need to understand in order to take advantage of electronic and online availability of government information and data, including technical issues and right to access. (EV)

  4. Beyond participation -Social Influence on Information Technology and Work Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    The contribution examines the organisation as framework for participation with focus on employees possibilities to impact the development of integrative information technology. These IT systems integrate across functions inside and outside the traditional organisation. Case studies carried out...

  5. The Integration of Information Systems Planning into the PLEXSYS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-09

    designers of IS which consistently led to system failure are listed below (Ackoff, 1967 and Lederer and Mendelow , 1986). These assumptions are (1...lead to system failure (Lederer and Mendelow , 1986; and Miller and Strong, 1986). IS planning requires the involvement and commitment of users, planners...and Mendelow , Aubrey L. (1986) "Paradoxes of Information Systems Planning." Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information Systems

  6. Nonlinear biofluvial responses to vegetation change in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Mel; Rayburg, Scott

    2007-09-01

    The desertification of grassland communities in the Jornada del Muerto Basin, southern New Mexico, USA, has occurred in association with a series of geomorphic responses that have influenced the system of vegetation change. Rainfall simulation experiments indicate that the volume of runoff generated from basin surfaces and its ability to erode are greatly affected by the distribution of vegetation, which ultimately controls processes such as rainsplash erosion, soil infiltrability and crust development. Animal activities also influence rates of sediment movement from unvegetated surfaces by disrupting soil crusts and making loose sediment available for transportation by overland flow. Shrublands in the Jornada Basin have a patchier vegetation cover than grasslands, with vegetated areas (shrubs) being separated by unvegetated (intershrub) zones. The exposed intershrub surfaces are more vulnerable to erosion than the grass and shrub surfaces. Thus, water and sediment yields, calculated using rainfall simulation experiments, were higher for vegetated (shrub and grass) plots than they were for unvegetated (intershrub) plots. The runoff and erosion model, KINEROS2, predicts that at the base of a 100 m slope, shrubland surfaces shed seven times more runoff and 25 times more sediment than grassland surfaces. Evidence to support the prediction of higher rates of erosion in the shrubland can be found in the form of the extensive rill networks that are common in this community. The contraction of grasslands has been associated with elevated rates of erosion that have altered the morphology of the surface, lowering slopes between shrubs, and increasing the amplitude of the microtopography. Overall, the viability of the exposed soils for recolonization by grasses has been reduced, reinforcing the system of shrubland invasion and lending support to the use of state-and-transition models to describe ecologic responses to change within this environment. Combined, these results

  7. The challenge of automated tutoring in Web-based learning environments for information retrieval instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Sormunen Eero; Pennanen; Sami

    2004-01-01

    The need to enhance information literacy education increases demand for effective Web-based learning environments for information retrieval instruction. The paper introduces the Query Performance Analyser, a unique instructional tool for information retrieval learning environments. On top of an information retrieval system and within a given search assignment, the Query Performance Analyser supports learning by instantly visualizing achieved query performance. Although the Query Performance A...

  8. Integrated Methodology for Information System Change Control Based on Enterprise Architecture Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirta Ruta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The information system (IS change management and governance, according to the best practices, are defined and described in several international methodologies, standards, and frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, ValIT etc.. These methodologies describe IS change management aspects from the viewpoint of their particular enterprise resource management area. The areas are mainly viewed in a partly isolated environment, and the integration of the existing methodologies is insufficient for providing unified and controlled methodological support for holistic IS change management. In this paper, an integrated change management methodology is introduced. The methodology consists of guidelines for IS change control by integrating the following significant resource management areas – information technology (IT governance, change management and enterprise architecture (EA change management. In addition, the methodology includes lists of controls applicable at different phases. The approach is based on re-use and fusion of principles used by related methodologies as well as on empirical observations about typical IS change management mistakes in enterprises.

  9. Information Spoon-Feeding in an Electronic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    C. Dugdale

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the potential educational benefits and corresponding disadvantages of providing easily accessible and carefully selected key course texts and other course-related material in an electronic format.These findings emerged from a Library Services exercise to identify userneeds/expectations/potential use of an electronic reserve (short loan collection), before designing and installing the ResiDe system for the Faculty of the Built Environment at the University of the West of En...

  10. ELISA, a demonstrator environment for information systems architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panem, Chantal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach of reusability of software engineering technology in the area of ground space system design. System engineers have lots of needs similar to software developers: sharing of a common data base, capitalization of knowledge, definition of a common design process, communication between different technical domains. Moreover system designers need to simulate dynamically their system as early as possible. Software development environments, methods and tools now become operational and widely used. Their architecture is based on a unique object base, a set of common management services and they host a family of tools for each life cycle activity. In late '92, CNES decided to develop a demonstrative software environment supporting some system activities. The design of ground space data processing systems was chosen as the application domain. ELISA (Integrated Software Environment for Architectures Specification) was specified as a 'demonstrator', i.e. a sufficient basis for demonstrations, evaluation and future operational enhancements. A process with three phases was implemented: system requirements definition, design of system architectures models, and selection of physical architectures. Each phase is composed of several activities that can be performed in parallel, with the provision of Commercial Off the Shelves Tools. ELISA has been delivered to CNES in January 94, currently used for demonstrations and evaluations on real projects (e.g. SPOT4 Satellite Control Center). It is on the way of new evolutions.

  11. Against the Tide: Decentralizing Information Resources in a Centralized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The role of distributed computing continues to pose challenges, from organizational strategies to definitions and fundamental understandings of the terms. Concerns within the framework of management changes and organizational structures are addressed. (Author/MLW)

  12. Salvaging Information Engineering Techniques in the Data Warehouse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. Politano

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The art of Information Engineering (IE continuously evolves and, by today's standards, is considered an integral function in most any organization. Strategic planning teams weave methodologies, which are integrated to process information, the goal being to sort, store, and retrieve useful data.The following article will describe three techniques that can utilize existing information engineering in a data warehouse project. First, the entity relationship diagram and its use in a three phase data model approach. Second, the functional decomposition diagram and its use in segmenting and defining key performance indicators and dimensions. Third, creating a modified CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete matrix that deals with logical entities and current systems.

  13. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J. Moerlein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  14. Dental Education Required for the Changing Health Care Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita; González-Cabezas, Carlos; de Peralta, Tracy; Johnsen, David C

    2017-08-01

    To be able to meet the demands for care in 2040, dental graduates will need to address challenges resulting from the rapidly changing health care environment with knowledge and sets of skills to build on current standards and adapt to the future. The purposes of this article are to 1) analyze key challenges likely to evolve considerably between now and 2040 that will impact dental education and practice and 2) propose several sets of skills and educational outcomes necessary to address these challenges. The challenges discussed include changes in prevalence of oral diseases, dental practice patterns, materials and technologies, integrated medical-dental care, role of electronic health records, cultural competence, integrated curricula, interprofessional education, specialty-general balance, and web/cloud-based collaborations. To meet these challenges, the dental graduate will need skills such as core knowledge in basic and clinical dentistry, technical proficiency, critical thinking skills for lifelong learning, ethical and professional values, ability to manage a practice, social responsibility, and ability to function in a collegial intra- and interprofessional setting. Beyond the skills of the individual dentist will be the need for leadership in academia and the practice community. Academic and professional leaders will need to engage key constituencies to develop strategic directions and agendas with all parties pointed toward high standards for individual patients and the public at large. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  15. Mycotoxins in a changing global environment--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquín-Cardona, A G; Johnson, N M; Phillips, T D; Hayes, A W

    2014-07-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly contaminate staple foods and feeds. They represent an unavoidable problem due to their presence in globally consumed cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Most mycotoxins are immunosuppressive agents and some are carcinogens, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, and neurotoxins. Worldwide trends envision a stricter control of mycotoxins, however, the changing global environment may not be the ideal setting to control and reduce the exposure to these toxins. Although new technologies allow us to inspect the multi-mycotoxin presence in foods, new sources of exposure, gaps in knowledge of mycotoxins interactions, appearance of "emergent" mycotoxins and elucidation of consequent health effects can complicate their control even more. While humans are adapting to cope with environmental changes, such as food scarcity, decreased food quality, mycotoxin regulations, crop production and seasonality, and other climate related modifications, fungal species are also adapting and increased cases of mycotoxin adverse health effects are likely to occur in the future. To guarantee access to quality food for all, we need a way to balance global mycotoxin standards with the realistic feasibility of reaching them, considering limitations of producers and designing strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure based on sound research.

  16. Private Higher Educational Institutions in a changing South African environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Froneman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems experienced by potential learners is accessibility to education facilities, especially in rural areas and for people with time constraints. The objective of this research is to investigate the role for Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs in South Africa, sharing the task of providing education with government supported institutions. Although distance learning is not a panacea for all educational problems, it holds great promise for driving change in education. The research is based on questionnaires, interviews and literature. Results indicated that traditional residential education couldn't reach all people. Distance learning can relieve the situation. However, both private and public providers of higher education (residential and distance can co-exist in South Africa. Private Higher Distance Learning (PHDL contributes in lowering present levels of unemployment by providing skills, as many prospective students stay in rural areas and townships. This paper emphasizes some of the changes impacting on the future of PHDL and bringing education opportunities to masses by creating an environment of shared responsibility between government institutions and private initiatives, jointly servicing a greater part of the population.

  17. Street environment change detection from mobile laser scanning point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) has become a popular technique for road inventory, building modelling, infrastructure management, mobility assessment, etc. Meanwhile, due to the high mobility of MLS systems, it is easy to revisit interested areas. However, change detection using MLS data of street environment has seldom been studied. In this paper, an approach that combines occupancy grids and a distance-based method for change detection from MLS point clouds is proposed. Unlike conventional occupancy grids, our occupancy-based method models space based on scanning rays and local point distributions in 3D without voxelization. A local cylindrical reference frame is presented for the interpolation of occupancy between rays according to the scanning geometry. The Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) is utilized for both intra-data evidence fusion and inter-data consistency assessment. Occupancy of reference point cloud is fused at the location of target points and then the consistency is evaluated directly on the points. A point-to-triangle (PTT) distance-based method is combined to improve the occupancy-based method. Because it is robust to penetrable objects, e.g. vegetation, which cause self-conflicts when modelling occupancy. The combined method tackles irregular point density and occlusion problems, also eliminates false detections on penetrable objects.

  18. Complexity in organizations and environment - adaptive changes and adaptive decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of complexity are ever more present in modern organizations and in environments in which they operate, trying to survive and be as competitive as possible. In the processes of, the so-called emergence, the formal organizational structure, designed purposefully and with a plan, is going through a change due to complexity and the need for adaptation. As a result, there is a variety of new informal groups. At the same time, the intended structural changes and business process changes occur because of the perception that the leadership and senior organizational management have of the strategic situation. Managers in modern organizations often use business intelligence (BI systems when making important business decisions. These systems offer support to the decision-making by gathering and processing relevant data and information about the company performance, but also about the data on conditions in close and remote environment. A modern company is characterized by the complex adaptive system, but the environment in which it operates together with other business subjects (agents is also complex. Consequently, the requirements for appropriate or optimal decisions and successfully completed activities are hard to meet. Given that expected future events and circumstances often occur in nonlinear mechanisms, the decisions made by following the models of traditional predicting and planning are not satisfactory. This calls for new approaches to decision making and acting.

  19. 75 FR 50745 - Information Collection; National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE) AGENCY... the Environment. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before October 18, 2010 to be... the Environment. OMB Number: 0596-0127. Expiration Date of Approval: 1/31/11. Type of...

  20. 76 FR 28801 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Environment Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey... forms of information. Title: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. OMB Number: Will be...

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mironescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Change is a factor of impact on managerial functions especially upon those related to the coordination and training of the human resources. Change management is a broad spectrum of means, referring to different types of change , however, it is generally used in the processing management and in the strategic management, in the information management , including the electronic one. The analysis of changes inside the organization is very important , these changes allow the organizations to be more adaptable and innovative. However, some changes may suddenly occur and will independently act of the managers’will. If we are talking about the human change, then we should mention that the importance of this dimension of the organizational change is essential. The way people relate to change can be affected by the position they occupy inside the organization and the attitudes they adopt facing the change influence the role that they assume with the greatest ease in the change processes. Leadership and the organizational culture are in a tight relationship. Manager evaluates its business, in addition to a number of work processes and products, and the cultural environment too, so conducive, in his view, that it should activate and record the organizational and work performance.

  2. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  3. How much a galaxy knows about its large-scale environment ? : An information theoretic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Biswajit

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale environment characterized by the local density is known to play a crucial role in deciding the galaxy properties but the role of large-scale environment on galaxy formation and evolution still remain a less clear issue. We propose an information theoretic framework to investigate the influence of large-scale environment on galaxy properties and apply it to the data from the Galaxy Zoo project which provides the visual morphological classifications of $\\sim 1$ million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find a non-zero mutual information between morphology and environment which decreases with increasing length scales but persists throughout the entire length scales probed. We estimate the conditional mutual information and the interaction information between morphology and environment by conditioning the environment on different length scales and find a synergic interaction between them which operates upto at least a length scales of $ \\sim 30 \\, h^{-1}\\, {\\rm Mpc}$. Our analysis ind...

  4. Human Factors and Information Security: Individual, Culture and Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    simple strategy is to invest in shredders ; sensitive and valuable information can be easily obtained by going through the rubbish bins of an...et al., 2006). Several defences against social engineering can be used to reduce the threat and they include such actions as using shredders to

  5. In Search of Credibility: Pupils' Information Practices in Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Olof; Francke, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We aim to create an in-depth understanding of how pupils in upper secondary school negotiate the credibility and authority of information as part of their practices of learning. Particular focus is on the use of user-created resources, such as "Wikipedia", where authorship is collective and/or hard to determine. Method: An…

  6. Using Informal Learning Environments to Prepare Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa; Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret; Little, David L., II.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the influence informal learning experiences had on secondary STEM preservice teachers' preparation as they worked with students who struggle in mathematics. The quantitative data sources included a Teacher Self-Reflection Survey, Mathematics Clinic Tutor Survey, and a Student Survey, while the qualitative data…

  7. Information Desk: Testing a Prescribed Model in the Local Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dennis W.; Pempe, Ruta

    This study was conducted in order to ascertain the need for an information desk in a large research library with decentralized reference service where, on the basis of a preponderance of evidence in the available literature, a considerable demand for such a service would be expected. The desk was located in the center of the library's entrance…

  8. Business Value of Information Technology in Network Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucong

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) business value research is suggested as fundamental to the contribution of the IS discipline. The IS research community has accumulated a critical mass of IT business value studies, but only limited or mixed results have been found on the direct relationship between IT and firm performance. Extant studies mostly focus…

  9. Efficient exchange of information in a distributed tracking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Peter J.; Blake, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Modern tracking and fusion settings involve multiple platforms in different locations, tracking different target tracks, focusing on different regions of interest, while using different update rates and sensor resolutions with the goal of providing increased situation awareness in the region by fusing together the diversity of information from each platform. In this paper, a decentralized, distributed fusion architecture is presented along with results and trade studies comparing performance to that of a centralized fusion architecture. The decentralized distributed architecture is designed to work with legacy tracking systems and uses an efficient message passing scheme to share information and coordinate tracks across a diverse group of platforms. This system does not rely on a central node and allows for track information to be maintained at the local level while utilizing track information from other platforms to increase situation awareness. We compare the performance between our distributed approach and a centralized system using simulated airborne sensors operating in overlapping regions of interest with target densities and routes chosen to demonstrate tradeoffs between the different architectures. Preliminary results show that the decentralized distributed system provides similar performance to the centralized fusion system in terms of situation awareness relative to traditional tracking metrics, but at the cost of using an increased communication bandwidth to provide frequent updates to neighboring platforms. Results demonstrate the tradeoff between flexibility and optimality - configuration of the distributed decentralized system to provide increased flexibility and robustness comes at the cost of reduced situation awareness as compared to the centralized system.

  10. Transformation of Academic Libraries for the Efficient Support of a Changed Higher Education Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Ambrožič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSince the very birth of universities academic libraries have been one of key success factors for the universities to realize their mission. Academic environment recognized an academic library as a social and intellectual centre, as the »heart« of the university since it is located in the centre of its parent institution as the heart is in the body. The emergence of the internet and the advances in information and communication technology have brought unprecedented changes to higher learning and research which reinforced the need for rethinking their future as well as their response to changes of the academic environment. The article aims to present some challenges of academic libraries in today's world and their efforts to retain the key role in the academic environment. Slovenian academic libraries may reshape their development plan and vision following the lessons learned from foreign academic libraries and their response to changes of their environment. However, their future depends on the development of educational and research process at their parent institutions and the recognition of academic libraries as an important factor to affect educational and research outcomes of higher education.

  11. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  12. Environment as a Witness: Selective Proliferation of Information and Emergence of Objectivity in a Quantum Universe

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    We study the role of the information deposited in the environment of an open quantum system in course of the decoherence process. Redundant spreading of information -- the fact that some observables of the system can be independently ``read-off'' from many distinct fragments of the environment -- is investigated as the key to effective objectivity, the essential ingredient of ``classical reality''. This focus on the environment as a communication channel through which observers learn about ph...

  13. The changing role of environmental information in Arctic marine governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Pristupa, A.O.; Amelung, B.; Knol, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Arctic region global environmental change creates economic opportunities for various sectors, which is increasing pressure on marine biological resources. Next to state governance arrangements, informational governance instruments deployed by non-state actors, such as private certification sc

  14. Scalable and Resilient Middleware to Handle Information Exchange during Environment Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Poslad, S.; Moßgraber, J.; Middleton, S.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The EU FP7 TRIDEC project focuses on enabling real-time, intelligent, information management of collaborative, complex, critical decision processes for earth management. A key challenge is to promote a communication infrastructure to facilitate interoperable environment information services during environment events and crises such as tsunamis and drilling, during which increasing volumes and dimensionality of disparate information sources, including sensor-based and human-based ones, can result, and need to be managed. Such a system needs to support: scalable, distributed messaging; asynchronous messaging; open messaging to handling changing clients such as new and retired automated system and human information sources becoming online or offline; flexible data filtering, and heterogeneous access networks (e.g., GSM, WLAN and LAN). In addition, the system needs to be resilient to handle the ICT system failures, e.g. failure, degradation and overloads, during environment events. There are several system middleware choices for TRIDEC based upon a Service-oriented-architecture (SOA), Event-driven-Architecture (EDA), Cloud Computing, and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). In an SOA, everything is a service (e.g. data access, processing and exchange); clients can request on demand or subscribe to services registered by providers; more often interaction is synchronous. In an EDA system, events that represent significant changes in state can be processed simply, or as streams or more complexly. Cloud computing is a virtualization, interoperable and elastic resource allocation model. An ESB, a fundamental component for enterprise messaging, supports synchronous and asynchronous message exchange models and has inbuilt resilience against ICT failure. Our middleware proposal is an ESB based hybrid architecture model: an SOA extension supports more synchronous workflows; EDA assists the ESB to handle more complex event processing; Cloud computing can be used to increase and

  15. Federal Information in the Networked Environment: A Perspective from the Coalition for Networked Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheverie, Joan F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development of strategies for providing access to and services for U.S. federal government information in higher education using the global information infrastructure, from the perspective of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Discusses the preservation of electronic information and networked information discovery and…

  16. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  17. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  18. Maximizing Information on the Environment by Dynamically Controlled Qubit Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Analia; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    We explore the ability of a qubit probe to characterize unknown parameters of its environment. By resorting to the quantum estimation theory, we analytically find the ultimate bound on the precision of estimating key parameters of a broad class of ubiquitous environmental noises ("baths") which the qubit may probe. These include the probe-bath coupling strength, the correlation time of generic types of bath spectra, and the power laws governing these spectra, as well as their dephasing times T2. Our central result is that by optimizing the dynamical control on the probe under realistic constraints one may attain the maximal accuracy bound on the estimation of these parameters by the least number of measurements possible. Applications of this protocol that combines dynamical control and estimation theory tools to quantum sensing are illustrated for a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond used as a probe.

  19. Maximizing information on the environment by dynamically controlled qubit probes

    CERN Document Server

    Zwick, Analia; Kurizki, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    We explore the ability of a qubit probe to characterize unknown parameters of its environment. By resorting to quantum estimation theory, we analytically find the ultimate bound on the precision of estimating key parameters of a broad class of ubiquitous environmental noises ("baths") which the qubit may probe. These include the probe-bath coupling strength, the correlation time of generic bath spectra, the power laws governing these spectra, as well as their dephasing times T2. Our central result is that by optimizing the dynamical control on the probe under realistic constraints one may attain the maximal accuracy bound on the estimation of these parameters by the least number of measurements possible. Applications of this protocol that combines dynamical control and estimation theory tools to quantum sensing are illustrated for a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond used as a probe.

  20. Information Science, Historical Changes and Social Aspects: A Nordic Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and discuses some aspects concerning the historical and social context of information science and information institutions. Highlights include views of Jose Ortega y Gasset; changing conceptions of the structure, foci, and content of the discipline; prewar and postwar paradigms; the physical paradigm; and the cognitive view. (Contains 27…

  1. Information Science, Historical Changes and Social Aspects: A Nordic Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and discuses some aspects concerning the historical and social context of information science and information institutions. Highlights include views of Jose Ortega y Gasset; changing conceptions of the structure, foci, and content of the discipline; prewar and postwar paradigms; the physical paradigm; and the cognitive view. (Contains 27…

  2. Assessing conservation relevance of organism-environment relations using predicted changes in response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; White, Joseph D.; Johnson-Randall, Lori; Cade, Brian S.; Zygo, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    1. Organism–environment models are used widely in conservation. The degree to which they are useful for informing conservation decisions – the conservation relevance of these relations – is important because lack of relevance may lead to misapplication of scarce conservation resources or failure to resolve important conservation dilemmas. Even when models perform well based on model fit and predictive ability, conservation relevance of associations may not be clear without also knowing the magnitude and variability of predicted changes in response variables. 2. We introduce a method for evaluating the conservation relevance of organism–environment relations that employs confidence intervals for predicted changes in response variables. The confidence intervals are compared to a preselected magnitude of change that marks a threshold (trigger) for conservation action. To demonstrate the approach, we used a case study from the Chihuahuan Desert involving relations between avian richness and broad-scale patterns of shrubland. We considered relations for three winters and two spatial extents (1- and 2-km-radius areas) and compared predicted changes in richness to three thresholds (10%, 20% and 30% change). For each threshold, we examined 48 relations. 3. The method identified seven, four and zero conservation-relevant changes in mean richness for the 10%, 20% and 30% thresholds respectively. These changes were associated with major (20%) changes in shrubland cover, mean patch size, the coefficient of variation for patch size, or edge density but not with major changes in shrubland patch density. The relative rarity of conservation-relevant changes indicated that, overall, the relations had little practical value for informing conservation decisions about avian richness. 4. The approach we illustrate is appropriate for various response and predictor variables measured at any temporal or spatial scale. The method is broadly applicable across ecological

  3. Mission Composeable C2 in DIL Information Environments Using Widgets and App Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    18th ICCRTS “Mission Composeable C2 in DIL Information Environments using Widgets and App Stores ” Topics: Topic 3: Data, Information, and...operational concept, or force.” 43 (emphasis in original) A Technology to Enable Agile C2: Widget & App Stores One recent innovation, both in the...the warfighter. Mission Composeable C2 in DIL Information Environments using Widgets and App Stores 18th ICCRTS Presenter: Ms. Amanda

  4. Information and disease diffusion in dynamic social environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    In recent years the increasing availability of computer power and informatics tools has enabled the gathering of reliable data quantifying the complexity of socio-technical systems. Data-driven computational models have emerged as appropriate tools to tackle the study of contagion and diffusion processes as diverse as epidemic outbreaks, information spreading and Internet packet routing. These models aim at providing a rationale for understanding the emerging tipping points and nonlinear properties that often underpin the most interesting characteristics of socio-technical systems. Here I review some of the recent progress in modeling contagion and epidemic processes that integrates the complex features and heterogeneities of real-world systems.

  5. Physiological changes in women during exercise in cold environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. J.; Shephard, R. J.; Radomski, M. W. M.

    1986-12-01

    Both the stress of exercise and the stress of a cold environment have been shown to increase the mobilization and utilization of body fat, thereby reducing body fat stores. Much of the research has been done on either rats or male human subjects. The purpose of this research was to show the physiological changes which occur to young, relatively obese, women who exercised during five consecutive days, for 200 min per day, in each of three environmental, chamber conditions: (1) warm-warm (WW), +15‡C; (2) cold-cold (CC), -20‡C; and (3) cold-warm (CW), -20‡C ambient temperature, with +18‡C air pumped to face masks for warmed air breathing. Oxygen cost of exercise, respiratory quotients, energy intake and utilization, and body composition changes were measured before, during, and after each environmental condition. While the respiratory quotients and the skinfold measurements decreased in the colder conditions, the underwater weighing determined percentage body fat did not show the same decrement as the skinfold measures, indicating a possible translocation of body fat from the subcutaneous depots to the deep body fat depots. Body mass loss was significant (Pmuscle and liver during the CW condition; however, with facial and upper airway cooling in the CC condition; brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypertrophy may be postulated at this more intense level of cold stress. Due to a greater stability of depot fat in the female, a longer cold exposure would be required to observe the fully developed BAT thermogenesis which would follow after the consequences of fat translocation which we have documented.

  6. Managing Information in Law Firms: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nina; Price, James

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Data, information and knowledge together constitute a vital business asset for every organization that enables every business activity, every business process and every business decision. The global legal industry is facing unprecedented change, which inevitably creates challenges for individual law firms. These global changes affect…

  7. Managing Technological Change in Libraries and Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobas, Jane E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines factors to be considered in the management of technological change in libraries and information services. The organizational climate for change is discussed, and factors to consider when developing a strategy for introducing a new product, service, or system are described, including leadership, goals, political processes, marketing, and…

  8. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  9. Information Management for Intelligent Retail Environment: The Shelf Detector System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Frontoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Shelf-out-of-stock is one of the leading motivations of technology innovation in the shelf of the future. The Shelf Detector project described in this paper aims to solve the problem of data knowledge in the shelf-out-of-stock problem. This paper is mainly focused on the information layer of the system and main novelties illustrated in this work are in the information field demonstrating the huge number of insights that can be derived from the use of such a tool able to gather data in real time from the store. The tool presented is the first being installed for a long time in a high number of stores and products, demonstrating the ability to gather data and extract interesting insights. This paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility and the scalability of our system in providing a high number of data and interesting insights for store and marketing teams. The cloud based architecture developed and tested in this project is a key feature of our system together with the ability to collect data from a distributed sensor network.

  10. Evolution of migration in a periodically changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, F; Gandon, S

    2011-02-01

    The ability to migrate can evolve in response to various forces. In particular, when selection is heterogeneous in space but constant in time, local adaptation induces a fitness cost on immigrants and selects against migration. The evolutionary outcome, however, is less clear when selection also varies temporally. Here, we present a two-locus model analyzing the effects of spatial and temporal variability in selection on the evolution of migration. The first locus is under temporally varying selection (various periodic functions are considered, but a general nonparametric framework is used), and the second locus is a modifier controlling migration ability. First, we study the dynamics of local adaptation and derive the migration rate that maximizes local adaptation as a function of the speed and geometry of the fluctuations in the environment. Second, we derive an analytical expression for the evolutionarily stable migration rate. When there is no cost of migration, we show that higher migration rates are favored when selection changes fast. When migration is costly, however, the evolutionarily stable migration rate is maximal for an intermediate speed of the variation of selection. This model may help in understanding the evolution of migration in a broad range of scenarios and, in particular, in host-parasite systems, where selection is thought to vary quickly in both space and time.

  11. Parrot Interpreter: Representation, Extinction and the Electronic Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Carter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans, it seems, can’t get enough of parrots. Ethnography, folklore, psychology, and, of course, imaginative literature all offer copious evidence of our fantasy of living with, communicating with and even being parrots. The natural history of parrots and the cultural history of parrots present something of a conundrum: on the one hand, a massive destructiveness (illegal bird and feather trade, environment destruction, scientific collections; on the other, an often erotically inflected sympathetic identification leading to the production of new forms. It’s strange to realise that Europe is infested with a shadow population of captive and inbred budgerigars, whose numbers far exceed those remaining in the wild and who can never return to their origins. If, as our privileged other, our uncanny mimic and double, the parrot still fails to survive, what does this tell us about our economy of desire? It seems that to know is to consume and destroy; and that the apparent contrast between the operations of the rainforest loggers and bird-trappers and the sentimental representations and transformations parrot suffers in human society is overdrawn. How is this contradiction to be explained?

  12. Agile Data Management with the Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data management during the development of the Global Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative global change information under development by the US Global Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for managing the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.

  13. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  14. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  15. Web search: how the Web has changed information retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Terrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical metadata are simultaneously hailed as building blocks of the semantic Web and derogated as spam. The significance of the metadata controversy depends on the technological appropriateness of adding them to Web pages. A survey of Web technology suggests that Web pages are both transient and volatile: poor hosts of topical metadata. A more supportive environment exists in the closed Web. The vast majority of Web pages, however, exist in the open Web, an environment that challenges the application of legacy information retrieval concepts and methods.

  16. Change of Geographic Information Service Model in Mobile Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu; DU Qingyun

    2005-01-01

    A research on that how the topic of mobility, which is completely different but tightly relevant to space, provides new approaches and methods so as to promote the further development of geographic information services, will accumulate basic experience for different types of relative information systems in the wide fields of location based services. This paper analyzes the meaning of mobility and the change for geographic information service model, it describes the differences and correlation between M-GIS and traditional GIS. It sets a technical framework of geographic information services according to mobile context and provides a case study.

  17. Redundant imprinting of information in non-ideal environments: Quantum Darwinism via a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, Haitao; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. While causing a system to decohere, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information about the system, yet can still acquire redundant information about the system [1,2]. Our results show that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to non-ideal initial states of the environment. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  18. Patterns of Information Use, Avoidance and Evaluation in a Corporate Engineering Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Collen; Xie, Hong

    2000-01-01

    Examines the communication and information use environment of a corporate engineering community. Highlights include typical work practices; the accessibility of communication and information resources; frequency of use; satisfaction with use in seeking information; and the influence of trust and credibility in using the World Wide Web and human…

  19. Community Problem-Solving Framed as a Distributed Information Use Environment: Bridging Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Joan C.; Souden, Maria; Walker, Dana; Fisher, Karen E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method: Several approaches to data collection were…

  20. Information-educational environment with adaptive control of learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.

  1. Ants adjust their pheromone deposition to a changing environment and their probability of making errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-07-07

    Animals must contend with an ever-changing environment. Social animals, especially eusocial insects such as ants and bees, rely heavily on communication for their success. However, in a changing environment, communicated information can become rapidly outdated. This is a particular problem for pheromone trail using ants, as once deposited pheromones cannot be removed. Here, we study the response of ant foragers to an environmental change. Ants were trained to one feeder location, and the feeder was then moved to a different location. We found that ants responded to an environmental change by strongly upregulating pheromone deposition immediately after experiencing the change. This may help maintain the colony's foraging flexibility, and allow multiple food locations to be exploited simultaneously. Our treatment also caused uncertainty in the foragers, by making their memories less reliable. Ants which had made an error but eventually found the food source upregulated pheromone deposition when returning to the nest. Intriguingly, ants on their way towards the food source downregulated pheromone deposition if they were going to make an error. This may suggest that individual ants can measure the reliability of their own memories and respond appropriately.

  2. A Governing Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Mazmanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing an approach to governing adaptation to climate change is severely hampered by the dictatorship of the present when the needs of future generations are inadequately represented in current policy making. We posit this problem as a function of the attributes of adaptation policy making, including deep uncertainty and nonstationarity, where past observations are not reliable predictors of future outcomes. Our research links organizational decision-making attributes with adaptation decision making and identifies cases in which adaptation actions cause spillovers, free riding, and distributional impacts. We develop a governing framework for adaptation that we believe will enable policy, planning, and major long-term development decisions to be made appropriately at all levels of government in the face of the deep uncertainty and nonstationarity caused by climate change. Our framework requires that approval of projects with an expected life span of 30 years or more in the built environment include minimum building standards that integrate forecasted climate change impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC intermediate scenario. The intermediate IPCC scenario must be downscaled to include local or regional temperature, water availability, sea level rise, susceptibility to forest fires, and human habitation impacts to minimize climate-change risks to the built environment. The minimum standard is systematically updated every six years to facilitate learning by formal and informal organizations. As a minimum standard, the governance framework allows jurisdictions to take stronger actions to increase their climate resilience and thus maintain system flexibility.

  3. Information Foraging and Change Detection for Automated Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, P. Michael; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for autonomous on-line exploration in unknown environments. The objective is to free remote scientists from possibly-infeasible extensive preliminary site investigation prior to sending robotic agents. We simulate a common exploration task for an autonomous robot sampling the environment at various locations and compare performance against simpler control strategies. An extension is proposed and evaluated that further permits operation in the presence of environmental variability in which the robot encounters a change in the distribution underlying sampling targets. Experimental results indicate a strong improvement in performance across varied parameter choices for the scenario.

  4. Welfare Mix and Hybridity. Flexible Adjustments to Changed Environments. Introduction to the Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Zimmer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Present day welfare societies rely on a complex mix of different providers ranging from the state, markets, family, and non-profit organizations to unions, grassroots organizations, and informal networks. At the same time changing welfare discourses have opened up space for new partnerships...... organizations and organizational fields adjust to a new environment that is increasingly dominated by the logic of the market, and how in particular nonprofit organizations, as hybrids by definition, are able to cope with new demands, funding structures, and control mechanisms....

  5. Designing Mobile Learning Environments to Support Teacher-Led Field Trips within Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly more visible within classrooms and informal learning spaces. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of mobile learning (m-learning) tools to support student learning during teacher-led field trips. Specifically, the research questions for this study are: (a) What conditions affect student…

  6. Proxemic Transitions: Designing Shape-Changing Furniture for Informal Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil; Korsgaard, Henrik; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2017-01-01

    Shape-changing interfaces is an emerging field in HCI that explores the qualities of physically dynamic artifacts. At furniture-scale such dynamic artifacts have the potential of changing the ways we collaborate and engage with spaces. In- formed by theories of proxemics, empirical studies...... of informal meetings and design work with shape-changing furniture, we develop the notion of proxemic transitions. We present three design aspects of proxemic transitions: transition speed, step- wise reconfiguration, and situational flexibility. The design aspects focus on how to balance between physical...... between a table and a board surface. These contributions outline important aspects to consider when designing shape-changing furniture....

  7. Patterns of Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Creation in New Information Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    and creation processes. The aim is to obtain a deeper comprehension of which factors determine whether the use of information technology becomes a success or a failure in relation to knowledge sharing and creation. The paper is based on three previous studies investigating the use of information technology......Do the knowledge sharing and creation processes in collaborating groups benefit from the use of new information environments or are the environments rather inhibitive to the development of these processes? A number of different studies have shown quite varied results when it comes to appraising...... the importance and value of using new information technology in knowledge sharing and creation processes. In this paper we will try to unveil the patterns appearing in the use of new information environment and the users' understanding of the significance of using information technology in knowledge sharing...

  8. Fostering the Teachers Rediness for Using the Informational Educational Environment in Higher Scool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lomovtseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the necessity of teachers’ readiness for introduction of the informational education environment to the higher school teaching process. The dynamic implementation of information communication and distance education technologies gives way to the more advanced level of pedagogic activity by broadening the teachers’ didactic, informational, methodological and technological horizons, and improving, therefore, the impact of education. The authors indicate the functional specifics of informational education environment that is designed to provide the full range of services and facilities for planning the student’s self-study work, consultations and controls. The components of teachers’ readiness for using information technologies in their daily professional work are defined including the motivational, technological, emotional, volitional, communicative and reflexive ones. The pedagogical tasks concerning the application of informational education environment along with organizational terms are outlined. 

  9. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  10. The issue: Innovation, information technology and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-06

    This position paper by the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) outlines the information technology community's position vis-a-vis the Federal Government's 'Climate Change Plan for Canada'. In general, the ITAC is in favour of the Government's plan, however, it asserts that the Plan falls short by not acknowledging the significant contributions that present and emerging information and communications technologies can make to the achievements of Canadian climate change goals. In this regard the paper draws attention to, and explains the significance of the actual and potential contributions made to climate change efforts by teleconferencing, video-conferencing, telecommuting, electronic commerce, and smart buildings technologies. 4 refs.

  11. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: engaging residents to catalyze positive change in food and physical activity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Folta, Sara C; Sehlke, Mackenzie; Nelson, Miriam E; Heidkamp-Young, Eleanor; Fenton, Mark; Junot, Bridgid

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs) were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators) in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10-15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no) experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  12. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  13. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Information for Assessing Risk (PEiAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database provides information on prescribed amounts, levels detected in aquatic environments, chemical structure, molecular weight, octanol-water partition...

  14. Research Students in the Electronic Age: Impacts of Changing Information Behavior on Information Literacy Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Williamson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the rapid uptake of information and communication technology (ICT, understanding the ways in which information seeking has changed over the past decade is crucial to gaining a picture of how information literacy needs may also be changing in the electronic age. This qualitative research took an interpretivist/ constructivist approach in examining the ways in which access to electronic information-seeking affects the information literacy needs of 15 research students in an Australian university setting. An ethnographic technique, the interview, was used for the data collection. Three particular areas, related to information seeking and use, were selected: (1 information source use because of the burgeoning availability of electronic sources; (2 knowing when to stop collecting information because the advent of the Internet has the consequence of greater quantities of information being more easily available than was the case in the past; and 3 managing information following its collection, which has also been affected by the vast amount of information that is now accessible. The conclusion points to enhanced roles for both supervisors and academic librarians, with the need for the latter to become perceived as educators within their university communities.

  15. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  16. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  17. Personal Learning Environments in Higher Education Language Courses: An Informal and Learner-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    The chapter discusses the potential of personal learning environments (PLE) based on Web 2.0 applications for language courses in higher education (HE). This novel approach to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education involves learners in the design of learning environments, tools and processes. The chapter begins…

  18. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  19. Communicating change: the influence of information, communication, uncertainty and cynicism on readiness for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we have shown the influence of information and communication on the success of organizational change. We extended that research with the inclusion of cynical responses to top management about the change, change fatigue and turnover intentions. Methodology: This study was

  20. Communicating change: the influence of information, communication, uncertainty and cynicism on readiness for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we have shown the influence of information and communication on the success of organizational change. We extended that research with the inclusion of cynical responses to top management about the change, change fatigue and turnover intentions. Methodology: This study was

  1. THE HIGHLY DEVELOPED INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT AS A PRECONDITION OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Khenner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper regards the development of the information and education environment of Russian universities as an important condition for successful reorganization of higher education. Taking as an example one of theUSuniversities, the author demonstrates the capacity of information education environment and its impact on the multilevel educational process. The comparative analysis of the existing information education environments of Russian an American universities reveals that such effective improvements as increasing number of students working on the individual curricula,__ implementation of the learning outcome monitoring, inclusive education, etc require immediate and substantial development of the information education environment of Russian universities. Both the development level and informational content of the environment in question remain unsatisfactory due to the financial, economic and staff related reasons. Consequently, the higher school reorganization is lagging behind retarded by the lack of synchronization between the attempts to improve the education quality and competitiveness on the one hand, and insufficient level of the information education environment characteristic of Russian universities on the other hand.

  2. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  3. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  4. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  5. America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

    2010-12-01

    At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The

  6. ADAPTIVE AND ACTIVE COMPUTING PARADIGM FOR PERSONALIZED INFORMATION SERVICE IN DISTRIBUTED HETERONGEOUS ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆丰; 冯博琴

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problem that traditional pull-based information service can't meet the demand of long-term users getting domain information timely and properly, an adaptive and active computing paradigm (AACP) for personalized information service in heterogeneous environment is proposed to provide user-centered, push-based higsh quality information service timely in a proper way, the motivation of which is generalized as R4 Service: the right information at the right time in the right way to the right person, upon which formalized algorithms framework of adaptive user profile management, incremental information retrieval, information filtering, and active delivery mechanism are discussed in details. The AACP paradigm serves users in a push-based, event-driven, interest-related, adaptive and active information service mode, which is useful and promising for long-term user to gain fresh information instead of polling from kinds of information sources.

  7. FORMATION OF multilevel information educational environment for systematic introduction of information technology in professional education on the aviation enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of development of personnel potential airline is particularly relevant to the current stage of development of the national economy, as the creation of science-based information educational environment of the airline needed for stabilization and further development of the aviation industry.

  8. Information Collection System of Crop Growth Environment Based on the Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Guangyu; ZHANG; Ningbo; LU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the technology of Internet of things, for the issues of large amount data acquisition and difficult real time transport in the data acquisition of crop growth environment, this paper designs one information collection system for crop growth environment. Utilizing the range free location mechanism which defines the node position and GEAR routing mechanism give solutions to the problems of node location, routing protocol applications and so on. This system can realize accurate and automatic real time collection, aggregation and transmission of crop growth environment information, and can achieve the automation of agricultural production, to the maximum extent.

  9. Changing Public Discourse on the Environment: Danish Media Coverage of the Rio and Johannesburg UN Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    cases of wider public conceptions of the environment. Over a decade rhetoric about the summits and the environment changed, the agenda changed, and key environmental issues were repackaged. These changes are further interpreted in relation to ecological modernisation and discussed as a possible...

  10. Economic analyses of the Dutch greenhouse chain in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, D.M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Horticultural greenhouse firms operate in a changing environment. This thesis has investigated the socio-economic consequences of market environment changes on supply, demand and prices throughout the Dutch greenhouse horticulture chain. The following market changes were studied: the increasing need

  11. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  12. Changing Models for Researching Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changing models of pedagogy by drawing on recent research with teachers and their students as well as theoretical developments. In relation to a participatory view of learning, the paper reviews existing pedagogical models that take little account of the use of information and communications technologies as well as those that…

  13. Improving geo-information reliability by centralized change detection management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorte, B.; Nardinocchi, C.; Thonon, I.; Addink, E.; Beck, R.; Persie, van M.; Kramer, H.

    2006-01-01

    A consortium called Mutatis Mutandis (MutMut), consisting of three Universities and eight producers and users of geo-information, was established in the Netherlands to streamline change detection on a national level. After preliminary investigations concerning market feasibility, three actions are

  14. The Sanctuary Model of Trauma-Informed Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Sandra L.; Sreedhar, Sarah Yanosy

    2008-01-01

    This article features the Sanctuary Model[R], a trauma-informed method for creating or changing an organizational culture. Although the model is based on trauma theory, its tenets have application in working with children and adults across a wide diagnostic spectrum. Originally developed in a short-term, acute inpatient psychiatric setting for…

  15. Public agility and change in a network environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engers, T.; Boer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by c

  16. People and change management in an uncertain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giniat, Edward J; Benton, Brad; Biegansky, Eric; Grossman, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Change management for healthcare organizations should be rooted in the following practices: Articulating a business case and vision for change. Assessing organizational risk and readiness. Mobilizing and aligning leaders. Building awareness of and commitment to the change effort. Aligning the organization. Tracking performance improvement and benefit realization.

  17. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy S L; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients' engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at 1-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical and clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease.

  18. Between information systems and physical structure of the city: New causes of climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlov Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the frequent and significant spatial transformations, an increasing climate change regime in urban areas occurs. In this paper a comprehensive reflection on these changes is analyzed, concerning one of the major causes - the social transformation and the growing use of information, networks and technology, used by city dwellers in everyday life. Advanced communications and the Internet provide urban concentration and decentralization, creating new spatial and geographic network, with a new allocation of space, for manufacturing and services. The consequence may be recognized in increasing individualization and social habits of city dwellers, as well as in modified way of households use, changing neighbourhoods and public spaces, transport systems, as the final outcome is the climate change. In this paper, the interdependence between information networks is emphasized - between virtual and physical environment, as well as changes in the way of life of the city, which ultimately lead to a new trigger for climate change. Users have never been more mobile in the physical space (commuting and tourist travel, while in the virtual space they are associated with the fixed points - everybody can be located, by using email or social network. Unexpectedly, the cause of the problem which is considered in this paper, is increased mobility in the real space, while city dwellers remain in one place, by using their virtual electronic connections. Thus, the role of city dwellers in creating climate change depends upon their spatial distribution and relationship towards information's and network activity. As a result, the drivers in city development are recognized on network nodes. Current crises in the global environment (economic, climate and social indicate the need to develop multi-functional environment and a greater appreciation of natural factors. Therefore, as a decisive factor for the adaptation of urban structure on climate change is the

  19. Quantifying uncertainty in climate change science through empirical information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J; Gershgorin, Boris

    2010-08-24

    Quantifying the uncertainty for the present climate and the predictions of climate change in the suite of imperfect Atmosphere Ocean Science (AOS) computer models is a central issue in climate change science. Here, a systematic approach to these issues with firm mathematical underpinning is developed through empirical information theory. An information metric to quantify AOS model errors in the climate is proposed here which incorporates both coarse-grained mean model errors as well as covariance ratios in a transformation invariant fashion. The subtle behavior of model errors with this information metric is quantified in an instructive statistically exactly solvable test model with direct relevance to climate change science including the prototype behavior of tracer gases such as CO(2). Formulas for identifying the most sensitive climate change directions using statistics of the present climate or an AOS model approximation are developed here; these formulas just involve finding the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of a quadratic form computed through suitable unperturbed climate statistics. These climate change concepts are illustrated on a statistically exactly solvable one-dimensional stochastic model with relevance for low frequency variability of the atmosphere. Viable algorithms for implementation of these concepts are discussed throughout the paper.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in climate change science through empirical information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J.; Gershgorin, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the uncertainty for the present climate and the predictions of climate change in the suite of imperfect Atmosphere Ocean Science (AOS) computer models is a central issue in climate change science. Here, a systematic approach to these issues with firm mathematical underpinning is developed through empirical information theory. An information metric to quantify AOS model errors in the climate is proposed here which incorporates both coarse-grained mean model errors as well as covariance ratios in a transformation invariant fashion. The subtle behavior of model errors with this information metric is quantified in an instructive statistically exactly solvable test model with direct relevance to climate change science including the prototype behavior of tracer gases such as CO2. Formulas for identifying the most sensitive climate change directions using statistics of the present climate or an AOS model approximation are developed here; these formulas just involve finding the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of a quadratic form computed through suitable unperturbed climate statistics. These climate change concepts are illustrated on a statistically exactly solvable one-dimensional stochastic model with relevance for low frequency variability of the atmosphere. Viable algorithms for implementation of these concepts are discussed throughout the paper. PMID:20696940

  1. Objectivity in a Noisy Photonic Environment through Quantum State Information Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the emergence of classical objectivity as a property of a quantum state has been explicitly derived for a small object embedded in a photonic environment in terms of a spectrum broadcast form—a specific classically correlated state, redundantly encoding information about the preferred states of the object in the environment. However, the environment was in a pure state and the fundamental problem was how generic and robust is the conclusion. Here, we prove that despite the initial environmental noise, the emergence of the broadcast structure still holds, leading to the perceived objectivity of the state of the object. We also show how this leads to a quantum Darwinism-type condition, reflecting the classicality of proliferated information in terms of a limit behavior of the mutual information. Quite surprisingly, we find "singular points" of the decoherence, which can be used to faithfully broadcast a specific classical message through the noisy environment.

  2. Objectivity in a noisy photonic environment through quantum state information broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbicz, J K; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R

    2014-03-28

    Recently, the emergence of classical objectivity as a property of a quantum state has been explicitly derived for a small object embedded in a photonic environment in terms of a spectrum broadcast form-a specific classically correlated state, redundantly encoding information about the preferred states of the object in the environment. However, the environment was in a pure state and the fundamental problem was how generic and robust is the conclusion. Here, we prove that despite the initial environmental noise, the emergence of the broadcast structure still holds, leading to the perceived objectivity of the state of the object. We also show how this leads to a quantum Darwinism-type condition, reflecting the classicality of proliferated information in terms of a limit behavior of the mutual information. Quite surprisingly, we find "singular points" of the decoherence, which can be used to faithfully broadcast a specific classical message through the noisy environment.

  3. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  4. Characterizing Pedagogical Practices of University Physics Students in Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinko, Kathleen A.; Madigan, Peter; Miller, Eric; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    University educators (UEs) have a long history of teaching physics not only in formal classroom settings but also in informal outreach environments. The pedagogical practices of UEs in informal physics teaching have not been widely studied, and they may provide insight into formal practices and preparation. We investigate the interactions between…

  5. Networked Information Retrieval Tools in the Academic Environment: Towards a Cybernetic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, George H., II

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature of networked information retrieval tools to explore the concept of an interactive text-based virtual reality environment that would encompass resources currently available on the Internet. Highlights include academic libraries, electronic mail, hypertext navigation systems, wide area information servers, knowbots and…

  6. Applying Perkins's Facets of a Learning Environment for Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blummer, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Perkins, a professor of Education at Harvard University, promoted the use of constructivism in conjunction with information processing technologies to facilitate students' understanding and active use of knowledge and skills. He identified five facets of a learning environment including: information banks, symbol pads, construction kits,…

  7. 77 FR 8324 - Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop; Notice of Public...: Real- Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Program and solicit user needs for its Transformative Concepts... Webinar should register online at http://www.itsa.org/AERIS_User_Needs_Workshop by February 29,...

  8. Making decisions in a complex information environment: evidential preference and information we trust

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Informed decision making requires that those individuals making health and health-care decisions understand the advantages and disadvantages associated with particular health options. Research and theory suggest factors that contribute to the decision-making process: data on the likelihood of risks and benefits, level of certainty about outcomes, familiarity with the health issue, characteristics of information sources and presentation, and patient values and beliefs. As the health...

  9. Information environment, market-wide sentiment and IPO initial returns: Evidence from analyst forecasts before listing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the information environment of firms using analyst (price forecast bias and forecast dispersion before listing, we empirically examine the interactive influence of the information environment and market-wide sentiment on the initial returns of initial public offerings (IPOs. We find the smaller the analyst forecast bias/dispersion, the lower the effect market-wide sentiment has on IPO initial returns. This finding indicates that information asymmetry is a basic reason for noise trading occurs and demonstrates the positive effect of financial analysts during IPOs. In addition, the effect of analyst forecasts is more pronounced during periods of rising markets and when IPO prices are not regulated.

  10. Planning safer suburbs: do changes in the built environment influence residents' perceptions of crime risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of evidence has reiterated the negative impacts that crime and perceptions of insecurity can have on the health and wellbeing of local residents. Strategies that reduce residents' perceived crime risk may contribute to improved health outcomes; however interventions require a better understanding of the neighbourhood influences on residents perceptions of crime and safety. We examined the impact of changes in the objective built environment following relocation on changes in residents' perceived crime risk for participants in a longitudinal study of people moving to new neighbourhoods in Perth, Western Australia (n = 1159). They completed a questionnaire before moving to their new neighbourhood, and again 36 months after relocation. Individual-level objective environmental measures were generated at both time points using Geographic Information Systems, focussing on the characteristics that comprise a 'walkable neighbourhood'. Linear regression models examined the influence of objective environmental changes between the two environments on perceived crime risk, with progressive adjustment for other change variables (i.e., perceptions of the physical and social environment, reported crime). We found that increases in the proportion of land allocated to shopping/retail land-uses increased residents' perceived crime risk (β = 11.875, p = 0.001), and this relationship remained constant, despite controlling for other influences on perceived crime risk (β = 9.140, p = 0.004). The findings highlight an important paradox: that the neighbourhood characteristics known to enhance one outcome, such as walking, may negatively impact another. In this instance, the 'strangers' that retail destinations attract to a neighbourhood may be interpreted by locals as a threat to safety. Thus, in areas with more retail destinations, it is vital that other environmental strategies be employed to balance any negative effects that retail may have on residents' perceptions of

  11. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  12. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  13. Lactic acid bacteria in a changing legislative environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feord, J.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients, pr

  14. Designing Learning Environments To Promote Conceptual Change in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosniadou, Stella; Ioannides, Christos; Dimitrakopoulou, Aggeliki; Papademetriou, Efi

    2001-01-01

    Studied the use of research-based principles to create a learning environment for teaching mechanics to one class of Greek fifth and sixth graders. Students were encouraged to take active control of their learning, make predictions, and test their own hypotheses. Results show significant differences between experimental and control groups,…

  15. The challenge of automated tutoring in Web-based learning environments for information retrieval instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sormunen Eero; Pennanen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to enhance information literacy education increases demand for effective Web-based learning environments for information retrieval instruction. The paper introduces the Query Performance Analyser, a unique instructional tool for information retrieval learning environments. On top of an information retrieval system and within a given search assignment, the Query Performance Analyser supports learning by instantly visualizing achieved query performance. Although the Query Performance Analyser is a useful tool in training searching skills, performance feedback is not enough for learners practicing alone in Web-based learning environments. The paper reports the findings of a log analysis on user problems in exercising Boolean and best-match queries. A blueprint of an automated tutoring system for IR instruction is presented.

  16. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  17. Extraction of Hidden Social Networks from Wiki-Environment Involved in Information Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Alguliyev, Rasim M.; Ramiz M. Aliguliyev; Irada Y. Alakbarova

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis is a widely used technique to analyze relationships among wiki-users in Wikipedia. In this paper the method to identify hidden social networks participating in information conflicts in wiki-environment is proposed. In particular, we describe how text clustering techniques can be used for extraction of hidden social networks of wiki-users caused information conflict. By clustering unstructured text articles caused information conflict we ...

  18. Presentation of uncertainties on web platforms for climate change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocke, Thomas; Wrobel, Markus; Reusser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate research has a long tradition, however there is still uncertainty about the specific effects of climate change. One of the key tasks is - beyond discussing climate change and its impacts in specialist groups - to present these to a wider audience. In that respect, decision-makers in the public sector as well as directly affected professional groups require to obtain easy-to-understand information. These groups are not made up of specialist scientists. This gives rise to the challenge that the scientific information must be presented such that it is commonly understood, however, the complexity of the science behind needs to be incorporated. In particular, this requires the explicit representation of spatial and temporal uncertainty information to lay people. Within this talk/poster we survey how climate change and climate impact uncertainty information is presented on various climate service web-based platforms. We outline how the specifics of this medium make it challenging to find adequate and readable representations of uncertainties. First, we introduce a multi-step approach in communicating the uncertainty basing on a typology of uncertainty distinguishing between epistemic, natural stochastic, and human reflexive uncertainty. Then, we compare existing concepts and representations for uncertainty communication with current practices on web-based platforms, including own solutions within our web platforms ClimateImpactsOnline and ci:grasp. Finally, we review surveys on how spatial uncertainty visualization techniques are conceived by untrainded users.

  19. 76 FR 79114 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; DOT/ALL 23-Information Sharing Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...-- Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative System of Records AGENCY... established system of records titled, ``DOT/ALL 23--Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious Activity... Department exempts portions of the ``DOT/ALL 23--Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious...

  20. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  1. Climate Change and Societal Response: Livelihoods, Communities, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be considered a natural disaster evolving in slow motion on a global scale. Increasing storm intensities, shifting rainfall patterns, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and other manifold alterations are being experienced around the world. Climate has never been constant in any location, but human-induced changes associated…

  2. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  3. Development of Climate Change Adaptation Platform using Spatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Oh, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Han, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change adaptation has attracted growing attention with the recent extreme weather conditions that affect people around the world. More and more countries, including the Republic of Korea, have begun to hatch adaptation plan to resolve these matters of great concern. They all, meanwhile, have mentioned that it should come first to integrate climate information in all analysed areas. That's because climate information is not independently made through one source; that is to say, the climate information is connected one another in a complicated way. That is the reason why we have to promote integrated climate change adaptation platform before setting up climate change adaptation plan. Therefore, the large-scaled project has been actively launched and worked on. To date, we researched 620 literatures and interviewed 51 government organizations. Based on the results of the researches and interviews, we obtained 2,725 impacts about vulnerability assessment information such as Monitoring and Forecasting, Health, Disaster, Agriculture, Forest, Water Management, Ecosystem, Ocean/Fisheries, Industry/Energy. Among 2,725 impacts, 995 impacts are made into a database until now. This database is made up 3 sub categories like Climate-Exposure, Sensitivity, Adaptive capacity, presented by IPCC. Based on the constructed database, vulnerability assessments were carried out in order to evaluate climate change capacity of local governments all over the country. These assessments were conducted by using web-based vulnerability assessment tool which was newly developed through this project. These results have shown that, metropolitan areas like Seoul, Pusan, Inchon, and so on have high risks more than twice than rural areas. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of integrated model for climate change impact and vulnerability assessment and strengthening the framework for model implementation ", an initiative of the

  4. Informal Learning in Work Environments: Training with the Social Web in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Lytras, Miltiadis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Internet and its increasing usage has changed informal learning in depth. This change has affected young and older adults in both the workplace and in higher education. But, in spite of this, formal and non-formal course-based approaches have not taken full advantage of these new informal learning scenarios and technologies. The Web 2.0 is a…

  5. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, Darren S; Sturdy, Christopher B; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  6. Flexibility in animal signals facilitates adaptation to rapidly changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren S Proppe

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin posited that secondary sexual characteristics result from competition to attract mates. In male songbirds, specialized vocalizations represent secondary sexual characteristics of particular importance because females prefer songs at specific frequencies, amplitudes, and duration. For birds living in human-dominated landscapes, historic selection for song characteristics that convey fitness may compete with novel selective pressures from anthropogenic noise. Here we show that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus use shorter, higher-frequency songs when traffic noise is high, and longer, lower-frequency songs when noise abates. We suggest that chickadees balance opposing selective pressures by use low-frequency songs to preserve vocal characteristics of dominance that repel competitors and attract females, and high frequency songs to increase song transmission when their environment is noisy. The remarkable vocal flexibility exhibited by chickadees may be one reason that they thrive in urban environments, and such flexibility may also support subsequent genetic adaptation to an increasingly urbanized world.

  7. Simulation of machine interference in randomly changing environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztrik J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation tool lcpSim can be used to investigate special level crossing problems of queuing systems of type HYPOk / HYPOr / 1 // n embedded in different Markovian environments (recently referred to as Markov modulated ones. Our observed system consists of n heterogeneous machines (requests and a server that 'repairs' the broken machines according to the most commonly used service disciplines, such as FIFO, LIFO, PPS, HOL, Preemptive Priorities (Resume, Repeat, Transfer, Polling, Nearest. We specify a maximum number of stopped machines for an operating system and our aim is to give the main steady-state performance measures of the system, such as, server utilization, machine utilization, mean waiting times, mean response times, the probability of an operating system and the mean operating time of the system. These values can be calculated by lcpSim level crossing problem Simulation package for different random environment types and service disciplines.

  8. A Dynamic Information Framework (DIF): A Portal for the Changing Biogeochemistry of Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. E.; Fernandes, E. C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of societies to adapt to climate and landuse change in aquatic systems is functionally and practically expressed by how regional stakeholders are able to address complex management issues. These targets represent a very complex set of intersecting issues of scale, cross-sector science and technology, education, politics, and economics. Implications transcend individual projects and ministries. An immediate challenge is to incorporate the realities of changing environmental conditions in these sectors into the policies and projects of the Ministries nominally responsible. Ideally this would be done on the basis of the absolute best understanding of the issues involved, and done in a way that optimizes a multi-stakeholder return. Central to a response is "actionable information-" the synthesis and "bringing to life" of the key information that integrates the end-to-end knowledge required to provide the high-level decision support to make the most informed decisions. But, in practice, the information necessary and even perspectives are virtually absent, in much of especially the developing world. To meet this challenge, we have been developing a Dynamic Information Framework (DIF), primarily through collaborations with the World Bank in Asia, Africa, and Brazil. The DIF is, essentially a decision support structure, built around "earth system" models. The environment is built on progressive information layers that are fed through hydrological and geospatial landscape models to produce outputs that address specific science questions related to water resources management of the region. Information layers from diverse sources are assembled, according to the principles of how the landscape is organized, and computer models are used to bring the information "to life." A fundamental aspect to a DIF is not only the convergence of multi-sector information, but how that information can be conveyed, in the most compelling, and visual, manner. Deployment of the

  9. On Deriving Net Change Information From Change Logs – The DELTALAYER-Algorithm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinderle, S.B.; Jurisch, M.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    The management of change logs is crucial in different areas of information systems like data replication, data warehousing, and process management. One barrier that hampers the (intelligent) use of respective change logs is the possibly large amount of unnecessary and redundant data provided by them

  10. Diatoms in peat – dominant producers in a changing environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, Ulla; Struyf, Eric; Randsalu, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Changes in hydrology and temperature can induce rapid changes in boreal wetland ecosystems. Factors such as hydrosere, permafrost, climate and human interference may disturb the prevailing mire vegetation, whereby a new dominant assemblage can develop. At the transition from one vegetation type...... content. Biogenic silica and other nutrients that would otherwise be lost during mineralization in runoff are in this way retained in the ecosystem. Our results imply that silica storage originating from diatoms can be expected to increase in today's rapidly changing boreal wetlands. The impacts...

  11. How change information influences attitude toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  12. How to change GEBCO outreach activities with Information technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E.; Park, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1995, when National Geographic Information Project began, we have great advance in mapping itself and information service on the earth surface in Korea whether paper maps or online service map. By reviewing geological and mine-related information service in current and comparisons of demands, GEBCO outreach master plan has been prepared. Information service cannot be separated from data production and on dissemination policies. We suggest the potential impact of the changes in information technologies such as mobile service and data fusion, and big data on GEBCO maps based. Less cost and high performance in data service will stimulate more information service; therefore it is necessary to have more customer-oriented manipulation on the data. By inquiring questionnaire, we can draw the potential needs on GEBCO products in various aspects: such as education, accessibility. The gap between experts and non-experts will decrease by digital service from the private and public organizations such as international academic societies since research funds and policies tend to pursue "openness" and "interoperability" among the domains. Some background why and how to prepare outreach activities in GEBCO will be shown.

  13. Implications of changing land uses on physical environment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes are observable along major transport routes particularly within the central ... Descriptive statistics was employed in the analysis of the data. ... physical deterioration of the buildings, upgrading and accessibility of roads etc, it also ...

  14. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  15. A look at the changing environment along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Das, V.K.

    Increased human activity along the Indian coastline has exerted pressure on its morphology and ecology. The factors responsible for morphological changes like subsidence, rising sea level, storms, storm surges, sediment input from rivers, sediment...

  16. Climate Change: Making the Best Use of Scientific Information

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Climate science regularly makes headlines in the media, usually after an extreme weather event or a disaster, or in the wake of campaigns by think tanks about the science of climate change. In this presentation, I discuss four specific challenges that are posed to climate scientist when communicating with the public: (i) The widening gap between the scientific literacy of the public and the communication literacy of the scientists; (ii), the multiplicity of scientific information conduits; (iii), information of, and under, uncertainty; and (iv), the requirement to be precise without using technical language. It turns out that these challenges are quite generic to science communication. Climate scientists have learned from the regular international assessments they perform under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and have accumulated a collective experience of more than 20 years. In this presentation I discuss the most important lessons learned from this experience and their relevant...

  17. Turning climate change information into economic and health impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kühl, J.; Olesen, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    for linking climate change information and economic studies. We have considered a number of case studies that illustrate how linkages can be established between geographically detailed climate data and economic information. The case studies included wheat production in agriculture, where regional climate data...... has been linked to farm enterprise data in an integrated model of physical conditions, production inputs and outputs, and farm management practices. Similarly, temperature data were used to assess consequences of extreme heat and excess mortality in urban areas. We give an introduction...... of issues related to social and private aspects of costs are highlighted. It is argued that, in particular, detailed climate information matters in relation to understanding how private agents react to observed climate data....

  18. Complementary molecular information changes our perception of food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirta, Helena K; Hebert, Paul D N; Kaartinen, Riikka; Prosser, Sean W; Várkonyi, Gergely; Roslin, Tomas

    2014-02-04

    How networks of ecological interactions are structured has a major impact on their functioning. However, accurately resolving both the nodes of the webs and the links between them is fraught with difficulties. We ask whether the new resolution conferred by molecular information changes perceptions of network structure. To probe a network of antagonistic interactions in the High Arctic, we use two complementary sources of molecular data: parasitoid DNA sequenced from the tissues of their hosts and host DNA sequenced from the gut of adult parasitoids. The information added by molecular analysis radically changes the properties of interaction structure. Overall, three times as many interaction types were revealed by combining molecular information from parasitoids and hosts with rearing data, versus rearing data alone. At the species level, our results alter the perceived host specificity of parasitoids, the parasitoid load of host species, and the web-wide role of predators with a cryptic lifestyle. As the northernmost network of host-parasitoid interactions quantified, our data point exerts high leverage on global comparisons of food web structure. However, how we view its structure will depend on what information we use: compared with variation among networks quantified at other sites, the properties of our web vary as much or much more depending on the techniques used to reconstruct it. We thus urge ecologists to combine multiple pieces of evidence in assessing the structure of interaction webs, and suggest that current perceptions of interaction structure may be strongly affected by the methods used to construct them.

  19. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  20. Escaping Dante’s hell with an informed virtual environment for interactive bodies in movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseaux Francis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of Informed Virtual Environments from the point of view of some philosophical and ethical key-issues. By browsing some eclectic experiences like dancing, serving Asturian cider, trying to escape Dante’s Hell or manufacturing a tyre, important questions are raised, and some answers are sketched about some possible ways of designing our future environments: but gestures have then to be considered as cultural objects too, being not reducible to their physical traces.

  1. [Design of an anesthesia and micro-environment information management system in mobile operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wenchang; Wu, Qingfu; Tan, Shulin

    2013-08-01

    We have designed a mobile operating room information management system. The system is composed of a client and a server. A client, consisting of a PC, medical equipments, PLC and sensors, provides the acquisition and processing of anesthesia and micro-environment data. A server is a powerful computer that stores the data of the system. The client gathers the medical device data by using the C/S mode, and analyzes the obtained HL7 messages through the class library call. The client collects the micro-environment information with PLC, and finishes the data reading with the OPC technology. Experiment results showed that the designed system could manage the patient anesthesia and micro-environment information well, and improve the efficiency of the doctors' works and the digital level of the mobile operating room.

  2. The Networked University: The Structure, Culture, and Policy of Universities in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The universities in Europe are finding themselves in a turbulent environment. They are exposed to global and European developments. This article links changes in the structure, culture, and policy of universities to these developments and changes in the broader-than-national environment. The central question is, in short: what is globalisation…

  3. Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1999-09-01

    In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

  4. Extended fisheries recovery timelines in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L.; Dowd, Michael; Kanary, Lisa; Worm, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Rebuilding depleted fish stocks is an international policy goal and a 2020 Aichi target under the Convention on Biological Diversity. However, stock productivity may shift with future climate change, with unknown consequences for sustainable harvesting, biomass targets and recovery timelines. Here we develop a stochastic modelling framework to characterize variability in the intrinsic productivity parameter (r) and carrying capacity (K) for 276 global fish stocks worldwide. We use models of dynamic stock productivity fitted via Bayesian inference to forecast rebuilding timelines for depleted stocks. In scenarios without fishing, recovery probabilities are reduced by 19%, on average, relative to models assuming static productivity. Fishing at 90% of the maximum sustainable rate depresses recovery probabilities by 42%, on average, relative to static models. This work reveals how a changing environmental context can delay the rebuilding of depleted fish stocks, and provides a framework to account for the potential impacts of environmental change on the productivity of wildlife populations more broadly.

  5. Information Storage and Management Storing, Managing, and Protecting Digital Information in Classic, Virtualized, and Cloud Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Services, EMC Education

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of a bestseller, now revised and update throughout! This new edition of the unparalleled bestseller serves as a full training course all in one and as the world's largest data storage company, EMC is the ideal author for such a critical resource. They cover the components of a storage system and the different storage system models while also offering essential new material that explores the advances in existing technologies and the emergence of the "Cloud" as well as updates and vital information on new technologies. Features a separate section on emerging area of cloud computi

  6. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization’s Culture: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    overcome the COE’s resistance to change and policies by using the theoretical concepts of a best value environment as a component of the technical...checklist, and the weekly report. 6.1. Resistance to Change . The migration to Best Value is threatening to the status quo due to the following. (1...accompanied by fear, man- ifested in resistance to change , not being open to logic/best practices, using the FAR and AFARS and interpreting new concepts

  7. Organization Networks as Information Integration System: Case study on Environment and Health in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Lajaunie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for evaluating the capacity of a network of organizations to function as Information Integration System (IIS as required in the performance of complex common objectives such as the design of inter-sectoral policies in "Health and Environment". Inspired by the information integration theory issued from the modeling of consciousness, the method poses that the information integration is limited by the partition of the set of organizations that presents major difficulties to share information. It proceeds in two steps: a the establishment of a network where vertices are organizations and links are induced by the average mutual information between organizations, information assessed on the basis of textual corpora associated with each organization; b the assessment of the ability to function as IIS, defined as the minimum of the average mutual information between components of a partition, minimum found among all partitions of the set of the organizations.

  8. Board independence, internal information environment and voluntary disclosure of auditors’ reports on internal controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Sun; Yang Yi; Bin Lin

    2012-01-01

    When there is high information asymmetry between directors and managers,independent directors do not have enough information to perform their functions. Only when faced with a good internal information environment can such directors acquire enough information to provide advice and monitor managers,and only under these conditions can increasing their proportion on the board effectively reduce agency problems, such as driving managers to disclose information to investors. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms that voluntarily disclose their auditors’ reports on internal controls from 2007 to 2009, this study explores how the information acquisition costs of independent directors affect their monitoring effectiveness by investigating the disclosure decisions of their internal control audits. We find that when the information asymmetry between insiders and outside directors is low and the proportion of independent directors on a board is high, a firm is more likely to voluntarily disclose its internal control audit report.

  9. Board independence, internal information environment and voluntary disclosure of auditors’ reports on internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When there is high information asymmetry between directors and managers, independent directors do not have enough information to perform their functions. Only when faced with a good internal information environment can such directors acquire enough information to provide advice and monitor managers, and only under these conditions can increasing their proportion on the board effectively reduce agency problems, such as driving managers to disclose information to investors. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms that voluntarily disclose their auditors’ reports on internal controls from 2007 to 2009, this study explores how the information acquisition costs of independent directors affect their monitoring effectiveness by investigating the disclosure decisions of their internal control audits. We find that when the information asymmetry between insiders and outside directors is low and the proportion of independent directors on a board is high, a firm is more likely to voluntarily disclose its internal control audit report.

  10. Adaptive quantum computation in changing environments using projective simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiersch, M.; Ganahl, E. J.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent’s learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent’s performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover’s search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks.

  11. Information, communication and education on climate change. European perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, W.L.; Mannke, F. [TuTech Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, P. (eds.) [Geologinen Tutkimuslaitos, Espoo (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    It is now beyond any doubt that climate change represents a major threat to the environmental, social and economic well being of the planet. The book under consideration is an attempt to contribute to the global debate on climate change by outlining some educational methods, approaches and projects which have been focusing on climate issues in Europe. The book under consideration consists of the following chapters: (a) ESPACE - A New Transnational Approach to Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (Jill Cook, Doogie Black, Angela Bentham, Tania Stadsbader, Jorn Peters, Lesley van Dijk, Mark Goldthorpe, Tim Yair, Fran Wallington, Meinte de Hoogh, Michael Belau); (b) Communicating Climate Change Impacts - an Approach Derived from two Regional Development Projects (Philipp Schmidt-Thome, Johannes Klein); (c) Baltex Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC) (Hans von Storch, Anders Omstedt, Hans-Joerg Isemer); (d) Promoting Climate friendly Communities in Northamptonshire, United Kingdam (Philip Gray, Shane Conway); (e) Climite Change Mitigation and Sustainability: Educational Issues (Remigijus Ciegis; Dalia Streimikiene, Dalia Gineitiene); (f) Case Study Research as Bridge Builder between Science and the Society - The Rationale behind the ASTRA 2005 Winter Storm Study (Simo Haanpaeae, Lasse Peltonen); (g) Educational Actions in Italy to face the Problem of Climate Change (Eugenia Aloj, Mariagrazia De Castro, Anna Zollo); (h) Teaching Global Climate Change as a Controversial Issue - Active Learning in Higher Education (Evangelos I. Manolas); (i) Regional Climate Change and Coasts - A Case Study on Perception, Information, Dissemination and Education (Gerald Schernewski, Steffen Bock, Holger Janssen, Nardine Loeser, Annemone Himielorz); (j) KLARA-Net: An Interdisciplinary Action Oriented Approach on Climate Change Adaptation (Birte Frommer; Lena Herlitzius); (k) Climate Change, Featuring the ACCROTELM Project: Dissemination of a European RTD

  12. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    In a Danish context, climate changes are primarily manifested in an interaction between modified wind and precipitation patterns, increasing temperature and a rising sea level. The individual factors often act together and are reinforced in interaction with already known natural and cultural...

  13. Sino-Japanese Teamwork Probes Environment Changes on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ With the support of a CAS project on Holocene environmental changes and their influences on the ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau, a research group headed by Prof. Zhu Liping from the CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research and their Japanese collaborators carried out a field survey in Puma Yumco area on the Tibetan Plateau from September 8 to 20.

  14. Tracking changing environments: innovators are fast, but not flexible learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Griffin

    Full Text Available Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in 'cognitive style', differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks.

  15. Tracking changing environments: innovators are fast, but not flexible learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David; Lermite, Françoise; Patience, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural innovations are increasingly thought to provide a rich source of phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary change. Innovation propensity shows substantial variation across avian taxa and provides an adaptive mechanism by which behaviour is flexibly adjusted to changing environmental conditions. Here, we tested for the first time the prediction that inter-individual variation in innovation propensity is equally a measure of behavioural flexibility. We used Indian mynas, Sturnus tristis, a highly successful worldwide invader. Results revealed that mynas that solved an extractive foraging task more quickly learnt to discriminate between a cue that predicted food, and one that did not more quickly. However, fast innovators were slower to change their behaviour when the significance of the food cues changed. This unexpected finding appears at odds with the well-established view that avian taxa with larger brains relative to their body size, and therefore greater neural processing power, are both faster, and more flexible learners. We speculate that the existence of this relationship across taxa can be reconciled with its absence within species by assuming that fast, innovative learners and non innovative, slow, flexible learners constitute two separate individual strategies, which are both underpinned by enhanced neural processing power. This idea is consistent with the recent proposal that individuals may differ consistently in 'cognitive style', differentially trading off speed against accuracy in cognitive tasks.

  16. General Education: The Changing Environment at Sante Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, John P.

    Established in 1966, in an era of educational creativity, Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) has consistently fostered innovation in instruction and programming and a student-centered approach to education. In 1976, in recognition of a need for change fostered by a switch in academic calendars, loss of vetarans enrollment, reduced state funding,…

  17. Detecting Rumors Through Modeling Information Propagation Networks in a Social Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of today's pervasive influence of social media content and activities, information credibility has increasingly become a major issue. Accordingly, identifying false information, e.g. rumors circulated in social media environments, attracts expanding research attention and growing interests. Many previous studies have exploited user-independent features for rumor detection. These prior investigations uniformly treat all users relevant to the propagation of a social media message as instances of a generic entity. Such a modeling approach usually adopts a homogeneous network to represent all users, the practice of which ignores the variety across an entire user population in a social media environment. Recognizing this limitation of modeling methodologies, this study explores user-specific features in a social media environment for rumor detection. The new approach hypothesizes that whether a user tends to spread a rumor is dependent upon specific attributes of the user in addition to content characteristics of the message itself. Under this hypothesis, information propagation patterns of rumors versus those of credible messages in a social media environment are systematically differentiable. To explore and exploit this hypothesis, we develop a new information propagation model based on a heterogeneous user representation for rumor recognition. The new approach is capable of differentiating rumors from credible messages through observing distinctions in their respective propagation patterns in social media. Experimental results show that the new information propagation model based on heterogeneous user representation can effectively distinguish rumors from credible social media content.

  18. The dynamic replicon: adapting to a changing cellular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, John

    2010-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells are often exposed to fluctuations in growth conditions as well as endogenous and exogenous stress-related agents. During development, global patterns of gene transcription change substantially, and these changes are associated with altered patterns of DNA replication and larger distances between replication origins in somatic cells compared to embryos. Conversely, when cells experience difficulties while replicating DNA, the replication program is dramatically altered and distances between replication origins decrease. Recent evidence indicates that each unit of replication, or replicon, can correspond to one or more potential replication origins, but in the case of multiple potential origins, only one is selected to initiate replication of the replicon. How one origin is selected from multiple potential origins and how origin densities are regulated during genome duplication remains unclear. The following review addresses some of the mechanisms involved in regulating replication origins during both a normal and perturbed eukaryotic cell cycle.

  19. Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that these universal and time-invariant organizing principles can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. The organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  20. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  1. Manager-Organization Linkages: The Impact of Changing Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    creation of the rest of the occupational characteristics that have come to be associated with the professions (cf. Ritzer , 1977). One of the more...Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Mi. Ritzer , G. (1977). Working: Conflict and Change, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Schein, E... George E. Rowland Temple University, The Merit Center Ritter Annex, 9th Floor College of Education Philadephia, PA 19122 Dr. Irwin G. Sarason

  2. The rate of molecular adaptation in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, João M; Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    It is currently unclear whether the amino acid substitutions that occur during protein evolution are primarily driven by adaptation, or reflect the random accumulation of neutral changes. When estimated from genomic data, the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions, called α, was found to vary greatly across species, from nearly zero in humans to above 0.5 in Drosophila. These variations have been interpreted as reflecting differences in effective population size, adaptation being supposedly more efficient in large populations. Here, we investigate the influence of effective population size and other biological parameters on the rate of adaptive evolution by simulating the evolution of a coding sequence under Fisher's geometric formalism. We explicitly model recurrent environmental changes and the subsequent adaptive walks, followed by periods of stasis during which purifying selection dominates. We show that, under a variety of conditions, the effective population size has only a moderate influence on α, and an even weaker influence on the per generation rate of selective sweeps, modifying the prevalent view in current literature. The rate of environmental change and, interestingly, the dimensionality of the phenotypic space (organismal complexity) affect the adaptive rate more deeply than does the effective population size. We discuss the reasons why verbal arguments have been misleading on that subject and revisit the empirical evidence. Our results question the relevance of the "α" parameter as an indicator of the efficiency of molecular adaptation.

  3. Efficient Multi-Concept Visual Classifier Adaptation in Changing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of-the-art deep learners11,12 now rely on millions of images for learning. Label collection for the ImageNet data set13 was performed in parallel via...classification with deep con- volutional neural networks. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems; 2012; Lake Tahoe, NV. p. 1097–1105. 12. Szegedy C...Experimental Robotics; 2008; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. p. 179–190. 48. Russell BC, Torralba A, Murphy KP, Freeman WT. LabelMe: a database and web -based tool

  4. Development and application of water environment management information system based on ARCGIS Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beijia HUANG; Shaoping WANG; Jun CAO

    2008-01-01

    Embedded ArcGIS Engine can improve development efficiency of environmental information system. The authors designed the structure, functions and database of the Yongjiang River Basin Water Environment Management Information System (YRBWEMIS) through the integration of ArcGIS Engine software with VC. The spatial data and attribute data in the YRBWEMIS are stored and managed separately. The system functions include display, query, statistics, spatial analysis and thematic mapping for water pollution sources, water quality, water function regionalization and catchments region.

  5. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    should: 1) provide meaningful, authoritative climate-relevant measures about the status, rates, and trends of key physical, ecological, and societal variables and values to inform decisions on management, research, and education at regional to national scales; 2) identify climate-related conditions and impacts to help develop effective mitigation and adaptation measures and reduce costs of management; and 3) document and communicate the climate-driven dynamic nature and condition of Earth's systems and societies, and provide a coordinated. This presentation will provide an overview of possible climate impacts on the built environment. Also, given that spatial analysis and remote sensing techniques will be of paramount importance in assessing these impacts and in preparing adaptation strategies, the presentation will provide examples of how these techniques can be used to identify potential impacts of climate change on the built environment.

  6. Politics of change: the discourses that inform organizational change and their capacity to silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kim

    2016-09-01

    Changes in healthcare organizations are inevitable and occurring at unprecedented rates. Such changes greatly impact nurses and their work, yet these experiences are rarely explored. Organizational change discourses remain grounded in perspectives that explore and explain systems, often not the people within them. Change processes in healthcare organizations informed by such organizational discourses validate only certain perspectives and forms of knowledge. This fosters exclusionary practices, limiting the capacity of certain individuals or groups of individuals to effectively contribute to change discourses and processes. The reliance on mainstream organizational discourses in healthcare organizations has left little room for the exploration of diverse perspectives on the subject of organizational change, particularly those of nurses. Michel Foucault's work challenges dominant discourse and suggest that strong reliance's on specific discourses effectively disqualify certain forms of knowledge. Foucault's writings on disqualified knowledge and parrhesia (truth telling and frank speech) facilitate the critical exploration of discourses that inform change in healthcare organizations and nurses capacities to contribute to organizational discourses. This paper explores the capacity of nurses to speak their truths within rapidly and continuously changing healthcare organizations when such changes are often driven by discourses not derived from nursing knowledge or experience.

  7. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial, and grain size change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Holthaus, Karlijn I E; Trannum, Hilde C; Neff, Jerry M; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, Grete; Jak, Robbert G; Singsaas, Ivar; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hendriks, A Jan

    2008-04-01

    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognostic risk assessments for nontoxic stress is lacking. In the present study we challenge this lack of information by the development of marine species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for three nontoxic stressors: suspended clays, burial by sediment, and change in sediment grain size. Through a literature study, effect levels were obtained for suspended clays, as well as for burial of biota. Information on the species preference range for median grain size was used to assess the sensitivity of marine species to changes in grain size. The 50% hazardous concentrations (HC50) for suspended barite and bentonite based on 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) were 3,010 and 1,830 mg/L, respectively. For burial the 50% hazardous level (HL50) was 5.4 cm. For change in median grain size, two SSDs were constructed; one for reducing and one for increasing the median grain size. The HL50 for reducing the median grain size was 17.8 mum. For increasing the median grain size this value was 305 mum. The SSDs have been constructed by using information related to offshore oil- and gas-related activities. Nevertheless, the results of the present study may have broader implications. The hypothesis of the present study is that the SSD methodology developed for the evaluation of toxic stress can also be applied to evaluate nontoxic stressors, facilitating the incorporation of nontoxic stressors in prognostic risk assessment tools.

  8. Research result information for agriculture and environment. No.12; Nogyo kankyo kenkyu seika joho. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-26

    Essential purposes of productivity improvement, which human being have desires in agriculture for a long time, can not be discussed without considering relations with the environment, nowadays. In these situations, significant investigations have been created among the researches in the agriculture and environment field in response to the requirements of the time. In this report, results of 41 main researches submitted to the agriculture and environment research promotion conference in FY 1995 are compiled. This field covers the environment and resource characterization, the agrioecology, and the environment assessment and control. The environment and resource characterization field includes studies on the micro-meteorological mechanism of desert expansion due to excess pasturage, the salt removal function of clays, and the protection of ground water quality by grassland. The agrioecology field includes studies on the antimicrobial substance contained in Glycyrrhiza glabra against the soil decease of potatoes caused by Streptomyces scabies and the new plant growth obstruction substance contained in Sphenoclea zeylanica. The environment assessment and control field includes studies on the producing district change prediction of main grains accompanied with global environmental change and the carbon balance in the ecosystem of farm lands and rice fields. This report includes a lot of noticeable papers. 103 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. 网络环境下信息组织策略%Tactics for Information Organization in the Network Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家清

    2003-01-01

    With a brief description of the basic features of traditional documents and network information resources, this article gives a detailed exposition of information organization tactics in the network environment, i. e. information acquisition; information screening; information filtering; and methods of information organization.

  10. Changing expression of vertebrate immunity genes in an anthropogenic environment: a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablützel, Pascal I; Brown, Martha; Friberg, Ida M; Jackson, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    The effect of anthropogenic environments on the function of the vertebrate immune system is a problem of general importance. For example, it relates to the increasing rates of immunologically-based disease in modern human populations and to the desirability of identifying optimal immune function in domesticated animals. Despite this importance, our present understanding is compromised by a deficit of experimental studies that make adequately matched comparisons between wild and captive vertebrates. We transferred post-larval fishes (three-spined sticklebacks), collected in the wild, to an anthropogenic (captive) environment. We then monitored, over 11 months, how the systemic expression of immunity genes changed in comparison to cohort-matched wild individuals in the originator population (total n = 299). We found that a range of innate (lyz, defbl2, il1r-like, tbk1) and adaptive (cd8a, igmh) immunity genes were up-regulated in captivity, accompanied by an increase in expression of the antioxidant enzyme, gpx4a. For some genes previously known to show seasonality in the wild, this appeared to be reduced in captive fishes. Captive fishes tended to express immunity genes, including igzh, foxp3b, lyz, defbl2, and il1r-like, more variably. Furthermore, although gene co-expression patterns (analyzed through gene-by-gene correlations and mutual information theory based networks) shared common structure in wild and captive fishes, there was also significant divergence. For one gene in particular, defbl2, high expression was associated with adverse health outcomes in captive fishes. Taken together, these results demonstrate widespread regulatory changes in the immune system in captive populations, and that the expression of immunity genes is more constrained in the wild. An increase in constitutive systemic immune activity, such as we observed here, may alter the risk of immunopathology and contribute to variance in health in vertebrate populations exposed to

  11. A study of changing information needs of contemporary public library users in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Guihua; CHEN; Xueqiao

    2009-01-01

    Public libraries should be vigilant and responsive to the ever changing information needs of their clientele functioning in a society undergoing through rapid change due to technological innovations.China is currently experiencing a social and technological transformation of great magnitude in terms of metamorphosing itself from a traditional society to one that is driven by information technologies.Our research study,taking this proposition into account,did a questionnaire survey on 954 library information users at five major public libraries.This research study has discovered that the information needs of public library users today reflect some of the peculiar characteristics of their society in changing times which is driven largely by the rapid development and application of new information technologies.It shows that there is a newly added demand emphasis on certain categories of library resources and services by the Chinese reading public.Our research findings have identified such needs basically in the following five functional areas of public libraries,namely,1)Increased demands for economic resources,2)rising expectations for more effective and efficient library services,3)a convenient location and an amicable environment congenial to learning,4)a suitable place for engaging in intellectual dialogues and in socialization,and 5)a few other technological amenities and information technology-based digital resources and facilities in addition to a rich repository of library materials in print format.Finally,our paper concludes its discussion with a few observation remarks about the changing trend of public libraries’visions,missions and operations vis-à-vis a contextual background of the ever heightened public expectations for getting quality information services in a timely manner in order for them to function effectively in an information-oriented society such as that of ours today.

  12. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  13. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  14. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  15. Library use and information-seeking behavior of veterinary medical students revisited in the electronic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, N L; Wiese, W H; Leysen, J M

    1998-07-01

    Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were surveyed in January of 1997 to determine their general use of the Veterinary Medical Library and how they sought information in an electronic environment. Comparisons were made between this study and one conducted a decade ago to determine the effect of the growth in electronic resources on student library use and information-seeking behavior. The basic patterns of student activities in the library, resources used to find current information, and resources anticipated for future education needs remained unchanged. The 1997 students used the library most frequently for photocopying, office supplies, and studying coursework; they preferred textbooks and handouts as sources of current information. However, when these students went beyond textbooks and handouts to seek current information, a major shift was seen from the use of print indexes and abstracts in 1987 towards the use of computerized indexes and other electronic resources in 1997. Almost 60% of the students reported using the Internet for locating current information. Overall use of electronic materials was highest among a group of students receiving the problem-based learning method of instruction. Most of the students surveyed in 1997 indicated that electronic resources would have some degree of importance to them for future education needs. The electronic environment has provided new opportunities for information professionals to help prepare future veterinarians, some of whom will be practicing in remote geographical locations, to access the wealth of information and services available on the Internet and Web.

  16. Designing healthcare information technology to catalyse change in clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lester

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The gap between best practice and actual patient care continues to be a pervasive problem in our healthcare system. Efforts to improve on this knowledge_performance gap have included computerised disease management programs designed to improve guideline adherence. However, current computerised reminder and decision support interventions directed at changing physician behaviour have had only a limited and variable effect on clinical outcomes. Further, immediate pay-for-performance financial pressures on institutions have created an environmentwhere disease management systems are often created under duress, appended to existing clinical systems and poorly integrated into the existing workflow, potentially limiting their realworld effectiveness. The authors present a review of disease management as well as a conceptual framework to guide the development of more effective health information technology (HIT tools for translating clinical information into clinical action.

  17. Information on the Economic--Social Environment as Didactic Material for Bachelor's or Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Teodoras

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate how particular information from the environment serves as didactic material for students of Siauliai University Faculty of Social Sciences in learning to carry out scientific analysis and theoretical generalization of data in their theses. Methodology: The main sources--Internet databases,…

  18. Information Technology-Based Innovation in International Marketing Education: An Exploration of Two Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Haghirian, Parissa; Yu, Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) innovations have and continue to have a significant impact on international marketing practice and customer interactions. With the marketing environment becoming increasingly dependent on technology, marketing teaching in higher education faces a challenging task of effectively leveraging technology in diverse learning…

  19. PRACTICAL ASPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH TECHNICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Rodionov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach is offered to development of the informational and educational environment of high technical school,based on deep integration of electronic educational content with methods and tools for the engineering problemssolving. The application program interface (API is used asthe main integration instrument, which modern Its have.

  20. The use of mobile games in formal and informal learning environments: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used m

  1. Fostering Creativity through Inquiry and Adventure in Informal Learning Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Aaron; Henrickson, Jeni

    2015-01-01

    Self-directed, inquiry-based learning opportunities focused on transdisciplinary real-world problem solving have been shown to foster creativity in learners. What tools might we provide classroom teachers to scaffold them and their students through this creative process? This study examines an online informal learning environment and the role the…

  2. Four Learning Environments for the Contemporary Art Education Classroom: Studio, Information, Planning, and Electronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalek, Douglas G.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a secondary art education methods course developed in response to a variety of educational directives and movements in the fields of art, education, art education, and design. Within each unit of study in this course, students engage in four learning environments--studio, information design, planning, and…

  3. Scientific Inquiry, Digital Literacy, and Mobile Computing in Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Paul F.; Alemanne, Nicole D.; Mendenhall, Anne; Maurya, Manisha; Southerland, Sherry A.; Sampson, Victor; Douglas, Ian; Kazmer, Michelle M.; Clark, Amanda; Schellinger, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the connections between scientific inquiry and digital literacy in informal learning environments is essential to furthering students' critical thinking and technology skills. The Habitat Tracker project combines a standards-based curriculum focused on the nature of science with an integrated system of online and mobile computing…

  4. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning…

  5. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  6. Effective Teaching in the Information Era: Fostering an ICT-Based Integrated Learning Environment in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kar Tin

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the implementation of a project for fostering information and communication technology (ICT)-based integrated learning environments in Hong Kong schools. Overall, effective ICT integration requires substantial thinking about curricular practice and appropriate teacher training. ICT must provide students with varied experiences and…

  7. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  8. Information Technology-Based Innovation in International Marketing Education: An Exploration of Two Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Haghirian, Parissa; Yu, Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) innovations have and continue to have a significant impact on international marketing practice and customer interactions. With the marketing environment becoming increasingly dependent on technology, marketing teaching in higher education faces a challenging task of effectively leveraging technology in diverse learning…

  9. The Dynamics of Opportunity and Threat Management in Turbulent Environments: The Role of Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ki

    2011-01-01

    This study explains the role of information technologies in enabling organizations to successfully sense and manage opportunities and threats and achieve competitive advantage in turbulent environments. I use two approaches, a set-theoretic configurational theory approach and a variance theory approach, which are theoretically and methodologically…

  10. The Dynamics of Opportunity and Threat Management in Turbulent Environments: The Role of Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ki

    2011-01-01

    This study explains the role of information technologies in enabling organizations to successfully sense and manage opportunities and threats and achieve competitive advantage in turbulent environments. I use two approaches, a set-theoretic configurational theory approach and a variance theory approach, which are theoretically and methodologically…

  11. Hierarchical multiple informants models: examining food environment contributions to the childhood obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2014-02-20

    Methods for multiple informants help to estimate the marginal effect of each multiple source predictor and formally compare the strength of their association with an outcome. We extend multiple informant methods to the case of hierarchical data structures to account for within cluster correlation. We apply the proposed method to examine the relationship between features of the food environment near schools and children's body mass index z-scores (BMIz). Specifically, we compare the associations between two different features of the food environment (fast food restaurants and convenience stores) with BMIz and investigate how the association between the number of fast food restaurants or convenience stores and child's BMIz varies across distance from a school. The newly developed methodology enhances the types of research questions that can be asked by investigators studying effects of environment on childhood obesity and can be applied to other fields.

  12. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

  13. The programmable (logic) controller: Adapting in an environment of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, P.S. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    Reports of the imminent death of the PLC (programmable logic controller) were greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. In fact, the PLC is not only alive and working worldwide in thousands of applications, but it is also integrating well with related technologies. Long-term survival is a larger question - probably unanswerable given the pace of technological change. However, a few questions arise about the PLC today and in the immediate future: (1) What`s happening with programming languages? (2) Will there continue to be a {open_quotes}blurring of the lines{close_quotes} between the PLC and other technologies, and what role will software play in this integration? (3) How will the PLC`s cost and size affect the market?

  14. Teaching and assessing nutrition competence in a changing curricular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Sarah K

    2008-01-01

    In the past, the required introductory veterinary nutrition course at Michigan State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM) has provided 29 hours of didactic lectures, with student performance evaluated by short-answer or multiple-choice questions. Because of a 50% reduction in allotted course credits and a change in prerequisites for admission, the course is being redesigned to focus on three of 29 nutrition competencies outlined by the American College of Veterinary Nutrition. Professional communication skills will be developed through small-group learning experiences, case-based problems, and videotaped interviews with standardized clients to teach and assess nutrition competencies. Assessment strategies will differ from traditional multiple-choice examinations and include pre- and post-course self-efficacy ratings, written evaluations from trained standardized clients, and oral and written evaluations from coaches or facilitators.

  15. Ages of celiac disease: from changing environment to improved diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, Alberto; Not, Tarcisio; Ventura, Alessandro

    2011-08-28

    From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into many ages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeper knowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time, these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the disease in population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was not known; later, the disease was proven to depend on an intolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosal changes in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten (AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presentation. More recently, the characterization of autoantibodies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further developments for the next celiac age will be proposed.

  16. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Downard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they are located. Managers have acquired water rights and constructed infrastructure while cultivating collaborative relationships with other water users to increase the adaptive capacity of the region and decrease conflict. Historically, water management involved diversion and impoundment of water within wetland units timed around patterns of agricultural water needs. In the last 20 years, managers have learned from flood and drought events and developed a long-term adaptive management plan that specifies alternative management actions managers can choose each year based on habitat needs and projected water supply. Each alternative includes habitat goals and target wetland water depth. However, wetland management adapted to agricultural return-flow availability may prove insufficient as population growth and climate change alter patterns of land and water use. Future management will likely depend more on negotiation, collaboration, and learning from social developments within the SES than strictly focusing on water management within refuge boundaries. To face this problem, managers have worked to be included in negotiations with regional water users, a strategy that may prove instructive for other wetland managers in agriculture-dominated watersheds.

  17. Extraction of Hidden Social Networks from Wiki-Environment Involved in Information Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim M. Alguliyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis is a widely used technique to analyze relationships among wiki-users in Wikipedia. In this paper the method to identify hidden social networks participating in information conflicts in wiki-environment is proposed. In particular, we describe how text clustering techniques can be used for extraction of hidden social networks of wiki-users caused information conflict. By clustering unstructured text articles caused information conflict we create social network of wiki-users. For clustering of the conflict articles a hybrid weighted fuzzy-c-means method is proposed.

  18. Bilateral Teleoperation Method Using an Autonomous Control Based on Information on Contact Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Keiichi; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    In procedures that involve remote control, such as remote surgery, it is necessary to operate a robot in a remote location in a sensitive environment; the treatment of internal organs is an example of such a procedure. In this paper, we propose a method for autonomous hazard avoidance control that is based on information on the contact environment. The proposed method involves the use of bilateral control. During safe operations, systems are controlled by bilateral control. During dangerous operations, a slave system is controlled autonomously so as to avoid dangerous operations. In order to determine the degree of operation risk, fuzzy set theory is applied to the force exerted on the environment. Further, variable compliance control based on the force exerted on the environment is utilized to avoid the risk. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.

  19. I.T. Changes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Motivation, Trust, and Resistance to Change in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, Nathan Paul

    2012-01-01

    Change is an organizational inevitability. There are few fields that undergo change more rapidly than information technology. Keeping up with the pace of change in a field so inclined toward change may take a unique toll on workers in information technology. Yet, little has been done to investigate workers' orientations towards change in this…

  20. I.T. Changes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Motivation, Trust, and Resistance to Change in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, Nathan Paul

    2012-01-01

    Change is an organizational inevitability. There are few fields that undergo change more rapidly than information technology. Keeping up with the pace of change in a field so inclined toward change may take a unique toll on workers in information technology. Yet, little has been done to investigate workers' orientations towards change in this…

  1. Military Leadership in the Context of Challenges and Threats Existing in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kacała

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the role of a military leader in engaging the challenges and threats existing in the I nformation Environment (IE. Military leadership is crucial for the functioning of a particular form of hierarchical institution, namely the armed forces, in their external surrounding called O perational Environment (OE. A specific type of O E is I nformation Environment (IE characterized by the three dimensions: physical, informational and cognitive. Moreover, its characteristics include the occurrence of a number of challenges and threats. The most important challenges include: overabundance of information, unstructured information, problematic value of information and low information-related competences of its users. I n turn, the most important of the threats identified in the I E are disinformation and propaganda. The role of an effective leader is to prevent, and if it is impossible, to alleviate the consequences of the challenges and threats that may disrupt or even prevent the achievement of the objectives set by an organisation.

  2. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, IV, E. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doehle, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hampton, S. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); La Mothe, R. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nordquist, P. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zarzhitsky, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL’s safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide “vision” for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  3. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  4. Estimation of vapor concentration in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Russell E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2003-08-01

    A key limitation on the use of two-wavelength DIAL or its multi-spectral generalization is the unknown spectral structure of the topographically backscattered lidar signals in the absence of the target materials. Although some of the factors responsible for the background spectral structure can be measured in advance, others, such as the terrain differences are highly variable and usually unknown. For applications to tactical reconnainssance and high-altitude surveillance where the background is continuously changing, the inability to account for the background can seriously degrade sensor performance. This study describes a method for estimating both the spectral dependence of the background as well as the path-integrated concentration, or CL, from the same data set using dual Kalman filtering. The idea is to run parallel filters that estimate the background and CL using input from the other filter. The approach is illustrated on a variety of synthetic data sets and signal injections into background data collected by the U.S. Army WILDCAT sensor at Dugway Proving Ground.

  5. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  6. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track I: Leadership during Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers are presented from the 1993 CAUSE conference track on leadership challenges facing managers of information technology during times of change at colleges and universities. Papers include: (1) "ASURITE: How To Avoid Creating a Distributed Computing 'Tower of Babel'!" (Neil Armann and others), which discusses the Arizona State…

  7. Information and Communication Technology and Cultural Change How ICT Changes Self-Construal and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control g

  8. Interactions of Changing Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Climate with Light Induced Chemical Reactions in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in the ozone layer over the past two decades have resulted in increases in solar ultraviolet radiation that reach the surface of North American aquatic environments. Concurrent changes in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in changes in stratification and precipitation that ar...

  9. Exploring a Hybrid of Geospatial Semantic Information in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Fouad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, geospatial information plays a critical role. Searching and obtaining geospatial information, however, is a difficult and time-consuming task. The Semantic Web promises to facilitate this by improving the capability to search for information by better expressing the meaning of search queries. Combining the two approaches to create a Geospatial Semantic Web is an idea that is gaining acceptance in both areas. Here, we present a prototype that promises to prove that the meshing of these two areas is a promising field in conjunction with information retrieval and ubiquitous computing. The aim of this prototype is to exploit geospatial semantic information retrieved from multiple data sources ina mobile environment. Our prototype uses three geospatial data sources: GeoNames, LinkedGeoData, and DBpedia. Experimental results show how the merging of the geospatial data sources and the use ofmore than one level of indexing is more effective in terms of recall and precision.

  10. Exploring a Hybrid of Geospatial Semantic Information in Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda A. Fouad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, geospatial information plays a critical role. Searching and obtaining geospatial information, however, is a difficult and time-consuming task. The Semantic Web promises to facilitate this by improving the capability to search for information by better expressing the meaning of search queries. Combining the two approaches to create a Geospatial Semantic Web is an idea that is gaining acceptance in both areas. Here, we present a prototype that promises to prove that the meshing of these two areas is a promising field in conjunction with information retrieval and ubiquitous computing. The aim of this prototype is to exploit geospatial semantic information retrieved from multiple data sources in a mobile environment. Our prototype uses three geospatial data sources: GeoNames, LinkedGeoData, and DBpedia. Experimental results show how the merging of the geospatial data sources and the use of more than one level of indexing is more effective in terms of recall and precision.

  11. Ages of celiac disease: From changing environment to improved diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Tommasini; Tarcisio Not; Alessandro Ventura

    2011-01-01

    From the time of Gee's landmark writings, the recent history of celiac disease (CD) can be divided into manyages, each driven by a diagnostic advance and a deeperknowledge of disease pathogenesis. At the same time,these advances were paralleled by the identification of new clinical patterns associated with CD and by a continuous redefinition of the prevalence of the diseasein population. In the beginning, CD was considered a chronic indigestion, even if the causative food was notknown; later, the disease was proven to depend on anintolerance to wheat gliadin, leading to typical mucosalchanges in the gut and to a malabsorption syndrome. This knowledge led to curing the disease with a gluten-free diet. After the identification of antibodies to gluten(AGA) in the serum of patients and the identification of gluten-specific lymphocytes in the mucosa, CD was described as an immune disorder, resembling a chronic "gluten infection". The use of serological testing for AGA allowed identification of the higher prevalence of this disorder, revealing atypical patterns of presenta-tion. More recently, the characterization of autoantibod-ies to endomysium and to transglutaminase shifted the attention to a complex autoimmune pathogenesis and to the increased risk of developing autoimmune disor-ders in untreated CD. New diagnostic assays, based on molecular technologies, will introduce new changes, with the promise of better defining the spectrum of gluten reactivity and the real burden of gluten related-disorders in the population. Herein, we describe the different periods of CD experience, and further devel-opments for the next celiac age will be proposed.

  12. ARE THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES CHANGING POLITICS? CASE STUDY IN GALICIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Vázquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial society, politicians had to command the language TV since the intensity of the reaction was more important than the length of the message. They had to make categorical statements. In the Information Society with information and communication technologies (TICs, this changes to a great extent due to pluralism and the fact that more people make themselves heard. Blogs appear as a way to give opinion and information, and can be considered as an alternative form of expression –blogs give different views on news ignored by the main media-. Activists, political parties, organizations and citizens use websites, blogs or wikis as a means to insist and create opinion. TICs and cooperative tools of Web 2.0 increase people’s interest in politics, individual commitment and participation and cause political mediators to disappear. This paper presents a reflection on the impact of TICs on the theory of politics, and the results of a quantitative analysis of cases from the observation of how TICs are used on the social platform “Nunca Máis”, as well as by the autonomous government Xunta de Galicia, the Parliament of Galicia and the political party Bloque Nacionalista Galego.

  13. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  14. Maximising meaning : Creating a learning environment for reading comprehension of informative texts from a Vygotskian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijk, Y.; Volman, M.; de Haan, D.; van Oers, B.

    Sociocultural theories based on the work of Vygotsky have been increasingly influential in educational sciences. Developmental education (DE) is a pedagogical approach based on Vygotskian theory that has inspired primary schools in the Netherlands to change the learning environment innovatively in a

  15. Key strategies for predictive exploration in mature environment: model innovation, exploration technology optimization and information integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang-ming; PENG Sheng-lin

    2005-01-01

    Prediction has become more and more difficult in mineral exploration, especially in the mature exploration environment such as Tongling copper district. For enhancing predictive discovery of hidden ore deposits in such mature environment, the key strategies which should be adopted include the innovation of the exploration models, application of the advanced exploration techniques and integration of multiple sets of information. The innovation of the exploration models should incorporate the new metallogenic concepts that are based on the geodynamic anatomization. The advanced techniques applied in the mature exploration environment should aim at the speciality and complexity of the geological setting and working environments. The information synthesis is to integrate multiple sets of data for giving a more credible and visual prospectivity map by using the geographic imformation system(GIS) and several mathematical methods, such as weight of evidence and fuzzy logic, which can extract useful information from every set of data as much as possible. Guided by these strategies, a predictive exploration in Fenghuangshan ore field of Tongling copper district was implemented, and a hidden ore deposit was discovered.

  16. Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) and Eco-Environment Response to LUCC in Farming-Pastoral Zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Hui-mei; REN Zhi-yuan

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand land use/land cover changes (LUCC) and the eco-environment response to LUCC in farming-pastoral zone of the northern China during the recent twenty years, Baotou prefecture was selected as a case study area for investigation and quantitative evaluation. Technologies of remote sensing (RS), global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS), and other statistical methods were employed to implement. Results showed that: (1) During the recent twenty years, the areas of forest lands, grasslands and water were reduced, whereas the areas of other types were enlarged. Parts of forest lands, grasslands, and waters had become farmlands, and about 31.5% of the changed grasslands transferred into unused lands. The newly increased farmlands mainly came from grasslands and unused lands. And the newly increased construction lands mainly came from grasslands and farmlands. (2) Regional eco-environmental quality decreased by 12.6%, for which the land degradation (especially the meadow degeneration) and the developing of the cultivated land were mainly responsible, and their contributions to the regional eco-environment changes were 51.84 and 23.63% respectively. (3) The tendency of LUCC and the coo-environment response to LUCC displayed spatial heterogeneity. It can be concluded that the present agricultural production mode was not sustainable in farming-pastoral zone of northern China. Land degradation, especially meadow degradation induced by over-trarnpling and overgrazing, and developing of cultivated land were mainly responsible for regional eco-environment deterioration. Changing the cultivated land to forest or grass, however, can relieve deterioration of local coo-environment to some extents. And in the farming-pastoral zone in the northern China, evaluating regional coo-environment responses to LUCC was very necessary due to its fragile coo-environments.

  17. Integration of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of a natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFiehler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with our environment we generally make use of egocentric and allocentric object information by coding object positions relative to the observer or relative to the environment, respectively. Bayesian theories suggest that the brain integrates both sources of information optimally for perception and action. However, experimental evidence for egocentric and allocentric integration is sparse and has only been studied using abstract stimuli lacking ecological relevance. Here, we investigated the use of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of naturalistic scenes. Participants encoded a breakfast scene containing six objects on a table (local objects and three objects in the environment (global objects. After a 2s delay, a visual test scene reappeared for 1s in which one local object was missing (=target and of the remaining, one, three or five local objects or one of the global objects were shifted to the left or to the right. The offset of the test scene prompted participants to reach to the target as precisely as possible. Only local objects served as potential reach targets and thus were task-relevant. When shifting objects we predicted accurate reaching if participants only used egocentric coding of object position and systematic shifts of reach endpoints if allocentric information were used for movement planning. We found that reaching movements were largely affected by allocentric shifts showing an increase in endpoint errors in the direction of object shifts with the number of local objects shifted. No effect occurred when one local or one global object was shifted. Our findings suggest that allocentric cues are indeed used by the brain for memory-guided reaching towards targets in naturalistic visual scenes. Moreover, the integration of egocentric and allocentric object information seems to depend on the extent of changes in the scene.

  18. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  19. The Carrier Arms Race in East and South Asia: Responses to a Changing Strategic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    is indicative of the evolving naval strategic environment in the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean. Most Asian states have long refrained from...I NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE CARRIER ARMS...RACE IN EAST AND SOUTH ASIA: RESPONSES TO A CHANGING STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT by Christian P. Richer September 2014 Thesis Advisor

  20. Adaptive management of irrigated rice in the changing environments of the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Alternate wetting and drying, Climate change adaptation, Crop growth simulation models, Genotype × environment interaction, N use efficiency,  Oryza sativa L., Phenology, Sahelian irrigation schemes, Sowing date, Spikelet sterility, Temperature increase, Water productivity, Wee

  1. Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Miguel Chevin

    Full Text Available Many species are experiencing sustained environmental change mainly due to human activities. The unusual rate and extent of anthropogenic alterations of the environment may exceed the capacity of developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms that populations have evolved to deal with environmental change. To begin to understand the limits to population persistence, we present a simple evolutionary model for the critical rate of environmental change beyond which a population must decline and go extinct. We use this model to highlight the major determinants of extinction risk in a changing environment, and identify research needs for improved predictions based on projected changes in environmental variables. Two key parameters relating the environment to population biology have not yet received sufficient attention. Phenotypic plasticity, the direct influence of environment on the development of individual phenotypes, is increasingly considered an important component of phenotypic change in the wild and should be incorporated in models of population persistence. Environmental sensitivity of selection, the change in the optimum phenotype with the environment, still crucially needs empirical assessment. We use environmental tolerance curves and other examples of ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to illustrate how these mechanistic approaches can be developed for predictive purposes.

  2. Information Environment is an Integral Element of Informational Space in the Process of Professional Development of Future Teacher of Physical Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Dragnev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines information environment as an integral element of information space in the process of professional development of future teacher of physical culture, notes that the strategic objective of the system of higher education is training of competent future teacher of physical culture in the field of information technologies, when information competence and information culture are major components of professionalism in modern information-oriented society

  3. The Impact of Complexity, Rate of Change and Information Availability on the Production Planning and Control Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Assen (Marcel); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe organizational theory literature argues that the more uncertain the environment, the more likely the firm’s operational decision structure is decentralized. However, it remains unclear which uncertainty dimensions (i.e. complexity, rate of change and lack of information) impacts the

  4. The Impact of Complexity, Rate of Change and Information Availability on the Production Planning and Control Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Assen (Marcel); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe organizational theory literature argues that the more uncertain the environment, the more likely the firm’s operational decision structure is decentralized. However, it remains unclear which uncertainty dimensions (i.e. complexity, rate of change and lack of information) impacts the

  5. Helminths of Murres (Alcidae: Uria spp.): markers of ecological change in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2009-07-01

    Seabirds are prominent components of the North Atlantic marine environment, and their parasites offer an insight into seabird ecologic interactions. Parasites also provide vital information on historic biogeography of host associations and thus may reveal broad changes in the marine ecosystem. Helminths of Common Murres (Uria aalge) and Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) in the northwest Atlantic marine environment were assessed to determine parasite community composition and changes in their parasite fauna since the 1960s. In total, 623 helminths, representing Digenea, Eucestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala, were recorded from 100 Common and Thick-billed Murres collected from breeding colonies along the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland, and Greenland. Parasite communities differed from those reported from the 1960s, and over 85% of the specimens were tapeworms (mostly in the genus Alcataenia). The high prevalence (26%) and mean intensity (14.6) of A. longicervica, a Pacific species recorded recently from Newfoundland, indicates that this tapeworm was established in the Atlantic by 2006. Significantly higher A. longicervica prevalence (>53%) and mean intensity (27.3) in the murres from Greenland and in wintering murres compared to murres from breeding colonies in Labrador and Newfoundland suggest a mechanism for the introduction of this species to the Atlantic. Periodic mixing of populations of Thysanoessa species, the euphausiid intermediate host of Alcataenia, occurs along the seas adjacent to the North Pacific and those along the Siberian Arctic. The mixing of infected Thysanoessa likely exposed North Atlantic and Arctic murres, which are geographically isolated from Pacific murres, to this tapeworm. The greater prevalence of A. longicervica in Thick-billed Murres was consistent with diet analyses, which revealed a greater proportion of euphausiids.

  6. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Engelhart, D.; Maier, A.B.; Schouten, A.C.; Kooij, van der H.; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing

  7. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, Jantsje; Pasma, J.H.; Engelhart, Denise; Maier, A.B.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; van der Kooij, Herman; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing

  8. A vector-product information retrieval system adapted to heterogeneous, distributed computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Vector-product information retrieval (IR) systems produce retrieval results superior to all other searching methods but presently have no commercial implementations beyond the personal computer environment. The NASA Electronic Library Systems (NELS) provides a ranked list of the most likely relevant objects in collections in response to a natural language query. Additionally, the system is constructed using standards and tools (Unix, X-Windows, Notif, and TCP/IP) that permit its operation in organizations that possess many different hosts, workstations, and platforms. There are no known commercial equivalents to this product at this time. The product has applications in all corporate management environments, particularly those that are information intensive, such as finance, manufacturing, biotechnology, and research and development.

  9. Integrating INIS into a high energy physics information environment thoughts from CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Yeomans, Joanne; Baudic, Romain; Picchioli, Ingrid; International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management : Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development. Special Session : The Role of INIS in Knowledge Preservation

    2004-01-01

    Information searchers from the high energy physics community expect an integrated information environment. The CERN Library offers its print and electronic collections through a combined Web interface and maintains the database by semi-automated processes to upload bibliographic and full-text records. Suggestions are offered by which INIS could develop its own Web interface and better match HEP users’ expectations. These include implementing full-text linking, increasing currency, expanding search and display functions and developing the richness of the data. Links with the National Nuclear Data Center and Crossref could also increase its visibility.

  10. A Method for Evaluating Information Security Governance (ISG) Components in Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, M.; Ula, M.; Fuadi, W.

    2017-02-01

    As modern banking increasingly relies on the internet and computer technologies to operate their businesses and market interactions, the threats and security breaches have highly increased in recent years. Insider and outsider attacks have caused global businesses lost trillions of Dollars a year. Therefore, that is a need for a proper framework to govern the information security in the banking system. The aim of this research is to propose and design an enhanced method to evaluate information security governance (ISG) implementation in banking environment. This research examines and compares the elements from the commonly used information security governance frameworks, standards and best practices. Their strength and weakness are considered in its approaches. The initial framework for governing the information security in banking system was constructed from document review. The framework was categorized into three levels which are Governance level, Managerial level, and technical level. The study further conducts an online survey for banking security professionals to get their professional judgment about the ISG most critical components and the importance for each ISG component that should be implemented in banking environment. Data from the survey was used to construct a mathematical model for ISG evaluation, component importance data used as weighting coefficient for the related component in the mathematical model. The research further develops a method for evaluating ISG implementation in banking based on the mathematical model. The proposed method was tested through real bank case study in an Indonesian local bank. The study evidently proves that the proposed method has sufficient coverage of ISG in banking environment and effectively evaluates the ISG implementation in banking environment.

  11. An integrated geographic information system approach for modeling the suitability of conifer habitat in an alpine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine periglacial environments within the forest-alpine tundra ecotone (FATE) may be among the first to reflect changes in habitat characteristics as a consequence of climatic change. Previous FATE studies used Integrated Geographic Information System (IGIS) techniques to collect and model biophysical data but lacked the necessary detail to model the micro-scale patterns and compositions of habitat within alpine periglacial environments. This paper describes several promising data collection, integration, and cartographic modeling techniques used in an IGIS approach to model alpine periglacial environments in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. High-resolution (I X I m) multi-spectral remote sensing data and differentially corrected Global Positioning System (DGPS) data were integrated with other biophysical data using a raster-based IGIS approach. Biophysical factors, hypothesized to influence the pattern and composition of the FATE and the alpine tundra ecosystem, were derived from the high-resolution remote sensing data, in-situ GPS data, high-resolution models of digital elevation, and other thematic data using image processing techniques and cartographic modeling. Suitability models of conifer habitat were created using indices generated from the IGIS database. This IGIS approach identified suitable conifer habitat within the FATE and permitted the modeling of micro-scale periglacial features and alpine tundra communities that are absent from traditional approaches of landscape-scale (30 X 30 m) modeling.

  12. Global and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Changes in Library and Information Studies (LIS): Information Seeking Behaviors of LIS Faculty Members in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polparsi, Jomkwan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an overview of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Library and Information Studies (LIS) education in Thailand, focusing on challenges and pressures in the information environment of Thai LIS faculty members. This study employed a qualitative research approach, naturalistic inquiry, and inductive data analysis.…

  13. Electronic Informational and Educational Environment as a Factor of Competence-Oriented Higher Pedagogical Education in the Sphere of Health, Safety and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerilova, Galina S.; Kartavykh, Marina A.; Ageeva, Elena L.; Veryaskina, Marina A.; Ruban, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the question of computerisation in health, safety and environment teachers' training in the context of the general approaches and requirements of the Federal National Standard of Higher Education, which is realised through designing of electronic informational and educational environment. The researchers argue indispensability…

  14. Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify future monitoring and research needs, a COST Strategic workshop on the role of "Forest ecosystems in a changing environment" assembled nearly 180 scientists from 30 countries in Istanbul on 11-13 March 2008. The workshop specifically tackled the fields of climate change and forests, ozone, atmospheric deposition and critical loads, biodiversity, as well as quality assurance in forest monitoring.

  15. USMC Contingency Contracting Force: An Analysis of Transient Officers in a Rapidly Changing Acquisition Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    due to the highly technical and frequently changing regulations that govern contracting operations. Figure 2. Question 2 Survey Response Chart ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT USMC CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING FORCE: AN ANALYSIS OF...CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING FORCE: AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT OFFICERS IN A RAPIDLY CHANGING ACQUISITION ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam

  16. Managing Evolution and Change in Web-Based Teaching and Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the design and maintenance of computer-based teaching and learning environments and illustrates consequences of evolution and change in Web-based courses. Focuses on changes in content; format of the course; infrastructure, including hardware, systems, and software; and pedagogy, or instructional design, including knowledge modeling,…

  17. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how diff

  18. Communication in troubled waters : responses of fish communication systems to changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, Inke; Gray, Suzanne M.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.; Barber, Iain; Candolin, Ulrika; Hendry, Andrew P.; Krahe, Ruediger; Maan, Martine E.; Utne-Palm, Anne Christine; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly being subjected to anthropogenic changes to their sensory environments. The impact of these changes on inter- and intra-specific communication, and its evolutionary consequences, has only recently started to receive research attention. A disruption of the sensory en

  19. Vulnerability of the Barents Sea environment to climate changes: a review of the current assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfan, A.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.

    2009-07-15

    Authors' conclusion: Climate change is not considered to be just 'one more stress' on the ecosystem, but rather it will create complex and dynamic changes in the environment that may alter the level of its vulnerability. Cumulative effects can be defined as changes to the environment that are caused by an action in combination with other past, present and future human actions (Environment Canada 2003). The magnitude and effects of multiple stresses can be equal to the sum of the individual effects (additive effects) or they may strengthen or weaken each other (positive or negative feedbacks). To understand complex interactions within the system atmosphere-land surface-ocean at regional scales and to assess influence of the environmental changes on the ecological conditions, sophisticated models should be developed allowing to account for regional peculiarities of these systems. Development of such models is considered as one of the main challenge of the Earth system science. (author)

  20. CAVE2: a hybrid reality environment for immersive simulation and information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febretti, Alessandro; Nishimoto, Arthur; Thigpen, Terrance; Talandis, Jonas; Long, Lance; Pirtle, J. D.; Peterka, Tom; Verlo, Alan; Brown, Maxine; Plepys, Dana; Sandin, Dan; Renambot, Luc; Johnson, Andrew; Leigh, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid Reality Environments represent a new kind of visualization spaces that blur the line between virtual environments and high resolution tiled display walls. This paper outlines the design and implementation of the CAVE2TM Hybrid Reality Environment. CAVE2 is the world's first near-seamless flat-panel-based, surround-screen immersive system. Unique to CAVE2 is that it will enable users to simultaneously view both 2D and 3D information, providing more flexibility for mixed media applications. CAVE2 is a cylindrical system of 24 feet in diameter and 8 feet tall, and consists of 72 near-seamless, off-axisoptimized passive stereo LCD panels, creating an approximately 320 degree panoramic environment for displaying information at 37 Megapixels (in stereoscopic 3D) or 74 Megapixels in 2D and at a horizontal visual acuity of 20/20. Custom LCD panels with shifted polarizers were built so the images in the top and bottom rows of LCDs are optimized for vertical off-center viewing- allowing viewers to come closer to the displays while minimizing ghosting. CAVE2 is designed to support multiple operating modes. In the Fully Immersive mode, the entire room can be dedicated to one virtual simulation. In 2D model, the room can operate like a traditional tiled display wall enabling users to work with large numbers of documents at the same time. In the Hybrid mode, a mixture of both 2D and 3D applications can be simultaneously supported. The ability to treat immersive work spaces in this Hybrid way has never been achieved before, and leverages the special abilities of CAVE2 to enable researchers to seamlessly interact with large collections of 2D and 3D data. To realize this hybrid ability, we merged the Scalable Adaptive Graphics Environment (SAGE) - a system for supporting 2D tiled displays, with Omegalib - a virtual reality middleware supporting OpenGL, OpenSceneGraph and Vtk applications.

  1. Changes in Students' Science Ability Produced by Multimedia Learning Environments: Application of the Linear Logistic Model for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; McGee, Steven; Howard, Bruce C.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to measure changes in students' science proficiency produced by a multimedia learning environment. Describes the inquiry-based design of Astronomy Village, which supports middle school students in learning fundamental concepts in life, earth, and physical sciences. Results indicate sizable treatment effects for two…

  2. The changing role of the health care chief information officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M

    2000-09-01

    Information is the lifeblood of the health care organization. In the past, chief information officers were responsible for nothing else but assuring a constant flow of information. Today, they are being asked to do a great deal more. From E-business to E-health strategy, the chief information officer is the focal point of an organization's ability to leverage new technology.

  3. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  4. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  5. Population dynamics of mottled sculpin (PISCES) in a variable environment: information theoretic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E Ratajczak; J. Todd Petty; Mark D. Hunter; James T. Peterson; Gael Grenouillet

    2006-01-01

    We used strong inference with Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the processes capable of explaining long-term (1984-1995) variation in the per capita rate of change of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) populations in the Coweeta Creek drainage (USA). We sampled two fourth- and one fifth-order sites (BCA [uppermost], BCB, and CC [lowermost])...

  6. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  7. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  8. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  9. The future of marketing: an appropriate response to the environment changes

    OpenAIRE

    Victor DANCIU

    2013-01-01

    The future landscape of the business worldwide will have the marketing evolutions as a driver. These evolutions will be the response to the changes of business and marketing environment. The paper aims to analyze both the key trends that are shaping the macro environment, markets and consumers and their impact on the marketing at business level. First, these issues are presented as they result of both theoretical and applied various researches performed by numerous international and national ...

  10. A model for assessing information technology effectiveness in the business environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Riascos Erazo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technology on administrative processes has improved business strategies (especially regarding the e-ffect of information technology - IT, often leading to organisational success. Its effectiveness in this environment was thus modelled due to such importance; this paper describes studying a series of models aimed at assessing IT, its ad-vantages and disadvantages. A model is proposed involving different aspects for an integral assessment of IT effecti-veness and considering administrative activities’ particular characteristics. This analytical study provides guidelines for identifying IT effectiveness in a business environment and current key strategies in technological innovation. This stu-dy was based on ISO 9126, ISO 9001, ISO 15939 and ISO 25000 standards as well as COBIT and CMM stan-dards.

  11. 76 FR 24570 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance-Change of Address Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance--Change of Address Statement... Mortgage Life Insurance. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed collection of... information technology. Title: Veterans Mortgage Life Insurance--Change of Address Statement, VA Form...

  12. 77 FR 325 - Proposed Information Collection (Certification of Change or Correction of Name, Government Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Government Life Insurance policies. Affected Public: Individuals or households. Estimated Annual Burden: 20... information technology. Title: Certification of Change or Correction of Name, Government Life Insurance, VA... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Certification of Change or Correction of Name, Government...

  13. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change.

  14. Information Literacy in the Changing Landscape of Distance Learning: The Collaborative Design of a Flexible, Digital, Asynchronous Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Reichart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a case study of the collaborative development of an information literacy course for students enrolled in an online, proprietary college. This credit-bearing course was created in accordance with ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education as well as the newly adopted Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. The course treats information literacy as a meta-competency that encourages students to explore a variety of research tools, from social media to scholarly journals, and to develop critical thinking and research skills. In order to incorporate current best practices in information literacy pedagogy into the course itself, institutional factors needed to be addressed; these factors are reviewed here. This paper also explores implications for the future of the course, including assessment, the need to constantly adapt to the changing needs of students, and the ever-changing digital environment.

  15. Neurally and ocularly informed graph-based models for searching 3D environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangraw, David C.; Wang, Jun; Lance, Brent J.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Sajda, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Objective. As we move through an environment, we are constantly making assessments, judgments and decisions about the things we encounter. Some are acted upon immediately, but many more become mental notes or fleeting impressions—our implicit ‘labeling’ of the world. In this paper, we use physiological correlates of this labeling to construct a hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) system for efficient navigation of a 3D environment. Approach. First, we record electroencephalographic (EEG), saccadic and pupillary data from subjects as they move through a small part of a 3D virtual city under free-viewing conditions. Using machine learning, we integrate the neural and ocular signals evoked by the objects they encounter to infer which ones are of subjective interest to them. These inferred labels are propagated through a large computer vision graph of objects in the city, using semi-supervised learning to identify other, unseen objects that are visually similar to the labeled ones. Finally, the system plots an efficient route to help the subjects visit the ‘similar’ objects it identifies. Main results. We show that by exploiting the subjects’ implicit labeling to find objects of interest instead of exploring naively, the median search precision is increased from 25% to 97%, and the median subject need only travel 40% of the distance to see 84% of the objects of interest. We also find that the neural and ocular signals contribute in a complementary fashion to the classifiers’ inference of subjects’ implicit labeling. Significance. In summary, we show that neural and ocular signals reflecting subjective assessment of objects in a 3D environment can be used to inform a graph-based learning model of that environment, resulting in an hBCI system that improves navigation and information delivery specific to the user’s interests.

  16. Effects of lipid environment on the conformational changes of an ABC importer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Austin J; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-01-01

    In order to shuttle substrates across the lipid bilayer, membrane proteins undergo a series of conformation changes that are influenced by protein structure, ligands, and the lipid environment. To test the effect of lipid on conformation change of the ABC transporter MolBC, EPR studies were conducted in lipids and detergents of variable composition. In both a detergent and lipid environment, MolBC underwent the same general conformation changes as detected by site-directed EPR spectroscopy. However, differences in activity and the details of the EPR analysis indicate conformational rigidity that is dependent on the lipid environment. From these observations, we conclude that native-like lipid mixtures provide the transporter with greater activity and conformational flexibility as well as technical advantages such as reconstitution efficiency and protein stability.

  17. A behavioral framework for capturing emotional information in an internet of things environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Ferreira, Fernando; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    Life in modern societies implies a close relationship with many types of devices. The diversity of such devices has impact in diverse areas of our life as some provide support for management tasks, others just provide information, and most of them follow us anywhere and anytime. The more widespread example is mobile phones, but others also follow us, like our music devices or even our car with many electronic systems. In a recent past a phone was something to talk with others and a car was just a vehicle, with an engine, to allow displacement of people and goods. A phone would support voice conversation and a car had the equipment needed to take us to some destination. But these days all those devices and vehicles have computer equipment and some include complex functions and sensory abilities. We cannot question how useful those devices are for every day's activities but it is questionable how those devices respect our nature and address our needs of perceptive and emotive human beings. How far can those devices retrieve information about our nature, and our feelings, and what kind of information and reasoning those devices can provide to users? The proposed framework, by capturing and managing sensorial and physiological information, will feed information that enable the reasoning of emotional knowledge in an IoT environment.

  18. Population transcriptomics uncovers the regulation of gene expression variation in adaptation to changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin; Zhu, Caiyun; Fan, Yangyang; Song, Zhihong; Xing, Shilai; Liu, Wei; Yan, Juan; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Expression variation plays an important role in plant adaptation, but little is known about the factors impacting the expression variation when population adapts to changing environment. We used RNA-seq data from 80 individuals in 14 Miscanthus lutarioriparius populations, which were transplanted into a harsh environment from native habitat, to investigate the expression level, expression diversity and genetic diversity for genes expressed in both environments. The expression level of genes with lower expression level or without SNP tended to be more changeable in new environment, which suggested highly expressed genes experienced stronger purifying selection than those at lower level. Low proportion of genes with population effect confirmed the weak population structure and frequent gene flow in these populations. Meanwhile, the number of genes with environment effect was the most frequent compared with that with population effect. Our results showed that environment and genetic diversity were the main factors determining gene expression variation in population. This study could facilitate understanding the mechanisms of global gene expression variation when plant population adapts to changing environment. PMID:27150248

  19. Information and Communication Technologies in Schools A Handbook for Teachers or How ICT Can Create New, Open Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Güzel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies in Schools, a Handbook for Teachers or How ICT can Create New, Open Learning Environments delivers very detailed presentation and utilization of ICT in education. This publication is very good resource to teachers and teacher educators. In reviewing this book, the first thing that attracts the readers’ attention is the layout of the publication. Content, organization, and reference sources are efficient enough for this publication which aims to help teachers while forming new, open learning environments with ICT. However, the cover page image and watermark image in the first nine pages are not very relevant with use of ICT in education. Globe in the UNESCO Headquarter garden and the Eiffel Tower doesn’t make any sense with ICT. Instead of this image, more convenient image could have been selected.   This publication allows the reader to easily follow the use of ICT in the classroom by giving authentic examples. The book is divided into seven chapters and first chapter starts with the background information of the ICT. Second chapter explains very detailed ICT tools used for education. Some tools mentioned in this chapter under storage title have already been outdated. It shows that how fast technology changes and how fast it wears out the old technology. Third chapter mentions about the change in learning environment with the use of ICT by examining it from teachers’ and students’ view. In the fourth chapter, it proposes new pedagogical methods in learning and teaching. In my opinion, this chapter is foremost part of this publication. It explains the organization of the learning process with the use of ICT and examples are can easily be implemented in classrooms. Fifth Chapter describes the place of ICT in school learning activities. This chapter also defines how to structure ICT in school curricula. It gives very good examples but these examples do not relate directly to the teachers because

  20. Changes in the built environment and changes in the amount of walking over time: longitudinal results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Moore, Kari A; Clarke, Philippa J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Brines, Shannon J; Zagorski, Melissa A; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-10-15

    Lack of longitudinal research hinders causal inference on the association between the built environment and walking. In the present study, we used data from 6,027 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were 45-84 years of age at baseline to investigate the association of neighborhood built environment with trends in the amount of walking between 2000 and 2012. Walking for transportation and walking for leisure were assessed at baseline and at 3 follow-up visits (median follow-up = 9.15 years). Time-varying built environment measures (measures of population density, land use, number of destinations, bus access, and street connectivity) were created using geographic information systems. We used linear mixed models to estimate the associations between baseline levels of and a change in each built environment feature and a change in the frequency of walking. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that higher baseline levels of population density, area zoned for retail, social destinations, walking destinations, and street connectivity were associated with greater increases in walking for transportation over time. Higher baseline levels of land zoned for residential use and distance to buses were associated with less pronounced increases (or decreases) in walking for transportation over time. Increases in the number of social destinations, the number of walking destinations, and street connectivity over time were associated with greater increases in walking for transportation. Higher baseline levels of both land zoned for retail and walking destinations were associated with greater increases in leisure walking, but no changes in built environment features were associated with leisure walking. The creation of mixed-use, dense developments may encourage adults to incorporate walking for transportation into their everyday lives.