WorldWideScience

Sample records for changing information environment

  1. The Changing Information Needs of Users in Electronic Information Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Gashaw

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the information needs of users that are changing as a results of changes in the availability of information content in electronic form. Highlights the trend and nature of the physical form in which information content is currently being made available for users' access and use in electronic information environments. (Author/LRW)

  2. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tduplessis

    opportunities for research into constitutional issues, constitutional development and the relationship ... Legal research is a fundamental skill in the legal profession.9 Although all areas of law do not require ..... 1999 Legal RSQ 78. 56 In the print information environment lawyers use standard citation formats, e.g. X v Z 1999.

  3. Evolving information systems: meeting the ever-changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, J.L.H.; Proper, H.A.; Falkenberg, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    To meet the demands of organizations and their ever-changing environment, information systems are required which are able to evolve to the same extent as organizations do. Such a system has to support changes in all time-and application-dependent aspects. In this paper, requirements and a conceptual

  4. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ashley A.; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2010-01-01

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted.

  5. The changing information environment for nanotechnology: online audiences and content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ashley A., E-mail: aaanderson3@wisc.edu; Brossard, Dominique; Scheufele, Dietram A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Life Sciences Communication (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The shift toward online communication in all realms, from print newspapers to broadcast television, has implications for how the general public consumes information about nanotechnology. The goal of this study is threefold: to investigate who is using online sources for information and news about science and nanotechnology, to examine what the general public is searching for online with regards to nanotechnology, and to analyze what they find in online content of nanotechnology. Using survey data, we find those who report the Internet as their primary source of science and technology news are diverse in age, more knowledgeable about science and nanotechnology, highly educated, male, and more diverse racially than users of other media. In a comparison of demographic data on actual visits by online users to general news and science Web sites, science sites attracted more male, non-white users from the Western region of the United States than news sites did. News sites, on the other hand, attracted those with a slightly higher level of education. Our analysis of published estimates of keyword searches on nanotechnology reveals people are turning to the Internet to search for keyword searches related to the future, health, and applications of nanotechnology. A content analysis of online content reveals health content dominates overall. Comparisons of content in different types of sites-blogs, government, and general sites-are conducted.

  6. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  7. Long-term changes of information environments and computer anxiety of nurse administrators in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Yukie; Izumi, Takako

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, medical information systems, including electronic medical records, are being introduced increasingly at medical and nursing fields. Nurse administrators, who are involved in the introduction of medical information systems and who must make proper judgment, are particularly required to have at least minimal knowledge of computers and networks and the ability to think about easy-to-use medical information systems. However, few of the current generation of nurse administrators studied information science subjects in their basic education curriculum. It can be said that information education for nurse administrators has become a pressing issue. Consequently, in this study, we conducted a survey of participants taking the first level program of the education course for Japanese certified nurse administrators to ascertain the actual conditions, such as the information environments that nurse administrators are in, their anxiety attitude to computers. Comparisons over the seven years since 2004 revealed that although introduction of electronic medical records in hospitals was progressing, little change in attributes of participants taking the course was observed, such as computer anxiety.

  8. Information Space, Information Field, Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes information space, information field and information environment; shows that information space can be natural and artificial; information field is substantive and processual object and articulates the space property; information environment is concerned with some object and acts as the surrounding in relation to it and is considered with regard to it. It enables to define information environment as a subset of information space. It defines its passive description. Information environment can also be defined as a subset of information field. It corresponds to its active description.

  9. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  10. TV programming in times of changing political communication: a longitudinal analysis of the political information environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the quantity of political information often tends to evaluate television negatively since it became a widely used mass medium. Systematic data on the supply and proportion of political information on television, however, are scarce. This research fills this gap by presenting a

  11. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  12. Environments of change: a design solution for an informal settlement in Mamelodi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gottsmann, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available new expanding urban fabric giving direction to future township development. Public space shaped by the architectural intervention is essential as a socio-economic stimulus inviting private informally-run micro-enterprises to operate within certain...

  13. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and

  14. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  15. Evolution in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Florien A.

    2017-01-01

    Directional environmental change in the form of global climate change and human-induced pollution is one of the most pressing problems facing society today. While species can sometimes adapt to such change by means of phenotypic plasticity and range shifts, there is considerable concern that

  16. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

  17. 2012 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  18. 2013 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  19. Does Information Change Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.

  20. Information retrieval in digital environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dinet, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval is a central and essential activity. It is indeed difficult to find a human activity that does not need to retrieve information in an environment which is often increasingly digital: moving and navigating, learning, having fun, communicating, informing, making a decision, etc. Most human activities are intimately linked to our ability to search quickly and effectively for relevant information, the stakes are sometimes extremely important: passing an exam, voting, finding a job, remaining autonomous, being socially connected, developing a critical spirit, or simply surviv

  1. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vacuum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 10 particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10 - 6 tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorption pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described

  2. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vaccum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 10 particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10 -6 tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorbtion pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described

  3. Environment, information divide and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Design of human environment is to be made with understanding human-human and human-environment relations and environmental behaviors of human beings, artifacts and natural things and overcoming their differences and contradictions. Information divide exists naturally due to various differences of human beings. Many problems in the area of nuclear energy seem to be derived from various differences and contradictions in central-local interests, between the particles concerned and unconcerned and also in human being-artifacts relations. In order to harmonize nuclear energy with the society, it is necessary to vanish differences and solve contradictions with redesigning environments of those problems in their context. Case studies are highly recommended with continuous efforts to develop more universal design methodology. Open access to information and data in science and technology is encouraged in the area of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  4. The changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, G.

    1999-01-01

    The role and value of regulation in the energy sector was discussed, demonstrating how, despite common perception, regulation is an essential part of Canada's strategy to find and develop new opportunities. The future vision of regulation for industry participants was presented with particular focus on issues related to streamlining the regulatory process. As far as pipelines are concerned, regulatory actions are necessary to facilitate capacity increases and to ensure the line's integrity, safety and environmental record. Furthermore, regulation provides economic solutions where market forces cannot provide them, as for example where business has elements of monopoly. It arbitrates interests of landowners, business, consumers, and environmental groups. It looks for ways to ensure conditions under which competition can flourish. It acts as the guardian of citizens' rights in a democratic society by providing citizens with an opportunity to be heard on the building or expansion of pipelines and associated facilities. As citizens become more and more concerned about their property and the land that surrounds them, citizen involvement in decision making about how industry activity affects their quality of life will become correspondingly more important. Regulatory agencies are committed to facilitate this engagement by flexible hearing procedures and by making use of evolving communication and information technology

  5. Institutional Change in a Higher Education Environment: Factors in the Adoption and Sustainability of Information Technology Project Management Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTourneau, John

    2012-01-01

    The public higher education economic and competitive environments make it crucial that organizations react to the circumstances and make better use of available resources (Duderstadt, 2000; Floyd, 2008; Shulman, 2007; State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO), 2009). Viewing higher education through the perspective of new institutionalism…

  6. Changes in Primary Students' Informal Reasoning during an Environment-Related Curriculum on Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies emphasize the importance of learning science while considering multiple perspectives on environment, society, economy, and technology, which allows learners to relate what they do in the classroom to the world beyond. In this study, 68 12-year-old primary students from 1 Malaysian school were followed while they engaged in a science…

  7. Climate change, environment and development

    OpenAIRE

    Okereke, Chukwumerije; Massaquoi, Abu-Bakar S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, a quintessential environmental problem, is generally recognised as the most important development challenge in the 21st century (IPCC, 2014). In addition to acknowledging its many significant direct consequences, climate change is increasingly used to frame discussions on other important global challenges, such as health, energy and food security. This chapter provides understanding of the intricate and complex relationship between climate change, environment and development.

  8. UNDERSTANDING INFORMAL CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Griffin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  9. Using Spatial Videos, Google Earthtm and Geographic Information System to Dynamically Monitor Built Environment Changes In a Challenging Environment: Baghdad, Iraq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husham AbdMunaf Atta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion and its environmental and safety effects are one of the critical information needed for future development planning, safety considerations and environmental management. This work used two methods to monitor urban expansion and it's environmental and safety effects, the first is based on Google Maps for the years 2002 and 2010, and the second was the usage of spatial videos for the year 2013. Although the usage of satellite images is critical to know and investigate the general situation and the total effects of the expansion on a large piece of area, but the Spatial videos do a very detailed fine scale investigation, site conditions regarding both environmental and safety cannot be easily distinguished from satellite images .Another advantage of spatial videos is new houses can be recognized and separated visually even if they are attached or derived from one house. This article shows that the working conditions for the workers do not comply with the standards especially their health and safety procedures. Also the municipality services are at the lowest level because of all the debris left in the street , lack of regulation and law enforcement that protect the health of neighborhood residents.

  10. Information Assurance Security in the Information Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.

  11. ENERGIC OD Geopan application using Virtual Hub: multi-temporal knowledge oriented information on built environment and riverbed changes to geologist community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, E.; Brumana, R.; Previtali, M., Jr.; Mazzetti, P., Sr.; Cuca, B., Sr.; Barazzetti, L., Sr.; Camagni, R.; Santoro, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Built Environment (BE) is intended as the sum of natural and human activities in dynamic transformations in the past, in the present and in the future: it calls for more informed decisions to face the challenging threats (climate change, natural hazards, anthropic pressures) by exploiting resilience, sustainable intervention and tackling societal opportunities, as heritage valorization and tourism acknowledgment; thus, it asks for awareness rising among circular reflective society. In the framework of ENERGIC OD project (EU Network for Redistributing Geographic Information - Open Data), this paper describes the implementation of an application (GeoPAN Atl@s app) addressed to improve a circular multi-temporal knowledge oriented generation of information, able to integrate and take in account historic and current maps, as well as products of satellite image processing to understand on course and on coming phenomena and relating them with the ones occurred in the ancient and recent past in a diachronic approach. The app is focused on riverbeds-BE and knowledge generation for the detection of their changes by involving geologist community and providing to other user the retrieved information (architects and urban planner, tourists and citizen). Here is described the implementation of the app interfaced with the ENERGIC OD Virtual Hub component, based on a brokering framework for OD discovery and access, to assure interoperability and integration of different datasets, wide spread cartographic products with huge granularity (national, regional environmental Risk Maps, i.e. PAI, on site local data, i.e. UAV data, or results of Copernicus Programme satellite data processing, i.e. object-based and time series image analysis for riverbed monitoring using Sentinel2): different sources, scales and formats, including historical maps needing metadata generation, and SHP data used by the geologist in their daily activities for hydrogeological analysis, to be both usable as

  12. Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Michel; de Donder, Erwin; Messios, Neophytos; Hetey, Laszlo; Calders, Stijn; Evans, Hugh; Daly, Eamonn

    SPENVIS is an ESA operational software developed and maintained at BIRA-IASB since 1996. It provides standardized access to most of the recent models of the hazardous space environment, through a user-friendly Web interface (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/). The system allows spacecraft engineers to perform a rapid analysis of environmental problems related to natural radiation belts, solar energetic particles, cosmic rays, plasmas, gases, magnetic fields and micro-particles. Various reporting and graphical utilities and extensive help facilities are included to allow engineers with relatively little familiarity to produce reliable results. SPENVIS also contains an active, integrated version of the ECSS Space Environment Standard and access to in-flight data on the space environment. Although SPENVIS in the first place is designed to help spacecraft designers, it is also used by technical universities in their educational programs. In the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme, SPENVIS will be part of the initial set of precursor services of the Space Weather segment. SPENVIS includes several engineering models to assess to effects of the space environment on spacecrafts such as surface and internal charging, energy deposition, solar cell damage and SEU rates. The presentation will review how such models could be connected to in situ measurements or forecasting models of the space environment in order to produce post event analysis or in orbit effects alert. The last developments and models implemented in SPENVIS will also be presented.

  13. Information Infrastructure, Information Environments, and Long-Term Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S.; Pennington, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Information infrastructure that supports collaborative science is a complex system of people, organizational arrangements, and tools that require co-management. Contemporary studies are exploring how to establish and characterize effective collaborative information environments. Collaboration depends on the flow of information across the human and technical system components through mechanisms that create linkages, both conceptual and technical. This transcends the need for requirements solicitation and usability studies, highlighting synergistic interactions between humans and technology that can lead to emergence of group level cognitive properties. We consider the ramifications of placing priority on establishing new metaphors and new types of learning environments located near-to-data-origin for the field sciences. In addition to changes in terms of participant engagement, there are implications in terms of innovative contributions to the design of information systems and data exchange. While data integration occurs in the minds of individual participants, it may be facilitated by collaborative thinking and community infrastructure. Existing learning frameworks - from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to organizational learning - require modification and extension if effective approaches to decentralized information management and systems design are to emerge. Case studies relating to data integration include ecological community projects: development of cross-disciplinary conceptual maps and of a community unit registry.

  14. Information needs changing over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show...

  15. Environment server. Digital field information archival technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Nobuyuki; Kita, Yasuyo; Yang, Hai-quan

    2002-01-01

    For the safety operation of nuclear power plants, it is important to store various information about plants for a long period and visualize those stored information as desired. The system called Environment Server is developed for realizing it. In this paper, the general concepts of Environment Server is explained and its partial implementation for archiving the image information gathered by inspection mobile robots into virtual world and visualizing them is described. An extension of Environment Server for supporting attention sharing is also briefly introduced. (author)

  16. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  17. Analysis of methods. [information systems evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard J. (Editor); Ackley, Keith A.; Wells, M. Sue; Mayer, Paula S. D.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Decker, Louis P.; Toland, Joel A.; Crump, J. Wesley; Menzel, Christopher P.; Bodenmiller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Information is one of an organization's most important assets. For this reason the development and maintenance of an integrated information system environment is one of the most important functions within a large organization. The Integrated Information Systems Evolution Environment (IISEE) project has as one of its primary goals a computerized solution to the difficulties involved in the development of integrated information systems. To develop such an environment a thorough understanding of the enterprise's information needs and requirements is of paramount importance. This document is the current release of the research performed by the Integrated Development Support Environment (IDSE) Research Team in support of the IISEE project. Research indicates that an integral part of any information system environment would be multiple modeling methods to support the management of the organization's information. Automated tool support for these methods is necessary to facilitate their use in an integrated environment. An integrated environment makes it necessary to maintain an integrated database which contains the different kinds of models developed under the various methodologies. In addition, to speed the process of development of models, a procedure or technique is needed to allow automatic translation from one methodology's representation to another while maintaining the integrity of both. The purpose for the analysis of the modeling methods included in this document is to examine these methods with the goal being to include them in an integrated development support environment. To accomplish this and to develop a method for allowing intra-methodology and inter-methodology model element reuse, a thorough understanding of multiple modeling methodologies is necessary. Currently the IDSE Research Team is investigating the family of Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) DEFinition (IDEF) languages IDEF(0), IDEF(1), and IDEF(1x), as well as ENALIM, Entity

  18. Improving the information environment for analysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    they have more information. Our results also show that intellectual capital disclosure related to employees and strategic statements are the most important disclosures for analysts. Research limitations/implications: More relevant methods, such as survey or interviews with management, may be used to improve...... the information content of intellectual capital disclosure. Analysts, probably, deduce intellectual capital of a firm from interaction with management rather than financial statements. Practical implications: Firms in biotechnology sector can improve their information environment by disclosing more information...

  19. Old Theories versus Changing Environment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    necessary. According to Herzberg, the classical approach to motivating personnel has con - ? cermed itself with the employee’s environment or the...factors will keep him from complaining; however, they will not make him work harder or more effec- tively. It’s sort of the "gold-plated sweatshop

  20. Thinking about the environment and theorising change: how could Life History Strategy Theory inform mHealth interventions in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Barak; Hunt, Xanthe; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature outlining the promise of mobile information and communication technologies to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts. We reviewed the literature related to mobile information and communication technologies which aim to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts, in order to glean general observations regarding the state of mHealth in high-income countries (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). mHealth interventions in LMIC often differ substantively from those in HIC, with the former being simpler, delivered through a single digital component (an SMS as opposed to a mobile phone application, or 'app'), and, as a result, targeting only one of the many factors which impact on the activation (or deactivation) of the target behaviour. Almost as a rule, LMIC mHealth interventions lack an explicit theory of change. We highlight the necessity, when designing mHealth interventions, of having a theory of change that encompasses multiple salient perspectives pertaining to human behaviour. To address this need, we explore whether the concept of Life History Strategy could provide the mHealth field with a useful theory of change. Life History Strategy Theory may be particularly useful in understanding some of the problems, paradoxes, and limitations of mHealth interventions found in LMIC. Specifically, this theory illuminates questions regarding 'light-weight' programmes which solely provide information, reminders, and other virtual 'nudges' that may have limited impact on behaviours governed by extrinsic structural factors.

  1. Opinion Change: Information or Partisanship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens K.; Klemmensen, Robert; Leavitt, Thomas

    Currently two paradigms seek to explain how voters change their opinion when they are confronted with new information. One school argues that voters are bayesian updaters who rationally change their opinion. Another school argues that voters are inherently biased in their evaluation of new...... information. According to this line of thought voters are more likely to accept information that con_rms their opinion compared to information that contradict their point of view. Using a quasi experiment we investigate the extent to which voters rely on bayesian updating or on motivated reasoning when...

  2. Changing international environments, business environments and energy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    Japan has grown up to an economic superpower with more than 10% of the world GNP. This means that Japan should bear a role to be a member to explore and contribute to the world of the future. In order to attain this, it is necessary to examine how the enterprises which are promoting and leading the Japanese economy are changing. It is also important to consider what Japan can contribute to the world, on the basis of the past experience as a minor power in the natural resources and the energy. (4 figs, 1 tab)

  3. Scalable Networked Information Processing Environment (SNIPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagg, G.E.; Moore, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-11-01

    SNIPE is a metacomputing system that aims to provide a reliable, secure, fault tolerant environment for long term distributed computing applications and data stores across the global Internet. This system combines global naming and replication of both processing and data to support large scale information processing applications leading to better availability and reliability than currently available with typical cluster computing and/or distributed computer environments.

  4. Thinking about the environment and theorising change: how could Life History Strategy Theory inform mHealth interventions in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Barak; Hunt, Xanthe; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is a growing body of literature outlining the promise of mobile information and communication technologies to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts. Methods: We reviewed the literature related to mobile information and communication technologies which aim to improve healthcare in resource-constrained contexts, in order to glean general observations regarding the state of mHealth in high-income countries (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Results: mHealth interventions in LMIC often differ substantively from those in HIC, with the former being simpler, delivered through a single digital component (an SMS as opposed to a mobile phone application, or ‘app’), and, as a result, targeting only one of the many factors which impact on the activation (or deactivation) of the target behaviour. Almost as a rule, LMIC mHealth interventions lack an explicit theory of change. Conclusion: We highlight the necessity, when designing mHealth interventions, of having a theory of change that encompasses multiple salient perspectives pertaining to human behaviour. To address this need, we explore whether the concept of Life History Strategy could provide the mHealth field with a useful theory of change. Life History Strategy Theory may be particularly useful in understanding some of the problems, paradoxes, and limitations of mHealth interventions found in LMIC. Specifically, this theory illuminates questions regarding ‘light-weight’ programmes which solely provide information, reminders, and other virtual ‘nudges’ that may have limited impact on behaviours governed by extrinsic structural factors. PMID:28617198

  5. Climate Change Resilience in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable. Climate Resilience in Urban Environments provides a detailed overview of the risks for urban areas, including those risks to human health as well as to building integrity, the physical processes involved, and presents key information in which way the risks can be reduced and urban areas made more resilient.

  6. Continuous Variables Quantum Information in Noisy Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano

    safe from the detrimental effects of noise and losses. In the present work we investigate continuous variables Gaussian quantum information in noisy environments, studying the effects of various noise sources in the cases of a quantum metrological task, an error correction scheme and discord...

  7. Effective Chemistry Communication in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry plays a critical role in daily life, impacting areas such as medicine and health, consumer products, energy production, the ecosystem, and many other areas. Communicating about chemistry in informal environments has the potential to raise public interest and understanding of chemistry around the world. However, the chemistry community…

  8. Information literacy experiencies inside virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Salazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suggest the use of virtual learning environments as an Information Literacy (IL alternative. Method. Analysis of the main elements of web sites. To achieve this purpose the article includes the relationship between IL and the learning virtual environment (by defining both phrases; phases to create virtual IL programs; processes to elaborate didactic media; the applications that may support this plan; and the description of eleven examples of learning virtual environments IL experiences from four countries (Mexico, United States of America, Spain and United Kingdom these examples fulfill the conditions expressed. Results. We obtained four comparative tables examining five elements of each experience: objectives; target community; institution; country; and platform used. Conclusions. Any IL proposal should have a clear definition; IL experiences have to follow a didactic systematic process; described experiences are based on IL definition; the experiences analyzed are similar; virtual learning environments can be used as alternatives of IL.

  9. Changing business environment: implications for farming

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The natural, technological, economic, political and social environment in which farmers farm constantly changes. History has lessons about change in agriculture and about farmers coping with change, though the future is unknowable and thus always surprising. The implication for farm operation is to prepare, do not predict.

  10. Antarctic climate change and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive, up-to-date account of how the physical and biological : environment of the Antarctic continent and Southern Ocean has changed from Deep Time until : the present day. It also considers how the Antarctic environmen...

  11. Participation and Collaboration in New Information Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    in an International Environment , “Construction and Communication of Knowledge” and RUC-online . Because of trends in late modern society traditional ways of acquiring knowledge are no longer efficient. Instead students should collaboratively work on projects with a high degree of mo-tivation. Competencies like......In this paper we discuss the opportunities and possibilities the new information environment offers for collaboration and participation in learning processes. The findings are based on four major sources: “Scenarios in computer-mediated and net-based education” , CLIENT – Collaborative Learning...

  12. Checklist of accessibility in Web informational environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Gomes dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the process of search, navigation and retrieval of information by the person with blindness in web environment, focusing on knowledge of the areas of information recovery and architecture, to understanding the strategies used by these people to access the information on the web. It aims to propose the construction of an accessibility verification instrument, checklist, to be used to analyze the behavior of people with blindness in search actions, navigation and recovery sites and pages. It a research exploratory and descriptive of qualitative nature, with the research methodology, case study - the research to establish a specific study with the simulation of search, navigation and information retrieval using speech synthesis system, NonVisual Desktop Access, in assistive technologies laboratory, to substantiate the construction of the checklist for accessibility verification. It is considered the reliability of performed research and its importance for the evaluation of accessibility in web environment to improve the access of information for people with limited reading in order to be used on websites and pages accessibility check analysis.

  13. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.

  14. A collaborative environment for information driven safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Mark R.; Michel, Kelly D.

    2010-01-01

    For two decades, the IAEA has recognized the need for a comprehensive and strongly integrated Knowledge Management system to support its Information Driven Safeguards activities. In the past, plans for the development of such a system have progressed slowly due to concerns over costs and feasibility. In recent years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a knowledge management system that could serve as the basis for an IAEA Collaborative Environment (ICE). The ICE derivative knowledge management system described in this paper addresses the challenge of living in an era of information overload coupled with certain knowledge shortfalls. The paper describes and defines a system that is flexible, yet ensures coordinated and focused collaboration, broad data evaluation capabilities, architected and organized work flows, and improved communications. The paper and demonstration of ICE will utilize a hypothetical scenario to highlight the functional features that facilitate collaboration amongst and between information analysts and inspectors. The scenario will place these two groups into a simulated planning exercise for a safeguards inspection drawing upon past data acquisitions, inspection reports, analyst conclusions, and a coordinated walk-through of a 3-D model of the facility. Subsequent to the conduct of the simulated facility inspection, the detection of an anomaly and pursuit of follow up activities will illustrate the event notification, information sharing, and collaborative capabilities of the system. The use of a collaborative environment such as ICE to fulfill the complicated knowledge management demands of the Agency and facilitate the completion of annual State Evaluation Reports will also be addressed.

  15. Using Facebook as an informal learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Policastri, Anne

    2011-12-15

    To create, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an optional Facebook activity intended to expose students to contemporary business issues not covered in the core content of a pharmacy management and leadership course and to perspectives of experts and thought leaders external to their university. An informal learning strategy was used to create a Facebook group page and guest experts were identified and invited to submit posts pertaining to business-related topics. Students were given instructions for joining the Facebook group but informed that participation was optional. A mixed-methods approach using a student questionnaire, results on examination questions, and a student focus group was used to assess this activity. The informal design with no posting guidelines and no participation requirement was well received by students, who appreciated the unique learning environment and exposure to external experts. Facebook provides an informal learning environment for presenting contemporary topics and the thoughts of guest experts not affiliated with a college or school, thereby exposing students to relevant "real world" issues.

  16. Work of scientific and technological information under network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingxi; Huang Daifu; Yang Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    With the development of internet and information technology, the work of scientific and technological information is faced with great challenge. This article expounds the new changes of scientific and technological information in enterprise under network environment by giving a minute description on the situation the work faced and characteristic of the work. Not only does it carry out enthusiastic discussion upon problems which are present in the work of scientific and technological information in the company, but puts forward proposals and specific measures as well. Service theory is also offered by adjusting and reforming the resources construction, service ways and the job of providing contents. We should take vigorous action to the research work of scientific and technological information, changing the information directional service into knowledge providing service. (authors)

  17. The Air Force Records Management Program: A Paradigm Shift from Compliance to Guiding Principles in an Ever-Changing Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-22

    GIG Global Information Grid GOTS Government Off-the-Shelf HTML Hyper Text Markup Language ICT Information and Communication Technology IEC...maintenance, retrieval, and preservation of vital information created in public and private organizations in all sectors of the economy . It is also the...constructed in the 1940’s, as part of a government-effort to provide employment 120 during the Depression, and boost the economy . This road is set in

  18. Enterprise Information Technology Organizational Flexibility: Managing Uncertainty and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Karen Prast

    2009-01-01

    Chief Information Officers (CIOs) lead enterprise information technology organizations (EITOs) in today's dynamic competitive business environment. CIOs deal with external and internal environmental changes, changing internal customer needs, and rapidly changing technology. New models for the organization include flexibility and suggest that CIOs…

  19. Changing trends in informed consent

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Consent is defined as the “voluntary agreement to or acquiescence in what another person proposes or desires”. In the context of medical practice it is now universally accepted that every human being of adult years and of sound mind has the right to determine what shall be done with his or her own body. Informed consent is now a central part of medical ethics and medical law. There has been a change in the public’s expectations of their role in medical decisi...

  20. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  1. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at http://www.spenvis.oma.be/spenvis/. SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  2. Organizational Adaptation: Managing in Complexly Changing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    A model of strategic adaptation that focuses on how organizations adapt to both conditions of growth and decline is presented. The theoretical structure underlying the model is considered, with attention to organizations, niches, and environments, as well as environmental change and evolving niches. The model attempts to reconcile the perspectives…

  3. Critical connections: personal learning environments and information literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments (PLEs and critical information literacies (CILs are two concepts that have been presented as responses to the challenges of the rich and complex information landscape. While both approaches support learners’ critical engagement with new information environments, each was developed within a different field. This paper connects and contrasts PLEs and CILs in order to explore the design of pedagogical responses to the information environment. Through a careful examination of PLE and CIL literature, the paper demonstrates that information literacy education intersects with the concepts and goals of PLEs. As such, the authors suggest that PLE scholarship informed by CIL scholarship, and vice versa, will yield a deeper understanding of modern learning contexts as well as a more holistic and responsive learner framework. The example of the research assignment will be used to demonstrate the viability of this approach. With these propositions, the authors invite educators, librarians and information technologists to engage in a dialogue about these concepts and the potential for pedagogical change.

  4. Stress Management of Library and Information Professionals in Digital Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Routray, Bijayalaxmi; Satpathy, Sunil

    2007-01-01

    Stress is the changes which our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. It has been an integral part of our daily life since prehistoric times and Library & Information science personnel are not exception to this. Thus we cannot avoid stress in our life; rather the best policy is to manage it properly to increase our efficiency. This article attempts to define stress in the light of LIS profession. It describes about the types of stress in libraries and its rea...

  5. Optimizing cardiothoracic surgery information for a managed care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, T A; Matloff, J M

    1995-11-01

    The rapid change occurring in American healthcare is a direct response to rising costs. Managed care is the fastest growing model that attempts to control escalating costs through limitations in patient choice, the active use of guidelines, and placing providers at risk. Managed care is an information intensive system, and those providers who use information effectively will be at an advantage in the competitive healthcare marketplace. There are five classes of information that providers must collect to be competitive in a managed care environment: patient satisfaction, medical outcomes, continuous quality improvement, quality of the decision, and financial data. Each of these should be actively used in marketing, assuring the quality of patient care, and maintaining financial stability. Although changes in our healthcare system are occurring rapidly, we need to respond to the marketplace to maintain our viability, but as physicians, we have the singular obligation to maintain the supremacy of the individual patient and the physician-patient relationship.

  6. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  7. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Cowie, G; Naqvi, S W A

    2013-01-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926–9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655–8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1–24). (synthesis and review)

  8. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  9. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  10. Scanning the Business External Environment for Information: Evidence from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourteli, Liana

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment,…

  11. Perceptual classification in a rapidly-changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Christopher; Behrens, Timothy E.; Koechlin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Humans and monkeys can learn to classify perceptual information in a statistically optimal fashion if the functional groupings remain stable over many hundreds of trials, but little is known about categorisation when the environment changes rapidly. Here, we used a combination of computational modelling and functional neuroimaging to understand how humans classify visual stimuli drawn from categories whose mean and variance jumped unpredictably. Models based on optimal learning (Bayesian mode...

  12. Dissemination of information in a networked environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, C.; Narayanan, A.

    1999-01-01

    The advent of Internet technology and its adoption by the organisations has resulted in the evolution of Intranets. Intranets ultimately use the technology to meet the information and computational needs to achieve organisational objectives and goals. Important services like E mail and Web are a handy solution to disseminate information for research and special libraries. The campus wide network and the creation of networked society are ubiquitous and an attempt has been made to extend the information service to the patrons by possible means. The role of library and information professionals in dissemination of information for the networked society is relevant and highly demanding. The right information for the right people at right time is to be achieved with available infrastructure. Few sample applications are described in this paper and the information need has to be met for the present and future networked information users. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy and natural environment. Information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The material of the Jadwisin 93' seminar is the collection 20 of 19 articles discussing aspects of the subject of nuclear energy and natural environment. The lectures were presented at six sessions: 1) Nuclear energy applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, food preservation and protection of the environment; 2) Nuclear power in the world; 3) Public attitudes towards different energy options, the example of Sweden; 4) Nuclear power in neighbouring countries; 5) Radiation and human health; 6) Radioactive waste management and potential serious radiological hazards. The general conclusion of the seminar can be as follows. In some cases the nuclear power is a source of environment pollution but very often nuclear techniques are now used and certainly more often in the future will be used for environment and human health protection

  14. Management information systems in the HMO environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, P A

    1982-01-01

    Realization of the unique potential of a health maintenance organization is dependent on the availability of adequate, accurate, and timely information. The particular data needed are determined by the structure of the organization; the physician compensation plans; requirements for state, federal, or other reporting; and many other factors. The author introduces the concept and objectives of the HMO, and presents the management information systems necessary for planning and monitoring HMO performance: patient information, utilization information, and management information for the staff and nonstaff HMO.

  15. Evidence Accumulation and Change Rate Inference in Dynamic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radillo, Adrian E; Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Josić, Krešimir; Kilpatrick, Zachary P

    2017-06-01

    In a constantly changing world, animals must account for environmental volatility when making decisions. To appropriately discount older, irrelevant information, they need to learn the rate at which the environment changes. We develop an ideal observer model capable of inferring the present state of the environment along with its rate of change. Key to this computation is an update of the posterior probability of all possible change point counts. This computation can be challenging, as the number of possibilities grows rapidly with time. However, we show how the computations can be simplified in the continuum limit by a moment closure approximation. The resulting low-dimensional system can be used to infer the environmental state and change rate with accuracy comparable to the ideal observer. The approximate computations can be performed by a neural network model via a rate-correlation-based plasticity rule. We thus show how optimal observers accumulate evidence in changing environments and map this computation to reduced models that perform inference using plausible neural mechanisms.

  16. Natural gas -- The changing competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Owners and senior managers don't have to be reminded that the business is getting tougher. Prices aren't behaving as expected, and they are becoming more volatile. Costs are increasing. The futures market is here to stay, not to mention swaps and options. FERC Order 636 is another complicating factor. Whether you are a producer, marketer, pipeline or an LDC, the structure of the market is changing. The answer to the following questions is quite often -- no: Is your company in a position to offer your customers the services they want? Is your company comfortable using hedges? Do you always know your level of risk? Can your company easily track daily positions and P/L and thoughtfully analyze the various business lines? While not all of the above concerns stem from increased price volatility, Order 636 and complexity resulting from the use of more sophisticated risk control instruments, many of them do. There's a cultural change occurring and companies that want to be market leaders must not just ''learn to live'' with this, but install a management process that thrives in this environment. Understanding the meaning of this goal is the focus of this paper

  17. Environmental Complexity Related Information for the Assessment of Country Logistics Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem

    2015-01-01

    logistics assessment generates some of this information, its relevance for the decision makers, and relationship to their unpredictability from foreign national logistics systems remains indefinite. This paper identifies and categorises the relevant, available information on country logistics environments...... by using a content analysis approach. We demonstrate the immensity and nature of this information, are able to confirm the changing spatial transaction cost structures, and to reflect upon the overall conditions of information-related complexity and globalisation in the environment. Besides making...

  18. Uranium mining and metallurgy library information service under the network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lilei

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the network environment on the uranium mining and metallurgy of the information service. Introduces some measures such as strengthening professional characteristic literature resources construction, changing the service mode, building up information navigation, deepening service, meet the individual needs of users, raising librarian's quality, promoting the co-construction and sharing of library information resources, and puts forward the development idea of uranium mining and metallurgy library information service under the network environment. (author)

  19. Changing the food environment: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-07-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been banned. Since 2007, companies in France's food industry have had the option of signing the national government's "Charte d'engagement volontaire de progrès nutritionnel" (charter of commitments to nutritional improvements) which aims to benefit all consumers. A standard reference document, developed by public authorities as the basis for decisions made by a committee of experts in the food industry, aims to validate the voluntary commitments made by companies to improve the nutrient content of the foods they produce. There is strict follow-up. A Food Quality Observatory was created in 2009 to monitor the nutrient quality of the food supply in France. Various results show the positive impact of these actions.

  20. THE INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT OF RURAL GBAGYI WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13.6%. looking for contracts amounted to 9.0% advertising services came to ... of women in small scale business in Botswana, and the identified information .... from ward and councilors and 224 (95.31%) said no, (4.26%) use social network.

  1. International earth science information network for global change decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey-Hunley, C.; Kuhn, W.R.; Kasischke, E.; Trichel, M.T.; Coppola, R.

    1991-01-01

    Effective environmental decision making depends upon the ability to predict physical changes in the environment, societal responses to these changes, and how both the physical changes and societal responses will be affected by changes in government regulations, public perceptions and the environment. Technological advances in remote sensing have provided a wealth of earth science data necessary to study global change problems; the Earth Observatory System will provide an unprecedented data source in the late 1990's. The Consortium for an International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) will combine earth science data (both satellite and ground-based) with data on the social sciences (e.g., economics, demographics, public health) to support informed policy decisions and to transfer knowledge on global change and its causes to the public.

  2. The DIII-D Computing Environment: Characteristics and Recent Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarg, B.B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak national fusion research facility along with its predecessor Doublet III has been operating for over 21 years. The DIII-D computing environment consists of real-time systems controlling the tokamak, heating systems, and diagnostics, and systems acquiring experimental data from instrumentation; major data analysis server nodes performing short term and long term data access and data analysis; and systems providing mechanisms for remote collaboration and the dissemination of information over the world wide web. Computer systems for the facility have undergone incredible changes over the course of time as the computer industry has changed dramatically. Yet there are certain valuable characteristics of the DIII-D computing environment that have been developed over time and have been maintained to this day. Some of these characteristics include: continuous computer infrastructure improvements, distributed data and data access, computing platform integration, and remote collaborations. These characteristics are being carried forward as well as new characteristics resulting from recent changes which have included: a dedicated storage system and a hierarchical storage management system for raw shot data, various further infrastructure improvements including deployment of Fast Ethernet, the introduction of MDSplus, LSF and common IDL based tools, and improvements to remote collaboration capabilities. This paper will describe this computing environment, important characteristics that over the years have contributed to the success of DIII-D computing systems, and recent changes to computer systems

  3. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts’...

  4. Information system of authorities of environment, legislative resources and conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlhosova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents structure, legislative basis and conception of the Information system of authorities of environment (ISAE) in the Slovak Republic. The ISAE is a component part of the information system of the Slovak Environmental Agency and Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. Using of new technologies is discussed

  5. Diagnostics of communication and information environment of pedagogical program means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Вадимовна Журавлёва

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pedagogical program means is considered through the correctness of a communication and information environment organization. The totality of pedagogical conditions is adduced; the communication and information environment answers these conditions. The main directions (didactic, psychological, ergonomic of analysis are determined and the methods choice for their diagnostics is grounded.

  6. Scholarly information discovery in the networked academic learning environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, LiLi

    2014-01-01

    In the dynamic and interactive academic learning environment, students are required to have qualified information literacy competencies while critically reviewing print and electronic information. However, many undergraduates encounter difficulties in searching peer-reviewed information resources. Scholarly Information Discovery in the Networked Academic Learning Environment is a practical guide for students determined to improve their academic performance and career development in the digital age. Also written with academic instructors and librarians in mind who need to show their students how to access and search academic information resources and services, the book serves as a reference to promote information literacy instructions. This title consists of four parts, with chapters on the search for online and printed information via current academic information resources and services: part one examines understanding information and information literacy; part two looks at academic information delivery in the...

  7. The changing winds of atmospheric environment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Changes in atmosphere policies over several decades are analysed. ► Direct regulation is less effective and been complemented by other instruments. ► Policy approaches are more complex and integrated and the scale of the issues has evolved. ► The role of stakeholders has grown and the corporate sector has assumed increased responsibility. ► Governance arrangements have become more complex, multilevel and polycentric. -- Abstract: Atmospheric environmental policies have changed considerably over the last several decades. Clearly the relative importance of the various issues has changed over half a century, for example from smoke, sulphur dioxide and photochemical smog being the top priorities to greenhouse gases being the major priority. The traditional policy instrument to control emissions to the atmosphere has been command and control regulation. In many countries this was successful in reducing emissions from point sources, the first generation issues, and to a lesser extent, emissions from mobile and area sources, the second generation issues, although challenges remain in many jurisdictions. However once the simpler, easier, cheaper and obvious targets had been at least partially controlled this form of regulation became less effective. It has been complemented by other instruments including economic instruments, self-regulation, voluntarism and information instruments to address more complex issues including climate change, a third generation issue. Policy approaches to atmospheric environmental issues have become more complex. Policies that directly focus on atmospheric issues have been partially replaced by more integrated approaches that consider multimedia (water, land, etc.) and sustainability issues. Pressures from stakeholders for inclusion, greater transparency and better communication have grown and non-government stakeholders have become increasingly important participants in governance. The scale of the issues has evolved

  8. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  9. How Animals Understand the Meaning of Indefinite Information from Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    Animals, including human beings, have ability to understand the meaning of indefinite information from environments. Thanks to this ability the animals have flexibility in their behaviors for the environmental changes. Staring from a hypothesis that understanding of the input (Shannonian) information is based on the self-organization of a neuronal representation, that is, a spatio-temporal pattern constituted of coherent activities of neurons encoding a ``figure'', being separated from the ``background'' encoded by incoherent activities, the conditions necessary for the understanding of indefinite information were discussed. The crucial conditions revealed are that the neuronal system is incomplete or indefinite in a sense that its rules for the self-organization of the neuronal activities are completed only after the input of the environmental information and that it has an additional system named "self-specific to relevantly self-organize dynamical ``constraints'' or ``boundary conditions'' for the self-organization of the representation. For the simultaneous self-organizations of the relevant constraints and the representation, a global circulation of activities must be self-organized between these two kinds of neuronal systems. Moreover, for the performance of these functions, a specific kind of synergetic elements, ``holon elements'', are also necessary. By means of a neuronal model, the visual perception of indefinite input signals is demonstrated. The results obtained are consistent with those recently observed in the visual cortex of cats.

  10. Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society (CLICHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, J.; Korhola, A.; Väliranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Luoto, M.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Leppäranta, M.; Kahilainen, K.; Saarinen, J.; Heikkinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The predicted climate warming has raised many questions and concerns about its impacts on the environment and society. As a respond to the need of holistic studies comprising both of these areas, The Academy of Finland launched The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) in spring 2010 with the main aim to focus on the interaction between the environment and society. Ultimately 11 national consortium projects were funded (total budget 12 million EUR). Here we shortly present the main objectives of the largest consortium project "Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society" (CLICHE). The CLICHE consortium comprises eight interrelated work packages (treeline, diversity, peatlands, snow, lakes, fish, tourism, and traditional livelihoods), each led by a prominent research group and a team leader. The research consortium has three main overall objectives: 1) Investigate, map and model the past, present and future climate change-induced changes in central ecosystems of the European Arctic with unprecedented precision 2) Deepen our understanding of the basic principles of ecosystem and social resilience and dynamics; identify key taxa, structures or processes that clearly indicate impending or realised global change through their loss, occurrence or behaviour, using analogues from the past (e.g. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Warm Period), experiments, observations and models 3) Develop adaptation and mitigation strategies to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on local communities, traditional livelihoods, fisheries, and tourism industry, and promote sustainable development of local community structures and enhance the quality of life of local human populations. As the project has started only recently no final results are available yet. However, the fieldwork as well as the co-operation between the research teams has thus far been very successful. Thus, the expectations for the final outcome of the project

  11. Entanglement revive and information flow within the decoherent environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia-Dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-10

    In this paper, the dynamics of entanglement is investigated in the presence of a noisy environment. We reveal its revival behavior and probe the mechanisms of this behavior via an information-theoretic approach. By analyzing the correlation distribution and the information flow within the composite system including the qubit subsystem and a noisy environment, it has been found that the subsystem-environment coupling can induce the quasi-periodic entanglement revival. Furthermore, the dynamical relationship among tripartite correlations, bipartite entanglement and local state information is explored, which provides a new insight into the non-Markovian mechanisms during the evolution.

  12. Heterogeneous information sharing of sensor information in contested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Jason A.; Hsieh, Chien; Toth, Andrew; Sheatsley, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    The inherent nature of unattended sensors makes these devices most vulnerable to detection, exploitation, and denial in contested environments. Physical access is often cited as the easiest way to compromise any device or network. A new mechanism for mitigating these types of attacks developed under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, ASD(R and E) project, "Smoke Screen in Cyberspace", was demonstrated in a live, over-the-air experiment. Smoke Screen encrypts, slices up, and disburses redundant fragments of files throughout the network. Recovery is only possible after recovering all fragments and attacking/denying one or more nodes does not limit the availability of other fragment copies in the network. This experiment proved the feasibility of redundant file fragmentation, and is the foundation for developing sophisticated methods to blacklist compromised nodes, move data fragments from risks of compromise, and forward stored data fragments closer to the anticipated retrieval point. This paper outlines initial results in scalability of node members, fragment size, file size, and performance in a heterogeneous network consisting of the Wireless Network after Next (WNaN) radio and Common Sensor Radio (CSR).

  13. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  14. Climate Change, Indoor Environment and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  15. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Heerwagen, J.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  16. Government information collections in the networked environment new issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Cheverie, Joan F

    2013-01-01

    This insightful book explores the challenging issues related to effective access to government information.Amidst all the chaos of today's dynamic information transition period, the only constants related to government information are change and inconsistency, yet with Government Information Collections in the Networked Environment: New Issues and Models, you will defeat the challenging issues and take advantage of the opportunities that networked government information collections have to offer. This valuable book gives you a fresh opportunity to rethink collecting activities and to

  17. Preface. Forest ecohydrological processes in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua Wei; Ge Sun; James Vose; Kyoichi Otsuki; Zhiqiang Zhang; Keith Smetterm

    2011-01-01

    The papers in this issue are a selection of the presentations made at the second International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment. This special issue ‘Forest Ecohydrological Processes in a Changing Environment’ covers the topics regarding the effects of forest, land use and climate changes on ecohydrological processes across forest stand,...

  18. An Architecture for Health Information Exchange in Pervasive Healthcare Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Moraes, J.L.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Francisco do Prado, Antonio; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Filipe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for health information exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. Our architecture has been designed for message exchange by integrating ubiquitous computing technologies,

  19. Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A comparative analysis of West and Central Africa ... taxes, which undermines fair competition and puts formal enterprises at a disadvantage. ... Start Date. December 1, 2012 ...

  20. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  1. The Reality Of The Homeland Security Enterprise Information Sharing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Related Information to Protect the Homeland (GAO 15- 290) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2015), http://www.gao.gov/ assets...Government Accountability Office [GAO], Information Sharing Environment Better Road Map Needed to Guide Implementation and Investments (GAO-11-455...and its ISE PM would have clearer accountability for information sharing lapses and a faster ability to reform or develop domestic information -sharing

  2. Resilience of livestock to changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Resilience of Livestock to Changing Environments” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting, July 19–24, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. The objective of the symposium was to provide a broad overview of recent research on the effects of changing environmental conditi...

  3. Information encoding of a qubit into a multilevel environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    I consider the interaction of a small quantum system (a qubit) with a structured environment consisting of many levels. The qubit will experience a decoherence process, which implies that part of its initial information will be encoded into correlations between system and environment. I investigate how this information is distributed on a given subset of levels as a function of its size, using the mutual information between both entities, in the spirit of the partial-information plots studied by Zurek and co-workers. In this case we can observe some differences, which arise from the fact that I am partitioning just one quantum system and not a collection of them. However, some similar features, like redundancy (in the sense that a given amount of information is shared by many subsets), which increases with the size of the environment, are also found here.

  4. On library information resources construction under network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huifang; Wang Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Information resources construction is the primary task and critical measures for libraries. In the 2lst century, the knowledge economy era, with the continuous development of computer network technology, information resources have become an important part of libraries which have been a significant indicator of its capacity construction. The development of socialized Information, digitalization and internalization has put forward new requirements for library information resources construction. This paper describes the impact of network environment on construction of library information resources and proposes the measures of library information resources. (authors)

  5. The Character, Organization Change and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good user’s character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system. 

  6. Demographics and the Changing National Security Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Long- term fertility trends, urbanization, migration, and changes in the ethnic composition and age profile of populations can influence the likelihood and nature of conflict among and within nations...

  7. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Flora-information over time can be divided into three different categories: (1) “Real changes” (species enter the region by natural dispersal or become extinct). (2) “Floristic changes” (species known from elsewhere are discovered). (3) “Taxonomic changes” (species are discovered...... to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  8. Stakeholder Alignment and Changing Geospatial Information Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.; Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J.; King, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Changing geospatial information capabilities can have major economic and social effects on activities such as drought monitoring, weather forecasts, agricultural productivity projections, water and air quality assessments, the effects of forestry practices and so on. Whose interests are served by such changes? Two common mistakes are assuming stability in the community of stakeholders and consistency in stakeholder behavior. Stakeholder communities can reconfigure dramatically as some leave the discussion, others enter, and circumstances shift — all resulting in dynamic points of alignment and misalignment . New stakeholders can bring new interests, and existing stakeholders can change their positions. Stakeholders and their interests need to be be considered as geospatial information capabilities change, but this is easier said than done. New ways of thinking about stakeholder alignment in light of changes in capability are presented.

  9. Information technology and global change science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify and briefly describe major existing and near term information technologies that cold have a positive impact on the topics being discussed at this conference by helping to manage the data of global change science and helping global change scientists conduct their research. Desktop computer systems have changed dramatically during the past seven years. Faster data processing can be expected in the future through full development of traditional serial computer architectures. Some other proven information technologies may be currently underutilized by global change scientists. Relational database management systems and good organization of data through the use of thoughtful database design would enable the scientific community to better share and maintain quality research data. Custodians of the data should use rigorous data administration to ensure integrity and long term value of the data resource. Still other emerging information technologies that involve the use of artificial intelligence, parallel computer architectures, and new sensors for data collection will be in relatively common use in the near term and should become part of the global science community's technical toolkit. Consideration should also be given to the establishment of Information Analysis Centers to facilitate effective organization and management of interdisciplinary data and the prototype testing and use of advanced information technology to facilitate rapid and cost-effective integration of these tools into global change science. 8 refs.

  10. Development, energy, environment: changing the paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A first set of contributions comments the various risks and challenges which are to be faced in terms of energy, climate and environment: the deadlock of present 'laisser-faire' policies, recent findings in climate science in 2005, oil as the reason of a possible economic crisis in developing countries, recent evolution of energy systems. The next set of contributions discusses the possible solutions and their limits: CO 2 capture and sequestration in coal plants, nuclear renaissance, renewable energies, hydro-electricity, CO 2 capture by biomass, energy sobriety, urban morphology and transports in emerging cities, integration of service demand with energy supply, energy decentralized production

  11. Privacy Protection Standards for the Information Sharing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    enable ISE participants to share information and data (see ISE Implementation Plan, p. 51, ISE Enterprise Architecture Framework, pp. 67, 73–74 and...of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises. 2. The exercise...5 U.S.C. § 552a, as amended. Program Manager-Information Sharing Environment. (2008). Information Sharing Enterprise Architecture Framework

  12. Does Mandatory IFRS Adoption Improve the Information Environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Serafeim, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    More than 120 countries require or permit the use of International Financial Reporting Standards (‘IFRS’) by publicly listed companies on the basis of higher information quality and accounting comparability from IFRS application. However, the empirical evidence about these presumed benefits are often conflicting and fail to separate between information quality and comparability. In this paper we examine the effect of mandatory IFRS adoption on firms’ information environment. We find that afte...

  13. Layer breeding programmes in changing production environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEENSTRA, F.; TEN NAPEL, J.; VISSCHER, J.; VAN SAMBEEK, F.

    2016-01-01

    The housing and management of laying hens and their productivity has gone through enormous developments in the last century. Housing has changed from free-range systems, via battery cages to a variety of loose housing and different types of battery cages, and back to outdoor access systems.

  14. Implementation HR information system – part of a unified information environment of MPEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Krepkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the unified information environment of National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute” (MPEI, and its most important component – the HR information system. The article describes the architecture of the unified information space of MPEI. The main objective of the development of the HR information system – to provide access to users, including other information systems, to actual information about employees of MPEI.HR information system are based on many years of operating experience of the previous system and the like, are available on the market today, taking into account the decisions of personnel. The earlier HR information system was developed in 1995–1997 and used until mid-2015. In the process of its using it has accumulated a large number of «patches» and requests for revision that was stopped by limitations in the platform and solutions architecture. Comparative analysis of 1C and SAP products showed that the cost of implementation, configuration and maintenance of these products is higher than developing new solutions. Package of Microsoft technology software was chosen as a platform. These technologies have proven themselves in the development of similar projects, and vendor solutions for a long time support all key processes of information systems. Important is the presence of the selected software Microsoft FSTEC certificates (Federal Service for Technical and Export Control, which support the use of these products for storing and processing information in accordance with the laws of the Russian Federation. The MPEI has already implemented a number of systems on the Microsoft platform – postgraduate register, an Internet portal, etc. The use of technology of one supplier facilitates the integration processes and products into a unified information environment. The article details the technical and hardware specifications of the HR information system. The result of the work on

  15. Department Chairs as Change Agents: Leading Change in Resistant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.; Ensminger, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Change process research often discusses barriers that impede organizational change (e.g., Banta, 1997; Cavacuiti and Locke, 2013; Mutchler, 1990; Stewart et al., 2012); however, no empirical research has addressed how behaviors established in leadership models counteract these barriers. This study explored these two interconnected constructs of…

  16. Fostering Entrepreneurship in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is the cornerstone of a modern competitive economy. Because of the economic and social importance attributed to entrepreneurship, every country has adopted policies aiming to encourage and to support entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors. Despite the fact that the set of public policy measures is very similar across countries and regions, the outcomes are different. The differences can be observed not only in quantitative terms (i.e. number of newly established ventures, but also in qualitative terms (i.e. proportion of innovative firms, intensity of knowledge and technological level, degree of internationalization etc.. Indeed, entrepreneurship takes different forms ranging from an alternative to employment (self-employed to creation of innovative, competitive and fast growing enterprises. It is also recognized the corporate entrepreneurship, the social entrepreneurship and even the entrepreneurship in the public sector. Different forms of entrepreneurship have a different impact in terms of general progress. Scholars have shown that context is an important factor explaining the variability of entrepreneurship outcomes, calling for a better understanding of the business environment influence on the intensity and quality of the entrepreneurial activity.

  17. The environment and directed technical change: comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Pottier, Antonin; Espagne, Etienne

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses the growth model with environmental constraints recently presented in (Acemoglu et al., 2011) which focuses on the redirection of technical change by climate policies with research subsidies and a carbon tax. First, Acemoglu et al.'s model and chosen parameters yield numerical results that do not support the conclusion that ambitious climate policies can be conducted 'without sacrificing (much or any) long-run growth'. Second, they select unrealistic key parameters for carbon sinks and elasticity of substitution. We find that more realistic parameters lead to very different results. Third, the model leads to an unrealistic conclusion when used to analyse endogenous growth, suggesting specification problems. (authors)

  18. Response of Sphagna to the changing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Karsisto, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During last decade, considerable interest has been focused to assess the influence of human activities on ecosystems. The increasing trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has been predicted to continue till the next century and the amount of nitrogen deposition in the northern hemisphere has increased markedly. Substantial interest has been focused on predicting how these changes will affect on plants. Most boreal mire ecosystems are dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum, the litter of which constitutes the main component in the peat deposits and is an important CO{sub 2} sink via peat formation. Since virtually nothing was known about the growth response of peat mosses to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and alerting changes in species composition were detected in the sensitive ombrotrophic mire vegetation under increased N deposition in central Europe, this study was established. Laboratory experiments focused on measurements of the patterns of growth, production and plant metabolism at increased CO{sub 2} and N deposition levels in peat moss species. Long term field experiments were established to study the growth response and spatial competition of two interacting Sphagnum species under the increased nitrogen deposition levels

  19. Response of Sphagna to the changing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Jauhiainen, J; Silvola, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Karsisto, M [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During last decade, considerable interest has been focused to assess the influence of human activities on ecosystems. The increasing trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has been predicted to continue till the next century and the amount of nitrogen deposition in the northern hemisphere has increased markedly. Substantial interest has been focused on predicting how these changes will affect on plants. Most boreal mire ecosystems are dominated by mosses of the genus Sphagnum, the litter of which constitutes the main component in the peat deposits and is an important CO{sub 2} sink via peat formation. Since virtually nothing was known about the growth response of peat mosses to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and alerting changes in species composition were detected in the sensitive ombrotrophic mire vegetation under increased N deposition in central Europe, this study was established. Laboratory experiments focused on measurements of the patterns of growth, production and plant metabolism at increased CO{sub 2} and N deposition levels in peat moss species. Long term field experiments were established to study the growth response and spatial competition of two interacting Sphagnum species under the increased nitrogen deposition levels

  20. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  1. Asian Urban Environment and Climate Change: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Julian; Wu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The Asian Network on Climate Science and Technology (www.ancst.org), in collaboration with Tsinghua University, held a conference on environmental and climate science, air pollution, urban planning and transportation in July 2015, with over 40 Asian experts participating and presentation. This was followed by a meeting with local government and community experts on the practical conclusions of the conference. Of the papers presented at the conference a selection are included in this special issue of Journal of Environmental Science, which also reflects the conclusions of the Paris Climate meeting in Dec 2015, when the major nations of the world agreed about the compelling need to reduce the upward trend of adverse impacts associated with global climate change. Now is the time for urban areas to work out the serious consequences for their populations, but also how they should work together to take action to reduce global warming to benefit their own communities and also the whole planet! Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES RELATED TO THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DOVAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes in organizations appear as a reaction to the organizational environment changes. In order to manage these changes successfully, the managers need to anticipate and design alternative strategies by preparing different options.  Nevertheless, the complexity of the global environment forces the managers to adopt strategies for their organizations that are facilitating the creation of new strategic competences and competitive advantages to face the environmental rapid changes. In this context, this paper is aiming to illustrate the main directions the change management may consider to change the organization strategies in order to harmonize them to the external environment, such as: integration versus externalization, flexible specialization and flexible organization, standardization versus adaptation, market segmentation, relationship building and maintaining and communication integration.  However, the new strategies are based on a changed attitude of the managers towards the competitive advantage that is dynamic and focused on creation rather then to operations.

  3. Evaluation of the JISC Information Environment: student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian R. Griffiths

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC Information Environment (IE, a development from the DNER - Distributed National Electronic Resource, is intended to help users in the UK academic sector maximise the value of published information resources by developing a coherent environment out of the confusing array of systems and services currently available. The EDNER Project (Formative Evaluation of the DNER is funded to undertake ongoing evaluation of the developing IE over the full three years of the JISC 5/99 Learning & Teaching and Infrastructure Programme i.e. from 2000 to 2003. The EDNER Project is led by the Centre for Research in Library & Information Management (CERLIM at the Manchester Metropolitan University; the Centre for Studies in Advanced Learning Technologies (CSALT at Lancaster University is a partner. This paper reports on work in progress and some of the initial findings of the evaluation team.

  4. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  5. Redundant imprinting of information in nonideal environments: Objective reality via a noisy channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the objective, classical world from the quantum substrate. The key to this emergence is the proliferation of redundant information throughout the environment where observers can then intercept it. We study this process for a purely decohering interaction when the environment, E, is in a nonideal (e.g., mixed) initial state. In the case of good decoherence, that is, after the pointer states have been unambiguously selected, the mutual information between the system, S, and an environment fragment, F, is given solely by F's entropy increase. This demonstrates that the environment's capacity for recording the state of S is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Environments that remain nearly invariant under the interaction with S, either because they have a large initial entropy or a misaligned initial state, therefore have a diminished ability to acquire information. To elucidate the concept of good decoherence, we show that, when decoherence is not complete, the deviation of the mutual information from F's entropy change is quantified by the quantum discord, i.e., the excess mutual information between S and F is information regarding the initial coherence between pointer states of S. In addition to illustrating these results with a single-qubit system interacting with a multiqubit environment, we find scaling relations for the redundancy of information acquired by the environment that display a universal behavior independent of the initial state of S. Our results demonstrate that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to nonideal initial states of the environment: the environment almost always acquires redundant information about the system but its rate of acquisition can be reduced.

  6. The information use environment of abused and neglected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Hersberger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. When children are adjudicated by a court of law as being maltreated, they are summarily removed from their homes, resulting in a disruption of their daily lives. This pilot study examines the context in which maltreated children seek and use information to cope with this stressful period of their lives. Method. This study applies Taylor's four components of information use environments to look at the user and the uses of information and the contexts within which those users make choices about what information is useful to them at particular times. Analysis. The characteristics of foster children as a population are examined and the settings in which such children seek information are described. The problems experienced by children, which are linked to information seeking, are articulated as are problem resolutions. Results. The most important finding of this study is the determination that there are three clearly differentiated phases of information needs and seeking corresponding to the three phases of adjustment the children experience. Conclusion. Understanding problem phases underpinning everyday life contexts in foster care environments afford support personnel who provide information to these children better insights into what helps and what results in increasing anxiety or causes more trauma.

  7. Personnel Performance Assessment in Information Systems Outsourcing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a tool which uses semantic technologies for personnel performance and workplace learning assessment in outsourced information technology environments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the tool from a technical perspective and introduces a use case that depicts the main features related to…

  8. Enviroportal.sk - information portal about the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, R.; Kmet, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with history, conception and exploitation of information portal about environment in the Slovak Republic. This portal - Enviroportal.sk was introduced into service in testing operation in April 2005. Perspectives of Enviroportal.sk are discussed

  9. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    phenomena. This is why the term 'environmental changes' might be more accurate than climate change. ‘Environmental changes’ suggests that climate changes ought to be understood as extensive environmental changes, with an impact on the built environment. Following this, it is no longer sufficient only...... to assess for example a building, and anthropogenic impacts on the environment, also the impact of the environment on installations, and on the human activities must be included in the analysis and assessments. Based on observations and investigations into climate change adaptation in DK and abroad......In a Danish context, climate changes are primarily manifested in an interaction between modified wind and precipitation patterns, increasing temperature and a rising sea level. The individual factors often act together and are reinforced in interaction with already known natural and cultural...

  10. Development of the virtual research environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of global climate change impacts on the regional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Fazliev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Description and the first results of the Russian Science Foundation project "Virtual computational information environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of the impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of a selected region" is presented. The project is aimed at development of an Internet-accessible computation and information environment providing unskilled in numerical modelling and software design specialists, decision-makers and stakeholders with reliable and easy-used tools for in-depth statistical analysis of climatic characteristics, and instruments for detailed analysis, assessment and prediction of impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of the targeted region. In the framework of the project, approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platform of the Russian leading institution involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research laboratory focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies. VRE under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed information and computing system CLIMATE (http://climate.scert.ru/), which is widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The Project includes several major directions of research listed below. 1. Preparation of geo-referenced data sets, describing the dynamics of the current and possible future climate and environmental changes in detail. 2. Improvement of methods of analysis of climate change. 3. Enhancing the functionality of the VRE prototype in order to create a convenient and reliable tool for the study of regional social, economic and political consequences of climate change. 4. Using the output of the first three tasks, compilation of the VRE prototype, its validation, preparation of applicable detailed description of

  11. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Haas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  12. A visual retrieval environment for hypermedia information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarella, D; Zanzi, A [ENEL s.p.a., Centro Ricerca di Automatica, Cologno Monzese, Milan (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The authors a graph-based object model that may be used as a uniform framework for direct manipulation of multimedia information. After an introduction motivating the need for abstraction and structuring mechanisms in hypermedia systems, the authors introduce the data model and the notion of perspective, a form of data abstraction that acts as a user interface to the system, providing control over the visibility of the objects and their properties. A perspective is defined to include an intention and an extension. The authors present a visual retrieval environment that effectively combines filtering, browsing, and navigation to provide an integrated view of the retrieval problem. Design and implementation issues are outlined for MORE (Multimedia Object Retrieval Environment), a prototype system relying on the proposed model. The focus is on the main user interface functionalities, and actual interaction sessions are presented including schema creation, information loading, and information retrieval

  13. INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT WITH VIRTUAL MACHINE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem D. Beresnev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. Information infrastructure for the training environment with application of technology of virtual computers for small pedagogical systems (separate classes, author's courses is created and investigated. Research technique. The life cycle model of information infrastructure for small pedagogical systems with usage of virtual computers in ARIS methodology is constructed. The technique of information infrastructure formation with virtual computers on the basis of process approach is offered. The model of an event chain in combination with the environment chart is used as the basic model. For each function of the event chain the necessary set of means of information and program support is defined. Technique application is illustrated on the example of information infrastructure design for the educational environment taking into account specific character of small pedagogical systems. Advantages of the designed information infrastructure are: the maximum usage of open or free components; the usage of standard protocols (mainly, HTTP and HTTPS; the maximum portability (application servers can be started up on any of widespread operating systems; uniform interface to management of various virtualization platforms, possibility of inventory of contents of the virtual computer without its start, flexible inventory management of the virtual computer by means of adjusted chains of rules. Approbation. Approbation of obtained results was carried out on the basis of training center "Institute of Informatics and Computer Facilities" (Tallinn, Estonia. Technique application within the course "Computer and Software Usage" gave the possibility to get half as much the number of refusals for components of the information infrastructure demanding intervention of the technical specialist, and also the time for elimination of such malfunctions. Besides, the pupils who have got broader experience with computer and software, showed better results

  14. Change Management and its Influence in the Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that are happening in businesses dictate the changes in all kinds of needed resources to develop the organization. The environment in which the organizations operate is in constant change and becomes more and more unpredictable. Managing these changes is a challenge that all enterprises face. The rapid changes that are happening in business are increasing the need to manage these changes. Enterprises have to develop and use different kinds of management models so that they can grow their performance in order to ensure a competitive position in the market. The changes in enterprises sometimes are not accepted by the organization employees, and seem to have negative effects towards them (exemption from work, reduction of working hours, reduction of income. Changes have negative and positive effects. Successful and rational managers can achieve having successful changes and minimizing the negative effects that come due to changes. Changes are vital for organizations so that they can replace the old plans and models with new and successful ones. In this paper we talk about the role and importance of managing the changes, the types of changes, models of changes, the resistance against changes and also the obtained results of the paper are introduced. Literature was used to support the research in the study field, and based on that to explain the role of changes in the business environment. There are quantitative methods and an inductive analysis used in this paper.

  15. Performance Analysis of Information Services in a Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Information Service is a fundamental component in a grid environment. It has to meet a lot of requirements such as access to static and dynamic information related to grid resources, efficient and secure access to dynamic data, decentralized maintenance, fault tolerance etc., in order to achieve better performance, scalability, security and extensibility. Currently there are two different major approaches. One is based on a directory infrastructure and another one on a novel approach that exploits a relational DBMS. In this paper we present a performance comparison analysis between Grid Resource Information Service (GRIS and Local Dynamic Grid Catalog relational information service (LDGC, providing also information about two projects (iGrid and Grid Relational Catalog in the grid data management area.

  16. Public Agility and Change in a Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Engers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Preparing for change is increasingly core business for governmental organizations. The networked society and the increasing connectedness of governmental organizations have as much impact on the complexity of the change process as the complexities of the corpus of law. Change is not only driven by changes in the law; changes in the organization’s environment often create a need to redesign business processes, reallocate roles and responsibilities, and reorder tasks. Moreover, preparations for change are not limited to the internal processes and systems of these organizations. Propagation of changes to network partners and redesign of network arrangements can be an enormous challenge. In the AGILE project, we develop a design method, distributed service architecture, and supporting tools that enable organizations - administrative and otherwise - to orchestrate their law-based services in a networked environment. This paper explains the Agile approach and describes some of its key principles.

  17. Patterns of Information Seeking Behaviour of Law Students in Digital Environment: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the enormous growth of modern information communication technologies and its massive use have influenced information users all over the world. Such a digital environment has drastically changed the information seeking patterns of information users of every community. These also tend law students to use various legal information sources and services in digital environments while seeking information. But there have been few empirical user studies on the aspect of digital information seeking behaviours of law students in either law or library and information science literatures. This paper aims to draw out patterns of information seeking behavior of students of law in digital environments at the University of Dhaka. A stratified random sample survey was conducted for this study. The results show that students prefer the electronic format of information rather than printed format. Major e-resources used by them and the influential factors of use were also identified in this study. This study also identified some crucial problems for seeking information and provides suggestions for the development of electronic legal information systems.

  18. Business environment change and decision making mechanism of nuclear generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Change magnitude of business environment for Japanese nuclear generators is significant. It is rapidly growing in the last several years. There are possibilities that the change might impact to management model of nuclear generators. In the paper, the impact to management model, especially, decision making mechanism of the generators is discussed. (author)

  19. Climate Change Conceptual Change: Scientific Information Can Transform Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav

    2016-01-01

    Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Ecotones in a changing environment: Workshop on ecotones and global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risser, P.G.

    1990-02-01

    The Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has organized an international project to synthesize and advance current theory on the influence of ecotones, or transition zones between ecosystems, on biodiversity and flows of energy, nutrients, water, and project is other materials between ecosystems. In particular, the entire project is designed to evaluate the influence of global climate change and land-use practices on biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones, and will assess the feasibility of monitoring ecotones as early indicators of global change. The later stages of the project will recommend landscape management strategies for ecotones that produce desirable patterns of biodiversity and ecological flows. The result of the project--a comprehensive body of information on the theory and management of biodiversity and ecological flows associated with ecotones--will be part of the planning for research to be carried out under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program.

  1. Mapping Students’ Informal Learning Using Personal Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Anđelković Labrović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments are a widely spared ways of learning, especially for the informal learning process. The aim of this research is to identify the elements of studens’ personal learning environment and to identify the extent to which students use modern technology for learning as part of their non-formal learning. A mapping system was used for gathering data and an analysis of percentages and frequency counts was used for data analysis in the SPSS. The results show that students’ personal learning environment includes the following elements: Wikipedia, Google, YouTube and Facebook in 75% of all cases, and an interesting fact is that all of them belong to a group of Web 2.0 tools and applications.

  2. Optimising metadata workflows in a distributed information environment

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, R. John; Barton, Jane

    2005-01-01

    The different purposes present within a distributed information environment create the potential for repositories to enhance their metadata by capitalising on the diversity of metadata available for any given object. This paper presents three conceptual reference models required to achieve this optimisation of metadata workflow: the ecology of repositories, the object lifecycle model, and the metadata lifecycle model. It suggests a methodology for developing the metadata lifecycle model, and ...

  3. Recognizing human behaviour using information from Smart Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Izquierdo, María

    2013-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence is a new research line in Artificial Intelligence field. Under this paradigm, users interact with an environment that is equipped with different kinds of sensors and actuators. Thanks to those devices, applications in AmI collect users?? activities and exploit that information, in order to learn users?? activities and to be able to anticipate their needs. In this thesis, we present a method to understand user daily activities in order to help people to improve their ...

  4. Charting a path for health sciences librarians in an integrated information environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J

    1993-10-01

    Changes in the health information environment present a major challenge to health sciences librarians. To successfully meet this challenge, librarians must apply the concepts of informal, self-directed, lifelong learning to their own carers. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations is creating an integrated information environment in health care organizations. The health sciences librarian brings unique knowledge and skills to this environment. The reference technique, a methodology that closely parallels other problem-solving approaches such as the physician's diagnostic technique, equips librarians with the conceptual skills to develop creative solutions to information management problems. Each health sciences librarian must assume responsibility for extending professional skills and abilities and demonstrating them in the workplace.

  5. Energy technologies and the environment: environmental information handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    This manual draws together information on the environmental consequences of energy technologies that will be in use in the United States during the next 20 years. We hope it will prove useful to planners, policymakers, legislators, researchers, and environmentalists. The information on environmental issues, control technologies, and energy production and conservation processes should also be a convenient starting point for deeper exploration. Published references are given for the statements, data, and conclusions so that the interested reader can obtain more detailed information where necessary. Environmental aspects of energy technologies are presented in a form suitable for government and public use and are intended to assist decisionmakers, researchers, and the public with basic information and references that can be relied upon through changing policies and changing world energy prices

  6. Preparing for climate change impacts in Norway's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Lisoe, K.; Aandahl, G.; Eriksen, S.; Alfsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Norwegian climate policy and of the practical implications of preparing Norway for climate change, with special emphasis on the challenges confronting the built environment. Although the Norwegian government has been relatively proactive in instituting measures aimed at halting global climate change, less attention has been paid to the challenge of adapting to climate change. The global climate system is likely to undergo changes, regardless of the implementation of abatement policies under the Kyoto Protocol or other regimes. The full range of impacts resulting from these changes is still uncertain; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that adaptation to climate change is necessary and inevitable within several sectors. The potential impacts of climate change in the built environment are now being addressed. Both the functionality of the existing built environment and the design of future buildings are likely to be altered by climate change impacts, and the expected implications of these new conditions are now investigated. However, measures aimed at adjustments within individual sectors, such as altering the criteria and codes of practice for the design and construction of buildings, constitute only a partial adaptation to climate change. In order to adapt effectively, larger societal and intersectoral adjustments are necessary. (author)

  7. Miles to go before we sleep: education, technology, and the changing paradigms in health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Ana D

    2011-01-01

    This lecture discusses a philosophy of educating health information professionals in a rapidly changing health care and information environment. Education for health information professionals must be based upon a solid foundation of the changing paradigms and trends in health care and health information, as well as technological advances, to produce a well-prepared information workforce to meet the demands of health-related environments. Educational programs should begin with the core principles of library and information sciences and expand in interdisciplinary collaborations. A model of the health care environment is presented to serve as a framework for developing educational programs for health information professionals. Interdisciplinary and collaborative relationships-which merge health care, library and information sciences, and other information-related disciplines-should form the basis of education for health information professionals.

  8. Towards a sustainable Asia. Environment and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This series of books are the output of the research project called ''Sustainable Development in Asia (SDA)'', which was initiated by the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA). They are comprised of one synthesis report, which entitled ''Towards a Sustainable Asia: Green Transition and Innovation'', and four thematic reports on natural resources, energy, the environment and climate change, and culture from particular perspectives of agriculture. They aim to: (1) investigate common sustainability issues faced by all Asian countries, including population increase, poverty alleviation, pollution control, ecological restoration, as well as regional problems, such as water shortage in West and Central Asia, energy security in Northeast Asia, development model and transformation in East Asia; (2) analyze and summarize of best practices towards sustainable development in Asia; (3) bring forward suggestions and policy options for promoting green transition, system innovation and sustainable development of Asia. With best practice guidelines for a sustainable Asia, this series of reports, for the first time systematically address the common challenges and regional problems in regard to Asia's natural resources use, pollution reduction and climate protection, sustainable energy development, and innovations for environment-friendly and culture-compatible agriculture. They will provide handy and useful information to researchers, government policy makers and the general public who have concerns about Asia's sustainable development. AASA is a scientific and technological organization in Asia, established in 2000, comprising of 26 member academies all over Asia. Its vision is to provide a forum for the discussion of all issues relevant to science and technology development and its application on national level within Asia. (orig.)

  9. Confronting the Consequences of a Permanent Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ioana Vosloban

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Businesses and governments choose how they wish to deal with change. Whether this change is organizational, technological, political, financial etc or even individual pursuing actions as usual is likely to lead to a downward path. The authors of this paper are giving a set of tools for confronting and understanding the consequences of this era of permanent changes by building strengths and seeking opportunities within organizations (private or public and within family (including friends. The work environment and the personal life of the individual have a common point which is adaptability, coping efficiently with changes, a demanded ability of the 3rd millennium human being.

  10. Methodology of Adaptive Integrated Accounting System in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochulya Tetyana V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of logical and methodological justification of formation of the integrated system of accounting based on realities of the co-ordinated transformation of the society and economy and development of a new knowledge about formation and adjustment of the accounting system in it’s a priori new information competence with expansion of functionality for the justified idea of existence and development of business. Taking developments of the best representatives of the leading scientific society as a basis, the article offers a new vision of organisation of the accounting system, based on the modern projection of information competence and harmonisation of main processes of information service for adaptation of the system for multi-vector inquiries of consumers of information. Pursuant to results of the conducted study, the article makes an effort to change the established opinion about information and professional competences of the accounting system and attach a new qualitative significance to them. The article makes a proposal with respect to calculation of quality of the information system on the basis of key indicators of its information service. It lays the foundation of the prospective study of the problems of building the accounting system in such a projection, so that realities of internal and external processes were maximally co-ordinated based on the idea of their information development.

  11. ACCOUNTANCY REFLECTION OF ENVIRONMENT INFORMATION REGARDING THE ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucean MIHALCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources, especially energetical ones, have continuously influenced the evolution of human society, including the economical developement, and so the problem of their deficiency and their limited character is a problem of major interest for the human kind in their quest to find the balance betwen the need of economical expansion and the environment protection. The purpose of this paper work is to show the importancy of energy eficiency by asuming two main action directions: to encrease the quantity of renewable energy and to emprove the energetical efficiency. After the researches we made, we brought in attention the main mechanisms used in the insurance of sustainability security and competitiveness of the energy sector. These practices the objectives of the sustainable development principle, exemplified from accountancy point of view through a new instrument in the economical theory: environmental accountancy which ensures the background regarding the recognition, evaluation and presentation of environment information.

  12. Constant Change: The Ever-Evolving Personal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Kompen, Ricardo; Monguet, Josep Ma.; Brigos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    There are several definitions for the term "personal learning environment" (PLE); in this article, PLE refers to a group of web technologies, with various degrees of integration and interaction, that helps users and learners manage the flow of information that relates to the learning process, the creation of knowledge, and the…

  13. Scientific climate change information by collaborative venture and digital portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubelaar-Versluis, W.

    2010-09-01

    Klimaatportaal is the digital entry of Dutch ‘climate' knowledge centres, which are collaborated in the Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC). This collaborative venture was established in 2003 by the Dutch climate research community to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of the communication of Dutch climate research. By now, eight Dutch knowledge centres are participating and still more want to join. The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) supports the PCCC and the project is implemented in collaboration with the BSIK ‘Climate Changes Spatial Planning' programme. The website provides actual and background climate change information for a wide audience on the national scale from policy makers, media to general public. By supplying integral climate information, such as observations of climate change, causes and consequences of climate system, adaptation, mitigation and energy issues, a wide spectrum of target groups will be served. The information is offered in different forms, because of the needs of different target groups. Klimaatportaal contains therefore news on climate issues, frequently asked questions and popular science reports, like the annually brochure De Staat van het Klimaat (‘The State of the Climate'). Recently, also a portal for students is added, where they can find information for their assignments. Beside the website, PCCC is organising activities as symposia and workshops and is supplying information on international issues, for example the content of the Kyoto protocol and the IPCC fourth assessment report (2007). Finally, informing the public through contacts with the media is also an important part of the PCCC. The presentation will address the strengths and weaknesses of this approach which may serve as an example for combining knowledge in outreach activities in other countries.

  14. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  15. The impact of business environment changes on recent costing techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧涓

    2011-01-01

    1.Introduction The acceleration of globalization and the prosperity of information technology benefit business a great deal.But with the speeding up of economic development,firms are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their business.The heated debate is on about whether traditional management accounting practices and techniques are irrelevant to the current business environment and this essay will explore the causes for using some traditional management accounting practices and techniques in the current business environment are inappropriate and put forward some contemporary management accounting techniques which is relevant to the current business environment.Thus,the essay will be divided into three sections to discuss the traditional management accounting practices and techniques and contemporary management accounting techniques in current business environment.

  16. [Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone.

  17. The Changing Fiscal Environment for Academic Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W

    2015-01-01

    The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.

  18. Linked Open Data in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (http://globalchange.gov) coordinates and integrates federal research on changes in the global environment and their implications for society. The USGCRP is developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will centralize access to data and information related to global change across the U.S. federal government. The first implementation will focus on the 2013 National Climate Assessment (NCA) . (http://assessment.globalchange.gov) The NCA integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the USGCRP; analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years. The NCA has received over 500 distinct technical inputs to the process, many of which are reports distilling and synthesizing even more information, coming from thousands of individuals around the federal, state and local governments, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations. The GCIS will present a web-based version of the NCA including annotations linking the findings and content of the NCA with the scientific research, datasets, models, observations, etc. that led to its conclusions. It will use semantic tagging and a linked data approach, assigning globally unique, persistent, resolvable identifiers to all of the related entities and capturing and presenting the relationships between them, both internally and referencing out to other linked data sources and back to agency data centers. The developing W3C PROV Data Model and ontology will be used to capture the provenance trail and present it in both human readable web pages and machine readable formats such as RDF and SPARQL. This will improve visibility into the assessment process, increase

  19. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Xu, Jing-Bo; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed

  20. Asymmetric competition impacts evolutionary rescue in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Elzen, Courtney L; Kleynhans, Elizabeth J; Otto, Sarah P

    2017-06-28

    Interspecific competition can strongly influence the evolutionary response of a species to a changing environment, impacting the chance that the species survives or goes extinct. Previous work has shown that when two species compete for a temporally shifting resource distribution, the species lagging behind the resource peak is the first to go extinct due to competitive exclusion. However, this work assumed symmetrically distributed resources and competition. Asymmetries can generate differences between species in population sizes, genetic variation and trait means. We show that asymmetric resource availability or competition can facilitate coexistence and even occasionally cause the leading species to go extinct first. Surprisingly, we also find cases where traits evolve in the opposite direction to the changing environment because of a 'vacuum of competitive release' created when the lagging species declines in number. Thus, the species exhibiting the slowest rate of trait evolution is not always the most likely to go extinct in a changing environment. Our results demonstrate that the extent to which species appear to be tracking environmental change and the extent to which they are preadapted to that change may not necessarily determine which species will be the winners and which will be the losers in a rapidly changing world. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Foreign electronic information sources about environment in the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svrsek, L.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation deals with external electronic information sources (e-sources) i. e. about data bases which are formed no by users or their institutes. Data bases are compiled by producers of data which are publishing in different forms and offerer it for users by different form. In the first part of contribution e-sources are described at the first generally. In the second part, some most significant data bases about environment in on-line medium of Internet, are described in detail

  2. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velt, K.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) in changing environments. Therefore, 10 subjects stayed in a 30 °C, 50% relative humidity for 30 min in summer clothes and then moved to a 20 °C room where they remained seated for 30 min (Hot to Reference

  3. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The populations, infrastructure and ecology of cities are at risk from the impacts of climate change which affect urban ventilation and cooling, urban drainage and flood risk and water resources. Built areas exert considerable influence over their local climate and environment, and urban populations are already facing a ...

  4. Review: The impact of changing human environment and climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of human-induced climate change through industrialization with the consequent depletion of the ozone layer of the environment is now observed to compromise the sustainability of human development as it threatens the ecological support system on which life depends in addition to encouraging the emergence ...

  5. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  6. The quality of political news in a changing media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    What do ongoing changes in the media environment, notably the perceived popularization of news and the shift towards individualized online media, mean for political news quality, both in terms of what it is, as well as how we measure it? This dissertation firstly argues, based on a literature review

  7. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  8. An ontological framework for requirement change management in distributed environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatoon, A.; Hafeez, Y.; Ali, T.

    2014-01-01

    Global Software Development (GSD) is getting fame in the software industry gradually. However, in GSD, multiple and diverse stakeholders are involved in the development of complex software systems. GSD introduces several challenges, i.e. physical distance, time zone, culture difference, language barriers. As requirements play a significant role in any software development. The greatest challenge in GSD environment is to maintain a consistent view of the system even if the requirements change. But at the same time single change in the requirement might affect several other modules. In GSD different people use terms and have different ways of expressing the concepts for which people at remote sites are unable to get uniformity regarding the semantics of the terms. In a global environment requires effective communication and coordination. However, to overcome inconsistencies and ambiguities among the team members and to make the team members aware of the consistent view, a shared and common understanding is required. In this paper an approach beneficial to software industry has been proposed, focusing on changing requirements in a Global Software Development environment. A case study has been used for the evaluation of the proposed approach. Therefore, Requirements change management process has been improved by applying the approach of the case study. The proposed approach is beneficial to the software development organizations where frequent changes occur. It guided the software industry to provide the common understandings to all the development teams residing in remote locations. (author)

  9. Analysis on the development of scientific and technical information under new competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao

    2010-01-01

    The current external environment of information work has undergone profound changes. The world competition in Military fields, the development of national economy and the applications of high-technologies put forward higher requirements to intelligence work. Under the environment of global information integration, 'eyes and ears' roles of nuclear scientific and technical information will be more highlighted. In this context, we believe that the way of nuclear sci-tech information development should be focused on comprehensive research and be based on the building of information resources and advanced information technology methods, forming an integrated service system with capabilities of rapid resources, decision support, information assurance and sustainable development. The goal of nuclear sci-tech information development should be to serve the development of nuclear power and the popularization and application of nuclear technology in the fields of national economy, to implement the strategy of 'integrated intelligence support', to ensure the formation of rapid response capability, to enhance capabilities of decision support and science and technology development guidance, to build digital information resources and to constantly promote the research on network collaboration. This paper analyzes the characteristics of nuclear sci-tech information under new competitive environment, describes the ideas and goals of its development and proposes the way to achieve these goals. In order to provide the information support and service with the characteristics of rapid response, high quality and high efficiency, the paper also puts forward that under the new environment, we should optimize the service system, extend service functions, transform service mode, speed up the transformation on intelligence work, adjust and optimize business content and structure, promote business process re-engineering, and pay equal attention to 'ensuring demands' and 'guiding the future

  10. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly; Sohonpal, Gundeep; Lange, Kylie; Golley, Rebecca

    2013-01-07

    The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children's dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children's saturated fat intake; and (2) to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children's saturated fat intake. Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30 minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment--Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children's dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat) were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (pchange in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2), perceived responsibility (β=-0.3) and restriction (β=-0.3) from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake. The present study was one of the first to quantify changes in the family food environment, and identify a number of factors which were associated with a positive dietary change. Because interventions focus on behaviour change, the findings may provide specific targets for intervention strategies in the future. Australia New Zealand Clinical

  11. Regulatory environment of transitioning to risk-informed regulations in U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C. H.; Kim, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    With the publication of the PRA Policy Statement and recent regulatory guides, the U.S.NRC makes a continuous approach towards risk-informed regulations with the goal of establishing an overall framework for risk-informed decisions in all regulatory activities as well as plant specific licensing issues. Faced with the changing environment of deregulation of the electricity generation market, the licensee's effort to reduce design margins to enhance flexibility and to relieve unnecessary regulatory burdens have been focused on the control and reduction of plant operating costs. The risk-informed approach provides a structured, systematic, and defensible method that can be applied not only to rulemaking, but also to licensing, inspection, enforcement, and performance assessment, as well as provides basis for prioritization in the establishment of programs and the allocation of resources. This report describes the current regulatory environment of transitioning to risk-informed regulations with an emphasis on its background, concepts, regulatory guides, proposed options for modifying the 10CFR50, and risk-informed applications in U.S.A. Review of the risk informed applications utilizing the information provided by the PRAs and their insights in the U.S.NRC and nuclear industry will provide the insights of predicting the expected regulation changes in Korea. Also it could provide the applicable methods or guides for the implementation of the risk-informed applications in plant design and operations. (author)

  12. Communicating climate change adaptation information using web-based platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Eleni; Mattern, Kati

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate progress in climate change adaptation policy and practice, it is important not only to ensure the production of accurate, comprehensive and relevant information, but also the easy, timely and affordable access to it. This can contribute to better-informed decisions and improve the design and implementation of adaptation policies and other relevant initiatives. Web-based platforms can play an important role in communicating and distributing data, information and knowledge that become constantly available, reaching out to a large group of potential users. Indeed in the last decade there has been an extensive increase in the number of platforms developed for this purpose in many fields including climate change adaptation. This short paper concentrates on the web-based adaptation platforms developed in Europe. It provides an overview of the recently emerged landscape, examines the basic characteristics of a set of platforms that operate at national, transnational and European level, and discusses some of the key challenges related to their development, maintenance and overall management. Findings presented in this short paper are discussed in greater detailed in the Technical Report of the European Environment Agency Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe.

  13. Communicating climate change adaptation information using web-based platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate progress in climate change adaptation policy and practice, it is important not only to ensure the production of accurate, comprehensive and relevant information, but also the easy, timely and affordable access to it. This can contribute to better-informed decisions and improve the design and implementation of adaptation policies and other relevant initiatives. Web-based platforms can play an important role in communicating and distributing data, information and knowledge that become constantly available, reaching out to a large group of potential users. Indeed in the last decade there has been an extensive increase in the number of platforms developed for this purpose in many fields including climate change adaptation. This short paper concentrates on the web-based adaptation platforms developed in Europe. It provides an overview of the recently emerged landscape, examines the basic characteristics of a set of platforms that operate at national, transnational and European level, and discusses some of the key challenges related to their development, maintenance and overall management. Findings presented in this short paper are discussed in greater detailed in the Technical Report of the European Environment Agency Overview of climate change adaptation platforms in Europe.

  14. Critical perspectives on changing media environments in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik

    the changes in the media landscape continuously alter the power balance between state, civil society and market. At the meso level, these changes will be discussed in relation to the development of the different media and of a variety of new locally specific media environments, which create new spaces......The main aim of this article is to give a general overview and theoretically discuss how significant changes in the media landscapes in Global South countries alter existing spaces and create new spaces for political and socio-cultural exchange, thus changing the complex interrelationship between...... media and society. Knowing that media is only one of many aspects in current societal changes, the focus will be more on the interrelationship between media and society and less on other aspects like globalization, education and political reforms. At the macro level, the article will discuss how...

  15. Information system of partial monitoring system 'Radioactivity of the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2007-01-01

    Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) is operator of radiation monitoring from 1963. At present SHMI operates in its monitoring network 23 detectors GammaTracer fy Genitron, one mobile detector and one standby detector. Radiation data (dose rate in the unit nSv/h) from detectors in the automated meteorological stations are transmitted by data-logger and private institute network to National Telecommunication Centre in Bratislava. The data from MSS (message switch system) are inserted into the database. The 1 hours and 24 hours averages are computed on the server automatically. Delay between time of measurements and time of inserting data to database is only 10 min. Radiation files from SHMI network are on-line transmitted to information system of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and to information system of Slovak Army. Transmission to to Crisis Centre of Civil Protection is under reconstruction at present. Database contains one table for radiation data and several tables for configurations, catalogues of stations and additional tables. Database works in environment client-server. On client PC runs the user front-end application. This application provides to display the data using many filters, to display tables with configurations concerning technical equipment, to display maps, graphs, etc. There is the possibility to store data into the archives, to make reports and to analyse data in the environment of professional statistical software. Precipitations values from meteorological stations were integrated do the information system of radiation monitoring for better interpretation of gamma dose rate values. SHMI cooperates in the radiation data exchange with European Commission Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Radiation Warning Centre in Vienna and Meteoservice Budapest. (author)

  16. The Role of Informational Environment in Building Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Rashad Shahin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research addresses smart city concept as it is the latest urban design trends, by the investment of the capabilities of human, and artificial intelligence for the sake of the advancement of the city. The concept of a smart city is described as one of the most important manifestations of the information revolution, with the end of the twentieth, and the beginning of twenty – first century, The research attributes the emergence of the concept to: deficiencies of means, and traditional methods in building and development of cities, as well as The significant increase in the number of city and global metropolises dwellers. So, smart city approach has been adopted, along with innovative principles and methods which consolidate the performance and efficiency of the city at services, health, economic, social, and environmental levels. Global studies indicate, to the urban contributions scarcity, in the area of smart city, so the need of vocabularies, elements, and innovative solutions studies have emerged and then the role of information’s in achieving the aim of smart city initiatives. The research problem is: The acknowledge gap about the impact of the informational environment, to establish smart city initiative. The research adopts the hypothesis: A multi-disciplinary informational thought plays an essential role in achieving smart city initiative. To address the research problem, the research starts with the definition of the concept of smart city, to provide the knowledge platform, then addresses the smart city approaches, as well as, smart urban environment, smart city structure, key elements and smart networks, to concludes key vocabulary, indicators and constituents of smart city establishment, Then applied to the case studies with analytical descriptive approach, to conclude the key constituents to establish smart city in Iraq. The research concluded to confirm the role of the informational thought, represented by global research

  17. Changing the Food Environment: The French Experience12

    OpenAIRE

    Chauliac, Michel; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The French National Nutrition and Health Program was launched in 2001. To achieve its objectives, 2 main preventive strategies were identified: 1) provide information and education to help individuals make healthy food and physical activity choices; and 2) improve the food and physical environment so that making healthy choices is easier. School regulations have been established to improve the nutritional quality of meals served to children and adolescents, and vending machines have been bann...

  18. The development and change study of cost accounting in the IT environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilian Li; Qiumei Hu

    2015-01-01

    Relative to costs of computerized accounting, the cost accounting information further to get rid of the shackles of artificial accounting, reflecting a pure information management thinking, which contains a richer content, and traditional cost accounting theory a profound impact on the system. Clear understanding of the environment in the IT development process cost accounting will help us actively to promote cost accounting change, innovation and development.

  19. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  20. The Nature of Information Science: Changing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lyn; Karamuftuoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper considers the nature of information science as a discipline and profession. Method: It is based on conceptual analysis of the information science literature, and consideration of philosophical perspectives, particularly those of Kuhn and Peirce. Results: It is argued that information science may be understood as a field of…

  1. Testing take-the-best in new and changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael D; Blanco, Gabrielle; Bo, Nikole

    2017-08-01

    Take-the-best is a decision-making strategy that chooses between alternatives, by searching the cues representing the alternatives in order of cue validity, and choosing the alternative with the first discriminating cue. Theoretical support for take-the-best comes from the "fast and frugal" approach to modeling cognition, which assumes decision-making strategies need to be fast to cope with a competitive world, and be simple to be robust to uncertainty and environmental change. We contribute to the empirical evaluation of take-the-best in two ways. First, we generate four new environments-involving bridge lengths, hamburger prices, theme park attendances, and US university rankings-supplementing the relatively limited number of naturally cue-based environments previously considered. We find that take-the-best is as accurate as rival decision strategies that use all of the available cues. Secondly, we develop 19 new data sets characterizing the change in cities and their populations in four countries. We find that take-the-best maintains its accuracy and limited search as the environments change, even if cue validities learned in one environment are used to make decisions in another. Once again, we find that take-the-best is as accurate as rival strategies that use all of the cues. We conclude that these new evaluations support the theoretical claims of the accuracy, frugality, and robustness for take-the-best, and that the new data sets provide a valuable resource for the more general study of the relationship between effective decision-making strategies and the environments in which they operate.

  2. Precision Security: Integrating Video Surveillance with Surrounding Environment Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance plays a vital role in maintaining the social security although, until now, large uncertainty still exists in danger understanding and recognition, which can be partly attributed to intractable environment changes in the backgrounds. This article presents a brain-inspired computing of attention value of surrounding environment changes (EC with a processes-based cognition model by introducing a ratio value λ of EC-implications within considered periods. Theoretical models for computation of warning level of EC-implications to the universal video recognition efficiency (quantified as time cost of implication-ratio variations from λk to λk+1, k=1,2,… are further established. Imbedding proposed models into the online algorithms is suggested as a future research priority towards precision security for critical applications and, furthermore, schemes for a practical implementation of such integration are also preliminarily discussed.

  3. Recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, K. (Katja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The popularity of nature-based tourism has increased worldwide and peripheral areas with conservational value, like protected areas, are attractive destinations. The recreational use and construction of tourism facilities can cause environmental degradation and decrease the conservational and recreational value of areas if not well planned and managed. The aim of this thesis was to improve our knowledge of recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments. Dir...

  4. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  5. MIMI: multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment for biomedical core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administratively, a core facility must be able to manage the scheduling of its equipment and to maintain a flexible and effective billing system to track material, resource, and personnel costs and charge for services to sustain its operation. It must also have the ability to regularly monitor the usage and performance of its equipment and to provide summary statistics on resources spent on different categories of research. To address these informatics challenges, we introduce a comprehensive system called MIMI (multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment) that integrates the administrative and scientific support of a core facility into a single web-based environment. We report the design, development, and deployment experience of a baseline MIMI system at an imaging core facility and discuss the general applicability of such a system in other types of core facilities. These initial results suggest that MIMI will be a unique, cost-effective approach to addressing the informatics infrastructure needs of core facilities and similar research laboratories.

  6. Sustainability of biomass utilisation in changing operational environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the project was to assist in strategic decision-making of public administration and companies, as regards the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. This project continued the work of the BIOVAIKU project by exploring in more details the most critical issues identified in sustainability assessment. These include the need to develop assessment methods and criteria in particular for land use and land-use change due to biomass cultivation and harvesting and indirect impacts due to resource competition.

  7. Motion direction estimation based on active RFID with changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wu; Minghua, Zhu; Wei, He

    2018-05-01

    The gate system is used to estimate the direction of RFID tags carriers when they are going through the gate. Normally, it is difficult to achieve and keep a high accuracy in estimating motion direction of RFID tags because the received signal strength of tag changes sharply according to the changing electromagnetic environment. In this paper, a method of motion direction estimation for RFID tags is presented. To improve estimation accuracy, the machine leaning algorithm is used to get the fitting function of the received data by readers which are deployed inside and outside gate respectively. Then the fitted data are sampled to get the standard vector. We compare the stand vector with template vectors to get the motion direction estimation result. Then the corresponding template vector is updated according to the surrounding environment. We conducted the simulation and implement of the proposed method and the result shows that the proposed method in this work can improve and keep a high accuracy under the condition of the constantly changing environment.

  8. Change management in information systems projects for public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ziemba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It can be argued that public organizations, in order to provide the public with sufficient services in the current, highly competitive and continuously evolving environment, require changes. The changes that become necessary are often related to the implementation of information systems (IS. Moreover, when organizations are faced with changes, a change management (CM process needs to be put in place. CM theories that are currently available to practitioners and academics are often contradictory; they mostly lack empirical evidence and are supported by unchallenged hypotheses concerning the nature of the contemporary CM. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to identify critical success factors (CFSs for CM in IS projects. In order to reach this aim an explanation of changes in public organizations and the nature of CM are presented. Following this, a framework of CFSs for CM in IS projects are identified based on the literature review. The paper also examines two IS projects and uses them to demonstrate CFSs influencing CM in IS projects in Polish pubic organizations. A discussion of the research findings is provided and the paper concludes with a presentation of the study’s contributions and limitations as well as the stream of future work.

  9. The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Environment: A Workshop Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Global Security Research and Global Security Principal Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop in July 2016 to consider ''The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Security Environment.'' We took a broad view of nonproliferation, encompassing not just the treaty regime but also arms control, threat reduction, counter-roliferation, and countering nuclear terrorism. We gathered a group of approximately 60 experts from the technical, academic, political, defense and think tank communities and asked them what and how much can reasonably be accomplished in each of these areas in the 5 to 10 years ahead. Discussion was on a not-for-attribution basis. This document provides a summary of key insights and lessons learned, and is provided to help stimulate broader public discussion of these issues. It is a collection of ideas as informally discussed and debated among a group of experts. The ideas reported here are the personal views of individual experts and should not be attributed to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  10. The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Environment: A Workshop Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The Center for Global Security Research and Global Security Principal Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop in July 2016 to consider “The Future of Nonproliferation in a Changed and Changing Security Environment.” We took a broad view of nonproliferation, encompassing not just the treaty regime but also arms control, threat reduction, counter-­proliferation, and countering nuclear terrorism. We gathered a group of approximately 60 experts from the technical, academic, political, defense and think tank communities and asked them what—and how much—can reasonably be accomplished in each of these areas in the 5 to 10 years ahead. Discussion was on a not-­for-­attribution basis. This document provides a summary of key insights and lessons learned, and is provided to help stimulate broader public discussion of these issues. It is a collection of ideas as informally discussed and debated among a group of experts. The ideas reported here are the personal views of individual experts and should not be attributed to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  11. Obesity and the built environment: changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A

    2008-12-01

    The past 30 years have seen dramatic changes in the food and physical activity environments, both of which contribute to the changes in human behavior that could explain obesity. This paper reviews documented changes in the food environment, changes in the physical activity environment and the mechanisms through which people respond to these environments, often without conscious awareness or control. The most important environmental changes have been increases in food accessibility, food salience and decreases in the cost of food. The increases in food marketing and advertising create food cues that artificially stimulate people to feel hungry. The existence of a metabolic pathway that allows excess energy to be stored as fat suggests that people were designed to overeat. Many internal mechanisms favor neurophysiologic responses to food cues that result in overconsumption. External cues, such as food abundance, food variety and food novelty, cause people to override internal signals of satiety. Other factors, such as conditioning and priming, tie food to other desirable outcomes, and thus increase the frequency that hunger is stimulated by environmental cues. People's natural response to the environmental cues are colored by framing, and judgments are flawed and biased depending on how information is presented. People lack insight into how the food environment affects them, and subsequently are unable to change the factors that are responsible for excessive energy consumption. Understanding the causal pathway for overconsumption will be necessary to interrupt the mechanisms that lead to obesity.

  12. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  13. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.

  14. The changing face of government information providing access in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Suhasini L

    2006-01-01

    Learn what innovative changes lie in the future of government information The Changing Face of Government Information comprehensively examines the way government documents' librarians acquire, provide access, and provide reference services in the new electronic environment. Noted experts discuss the impact electronic materials have had on the Government Printing Office (GPO), the reference services within the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), and the new opportunities in the transition from paper-based information policy to an electronic e-government. This source reveals the latest changes in the field of government documents librarianship and the knowledge and expertise needed to teach users how to access what they need from this enormous wealth of government information. Major changes have taken place in the way government information is created, disseminated, accessed, and preserved. The Changing Face of Government Information explains in detail the tremendous change taking place in libraries and ...

  15. Change in the family food environment is associated with positive dietary change in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrie Gilly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family food environment is an important influence in the development of children’s dietary habits. Research suggests that influences of current dietary behaviour and behaviour change may differ. The aims of this paper were to: (1 investigate the association between the food environment at baseline and change in children’s saturated fat intake; and (2 to explore whether a change in the food environment was associated with a change in children’s saturated fat intake. Method Secondary analysis of a 12 week cluster randomised controlled trial in 133 4-13 year old children. Families were randomly allocated to parental education regarding changing to reduced-fat dairy foods or a comparison non-dietary behaviour. The interventions were family focused. Parents received education from a dietitian in 3x30minute sessions to facilitate behaviour change. Parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire capturing three domains of the food environment – Parent knowledge and attitudes; shaping practices; and behaviours and role modelling. Children’s dietary intake was assessed via multiple 24-hour recalls at baseline and week 12. Changes in the family food environment and primary outcome (saturated fat were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed to explore the association between baseline and change in food environment constructs and change in saturated fat intake. Standardised Beta are presented (p Results After adjustments for child and family demographics, higher levels of perceived food availability (β=-0.2 at baseline was associated with greater reduction in saturated fat intake, where as higher perceived responsibility (β=0.2, restriction (β=0.3 and pressure to eat (β=0.3 were associated with lesser change in saturated fat. An increase in nutrition knowledge (β=-0.2, perceived responsibility (β=-0.3 and restriction (β=-0.3 from baseline to week 12 were associated with greater reduction in

  16. Cropping Systems and Climate Change in Humid Subtropical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel M. Hernandez-Ochoa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the future, climate change will challenge food security by threatening crop production. Humid subtropical regions play an important role in global food security, with crop rotations often including wheat (winter crop and soybean and maize (summer crops. Over the last 30 years, the humid subtropics in the Northern Hemisphere have experienced a stronger warming trend than in the Southern Hemisphere, and the trend is projected to continue throughout the mid- and end of century. Past rainfall trends range, from increases up to 4% per decade in Southeast China to −3% decadal decline in East Australia; a similar trend is projected in the future. Climate change impact studies suggest that by the middle and end of the century, wheat yields may not change, or they will increase up to 17%. Soybean yields will increase between 3% and 41%, while maize yields will increase by 30% or decline by −40%. These wide-ranging climate change impacts are partly due to the region-specific projections, but also due to different global climate models, climate change scenarios, single-model uncertainties, and cropping system assumptions, making it difficult to make conclusions from these impact studies and develop adaptation strategies. Additionally, most of the crop models used in these studies do not include major common stresses in this environment, such as heat, frost, excess water, pests, and diseases. Standard protocols and impact assessments across the humid subtropical regions are needed to understand climate change impacts and prepare for adaptation strategies.

  17. Urban Public Space Context and Cognitive Psychology Evolution in Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chen; Xu, Hua-wei

    2017-11-01

    The rapid development of information technology has had a great impact on the understanding of urban environment, which brings different spatially psychological experience. Information and image transmission has been full with the streets, both the physical space and virtual space have been unprecedentedly blended together through pictures, images, electronic media and other tools, which also stimulates people’s vision and psychology and gives birth to a more complex form of urban space. Under the dual role of spatial mediumlization and media spatialization, the psychological cognitive pattern of urban public space context is changing.

  18. Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in Changing operational Environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Hongisto, M.; Koponen, K. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    Sustainability is a multi-faceted and challenging target, but at the same time a crucial issue to assess when setting policies and targets for the future. The main objective of the SUBICHOE project is to assist public administration and companies in strategic decision- making in the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. The project aimed to assess how the sustainability criteria, in particular those set by the EC, ensure the sustainability of biofuels from short and long term perspectives. The project is carried out jointly by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The work plan of the project is divided into four Work Packages. In this article, a summary of main findings of the project is presented. (orig.)

  19. Environment Changes Genetic Effects on Respiratory Conditions and Allergic Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yong; Schwager, Michelle J; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is disproportionately distributed among different populations, with an increasing trend observed in Western countries. Here we investigated how the environment affected genotype-phenotype association in a genetically homogeneous, but geographically...... separated population. We evaluated 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to 8 genes (ADAM33, ALOX5, LT-α, LTC4S, NOS1, ORMDL3, TBXA2R and TNF-α), the lung function and five respiratory/allergic conditions (ever asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, dermatitis and atopy) in two populations of Inuit......-phenotype associations relating to bronchitis and allergy susceptibility are dependent on the environment and that environmental factors/lifestyles modify genetic predisposition and change the genetic effects on diseases....

  20. Assessing and managing stressors in a changing marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter M

    2017-11-30

    We are facing a dynamic future in the face of multiple stressors acting individually and in combination: climate change; habitat change/loss; overfishing; invasive species; harmful algal blooms/eutrophication; and, chemical contaminants. Historic assessment and management approaches will be inadequate for addressing risks from climate change and other stressors. Wicked problems (non-linear, complex, competing risks and benefits, not easily solvable), will become increasingly common. We are facing irreversible changes to our planetary living conditions. Agreed protection goals and considering both the negatives (risks) and the positives (benefits) of all any and all actions are required, as is judicious and appropriate use of the Precautionary Principle. Researchers and managers need to focus on: determining tipping points (alternative stable points); maintaining ecosystem services; and, managing competing ecosystem services. Marine (and other) scientists are urged to focus their research on wicked problems to allow for informed decision-making on a planetary basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate change, living environment and ways of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervelae, M.; Wilenius, M.

    1994-01-01

    The research project 'Climate Change, Living Environment and Way of Life' is focused on the social concepts of risks and of proposed policies related to global environmental problems as seen by representatives of various social groups. Drawing on the social-scientific methodology and applying its concept apparatus, the research project focuses on two central problems in the field of contemporary environmental research. Firstly, with the way in which environmental problems influence people's values and attitudes. Secondly, with the question of how people seek to act and to show solidarity towards new generations by means of environmental policies or by protecting nature within the framework of their private ways of life

  2. U.S. NGL supply in the changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the outlook for domestic NGL supply, demand for natural gas liquids in the US, and review a couple of key drivers of natural gas liquids demand; ethylene production and capacity and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The author reviews historical US NGL production in key supply areas over the past five years, as well as look forward through the year 2000. Then briefly touch on the recent activity, specifically the types of consolidations, changing the environment in the gas gathering, gas processing and natural gas liquids industry and its impact on future NGL markets

  3. Robust free-space optical communication for indoor information environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Toyohisa; Itoh, Hideo; Kunifuji, Susumu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of our study is to establish a robust communication, while keeping security and privacy, between a handheld communicator and the surrounding information environment. From the viewpoint of low power consumption, we have been developing a reflectivity modulating communication module composed of a liquid crystal light modulator and a corner-reflecting mirror sheet. We installed a corner-reflecting sheet instead of light scattering sheet in a handheld videogame machine with a display screen with a reflection-type liquid crystal. Infrared (IR) LED illuminator attached next to the IR camera of a base station illuminates all the room, and the terminal send their data to the base station by switching ON and OFF of the reflected IR beam. Intensity of reflected light differs with the position and the direction of the terminal, and sometimes the intensity of OFF signal at a certain condition is brighter than that of ON signal at another condition. To improve the communication quality, use of machine learning technique is a possibility of the solution. In this paper, we compare various machine learning techniques for the purpose of free space optical communication, and propose a new algorithm that improves the robustness of the data link. Evaluation using an actual free-space communication system is also described.

  4. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  5. Tracking a changing environment: optimal sampling, adaptive memory and overnight effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Aimee S; Stephens, David W

    2012-02-01

    Foraging in a variable environment presents a classic problem of decision making with incomplete information. Animals must track the changing environment, remember the best options and make choices accordingly. While several experimental studies have explored the idea that sampling behavior reflects the amount of environmental change, we take the next logical step in asking how change influences memory. We explore the hypothesis that memory length should be tied to the ecological relevance and the value of the information learned, and that environmental change is a key determinant of the value of memory. We use a dynamic programming model to confirm our predictions and then test memory length in a factorial experiment. In our experimental situation we manipulate rates of change in a simple foraging task for blue jays over a 36 h period. After jays experienced an experimentally determined change regime, we tested them at a range of retention intervals, from 1 to 72 h. Manipulated rates of change influenced learning and sampling rates: subjects sampled more and learned more quickly in the high change condition. Tests of retention revealed significant interactions between retention interval and the experienced rate of change. We observed a striking and surprising difference between the high and low change treatments at the 24h retention interval. In agreement with earlier work we find that a circadian retention interval is special, but we find that the extent of this 'specialness' depends on the subject's prior experience of environmental change. Specifically, experienced rates of change seem to influence how subjects balance recent information against past experience in a way that interacts with the passage of time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The changing face of informed surgical consent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether procedure-specific brochures improve patients\\' pre-operative knowledge, to determine the amount of information expected by patients during the consenting process, and to determine whether the recently proposed \\'Request for Treatment\\' consenting process is viable on a large scale.

  7. Organization of educational process as a part of the information environment of the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оksana S. Savelyeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The questions concerning the insurance of openness and transparency of the educational process, monitoring the provision of educational services and the quality of learning within a unified information environment of Odessa National Polytechnic University are considered. It is proposed to consider the organization of the educational process as a major component of the educational process, that is a system of activities covering the distribution of the academic load between departments, recruitment of teachers, the formation of class schedules, consultation, final control and state certification. The analysis and the forming of set of parameters are carried out, the main components of the functional subsystem "The organization of educational process" as one of the components of the information environment of university are identified. Building a system hierarchically ensures the effective management of subsystems of organization of educational process and interaction between participants of the educational process and allows the system to change quickly if it is necessary.

  8. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  9. Preparation of information bases on long-term stability of geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Osamu; Asamori, Koichi; Kinoshita, Hirohisa; Nakatuka, Noboru

    2004-09-01

    From a point of clear grasp of change of thermal and dynamic properties of rock, and flow and geochemical characteristics of groundwater, the special phenomena in Japan such as upheaval, submergence, erosion, igneous activity, seismicity and fault and change of climate and seawater were investigated. Some figures and databases are prepared by collecting information and knowledge related. They contained seven databases: active faults map of Japan, structural map of sea region in Japan and its environs, quaternary volcanoes in Japan, well temperature database, spring geochemistry database, marine terrace in Japan and distribution of landslide configuration, and four figures: geothermal gradient, marine terrace, distribution of upheaval velocity and distribution of erosion velocity in Japan. These databases and figures are explained. The characteristics of diastrophism and igneous activity in Japan are discussed from the viewpoint of long-term stability of geological environment. (S.Y.)

  10. Changes seen in the environment report from Uusimaa Regional Environment Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enckell, E.; Airola, H.; Tornivaara-Ruikka, R.; Villa, L.; Salasto, R.

    2002-05-01

    This publication describes the environmental changes and the influencing factors occurring within the administrative regions of the Uusimaa Regional Environment Centre. The quality of the environment can be judged as satisfying in regards to both the mental and physical health of humans. Areas have a steady trend of a relatively high growth in population density, while the efficiency of land use in new settlements is low. Traffic and the travel distances are on the rise. A considerable part of the population lives in areas where the noise standards are violated, despite control measures. Waste management, water distribution and sewage networks are under continuous development. In regards to the nature, the situation in some parts is of great concern. The manifold of the nature, cultural landscapes and culturally valuable buildings and sites are threatened. The living space of flora and fauna is continuing to decrease and change. The risks caused by human activities in groundwater areas are increasing. For these reasons the implementation of protection programs is important. Emissions from point sources to the water and air have significantly decreased. Yet, the impacts of air quality deprivation can still be seen in some cities and in the vicinity of some industrial sites. The eutrophication have essentially changed the ecology and fishstocks; however, the water quality has improved in many places. Regarding the above issues, as well as some other topics, included in the report are 16 theme maps 66 pictures. However, the report states that the monitoring and reporting of the environmental quality should be improved. (orig.)

  11. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  12. Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara P.

    This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests

  13. Numerical support, information processing and attitude change

    OpenAIRE

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; de Vries, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments we studied the prediction that majority support induces stronger convergent processing than minority support for a persuasive message, the more so when recipients are explicitly forced to pay attention to the source's point of view; this in turn affects the amount of attitude change on related issues. Convergent processing is the systematic elaboration on the sources position, but with a stronger focus on verification and justification rather than falsification. In Exp 1 wi...

  14. The US Global Change Data and Information Management Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) requires massive quantities of highly diverse data and information to improve our understanding of global change processes. The Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) comprises Federal agencies that need to provide reliable data and information for this purpose from existing programs and archives and from new activities designed to improve upon the data and information. This US Global Change Data and Information Management Program Plan commits the participating Federal agencies to work with each other, with academia, and with the international community to make it as easy as possible for researchers and others to access and use global change data and information. Toward this end, the agencies are organizing a Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS), which takes advantage of the mission resources and responsibilities of each agency. Sources for global change data and information are national and international agency programs, including those focused on the USGCRP, such as NASA's Earth Observing System [EOS] and other agency global change initiatives and those contributing to the USGCRP from other agency programs not focused on global change. Data and information include raw data from observation systems, value-added data from data assembly activities, and derived data and information from models and other investigations. Additional data and information are identified from appropriate sources including academia and the international community

  15. changing stm curricula for the information age: implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TONIA CLARE

    information age, rationale and strategies for changing STM curricular, implications for the teacher and then conclusion. ... learner under the guidance of a school to effect a change in the ..... education international conference. Ofele, C. N. ...

  16. 78 FR 18620 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This Information... enforcement authority under the 287(g) program. This information is used by program managers and trainers in... Information Collection Activities: Extension, Without Change, of an Existing Information Collection; Comment...

  17. Individuals’ changes in their lifestyle to build a sustainable environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Lacerda Viana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The unsustainable use of natural resources is not a current issue and it began since the Agricultural Revolution, which characterizes the change in the relationship between man and nature. The first major environmental impacts emerged and as a result of this new way of life that went from nomadism to sedentary lifestyles, there was an increase of human productive capacity and the emergence of other crafts that were not directly related to food production. This paper provides a complete definition of the key concepts, suggest a few alternatives which people can apply on their daily lives, and relate them to the framework that rules sustainability. The main arguments for this work are that citizens in the developed world can reduce the pressure being placed on the state of the environment and contribute to sustainable development by saving energy and water, reducing waste, and choosing a transportation which emits less pollutants.

  18. Research progress on expansive soil cracks under changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bei-xiao; Zheng, Cheng-feng; Wu, Jin-kun

    2014-01-01

    Engineering problems shunned previously rise to the surface gradually with the activities of reforming the natural world in depth, the problem of expansive soil crack under the changing environment becoming a control factor of expansive soil slope stability. The problem of expansive soil crack has gradually become a research hotspot, elaborates the occurrence and development of cracks from the basic properties of expansive soil, and points out the role of controlling the crack of expansive soil strength. We summarize the existing research methods and results of expansive soil crack characteristics. Improving crack measurement and calculation method and researching the crack depth measurement, statistical analysis method, crack depth and surface feature relationship will be the future direction.

  19. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  20. Information technology as tool for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, P

    1999-12-01

    It looks that networking welfare thinking and implementations of network projects only follow the development of data transfer possibilities. It is a danger that seamless chain of care in health care is just a data transferring generator based on easy connections, only creating needs for new data transferring. This is an 'illusion of core skills' that does not extend to the development of the contents of services. Easy access to the system makes more contacts and need for more also clinical services. New needs for data transfer burden the personnel with unnecessary information and networking functional model does not emancipate them to use their substantial skills. It means more costs and it is also a danger that normal life will be medicated. Public sector cannot finance all these new possibilities and consequences of modern technology. Does all this create a new combination of public and private sector and push them to allocate responsibilities in developing work? If the public and private sectors do not find the balance in controlling this development, also actors outside health care get to influence the choices and health care loses its autonomy. It becomes a business means for companies producing data transfer and network services. From the prioritization point of view this is not a good vision for financing and delivery of health care services either in public or private sector.

  1. Sustainability of biomass utilisation in changing operational environment - SUBICHOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, S.; Hongisto, M.; Koponen, K.; Sokka, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi; Antikainen, R.; Manninen, K. (Finnish Environment Inst. SYKE, Helsinki (Finland)); Thun, R.; Sinkko, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)); Pasanen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Sustaibability is a multi-faceted and challenging target, but at the same time a crucial issue to assess when setting policies and targets for the future. The main objective of the SUBICHOE project is to assist in strategic decision- making of public administration and companies, as regards the most sustainable use of biomass, by taking into account the changing operational environment. In the project the sustainability of biofuels and the criteria, in particular those set by the EC, for ensuring that set requirements can and will be fulfilled are being assessed from short and long term perspectives. The project is carried out jointly by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) and The Government Institute for Economic Research (VATT). The project started in June 2009 and it is scheduled to be finalised in June 2011. The work plan of the project is divided into four Work Packages. In this article, a summary of a critical view on the requirements and challenges related to the implementation of the RES Directive is also provided based on the main findings of the WP1. (orig.)

  2. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  3. Information Environment of Tutors in Public Secondary Schools in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture, a study centre of the National Open University (NOUN), a State ... to impart knowledge of the various subjects in students. ..... Information-seeking behaviour of International Islamic ... Malaysian Journal of Library & Information.

  4. Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment Information Management Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The CARPE Information Management Tool (CARPE IMT), available in both French and English, organizes information and reports from its partners for the 12 CARPE/CBFP...

  5. The Influence of an Information Environment on Construction Organization's Culture: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth T. Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction professionals have identified public contract law and bureaucratic procurement/contract offices as a source of problems in the construction industry. The culture within the United State's Federal Government Acquisitions is based on the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs and its interpretation, often placing organizations/agencies in the price-based environment and continuously resulting in poor performance. The United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM (approximately $100 M in construction renovation awards per year attempted to overcome this obstacle through a partnership with the Performance-Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG at Arizona State University. The MEDCOM implemented the information environment portion of the Performance Information Procurement System (PIPS into Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ contracts through the specifications. Without controlling the various contract/procurement processes, the developed information environment stimulated an atmosphere of accountability to all parties involved, while reducing the client's internal bureaucratic resistance. The concept has met with preliminary success, minimizing construction management issues by over 50%, raising owner satisfaction by 9%, resulting in 99% of projects ending with no contractor-generated change orders, and assisting MEDCOM leadership in measuring the performance of their infrastructure revitalization program.

  6. INFORMATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A PLATFORM FOR IMPLEMENTING BLENDED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla P. Kobysia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization of blended learning for students on the basis of information educational environment using electronic teaching methods courses. It was considered the use of modern information technology, interactive learning, the use of computer-oriented technologies for structuring educational information and presenting it in different formats, creating an electronic notebook - portfolio of student’s work on appropriate discipline. The portfolio does not only qualitatively assess the performance of students and their level of competence, but also intensify educational interests through the reflection of their professional activity, self-control and self-monitoring their achievement, analysis, reasoning and planning future actions, decisions, and finally changes personal success.

  7. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  8. Learning Science in Informal Environments: People, Places, and Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip, Ed.; Lewenstein, Bruce, Ed.; Shouse, Andrew W., Ed.; Feder, Michael A., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Informal science is a burgeoning field that operates across a broad range of venues and envisages learning outcomes for individuals, schools, families, and society. The evidence base that describes informal science, its promise, and effects is informed by a range of disciplines and perspectives, including field-based research, visitor studies, and…

  9. A Simple Example of ``Quantum Darwinism'': Redundant Information Storage in Many-Spin Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2005-11-01

    As quantum information science approaches the goal of constructing quantum computers, understanding loss of information through decoherence becomes increasingly important. The information about a system that can be obtained from its environment can facilitate quantum control and error correction. Moreover, observers gain most of their information indirectly, by monitoring (primarily photon) environments of the "objects of interest." Exactly how this information is inscribed in the environment is essential for the emergence of "the classical" from the quantum substrate. In this paper, we examine how many-qubit (or many-spin) environments can store information about a single system. The information lost to the environment can be stored redundantly, or it can be encoded in entangled modes of the environment. We go on to show that randomly chosen states of the environment almost always encode the information so that an observer must capture a majority of the environment to deduce the system's state. Conversely, in the states produced by a typical decoherence process, information about a particular observable of the system is stored redundantly. This selective proliferation of "the fittest information" (known as Quantum Darwinism) plays a key role in choosing the preferred, effectively classical observables of macroscopic systems. The developing appreciation that the environment functions not just as a garbage dump, but as a communication channel, is extending our understanding of the environment's role in the quantum-classical transition beyond the traditional paradigm of decoherence.

  10. Dental Education Required for the Changing Health Care Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita; González-Cabezas, Carlos; de Peralta, Tracy; Johnsen, David C

    2017-08-01

    To be able to meet the demands for care in 2040, dental graduates will need to address challenges resulting from the rapidly changing health care environment with knowledge and sets of skills to build on current standards and adapt to the future. The purposes of this article are to 1) analyze key challenges likely to evolve considerably between now and 2040 that will impact dental education and practice and 2) propose several sets of skills and educational outcomes necessary to address these challenges. The challenges discussed include changes in prevalence of oral diseases, dental practice patterns, materials and technologies, integrated medical-dental care, role of electronic health records, cultural competence, integrated curricula, interprofessional education, specialty-general balance, and web/cloud-based collaborations. To meet these challenges, the dental graduate will need skills such as core knowledge in basic and clinical dentistry, technical proficiency, critical thinking skills for lifelong learning, ethical and professional values, ability to manage a practice, social responsibility, and ability to function in a collegial intra- and interprofessional setting. Beyond the skills of the individual dentist will be the need for leadership in academia and the practice community. Academic and professional leaders will need to engage key constituencies to develop strategic directions and agendas with all parties pointed toward high standards for individual patients and the public at large. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  11. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  12. Who Are Better Informed Before Analysts’ Forecast Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jun Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Korean data, we investigate information asymmetry among investors before analysts change their stock recommendations. By comparing trading activities between individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, we find that there is information asymmetry before analysts change their recommendations. Institutional investors buy/sell the stock before recommendation upgrades/downgrades, but individuals and foreign investors do not anticipate the upcoming news. We also document that the trade imbalance of institutional investors are associated with stock returns upon the announcements of recommendation changes. This result indicates that institutions take advantage of their superior information around the recommendation changes.

  13. The Environment as Information--An Examination of the Mechanism of Environmental Effect on Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Thompson; Walker, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Exposed subjects (N=96) to environments pretested to elicit feelings of pleasure or displeasure while hearing or reading a message. Results showed attitude change was significantly higher in pleasant environments than in unpleasant environments. The environmental effect was only found when subjects were allowed time to soak in the environment. (BH)

  14. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J. Moerlein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  15. Geometric structure and information change in phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    We propose a toy model for a cyclic order-disorder transition and introduce a geometric methodology to understand stochastic processes involved in transitions. Specifically, our model consists of a pair of forward and backward processes (FPs and BPs) for the emergence and disappearance of a structure in a stochastic environment. We calculate time-dependent probability density functions (PDFs) and the information length L , which is the total number of different states that a system undergoes during the transition. Time-dependent PDFs during transient relaxation exhibit strikingly different behavior in FPs and BPs. In particular, FPs driven by instability undergo the broadening of the PDF with a large increase in fluctuations before the transition to the ordered state accompanied by narrowing the PDF width. During this stage, we identify an interesting geodesic solution accompanied by the self-regulation between the growth and nonlinear damping where the time scale τ of information change is constant in time, independent of the strength of the stochastic noise. In comparison, BPs are mainly driven by the macroscopic motion due to the movement of the PDF peak. The total information length L between initial and final states is much larger in BPs than in FPs, increasing linearly with the deviation γ of a control parameter from the critical state in BPs while increasing logarithmically with γ in FPs. L scales as |lnD | and D-1 /2 in FPs and BPs, respectively, where D measures the strength of the stochastic forcing. These differing scalings with γ and D suggest a great utility of L in capturing different underlying processes, specifically, diffusion vs advection in phase transition by geometry. We discuss physical origins of these scalings and comment on implications of our results for bistable systems undergoing repeated order-disorder transitions (e.g., fitness).

  16. Sources of Developmental Change in the Efficiency of Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Lombrozo, Tania; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Children are active learners: they learn not only from the information people offer and the evidence they happen to observe, but by actively seeking information. However, children's information search strategies are typically less efficient than those of adults. In two studies, we isolate potential sources of developmental change in how children…

  17. Power plant construction contracting in a changing regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The 1965 blackout in the Northeast provided the wake-up call that spawned in unprecedented program of power plant construction by electric utilities. This building program began in the late 1960s and continued unabated through the 1970s. Beginning in the late 1970s, state regulators began in era of 'prudence' reviews which disallowed as imprudent significant portions of the costs of certain nuclear units being brought on line at the time. This regulatory experience brought about a fundamental change in the way in which utilities evaluated the need for additional capacity. This paper explores construction contracting trends in light of recent developments in the relationship between the electric utility and the state regulator. It is within this context that the utility decides: (1) whether to build, buy, or save; and (2) if the decision is to build, which project planning and administration considerations will maximize the utility's ability to incorporate project costs into the ratebase. In order to put these issues into their proper perspective, this paper first presents a brief overview of the prudence decisions of the past, and the chilling effect of these decisions generally on new project planning. The paper next focuses on the recent changes to the post-construction prudence review model, including the introduction of pre-approval arrangements and rolling prudence reviews. Following that will be a survey of new construction spending decisions in light of these changes. After an analysis of the bases for the prudence disallowances of the past and the application of the lessons learned from these disallowances to contract planning and administration issues of today, the paper will close with a discussion of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used contract delivery methods in today's regulatory environment

  18. The Effect of Information Analysis Automation Display Content on Human Judgment Performance in Noisy Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein

    2012-01-01

    Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noi...

  19. Knowledge representation within information systems in manufacturing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Amir M

    2004-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Representing knowledge as information content alone is insufficient in providing us with an understanding of the world around us. A combination of context as well as reasoning of the information content is fundamental to representing knowledge in an information system. Knowledge Representation is typically concerned with providing structures and theories that are used as a basis for intellige...

  20. Dynamics and life histories of northern ungulates in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichsen, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate and local weather conditions can profoundly influence life history parameters (growth, survival, fecundity) and population dynamics in northern ungulates (Post and Stenseth 1999, Coulson et al. 2001). The influence is both direct, for example through reduced growth or survival (Aanes et al. 2000, Tyler et al. 2008), and indirect, for example through changes in resource distribution, phenology and quality, changes which subsequently influence consumer dynamics (Post et al. 2008). By comparing and contrasting data from three spatially independent populations of ungulates, I discuss how variation in local weather parameters and vegetation growth influence spatial and temporal dynamics through changes in life history parameters and/or behavioural dynamics. The data originate from long term (11-15 years) monitoring data from three populations of ungulates in one subarctic and two high Arctic sites; semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in northern Norway, Svalbard reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) on Spitsbergen and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in Northeast Greenland. The results show that juvenile animals can be particularly vulnerable to changes in their environment, and that this is mirrored to different degrees in the spatio-temporal dynamics of the three populations. Adverse weather conditions, acting either directly or mediated through access to and quality of vegetation, experienced by young early in life, or even by their dams during pregnancy, can lead to reduced growth, lower survival and reduced reproductive performance later in life. The influence of current climatic variation, and the predictions of how local weather conditions may change over time, differs between the three sites, resulting in potentially different responses in the three populations. Aanes R, Saether BE and Øritsland NA. 2000. Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation. Ecography

  1. Regulation of health information processing in an outsourcing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Policy makers must consider the work force, technology, cost, and legal implications of their legislative proposals. AHIMA, AAMT, CHIA, and MTIA urge lawmakers to craft regulatory solutions that enforce HIPAA and support advancements in modern health information processing practices that improve the quality and cost of healthcare. We also urge increased investment in health information work force development and implementation of new technologies to advance critical healthcare outcomes--timely, accurate, accessible, and secure information to support patient care. It is essential that state legislatures reinforce the importance of improving information processing solutions for healthcare and not take actions that will produce unintended and detrimental consequences.

  2. Complexity in organizations and environment - adaptive changes and adaptive decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of complexity are ever more present in modern organizations and in environments in which they operate, trying to survive and be as competitive as possible. In the processes of, the so-called emergence, the formal organizational structure, designed purposefully and with a plan, is going through a change due to complexity and the need for adaptation. As a result, there is a variety of new informal groups. At the same time, the intended structural changes and business process changes occur because of the perception that the leadership and senior organizational management have of the strategic situation. Managers in modern organizations often use business intelligence (BI systems when making important business decisions. These systems offer support to the decision-making by gathering and processing relevant data and information about the company performance, but also about the data on conditions in close and remote environment. A modern company is characterized by the complex adaptive system, but the environment in which it operates together with other business subjects (agents is also complex. Consequently, the requirements for appropriate or optimal decisions and successfully completed activities are hard to meet. Given that expected future events and circumstances often occur in nonlinear mechanisms, the decisions made by following the models of traditional predicting and planning are not satisfactory. This calls for new approaches to decision making and acting.

  3. Methodology for considering environments and culture in developing information security systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mwakalinga, G Jeffy; Kowalski, Stewart; Yngström, Louise

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a methodology for considering culture of users and environments when developing information security systems. We discuss the problem of how researchers and developers of security for information systems have had difficulties in considering culture of users and environments when they develop information security systems. This has created environments where people serve technology instead of technology serving people. Users have been considered just as any other compo...

  4. The Value of Information for Populations in Varying Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Olivier; Leibler, Stanislas

    2011-04-01

    The notion of information pervades informal descriptions of biological systems, but formal treatments face the problem of defining a quantitative measure of information rooted in a concept of fitness, which is itself an elusive notion. Here, we present a model of population dynamics where this problem is amenable to a mathematical analysis. In the limit where any information about future environmental variations is common to the members of the population, our model is equivalent to known models of financial investment. In this case, the population can be interpreted as a portfolio of financial assets and previous analyses have shown that a key quantity of Shannon's communication theory, the mutual information, sets a fundamental limit on the value of information. We show that this bound can be violated when accounting for features that are irrelevant in finance but inherent to biological systems, such as the stochasticity present at the individual level. This leads us to generalize the measures of uncertainty and information usually encountered in information theory.

  5. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Dietz, Pim; Amrit, Chintan; Hercheui, Magda David; Whitehouse, Diane; McIver Jr., William J.; Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate

  6. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  7. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Interactive learning tools are emerging as effective educational materials in the area of computer science and engineering. It is a research domain that is rapidly expanding because of its positive impacts on motivating and improving students' performance during the learning process. This paper introduces an interactive learning environment for…

  8. 77 FR 15115 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension, without Change, of an Existing Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g...; or inquiries for additional information should be directed to: John Ramsay, Forms Program Manager, U... Information Collection Activities: Extension, without Change, of an Existing Information Collection; Comment...

  9. Tools for estimating VMT reductions from built environment changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Built environment characteristics are associated with walking, bicycling, transit use, and vehicle : miles traveled (VMT). Developing built environments supportive of walking, bicycling, and transit use : can help meet state VMT reduction goals. But ...

  10. Information dissemination, environment and scientific information; Informazione, ambiente e scienza. Studi di caso e prospettive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, G; Marchetti, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Belli, M [WWF, Fondo Mondiale per la Natura, Rome (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    Among ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment) activities, one deals with analysis and strategies of environmental and scientific information. A questionnaire, created in collaboration with AIGA (Italian Environmental Journalist Association) and UGIS (Italian Scientific Journalist Association) and WWF has been realized. Purpose of the work was to check the level of sensitivity of the Italian journalists on environmental and scientific issues and to investigate the main obstacle facing to their professional activity.Environmental and scientific problems are usually not correctly perceived by the public. These problems, in fact, undergo a `closeness/distance` perception syndrome despite the fact that they are often presented and discussed in the media. The dichotomy may be explained according to the following phenomenology: 1. the existence of the problem is well known but the scientific and technological contest results to be of hard comprehension; 2. better and prolonged debating about the problem increments the attendance echo but simultaneously decrements the real understanding of it. The public opinion response to the diffusion of news related to environmental and scientific themes of no immediate understanding is of great concern; 3. media organizations are not always suited for dealing with the advanced matter of environmental and scientific information.

  11. Consumer behaviour and the environment: Which role for information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for promoting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this workshop is organized by a network of economists, I will start with the importance...... of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis will be on the importance of information for creating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving environmental problems that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information...... may be even more important for furthering other important types of behaviour, such as voter behaviour or activist behaviour, but I won't discuss the specific issues about promoting these types of behaviour today....

  12. The Mission Partner Environment: Challenges To Multinational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    four regional commands (Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, and Pacific Command). On behalf of their powerful 4-star combatant...nations, and the U.S. DoD’s Assistant Secretary of Defense ( ASD ) for Networks and Information Integration (NII).12 While this arrangement attempted to...leadership to seek a more coherent and enduring approach to information sharing. As ISAF expanded operations throughout the country, it added more

  13. E-business Environment in the Global Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Vymětal, Dominik; Suchánek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    In today´s digital 21st century, almost all businesses face intense competition from competitors all around the globe. There are no borders and business area for the all companies is almost unlimited. As the main supports of mentioned fact are globalization and ICT´s development. Influences such as globalization, increased popularity of outsourcing and offshoring have recently combined to produce an environment where ICT graduates need to have up-to-date and industry-relevant knowledge and sk...

  14. Mexico Under NAFTA: Accounting Information In a Changing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Rivera

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has successfully implemented policies to open foreign trade, stabilize the Peso, control inflation, deregulate private business, scale back state enterprises, eliminate bureaucratic red tape, and welcome foreign investment. This process started before NAFTA was considered; however, NAFTA helped in making these economic changes more permanent. Given a more propitious business environment, understanding the financial information reported by Mexican firms constitutes a relevant inquiry. This paper analyzes features of the accounting model used in that economy and compares them against the characteristics of its counterpart accounting practice in the U.S. As a whole, the Mexican accounting practice has achieved a reasonably good level of competence. In their quest to find solutions to problems and issues not yet covered by their accounting norms, the Mexican Accounting Principles Committee has paid close attention to the U.S. GAAP and to the principles advanced by the International Accounting Standards Committee. A new Law of the Securities Market has added mechanisms to guarantee a healthy operation of the securities market and to increase the transparency of transactions and financial disclosures of the companies whose securities are traded in the exchanges. All this is a reflection of the new open economy and free market mechanisms embraced by the Mexican government.

  15. ELISA, a demonstrator environment for information systems architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panem, Chantal

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach of reusability of software engineering technology in the area of ground space system design. System engineers have lots of needs similar to software developers: sharing of a common data base, capitalization of knowledge, definition of a common design process, communication between different technical domains. Moreover system designers need to simulate dynamically their system as early as possible. Software development environments, methods and tools now become operational and widely used. Their architecture is based on a unique object base, a set of common management services and they host a family of tools for each life cycle activity. In late '92, CNES decided to develop a demonstrative software environment supporting some system activities. The design of ground space data processing systems was chosen as the application domain. ELISA (Integrated Software Environment for Architectures Specification) was specified as a 'demonstrator', i.e. a sufficient basis for demonstrations, evaluation and future operational enhancements. A process with three phases was implemented: system requirements definition, design of system architectures models, and selection of physical architectures. Each phase is composed of several activities that can be performed in parallel, with the provision of Commercial Off the Shelves Tools. ELISA has been delivered to CNES in January 94, currently used for demonstrations and evaluations on real projects (e.g. SPOT4 Satellite Control Center). It is on the way of new evolutions.

  16. Change Support in Process-Aware Information Systems - A Pattern-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Barbara; Rinderle, S.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    In today's dynamic business world the economic success of an enterprise increasingly depends on its ability to react to changes in its environment in a quick and flexible way. Process-aware information systems (PAIS) offer promising perspectives in this respect and are increasingly employed for

  17. Verification ghosts. The changing political environment of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redden, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Six years ago, Dr. Hans Blix wrote in the IAEA Bulletin of a 'general optimism about further arms control and verification.' At the time, world events warranted such a prognosis; the IAEA was riding a wave of momentum after its instrumental role in the roll-back of the South African nuclear weapons program and bringing Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan into the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear-weapon States. The NPT's indefinite extension was only two years old, and the most pressing challenges, while recognizable, were somewhat stagnant. Today, some tidings elicit similar optimism. The IAEA's increasing efforts to combat terrorism and the decision by Member States to depart from nearly 20 years of zero real growth budgetary policy are remarkable testaments to the Agency's adaptability and credibility in the face of new threats. And with the worldwide frenzy over terrorism and redoubled phobia of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the Agency garners public attention now as never before. Emblematic of this recent upsurge in political attention, US President George W. Bush's annual State of the Union address in 2003 mentioned supporting the IAEA as a specific priority of his administration, the first mention of the Agency in that speech since President Eisenhower in 1961 lauded its creation under 'Atoms for Peace'. Such visibility portends a future with prospects for overcoming bureaucratic inertia and effecting significant changes to the Agency's benefit. But with that visibility has come an uncertainty about the IAEA's role in world affairs. Despite being able to resolve most benign problems more easily, the Agency must operate in an environment haunted by the non-proliferation analogue of Charles Dickens' triumvirate specters: the ghosts of verification challenges past, present and future -namely, the cessation of UN-mandated inspections in Iraq, the difficulties ensuring compliance in North Korea and Iran, and the need to maintain the IAEA

  18. Taimyr Reindeer and Environmental Change: Monitoring Wild Reindeer Migration in Changing Natural and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Taimyr Reindeer Herd (TRH) is both the largest and the longest monitored wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. An important part of Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihood, wild reindeer have been continuously monitored for almost 50 years. During this time, herds have exhibited large changes in size and these changes have been recorded in almost all herds across the animal's range. An increasing number of wild reindeer in the Soviet times was followed by a significant population loss in the last decade. In addition, recent monitoring revealed substantial shifts in the distribution of wild populations. The decline in wild reindeer is likely related to natural cycles and changes in the Arctic environment caused by climate variability and anthropogenic activity. This study investigates patterns and possible drives of reindeer population dynamics in space and time. We identify key climatic factors, possible relationships with biomass dynamics, as well as with hunting practices and other human impacts.

  19. The effects of information and social conformity on opinion change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2018-01-01

    Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of political participation, such as turning out to vote. However, we know less about how conformity pressures affect one’s deeply held political values and opinions. Using a discussion-based experiment, we untangle the unique and combined effects of information and social pressure on a political opinion that is highly salient, politically charged, and part of one’s identity. We find that while information plays a role in changing a person’s opinion, the social delivery of that information has the greatest effect. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the social delivery of information, while ten percent respond only to social pressure and ten percent respond only to information. Participants that change their opinion due to social pressure in our experiment are more conservative politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not. PMID:29718958

  20. The effects of information and social conformity on opinion change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2018-01-01

    Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of political participation, such as turning out to vote. However, we know less about how conformity pressures affect one's deeply held political values and opinions. Using a discussion-based experiment, we untangle the unique and combined effects of information and social pressure on a political opinion that is highly salient, politically charged, and part of one's identity. We find that while information plays a role in changing a person's opinion, the social delivery of that information has the greatest effect. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the social delivery of information, while ten percent respond only to social pressure and ten percent respond only to information. Participants that change their opinion due to social pressure in our experiment are more conservative politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not.

  1. Climate change adaptation in informal settings: Understanding and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People living in informal urban settings in Latin America and the Caribbean are ... by formal institutions in small- and medium-sized cities in Latin America and the ... the protection of humans and the built environment from water, and income ... for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is pleased to ...

  2. Surrounded by Science: Learning Science in Informal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Marilyn; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2010-01-01

    Practitioners in informal science settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, libraries, aquariums, zoos, and botanical gardens--are interested in finding out what learning looks like, how to measure it, and what they can do to ensure that people of all ages, from different backgrounds and cultures,…

  3. Business Value of Information Technology in Network Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucong

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) business value research is suggested as fundamental to the contribution of the IS discipline. The IS research community has accumulated a critical mass of IT business value studies, but only limited or mixed results have been found on the direct relationship between IT and firm performance. Extant studies mostly focus…

  4. Integrated Information Centers within Academic Environments: Introduction and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Luis F., Ed.; D'Elia, George, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces eight articles on the Integrated Information Center (IIC) Project, which investigated significant behavioral, technological, organizational, financial, and legal factors involved in the management of IICs. Four articles address design and management issues of general interest, and four focus on specific design considerations and a…

  5. Conceptual Modeling of Events as Information Objects and Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    as a totality of an information object and a change agent. When an event is modeled as an information object it is comparable to an entity that exists only at a specific point in time. It has attributes and can be used for querying and specification of constraints. When an event is modeled as a change agent...... it is comparable to an executable transaction schema. Finally, we briefly compare our approach to object-oriented approaches based on encapsulated objects....

  6. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension of an information... Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will eventually replace the Automated Commercial System...

  7. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have

  8. A Comparison of Participation Patterns in Selected Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…

  9. Modeling correlated information change: from conditional beliefs to quantum conditionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    In this paper, we propose a unified logical framework for representing and analyzing various forms of correlated information change. Our main thesis is that “logical dynamics,” in the sense of van Benthem (Exploring logical dynamics. CSLI Publications, Stanford, 1996; Logical dynamics of information

  10. Driving Change in the research and HE information market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of a federated network of repositories of information for research and higher education, and discusses the main engines for change in that market using availability and use of information as parameters. The value chain is used as an analytical instrument in

  11. Climate Change in China : Exploring Informants' Perceptions of Climate Change through a Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lipin, Tan

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is not only a natural phenomenon, but also a global social issue. Many studies try to explore the mechanisms behind climate change and the consequences of climate change, and provide information for developing the measures to mitigate or adapt to it. For example, the IPCC reviews and assesses climate-change-related scientific information produced worldwide, thus aiming to support decision-making from a scientific perspective. However, though various international and regional c...

  12. Heterogeneous Systems for Information-Variable Environments (HIVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188...which emerges across a wide range of time scales, is often ignored in human–autonomy systems.1 Current technologies to estimate individual humans...actuated Hokuyo LiDAR, and a Garmin GPS), traversed these paths at a speed of about 1.2 m/s while recording all sensor data. Orange soccer balls were

  13. Scalable and Resilient Middleware to Handle Information Exchange during Environment Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Poslad, S.; Moßgraber, J.; Middleton, S.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The EU FP7 TRIDEC project focuses on enabling real-time, intelligent, information management of collaborative, complex, critical decision processes for earth management. A key challenge is to promote a communication infrastructure to facilitate interoperable environment information services during environment events and crises such as tsunamis and drilling, during which increasing volumes and dimensionality of disparate information sources, including sensor-based and human-based ones, can result, and need to be managed. Such a system needs to support: scalable, distributed messaging; asynchronous messaging; open messaging to handling changing clients such as new and retired automated system and human information sources becoming online or offline; flexible data filtering, and heterogeneous access networks (e.g., GSM, WLAN and LAN). In addition, the system needs to be resilient to handle the ICT system failures, e.g. failure, degradation and overloads, during environment events. There are several system middleware choices for TRIDEC based upon a Service-oriented-architecture (SOA), Event-driven-Architecture (EDA), Cloud Computing, and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). In an SOA, everything is a service (e.g. data access, processing and exchange); clients can request on demand or subscribe to services registered by providers; more often interaction is synchronous. In an EDA system, events that represent significant changes in state can be processed simply, or as streams or more complexly. Cloud computing is a virtualization, interoperable and elastic resource allocation model. An ESB, a fundamental component for enterprise messaging, supports synchronous and asynchronous message exchange models and has inbuilt resilience against ICT failure. Our middleware proposal is an ESB based hybrid architecture model: an SOA extension supports more synchronous workflows; EDA assists the ESB to handle more complex event processing; Cloud computing can be used to increase and

  14. A Governing Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Mazmanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing an approach to governing adaptation to climate change is severely hampered by the dictatorship of the present when the needs of future generations are inadequately represented in current policy making. We posit this problem as a function of the attributes of adaptation policy making, including deep uncertainty and nonstationarity, where past observations are not reliable predictors of future outcomes. Our research links organizational decision-making attributes with adaptation decision making and identifies cases in which adaptation actions cause spillovers, free riding, and distributional impacts. We develop a governing framework for adaptation that we believe will enable policy, planning, and major long-term development decisions to be made appropriately at all levels of government in the face of the deep uncertainty and nonstationarity caused by climate change. Our framework requires that approval of projects with an expected life span of 30 years or more in the built environment include minimum building standards that integrate forecasted climate change impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC intermediate scenario. The intermediate IPCC scenario must be downscaled to include local or regional temperature, water availability, sea level rise, susceptibility to forest fires, and human habitation impacts to minimize climate-change risks to the built environment. The minimum standard is systematically updated every six years to facilitate learning by formal and informal organizations. As a minimum standard, the governance framework allows jurisdictions to take stronger actions to increase their climate resilience and thus maintain system flexibility.

  15. Visions of Change: Information Technology, Education and Postmodernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Encourages visionary questions relating to information technology and education. Describes the context of postmodernist change and discusses two contrasting visions of how education could change, paternalism and libertarianism. Concludes that teachers, learners, and communities need to articulate their own visions of education to ensure a…

  16. Managing Information in Law Firms: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nina; Price, James

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Data, information and knowledge together constitute a vital business asset for every organization that enables every business activity, every business process and every business decision. The global legal industry is facing unprecedented change, which inevitably creates challenges for individual law firms. These global changes affect…

  17. Managing Technological Change in Libraries and Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobas, Jane E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines factors to be considered in the management of technological change in libraries and information services. The organizational climate for change is discussed, and factors to consider when developing a strategy for introducing a new product, service, or system are described, including leadership, goals, political processes, marketing, and…

  18. Non-Equilibrium Relations for Bounded Rational Decision-Making in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms from single cells to humans need to adapt continuously to respond to changes in their environment. The process of behavioural adaptation can be thought of as improving decision-making performance according to some utility function. Here, we consider an abstract model of organisms as decision-makers with limited information-processing resources that trade off between maximization of utility and computational costs measured by a relative entropy, in a similar fashion to thermodynamic systems undergoing isothermal transformations. Such systems minimize the free energy to reach equilibrium states that balance internal energy and entropic cost. When there is a fast change in the environment, these systems evolve in a non-equilibrium fashion because they are unable to follow the path of equilibrium distributions. Here, we apply concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to characterize decision-makers that adapt to changing environments under the assumption that the temporal evolution of the utility function is externally driven and does not depend on the decision-maker’s action. This allows one to quantify performance loss due to imperfect adaptation in a general manner and, additionally, to find relations for decision-making similar to Crooks’ fluctuation theorem and Jarzynski’s equality. We provide simulations of several exemplary decision and inference problems in the discrete and continuous domains to illustrate the new relations.

  19. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    the information from European forest research/monitoring networks; the development of a new concept of forest sites for research and monitoring (Supersites); the identification of the main knowledge gaps; and the definition of priorities for forest adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment...... pollution dynamics into prospects for forest research and monitoring, with focus on the carbon, ozone, nitrogen and water budgets. The aim of this paper is to summarize scientific activities and achievements of MAFor: the creation of a meta-database for highlighting the available data and integrating...

  20. Welfare Mix and Hybridity. Flexible Adjustments to Changed Environments. Introduction to the Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Zimmer, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Present day welfare societies rely on a complex mix of different providers ranging from the state, markets, family, and non-profit organizations to unions, grassroots organizations, and informal networks. At the same time changing welfare discourses have opened up space for new partnerships...... organizations and organizational fields adjust to a new environment that is increasingly dominated by the logic of the market, and how in particular nonprofit organizations, as hybrids by definition, are able to cope with new demands, funding structures, and control mechanisms....

  1. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  2. Agile Data Management with the Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, B.; Aulenbach, S.; Tilmes, C.; Goldstein, J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe experiences applying agile software development techniques to the realm of data management during the development of the Global Change Information System (GCIS), a web service and API for authoritative global change information under development by the US Global Change Research Program. Some of the challenges during system design and implementation have been : (1) balancing the need for a rigorous mechanism for ensuring information quality with the realities of large data sets whose contents are often in flux, (2) utilizing existing data to inform decisions about the scope and nature of new data, and (3) continuously incorporating new knowledge and concepts into a relational data model. The workflow for managing the content of the system has much in common with the development of the system itself. We examine various aspects of agile software development and discuss whether or how we have been able to use them for data curation as well as software development.

  3. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  4. CMIS: Crime Map Information System for Safety Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Yee, Ng Peng; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Crime Map is an online web based geographical information system that assists the public and users to visualize crime activities geographically. It acts as a platform for the public communities to share crime activities they encountered. Crime and violence plague the communities we are living in. As part of the community, crime prevention is everyone's responsibility. The purpose of Crime Map is to provide insights of the crimes occurring around Malaysia and raise the public's awareness on crime activities in their neighbourhood. For that, Crime Map visualizes crime activities on a geographical heat maps, generated based on geospatial data. Crime Map analyse data obtained from crime reports to generate useful information on crime trends. At the end of the development, users should be able to make use of the system to access to details of crime reported, crime analysis and report crimes activities. The development of Crime Map also enable the public to obtain insights about crime activities in their area. Thus, enabling the public to work together with the law enforcer to prevent and fight crime.

  5. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  6. Does opening a supermarket in a food desert change the food environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita; Hunter, Gerald; Collins, Rebecca L; Zenk, Shannon N; Cummins, Steven; Beckman, Robin; Nugroho, Alvin K; Sloan, Jennifer C; Wagner, La'Vette; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket. We found positive and negative changes in food availability, and an even greater influence on food prices in neighborhood stores. The supermarket opening in a 'food desert' caused little improvement in net availability of healthy foods, challenging the underpinnings of policies such as the Healthy Food Financing Initiative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of the agricultural enterprises economic environment originated by the agribusiness development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Bečvářová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon analyses of the Common Agricultural Policy development and its economic tools reforming the process of changing is characterised there. It deals with the multifunctionality of agriculture as well as the influence of the CAP on environment of the production tasks of agriculture and food processing industry accomplishment. Paper generalises results of new trends of the agribusiness economic environment development and the opportunity of an effective utilization of production factors in agriculture. It deals with the sources and economic implications of partial enhancement of interest and redirection of support within framework and type of tools of agrarian policy. New quality of structure of relevant information needs and economic support for agricultural enterprises decision making process are pointed out.

  8. Information Foraging and Change Detection for Automated Science Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, P. Michael; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for autonomous on-line exploration in unknown environments. The objective is to free remote scientists from possibly-infeasible extensive preliminary site investigation prior to sending robotic agents. We simulate a common exploration task for an autonomous robot sampling the environment at various locations and compare performance against simpler control strategies. An extension is proposed and evaluated that further permits operation in the presence of environmental variability in which the robot encounters a change in the distribution underlying sampling targets. Experimental results indicate a strong improvement in performance across varied parameter choices for the scenario.

  9. Arctic alpine ecosystems and people in a changing environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ørbæk, Jon Børre

    2007-01-01

    ... for the population structures and the interaction between species. These changes may also have socio-economic effects if the changes affect the bio-production, which form the basis for the marine and terrestrial food chains. The book is uniquely multidisciplinary and provides examples of various aspects of contemporary environmental change in arctic and ...

  10. Proxemic Transitions: Designing Shape-Changing Furniture for Informal Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil; Korsgaard, Henrik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2017-01-01

    Shape-changing interfaces is an emerging field in HCI that explores the qualities of physically dynamic artifacts. At furniture-scale such dynamic artifacts have the potential of changing the ways we collaborate and engage with spaces. In- formed by theories of proxemics, empirical studies...... of informal meetings and design work with shape-changing furniture, we develop the notion of proxemic transitions. We present three design aspects of proxemic transitions: transition speed, step- wise reconfiguration, and situational flexibility. The design aspects focus on how to balance between physical...... between a table and a board surface. These contributions outline important aspects to consider when designing shape-changing furniture....

  11. NATO-ASTEC-matrix-research environment, information sharing and MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apikyan, S.; Yerznkanyan, K.; Diamond, D.; Vardanyan, M.; Sevikyan, G.

    2010-01-01

    The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia

  12. Information-educational environment with adaptive control of learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.

  13. Redundant imprinting of information in non-ideal environments: Quantum Darwinism via a noisy channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, Haitao; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. While causing a system to decohere, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information about the system, yet can still acquire redundant information about the system [1,2]. Our results show that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to non-ideal initial states of the environment. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  14. The Effect of Information Analysis Automation Display Content on Human Judgment Performance in Noisy Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein

    2014-01-01

    Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noisy sensor data are used by both the human and the information analysis automation to make judgments. In a simplified air traffic conflict prediction experiment, 32 participants made probability of horizontal conflict judgments under different display content conditions. After being exposed to the information analysis automation, judgment achievement significantly improved for all participants as compared to judgments without any of the automation's information. Participants provided with additional display content pertaining to cue variability in the task environment had significantly higher aided judgment achievement compared to those provided with only the automation's judgment of a probability of conflict. When designing information analysis automation for environments where the automation's judgment achievement is impacted by noisy environmental data, it may be beneficial to show additional task environment information to the human judge in order to improve judgment performance. PMID:24847184

  15. The Effect of Information Analysis Automation Display Content on Human Judgment Performance in Noisy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellen J; Baumgart, Leigh A; Shepley, Kathryn Klein

    2013-03-01

    Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noisy sensor data are used by both the human and the information analysis automation to make judgments. In a simplified air traffic conflict prediction experiment, 32 participants made probability of horizontal conflict judgments under different display content conditions. After being exposed to the information analysis automation, judgment achievement significantly improved for all participants as compared to judgments without any of the automation's information. Participants provided with additional display content pertaining to cue variability in the task environment had significantly higher aided judgment achievement compared to those provided with only the automation's judgment of a probability of conflict. When designing information analysis automation for environments where the automation's judgment achievement is impacted by noisy environmental data, it may be beneficial to show additional task environment information to the human judge in order to improve judgment performance.

  16. Rethinking Psyop: How DOD Could Restructure to Compete in the Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    businessman with experience in the film and radio broadcasting industries who had also been an overseas consultant to the Voice of America . The new USIA...Center HASC House Armed Services Committee HR House Resolution IE information environment INC Information and Censorship Section ISIS...USIS United States Information Service USSOCOM United States Special Operations Command VOA Voice of America xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY

  17. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  18. The issue: Innovation, information technology and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-06

    This position paper by the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) outlines the information technology community's position vis-a-vis the Federal Government's 'Climate Change Plan for Canada'. In general, the ITAC is in favour of the Government's plan, however, it asserts that the Plan falls short by not acknowledging the significant contributions that present and emerging information and communications technologies can make to the achievements of Canadian climate change goals. In this regard the paper draws attention to, and explains the significance of the actual and potential contributions made to climate change efforts by teleconferencing, video-conferencing, telecommuting, electronic commerce, and smart buildings technologies. 4 refs.

  19. U.S. Global Change Research Program National Climate Assessment Global Change Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The program: a) Coordinates Federal research to better understand and prepare the nation for global change. b) Priori4zes and supports cutting edge scientific work in global change. c) Assesses the state of scientific knowledge and the Nation s readiness to respond to global change. d) Communicates research findings to inform, educate, and engage the global community.

  20. The Working Environment and Changing Role of Corporate Librarians in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-hua Chen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by the concept of “Knowledge Economics”, knowledge management (KM is getting a lot of attention in the field of business administration recently. Corporate centers are mostly affected by KM either in their working environment or in the role of their daily operation in the field of Library and Information Science. In the United States, the Special Library Association (SLA conducted numerous studies about the working environment and the changing role of corporate librarians in the past ten years. Due to the differences in politics, economics, and culture between Taiwan and the western countries, the organizational structure and corporate culture of the enterprise will not be exactly the same. Therefore, local studies on similar topics are needed. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of the KM on the working environment and the changing roles of the corporate librarians in Taiwan based on the result of National Science Council Research Project executed by the authors.[Article content in Chinese

  1. Risk attitudes in a changing environment: An evolutionary model of the fourfold pattern of risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of human decision making is the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, involving risk-averse behavior in situations of unlikely losses and likely gains, but risk-seeking behavior in response to likely losses and unlikely gains. Current theories to explain this pattern assume particular psychological processes to reproduce empirical observations, but do not address whether it is adaptive for the decision maker to respond to risk in this way. Here, drawing on insights from behavioral ecology, we build an evolutionary model of risk-sensitive behavior, to investigate whether particular types of environmental conditions could favor a fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. We consider an individual foraging in a changing environment, where energy is needed to prevent starvation and build up reserves for reproduction. The outcome, in terms of reproductive value (a rigorous measure of evolutionary success), of a one-off choice between a risky and a safe gain, or between a risky and a safe loss, determines the risk-sensitive behavior we should expect to see in this environment. Our results show that the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes may be adaptive in an environment in which conditions vary stochastically but are autocorrelated in time. In such an environment the current options provide information about the likely environmental conditions in the future, which affect the optimal pattern of risk sensitivity. Our model predicts that risk preferences should be both path dependent and affected by the decision maker's current state. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Sediments of late Pleistocene and Holocene periods, from a 12 m long core collected at a depth of 3627 m from the Arabian Sea, have been studied in order to understand the depositional environment. Sub-samples selected at 5 cm and occasionally at 10...

  3. Lactic acid bacteria in a changing legislative environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feord, J.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using lactic acid bacteria in the food chain, both through direct consumption and production of ingredients, are increasingly recognised by the food industry and consumers alike. The regulatory environment surrounding these products is diverse, covering foods and food ingredients,

  4. Planning Intentionally for Children's Outdoor Environments: The Gift of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenow, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    When the author was a child 50 years ago, nobody planned her outdoor environment. Her home was close to flower-filled meadows that she could explore freely, and her preschool and elementary school classrooms opened onto beautiful woodlands that children used as an important part of their day-to-day learning. The last time she visited her old…

  5. Provenance Representation in the Global Change Information System (GCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is a topic that has become very controversial despite strong support within the scientific community. It is common for agencies releasing information about climate change to be served with Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for everything that led to that conclusion. Capturing and presenting the provenance, linking to the research papers, data sets, models, analyses, observation instruments and satellites, etc. supporting key findings has the potential to mitigate skepticism in this domain. The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is now coordinating the production of a National Climate Assessment (NCA) that presents our best understanding of global change. We are now developing a Global Change Information System (GCIS) that will present the content of that report and its provenance, including the scientific support for the findings of the assessment. We are using an approach that will present this information both through a human accessible web site as well as a machine readable interface for automated mining of the provenance graph. We plan to use the developing W3C PROV Data Model and Ontology for this system.

  6. Research on College English Teachers' Information Literacy in Information Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-xia

    2017-01-01

    The new technology revolution based on Internet, information and communication technology has triggered an upsurge of educational information in the world, including English learning and teaching. The improvement of teacher's information literacy is the key to the success of the current educational informatization reform. From the perspectives of…

  7. Changes in Pilot Behavior with Predictive System Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1998-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, changes in pilot behavior associated with using this predictive information have not been ascertained. The study described here quantified these changes using three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and three initial time intervals until a parameter alert range was reached (ITIs) (1 minute, 5 minutes, and 15 minutes). With predictive information, subjects accomplished most of their tasks before an alert occurred. Subjects organized the time they did their tasks by locus-of-control with no predictive information and for the 1-minute ITI, and by aviatenavigate-communicate for the time for a parameter to reach an alert range and the 15-minute conditions. Overall, predictive information and the longer ITIs moved subjects to performing tasks before the alert actually occurred and had them more mission oriented as indicated by their tasks grouping of aviate-navigate-communicate.

  8. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    agents by government to teach farmers climate change adaptation and mitigation ... Keywords: Adaptation strategy, climate change, information needs, rural farmers, ..... 0.059 -0.035 0.059. Bad road network. 0.757. 0.294 -0.117 0.138. Poor electricity. 0.750. 0.231 -0.020 0.135. Poor use of local dialect. 0.191 -0.116 0.304.

  9. Patterns of Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Creation in New Information Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    and creation processes. The aim is to obtain a deeper comprehension of which factors determine whether the use of information technology becomes a success or a failure in relation to knowledge sharing and creation. The paper is based on three previous studies investigating the use of information technology......Do the knowledge sharing and creation processes in collaborating groups benefit from the use of new information environments or are the environments rather inhibitive to the development of these processes? A number of different studies have shown quite varied results when it comes to appraising...... the importance and value of using new information technology in knowledge sharing and creation processes. In this paper we will try to unveil the patterns appearing in the use of new information environment and the users' understanding of the significance of using information technology in knowledge sharing...

  10. Northern hydrology and water resources in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The role that climatic change may play in altering various components of the hydrologic cycle in Arctic regions is discussed. The hydrologic setting of these regions is first described, noting the importance of subsurface freezing and thawing on hydrologic pathways and the lack of incorporation of soil freezing and thawing into climate models. Major processes of interest in the relation between climate change and hydrology are the timing and magnitude of fluxes entering and leaving a basin: precipitation, evaporation and transpiration, and runoff. The active layer of the soil could be drastically increased by only a few degrees of surface warming. The natural hydrologic cycle has considerable yearly variation, tending to mask any hydrologic changes caused by climatic change. There are too many unknowns at present for an adequate prediction of the impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle. The biggest uncertainty is how the timing and quantity of precipitation is going to change. This quantity could be altered by any major changes in vegetation, which would be closely related to the amount of warming. In hydrologic scenarios where air temperature rises 4 degree C over 50 y, under stable, high, and low precipitation conditions, there are no significant changes in hydrologic response. 24 refs., 6 figs

  11. Agents of Change: Studies on the Policy Environment for Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agents of Change presents the results of an international conference held in Africa. It provides practical solutions and suggestions for real change. It discusses national strategies for small enterprises, examines legal, regulatory, and tax reform, and makes proposals on how to improve competitiveness and access to credit.

  12. Climate Change and Societal Response: Livelihoods, Communities, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be considered a natural disaster evolving in slow motion on a global scale. Increasing storm intensities, shifting rainfall patterns, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and other manifold alterations are being experienced around the world. Climate has never been constant in any location, but human-induced changes associated…

  13. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  14. Change management in library environments: A comparative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to examine change management in public and private university libraries in Ghana, identify possible problems in order to make recommendations to enhance future change assignments. The study adopted the survey approach as the research design. The Statistical Package for Social ...

  15. In the Growing Information Mall, Some Things Never Change

    OpenAIRE

    Hailley Fargo

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Fidel, R., Davies, R. K., Douglass, M. H., Holder, J. K., Hopkins, C. J., Kushner, E. J.,…. Toney, C. D. (1999). A visit to the information mall: Web searching behavior of high school students. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(1), 24-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(1999)50:13.0.CO;2-W Abstract Objective – The research study aimed to discover high school students’ information searching behaviour on the Web and suggest Web change...

  16. Movers and stayers: Novel assemblages in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard L.; Valentine, Leonie E.; Standish, Rachel J.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2018-01-01

    How species will respond to ongoing climate and other change is of increasing concern.Most attention is given to how species move or are moved, but many species stay.Understanding the dynamics of new species combinations is essential for successful conservation in a changing climate.Increased attention to species movement in response to environmental change highlights the need to consider changes in species distributions and altered biological assemblages. Such changes are well known from paleoecological studies, but have accelerated with ongoing pervasive human influence. In addition to species that move, some species will stay put, leading to an array of novel interactions. Species show a variety of responses that can allow movement or persistence. Conservation and restoration actions have traditionally focused on maintaining or returning species in particular places, but increasingly also include interventions that facilitate movement. Approaches are required that incorporate the fluidity of biotic assemblages into the goals set and interventions deployed.

  17. Changing anatomies of Information Literacy at the postgraduate level: refinements of models and shifts in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Spiranec

    2012-06-01

    Teaching students in the scientific method and culture has long been recognized as the major focus of postgraduate education, an important precondition for research practices is the adequate performance in the realm of information handling and information management, i.e., information literacy. IL on postgraduate levels has a strong focus on the universe of scientific information, which itself went through tremendous changes in the last decade, particularly as a result of the appearance of the Web 2.0 (e.g. Science 2.0, Research 2.0. Such profound changes suggest renewed conceptions and focal points of IL at the postgraduate level which will take into account the fluid nature of current information environments. After discussing changes in information landscapes brought about the Web 2.0 and examining transformed premises of scientific work within such environments, the authors will plea for re-conceptualizations of IL on the postgraduate level and propose new principles of IL frameworks and modes of assessment that will recognize this transformation.

  18. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  19. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S

    2018-04-01

    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Maritime Military Decision Making in Environments of Extreme Information Ambiguity: An Initial Exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Andrew T

    2005-01-01

    ... to make effective decisions. An environment of extreme information ambiguity, a dependent variable, is one of the most difficult components of a battle where the decision maker may reach a confusing and debilitating point...

  1. Creating Information Environment to Organize Self-Study Activity of SVE Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E I Sanina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of new information technologies in organizing independent work of the SVE (Secondary Vocational Education students in the framework of a unified educational environment with the use of cloud technologies.

  2. Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Information for Assessing Risk (PEiAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database provides information on prescribed amounts, levels detected in aquatic environments, chemical structure, molecular weight, octanol-water partition...

  3. Electric system reliability considerations in a changing utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility industry is presently experiencing a number of diverse factors which may alter the way that it operates and in many cases the way in which it is configured. These factors reflect a variety of circumstances including increased competitive pressures and political perception. While many of these changes may result in long term economic and service benefits to the industry and customer alike, it is important to recognize the desirability of orderly change. There is need to implement change in a reasoned manner. In this paper technical as well as economic and political considerations are addressed

  4. The Learning Environment Associated with Information Technology Education in Taiwan: Combining Psychosocial and Physical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Zandvliet, David B.; Hou, I.-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of senior high school students towards the Taiwanese information technology (IT) classroom with the What Is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) survey and explored the physical learning environment of the IT classroom using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI). The participants included 2,869…

  5. Personal Learning Environments in Higher Education Language Courses: An Informal and Learner-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    The chapter discusses the potential of personal learning environments (PLE) based on Web 2.0 applications for language courses in higher education (HE). This novel approach to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education involves learners in the design of learning environments, tools and processes. The chapter begins…

  6. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  7. Simplifying Sensemaking: Concept, Process, Strengths, Shortcomings, and Ways Forward for Information Systems in Contemporary Business Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Namvar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking is a popular and useful organizational behavior concept that is gaining visibility in the field of information systems. However, it remains relatively unknown compared to more established information systems concepts like technology acceptance and resistance. To enhance and propel greater use of sensemaking in information systems, this article offers a systematic explanation of sensemaking, specifically focusing on its concept, process, strengths, and shortcomings, as well as discussing ways forward for information systems in contemporary business environments.

  8. ROS-TMS and Big Sensor Box: Platforms for Informationally Structured Environment

    OpenAIRE

    倉爪, 亮; ユンソク, ピョ; 辻, 徳生; 河村, 晃宏

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes new software and hardware platforms for an informationally structured environment named ROS-TMS and Big Sensor Box. We started the development of a management system for an informationally structured environment named TMS (Town Management System) in Robot Town Project in 2005. Since then we are continuing our efforts for the improvement of the performance and the enhancement of the functions of the TMS. Recently, we launched a new version of TMS named ROS-TMS, which resolv...

  9. Changing STM curricula for the information age: Implications for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resource economy to knowledge base economy using information and communication technology (ICT) as platform. This calls for a change in every field of life endeavour. Consequently, the current trend in education is on how to utilize the pervasive tools of ICT to improve education at all levels since education has been ...

  10. Information acquisition and behavioral change: a social marketing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L L; Johnson, K

    1991-01-01

    Previous literature provides insight into the importance of beliefs and other intrapersonal variables for health-related information acquisition and behavioral change. The results of an empirical investigation evidence the unique strength of the role of core health beliefs for each of the multi-level measures. Directions for the development of effective marketing strategy are discussed.

  11. Changing Models for Researching Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changing models of pedagogy by drawing on recent research with teachers and their students as well as theoretical developments. In relation to a participatory view of learning, the paper reviews existing pedagogical models that take little account of the use of information and communications technologies as well as those that…

  12. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the information needs of rural farmers on climate change issues in Enugu State, Nigeria. Using the multistage sampling procedure, 152 respondents were selected and data were collected through the use of a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multiple linear ...

  13. Information Sources and Awareness of Climate Change by Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    to their production. The study therefore examines the various sources of information available to farmers on climate change and their level of awareness. .... Source of Financial Capital. Bank loan. 8.1. Coop loan. 21.1. Self financed. 60.2. Mode=Self financed. Friends and Relations. 10.5. Source: Field survey, 2011.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    global climate change and the urgent need for energy efficient infrastructure and .... may be the use of floodplain maps to steer development away from flood prone ..... Hayhoe K, Wake C, Huntington T, Luo L, Schwartz M, Sheffield J,. Wood E ...

  15. A look at the changing environment along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.; Das, V.K.

    Increased human activity along the Indian coastline has exerted pressure on its morphology and ecology. The factors responsible for morphological changes like subsidence, rising sea level, storms, storm surges, sediment input from rivers, sediment...

  16. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  17. 670 investigating changes in coastal environment using internet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    investigation of land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes. The results obtained tend ... mainstay of the people. (marine, tourism and fishing activities) has been adversely affected. ... can refer to biotic and abiotic features, including soil, topography,.

  18. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  19. America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

    2010-12-01

    At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The

  20. Knowledge Sharing Mechanism: Enabling C2 to Adapt to Changing Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvie, David P

    2007-01-01

    .... The common nemesis to successfully developing solutions in these environments is change. The challenge of any complex problem solving process is the balance of adapting to multiple changes while keeping focused on the overall desired solution...

  1. THE HIGHLY DEVELOPED INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT AS A PRECONDITION OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Khenner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper regards the development of the information and education environment of Russian universities as an important condition for successful reorganization of higher education. Taking as an example one of theUSuniversities, the author demonstrates the capacity of information education environment and its impact on the multilevel educational process. The comparative analysis of the existing information education environments of Russian an American universities reveals that such effective improvements as increasing number of students working on the individual curricula,__ implementation of the learning outcome monitoring, inclusive education, etc require immediate and substantial development of the information education environment of Russian universities. Both the development level and informational content of the environment in question remain unsatisfactory due to the financial, economic and staff related reasons. Consequently, the higher school reorganization is lagging behind retarded by the lack of synchronization between the attempts to improve the education quality and competitiveness on the one hand, and insufficient level of the information education environment characteristic of Russian universities on the other hand.

  2. Between information systems and physical structure of the city: New causes of climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlov Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the frequent and significant spatial transformations, an increasing climate change regime in urban areas occurs. In this paper a comprehensive reflection on these changes is analyzed, concerning one of the major causes - the social transformation and the growing use of information, networks and technology, used by city dwellers in everyday life. Advanced communications and the Internet provide urban concentration and decentralization, creating new spatial and geographic network, with a new allocation of space, for manufacturing and services. The consequence may be recognized in increasing individualization and social habits of city dwellers, as well as in modified way of households use, changing neighbourhoods and public spaces, transport systems, as the final outcome is the climate change. In this paper, the interdependence between information networks is emphasized - between virtual and physical environment, as well as changes in the way of life of the city, which ultimately lead to a new trigger for climate change. Users have never been more mobile in the physical space (commuting and tourist travel, while in the virtual space they are associated with the fixed points - everybody can be located, by using email or social network. Unexpectedly, the cause of the problem which is considered in this paper, is increased mobility in the real space, while city dwellers remain in one place, by using their virtual electronic connections. Thus, the role of city dwellers in creating climate change depends upon their spatial distribution and relationship towards information's and network activity. As a result, the drivers in city development are recognized on network nodes. Current crises in the global environment (economic, climate and social indicate the need to develop multi-functional environment and a greater appreciation of natural factors. Therefore, as a decisive factor for the adaptation of urban structure on climate change is the

  3. Informing Public Perceptions About Climate Change: A 'Mental Models' Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-10-01

    As the specter of climate change looms on the horizon, people will face complex decisions about whether to support climate change policies and how to cope with climate change impacts on their lives. Without some grasp of the relevant science, they may find it hard to make informed decisions. Climate experts therefore face the ethical need to effectively communicate to non-expert audiences. Unfortunately, climate experts may inadvertently violate the maxims of effective communication, which require sharing communications that are truthful, brief, relevant, clear, and tested for effectiveness. Here, we discuss the 'mental models' approach towards developing communications, which aims to help experts to meet the maxims of effective communications, and to better inform the judgments and decisions of non-expert audiences.

  4. Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

  5. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-13

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-01

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  7. STRATEGIC APPROACHES TO CHANGES OF ENVIRONMENT\\ OF SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Maksimović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining acceptable strategic goals requires analysis of the position of a sports organization within the sport world and wider business environment. A range of trends may affect development prospects and business activities of an organization. There are possibilities of population fluctuation (e.g. purchase power of winter sports practitioners, trends of economy, technological development, and legislation (e.g. prohibition of tobacco and alcohol advertisements, or activities of special interest groups (e.g. development of violence in sport. After clarifying its mission and goals, management of a sports organization reveals that some factors are important, while series of others are not

  8. OCRWM procedure for reporting software baseline change information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish a requirement and method for participant organizations to report software baseline change information to the M ampersand O Configuration Management (CM) organization for inclusion in the OCRWM Configuration Information System (CIS). (The requirements for performing software configuration management (SCM) are found in the OCRWM Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) document and in applicable DOE orders, and not in this procedure.) This procedure provides a linkage between each participant's SCM system and the CIS, which may be accessed for identification, descriptive, and contact information pertaining to software released by a participant. Such information from the CIS will enable retrieval of details and copies of software code and documentation from the participant SCM system

  9. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  10. Climatic Change and the Future of the Human Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyakov, Vladimir M.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the latest glaciological and oceanological data and demonstrates a strict correlation between global changes of temperature and gas composition of the atmosphere over the last climatic cycle. Concludes that global warming may not create an environmental crisis but will alter drastically the life people lead. (MJP)

  11. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, Yuliani; Husodo, Adi Heru; Astuti, Indwiani

    2018-02-01

    One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05). This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  12. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyaningsih Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05. This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  13. Load data collection in a changing multi-vendor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S E

    1991-01-01

    Metering equipment is used to measure energy usage for electric and gas customers. Traditional meters are measuring devices that provide the basic data for billing energy. However, these basic meters do not provide information about how energy is used over a period of time. This document provides a history of recorders, as well as the evolution and availability of technology as it relates to data retrieval, handheld reader hardware, data base design, operations, communications, data validation, and central station hardware.

  14. The Fate of the Civilian Surge in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    agencies operate on the police department model of continuous full employment of resources and have little slack in the system, whereas the mili- tary...Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) publications enjoy full academic freedom, pro- vided they do not disclose classified information...jeopardize operations security, or misrepresent official U.S. policy. Such academic freedom empowers them to offer new and sometimes controversial

  15. Will current probabilistic climate change information, as such, improve adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A.; Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic climate scenarios are currently being provided to end users, to employ as probabilities in adaptation decision making, with the explicit suggestion that they quantify the impacts of climate change relevant to a variety of sectors. These "probabilities" are, however, rather sensitive to the assumptions in, and the structure of the modelling approaches used to generate them. It is often argued that stakeholders require probabilistic climate change information to adequately evaluate and plan adaptation pathways. On the other hand, some circumstantial evidence suggests that on the ground decision making rarely uses well defined probability distributions of climate change as inputs. Nevertheless it is within this context of probability distributions of climate change that we discuss possible drawbacks of supplying information that, while presented as robust and decision relevant, , is in fact unlikely to be so due to known flaws both in the underlying models and in the methodology used to "account for" those known flaws. How might one use a probability forecast that is expected to change in the future, not due to a refinement in our information but due to fundamental flaws in its construction? What then are the alternatives? While the answer will depend on the context of the problem at hand, a good approach will be strongly informed by the timescale of the given planning decision, and the consideration of all the non-climatic factors that have to be taken into account in the corresponding risk assessment. Using a water resources system as an example, we illustrate an alternative approach to deal with these challenges and make robust adaptation decisions today.

  16. 75 FR 50745 - Information Collection; National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ..., planning, and on-the- ground management. For all Federal agencies, input from and knowledge about the... information on public attitudes about the environment and about the use and management of natural resources..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  17. Characterizing Pedagogical Practices of University Physics Students in Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinko, Kathleen A.; Madigan, Peter; Miller, Eric; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2016-01-01

    University educators (UEs) have a long history of teaching physics not only in formal classroom settings but also in informal outreach environments. The pedagogical practices of UEs in informal physics teaching have not been widely studied, and they may provide insight into formal practices and preparation. We investigate the interactions between…

  18. Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojae; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    While workplace learning includes formal and informal learning, the relationship between the two has been overlooked, because they have been viewed as separate entities. This study investigated the effects of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning among 203 middle managers in Korean…

  19. Incorporating Informal Learning Environments and Local Fossil Specimens in Earth Science Classrooms: A Recipe for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2009-01-01

    In an online graduate paleontology course taken by practicing Earth Science teachers, we designed an investigation using teachers' local informal educational environments. Teachers (N = 28) were responsible for photographing, describing, and integrating fossil specimens from two informal sites into a paleoenvironmental analysis of the landscape in…

  20. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  1. TRAINING OF FUTURE TEACHER OF INFORMATICS TO WORK IN MODERN INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shovkun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the impact of new information and communication technologies in formation trends for changes in the education system. An important factor according to specific trends and satisfying the educational needs of students in the school is to create an information and communication environment (ICE. This requires the presence in educational institutions the specialists able to advise the management on the choice of hardware and software, to the design, implementation, configuration programs, serve teaching aid and others. Anonymous survey of teachers of Informatics of Kherson region is conducted and it revealed that in most cases the defined functions are performed exactly by teachers of Informatics. Only a few schools have special workers or appeal to workers or companies that provide related services. Therefore, special importance is the preparation of future teachers of Informatics for continuous tracking trends of educational technologies, self-reliant mastering of new services and applications, finding ways for their implementation in the educational process of the school, consulting colleagues, conducting explanatory work with parents. Also, in the survey we determined the level of equipment and working conditions of teachers of Informatics at school and at home.

  2. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  3. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  4. How change information influences attitudes toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Freese, Charissa; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  5. How change information influences attitude toward change and turnover intention : The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, S.R.H.; Schalk, R.; Freese, C.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  6. How Change Information Influences Attitudes towards Change and Turnover Intention: The role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment, and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerd van den Heuvel; Charissa Freese; René Schalk; Marcel van Assen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the quality of change information influences employees’ attitude toward organizational change and turnover intention. Additionally, the role of engagement, psychological contract fulfillment and trust in the relationship between change information

  7. Urban Dynamics: Analyzing Land Use Change in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William; Richards, Lora R.; Buchanan, Janis T.; Wegener, Whitney R.

    2000-01-01

    In FY99, the Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) staff at Ames continued managing the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Urban Dynamics Research program, which has mapping and analysis activities at five USGS mapping centers. Historic land use reconstruction work continued while activities in geographic analysis and modeling were expanded. Retrospective geographic information system (GIS) development - the spatial reconstruction of a region's urban land-use history - focused on the Detroit River Corridor, California's Central Valley, and the city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

  8. Agricultural nutrient loadings to the freshwater environment: the role of climate change and socioeconomic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Ringler, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Human activities, in particular agricultural production, interfere with natural cycles of nutrient elements, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), leading to growing concerns about water quality degradation related to excessive nutrient loadings. Increases in agricultural production in response to population growth and wealth generation further increase risks associated with nutrient pollution. This paper presents results from projections of nutrient exports from global agricultural crop and pasture systems to the water environment generated using a process-based modeling approach. Brazil, China, India and the United States account for more than half of estimated global N and P loadings in the base year. Each country boasts large agriculture centers where high calculated loading values are found. Rapid growth in global agricultural nutrient loadings is projected. Growth of agricultural pollution loading is fastest in the group of low-income developing countries and loading growth rates also vary substantially with climate change scenario. Counter measures need to be taken to address the environmental risks associated with the projected rapid increase of agricultural nutrient loadings.

  9. Eliminating Barriers: A Training Intervention in the Use of Medical Information Resources Within an Information-rich Ambulatory Care Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Colleen; Brewer, Karen; Fitzpatrick, Bronson; Faraino, Richard; Trainor, Angela; Ciotoli, Carlo

    2001-01-01

    The NYU Ehrman Medical Library worked with the NYU Health Center to establish a base line analysis of the Center staff's knowledge and skills about medical information resources and how they apply them to clinical problem solving in their practice. Based on the results of this survey, the library conducted a targeted 12-month training program in how to select and use electronic resources for clinical problem solving. The survey was repeated and analyzed for significant self-reported change in information-seeking behavior and information skills. The poster presents the statistically significant changes and a set of the resultant research hypotheses.

  10. Climate Change: Making the Best Use of Scientific Information

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Climate science regularly makes headlines in the media, usually after an extreme weather event or a disaster, or in the wake of campaigns by think tanks about the science of climate change. In this presentation, I discuss four specific challenges that are posed to climate scientist when communicating with the public: (i) The widening gap between the scientific literacy of the public and the communication literacy of the scientists; (ii), the multiplicity of scientific information conduits; (iii), information of, and under, uncertainty; and (iv), the requirement to be precise without using technical language. It turns out that these challenges are quite generic to science communication. Climate scientists have learned from the regular international assessments they perform under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and have accumulated a collective experience of more than 20 years. In this presentation I discuss the most important lessons learned from this experience and their relevant...

  11. Monitoring and Impact Assessment of Land Use Change on Environment in Burewala, Punjab through Geo-Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma Younes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, migration and growth of commercial centers across the world have made global environment vulnerable to harmful noise levels. The worst impacts of land use change on environment are manifold in Pakistan as there is no proper implementation of environmental laws. The present research focused on the impact of land use on environment of Burewala, which is one of the badly affected cities of Pakistan due to growth of new colonies that are resulting in unchecked noise levels. The land use change of Tehsil Burewala between 1999, 2009 and 2014 was examined with the help of satellite imageries from Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI sensors. Land use change detection based on remote sensing data is an efficient way of obtaining information for several decision making and support systems and works meaningfully as a research and analysis tool. It gives comprehensive information about the urban development of an area. Four major land use classes are identified including agricultural land, built up, bare soil and water bodies. A method of post classification comparison for change detection is used to detect the changes in land use. The results show a significant change in agricultural land and built-up area. Agricultural land has depleted by almost 14%, mainly owing to increase in built up area. It is concluded that study area is under development phase due to which it is experiencing a gradual increase in built up land through different years including infrastructure as well. Noise pollution in general has increased over the years.

  12. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, Gustavo A.; Hancock, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last 100 years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB) and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent. PMID:26483803

  13. Breeding blueberries for a changing global environment: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lobos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, blueberries are recognized worldwide as one of the foremost health foods, becoming one of the crops with the highest productive and commercial projections. Over the last hundred years, the geographical area where highbush blueberries are grown has extended dramatically into hotter and drier environments. The expansion of highbush blueberry growing into warmer regions will be challenged in the future by increases in average global temperature and extreme fluctuations in temperature and rainfall patterns. Considerable genetic variability exists within the blueberry gene pool that breeders can use to meet these challenges, but traditional selection techniques can be slow and inefficient and the precise adaptations of genotypes often remain hidden. Marker assisted breeding (MAB and phenomics could aid greatly in identifying those individuals carrying adventitious traits, increasing selection efficiency and shortening the rate of cultivar release. While phenomics have begun to be used in the breeding of grain crops in the last 10 years, their use in fruit breeding programs it is almost non-existent.

  14. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  15. Change and Innovation Leadership in an Industrial Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steude Dietrich H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the high pace of digital innovation processes the risk of digital disruption increases for industrial companies. However, the progress in industrial digitalization accelerates the decision processes and relieves management from routine work. It gives room for creative management challenges like change and innovation processes. Team-oriented methods like Design Thinking are becoming a crucial part of the innovation culture. Industrial leadership must find current ways that are linked to creativity and to a coordinated human interaction. The article ties together the relevant literature and innovative ideas of digital tools, agile methodology and consequences for a flexible organizational structure.

  16. A Comment on the environment and directed technical change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Heggedal, Tom-Reiel

    2012-07-01

    The major claim in Acemoglu, Aghion, Bursztyn and Hemous (2012) (AABH) is that subsidies for research and development of clean technologies are more important than carbon taxes when dealing with climate change. However, they – unconventionally – assume that a patent only lasts for one period. In this note we introduce long-lived patents into the AABH model. This makes the role of a research subsidy for clean technologies in AABH far less crucial and reestablishes the role of the carbon tax. This is good news as it is far easier to tax emissions than to pick the right technologies to subsidize.(Author)

  17. How to change GEBCO outreach activities with Information technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E.; Park, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1995, when National Geographic Information Project began, we have great advance in mapping itself and information service on the earth surface in Korea whether paper maps or online service map. By reviewing geological and mine-related information service in current and comparisons of demands, GEBCO outreach master plan has been prepared. Information service cannot be separated from data production and on dissemination policies. We suggest the potential impact of the changes in information technologies such as mobile service and data fusion, and big data on GEBCO maps based. Less cost and high performance in data service will stimulate more information service; therefore it is necessary to have more customer-oriented manipulation on the data. By inquiring questionnaire, we can draw the potential needs on GEBCO products in various aspects: such as education, accessibility. The gap between experts and non-experts will decrease by digital service from the private and public organizations such as international academic societies since research funds and policies tend to pursue "openness" and "interoperability" among the domains. Some background why and how to prepare outreach activities in GEBCO will be shown.

  18. A Dynamic Information Framework (DIF): A Portal for the Changing Biogeochemistry of Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. E.; Fernandes, E. C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of societies to adapt to climate and landuse change in aquatic systems is functionally and practically expressed by how regional stakeholders are able to address complex management issues. These targets represent a very complex set of intersecting issues of scale, cross-sector science and technology, education, politics, and economics. Implications transcend individual projects and ministries. An immediate challenge is to incorporate the realities of changing environmental conditions in these sectors into the policies and projects of the Ministries nominally responsible. Ideally this would be done on the basis of the absolute best understanding of the issues involved, and done in a way that optimizes a multi-stakeholder return. Central to a response is "actionable information-" the synthesis and "bringing to life" of the key information that integrates the end-to-end knowledge required to provide the high-level decision support to make the most informed decisions. But, in practice, the information necessary and even perspectives are virtually absent, in much of especially the developing world. To meet this challenge, we have been developing a Dynamic Information Framework (DIF), primarily through collaborations with the World Bank in Asia, Africa, and Brazil. The DIF is, essentially a decision support structure, built around "earth system" models. The environment is built on progressive information layers that are fed through hydrological and geospatial landscape models to produce outputs that address specific science questions related to water resources management of the region. Information layers from diverse sources are assembled, according to the principles of how the landscape is organized, and computer models are used to bring the information "to life." A fundamental aspect to a DIF is not only the convergence of multi-sector information, but how that information can be conveyed, in the most compelling, and visual, manner. Deployment of the

  19. Redundancy of einselected information in quantum Darwinism: The irrelevance of irrelevant environment bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2017-03-01

    The objective, classical world emerges from the underlying quantum substrate via the proliferation of redundant copies of selected information into the environment, which acts as a communication channel, transmitting that information to observers. These copies are independently accessible, allowing many observers to reach consensus about the state of a quantum system via its imprints in the environment. Quantum Darwinism recognizes that the redundancy of information is thus central to the emergence of objective reality in the quantum world. However, in addition to the "quantum system of interest," there are many other systems "of no interest" in the Universe that can imprint information on the common environment. There is therefore a danger that the information of interest will be diluted with irrelevant bits, suppressing the redundancy responsible for objectivity. We show that mixing of the relevant (the "wheat") and irrelevant (the "chaff") bits of information makes little quantitative difference to the redundancy of the information of interest. Thus, we demonstrate that it does not matter whether one separates the wheat (relevant information) from the (irrelevant) chaff: The large redundancy of the relevant information survives dilution, providing evidence of the objective, effectively classical world.

  20. Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollivier, Harold; Poulin, David; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2005-01-01

    We study the role of the information deposited in the environment of an open quantum system in the course of the decoherence process. Redundant spreading of information--the fact that some observables of the system can be independently read off from many distinct fragments of the environment--is investigated as the key to effective objectivity, the essential ingredient of classical reality. This focus on the environment as a communication channel through which observers learn about physical systems underscores the importance of quantum Darwinism--selective proliferation of information about 'the fittest states' chosen by the dynamics of decoherence at the expense of their superpositions--as redundancy imposes the existence of preferred observables. We demonstrate that the only observables that can leave multiple imprints in the environment are the familiar pointer observables singled out by environment-induced superselection (einselection) for their predictability. Many independent observers monitoring the environment will therefore agree on properties of the system as they can only learn about preferred observables. In this operational sense, the selective spreading of information leads to appearance of an objective classical reality from within the quantum substrate

  1. On the world's ice ages and changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eronen, M.; Olander, H.

    1990-07-01

    All known ice ages during the earth's history are reviewed. The oldest glaciation occurred around 2.3 billion years ago, followed by a series of large glaciations 950-650, 450-430 and 310-270 million years ago. Continental drift played a major role in these long-term climatic changes. The present Quaternary ice age actually began 17 million years ago, when a large ice mass grew over Antarctica. A detailed account is given of the climatic fluctuations during the Quaternary period (over 2.5 million years). Different stratigraphic records, and the relationship of climatic variations to orbital forcing are discussed. Large environmental changes took place in the course of the climate oscillations. Large ice sheets waxed and waned, global sea-levels fluctuated, forests disappeared from many regions during cold times and advanced during favourable times. The ice masses depressed the earth's crust markedly, and this then rose rapidly when the ice melted. The extent of glacial erosion is also discussed. Finally the postglacial climatic history of the earth is described and the consequences of the possible greenhouse effect are considered.(orig.)

  2. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    should: 1) provide meaningful, authoritative climate-relevant measures about the status, rates, and trends of key physical, ecological, and societal variables and values to inform decisions on management, research, and education at regional to national scales; 2) identify climate-related conditions and impacts to help develop effective mitigation and adaptation measures and reduce costs of management; and 3) document and communicate the climate-driven dynamic nature and condition of Earth's systems and societies, and provide a coordinated. This presentation will provide an overview of possible climate impacts on the built environment. Also, given that spatial analysis and remote sensing techniques will be of paramount importance in assessing these impacts and in preparing adaptation strategies, the presentation will provide examples of how these techniques can be used to identify potential impacts of climate change on the built environment.

  3. 76 FR 79114 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; DOT/ALL 23-Information Sharing Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; DOT/ALL 23-- Information Sharing Environment (ISE... titled, ``DOT/ALL 23--Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR... exempts portions of the ``DOT/ALL 23--Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious Activity Reporting...

  4. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I. -I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas. PMID:25982028

  5. Diversity changes of microbial communities into hospital surface environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Rika; Shimoda, Tomoko; Watanabe, Reina; Kuroki, Yasutoshi; Okubo, Torahiko; Nakamura, Shinji; Matsuo, Junji; Yoshimura, Sadako; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Previous works have demonstrated considerable variability in hospital cleanliness in Japan, suggesting that contamination is driven by factors that are currently poorly controlled. We undertook 16S rRNA sequence analysis to study population structures of hospital environmental microbiomes to see which factor(s) impacted contamination. One hundred forty-four samples were collected from surfaces of three hospitals with distinct sizes ("A": >500 beds, "B": 100-500 beds, "C": diversity changes of hospital environmental microbiomes with a skewed population, presumably by medical staff pushing NWs or sinks shared by patients or visitors. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changing expression of vertebrate immunity genes in an anthropogenic environment: a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablützel, Pascal I; Brown, Martha; Friberg, Ida M; Jackson, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    The effect of anthropogenic environments on the function of the vertebrate immune system is a problem of general importance. For example, it relates to the increasing rates of immunologically-based disease in modern human populations and to the desirability of identifying optimal immune function in domesticated animals. Despite this importance, our present understanding is compromised by a deficit of experimental studies that make adequately matched comparisons between wild and captive vertebrates. We transferred post-larval fishes (three-spined sticklebacks), collected in the wild, to an anthropogenic (captive) environment. We then monitored, over 11 months, how the systemic expression of immunity genes changed in comparison to cohort-matched wild individuals in the originator population (total n = 299). We found that a range of innate (lyz, defbl2, il1r-like, tbk1) and adaptive (cd8a, igmh) immunity genes were up-regulated in captivity, accompanied by an increase in expression of the antioxidant enzyme, gpx4a. For some genes previously known to show seasonality in the wild, this appeared to be reduced in captive fishes. Captive fishes tended to express immunity genes, including igzh, foxp3b, lyz, defbl2, and il1r-like, more variably. Furthermore, although gene co-expression patterns (analyzed through gene-by-gene correlations and mutual information theory based networks) shared common structure in wild and captive fishes, there was also significant divergence. For one gene in particular, defbl2, high expression was associated with adverse health outcomes in captive fishes. Taken together, these results demonstrate widespread regulatory changes in the immune system in captive populations, and that the expression of immunity genes is more constrained in the wild. An increase in constitutive systemic immune activity, such as we observed here, may alter the risk of immunopathology and contribute to variance in health in vertebrate populations exposed to

  7. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Downard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they are located. Managers have acquired water rights and constructed infrastructure while cultivating collaborative relationships with other water users to increase the adaptive capacity of the region and decrease conflict. Historically, water management involved diversion and impoundment of water within wetland units timed around patterns of agricultural water needs. In the last 20 years, managers have learned from flood and drought events and developed a long-term adaptive management plan that specifies alternative management actions managers can choose each year based on habitat needs and projected water supply. Each alternative includes habitat goals and target wetland water depth. However, wetland management adapted to agricultural return-flow availability may prove insufficient as population growth and climate change alter patterns of land and water use. Future management will likely depend more on negotiation, collaboration, and learning from social developments within the SES than strictly focusing on water management within refuge boundaries. To face this problem, managers have worked to be included in negotiations with regional water users, a strategy that may prove instructive for other wetland managers in agriculture-dominated watersheds.

  8. Climate Change and Integrodifference Equations in a Stochastic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhours, Juliette; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Climate change impacts population distributions, forcing some species to migrate poleward if they are to survive and keep up with the suitable habitat that is shifting with the temperature isoclines. Previous studies have analysed whether populations have the capacity to keep up with shifting temperature isoclines, and have mathematically determined the combination of growth and dispersal that is needed to achieve this. However, the rate of isocline movement can be highly variable, with much uncertainty associated with yearly shifts. The same is true for population growth rates. Growth rates can be variable and uncertain, even within suitable habitats for growth. In this paper, we reanalyse the question of population persistence in the context of the uncertainty and variability in isocline shifts and rates of growth. Specifically, we employ a stochastic integrodifference equation model on a patch of suitable habitat that shifts poleward at a random rate. We derive a metric describing the asymptotic growth rate of the linearised operator of the stochastic model. This metric yields a threshold criterion for population persistence. We demonstrate that the variability in the yearly shift and in the growth rate has a significant negative effect on the persistence in the sense that it decreases the threshold criterion for population persistence. Mathematically, we show how the persistence metric can be connected to the principal eigenvalue problem for a related integral operator, at least for the case where isocline shifting speed is deterministic. Analysis of dynamics for the case where the dispersal kernel is Gaussian leads to the existence of a critical shifting speed, above which the population will go extinct, and below which the population will persist. This leads to clear bounds on rate of environmental change if the population is to persist. Finally, we illustrate our different results for butterfly population using numerical simulations and demonstrate how

  9. Information, communication and education on climate change. European perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, W.L.; Mannke, F. [TuTech Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, P. (eds.) [Geologinen Tutkimuslaitos, Espoo (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    It is now beyond any doubt that climate change represents a major threat to the environmental, social and economic well being of the planet. The book under consideration is an attempt to contribute to the global debate on climate change by outlining some educational methods, approaches and projects which have been focusing on climate issues in Europe. The book under consideration consists of the following chapters: (a) ESPACE - A New Transnational Approach to Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (Jill Cook, Doogie Black, Angela Bentham, Tania Stadsbader, Jorn Peters, Lesley van Dijk, Mark Goldthorpe, Tim Yair, Fran Wallington, Meinte de Hoogh, Michael Belau); (b) Communicating Climate Change Impacts - an Approach Derived from two Regional Development Projects (Philipp Schmidt-Thome, Johannes Klein); (c) Baltex Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (BACC) (Hans von Storch, Anders Omstedt, Hans-Joerg Isemer); (d) Promoting Climate friendly Communities in Northamptonshire, United Kingdam (Philip Gray, Shane Conway); (e) Climite Change Mitigation and Sustainability: Educational Issues (Remigijus Ciegis; Dalia Streimikiene, Dalia Gineitiene); (f) Case Study Research as Bridge Builder between Science and the Society - The Rationale behind the ASTRA 2005 Winter Storm Study (Simo Haanpaeae, Lasse Peltonen); (g) Educational Actions in Italy to face the Problem of Climate Change (Eugenia Aloj, Mariagrazia De Castro, Anna Zollo); (h) Teaching Global Climate Change as a Controversial Issue - Active Learning in Higher Education (Evangelos I. Manolas); (i) Regional Climate Change and Coasts - A Case Study on Perception, Information, Dissemination and Education (Gerald Schernewski, Steffen Bock, Holger Janssen, Nardine Loeser, Annemone Himielorz); (j) KLARA-Net: An Interdisciplinary Action Oriented Approach on Climate Change Adaptation (Birte Frommer; Lena Herlitzius); (k) Climate Change, Featuring the ACCROTELM Project: Dissemination of a European RTD

  10. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ORGANIZATION OF SAFE INFORMATION AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Privalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the tendencies of modern higher education is the ubiquitous use of information and communication technologies. At the same time, the functioning of the electronic information and educational environment (IEE of the university should be based on the means of IEE and the condition of its information security.The aim of the research is conceptualization of a problem of the rational organization of the safe information and education environment of higher education institution wherein reliable protection of its infrastructure, the personal and unique information of a pupil and teacher and virtual space of their educational interaction is provided.Methodology and research methods. System-based approach is a key approach to organization of safe educational environment of the university. From the point of view of authors, personal-activity and functional approaches are expedient while designing and development of a safe IEE. Socio-historical and theoretical-methodological analysis, modeling, research and synthesis of experience of effective application of the systems approach in educational professional organizations are used.Results and scientific novelty. The concept «safe information educational environment of the university» is specified wherein the first word has to express a predominant quality of the system. Creating a safe information environment in educational professional organizations provides a convenient and safe educational environment in the process of professional training of university students. The components and directions for the organization of the safe IEE are highlighted. Practical recommendations for its design and successful functioning are given.Practical significance. The materials of the present research can be demanded by managers and administrative employees of educational organizations. 

  11. Holographic control of information and dynamical topology change for composite open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.; Inozemcev, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze how the compositeness of a system affects the characteristic time of equilibration. We study the dynamics of open composite quantum systems strongly coupled to the environment after a quantum perturbation accompanied by nonequilibrium heating. We use a holographic description of the evolution of entanglement entropy. The nonsmooth character of the evolution with holographic entanglement is a general feature of composite systems, which demonstrate a dynamical change of topology in the bulk space and a jumplike velocity change of entanglement entropy propagation. Moreover, the number of jumps depends on the system configuration and especially on the number of composite parts. The evolution of the mutual information of two composite systems inherits these jumps. We present a detailed study of the mutual information for two subsystems with one of them being bipartite. We find five qualitatively different types of behavior of the mutual information dynamics and indicate the corresponding regions of the system parameters.

  12. Issues and challenges of information fusion in contested environments: panel results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Chong, Chee; Jones, Eric K.; Tierno, Jorge E.; Fenstermacher, Laurie; Gorman, John D.; Levchuk, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    With the plethora of information, there are many aspects to contested environments such as the protection of information, network privacy, and restricted observational and entry access. In this paper, we review and contrast the perspectives of challenges and opportunities for future developments in contested environments. The ability to operate in a contested environment would aid societal operations for highly congested areas with limited bandwidth such as transportation, the lack of communication and observations after a natural disaster, or planning for situations in which freedom of movement is restricted. Different perspectives were presented, but common themes included (1) Domain: targets and sensors, (2) network: communications, control, and social networks, and (3) user: human interaction and analytics. The paper serves as a summary and organization of the panel discussion as towards future concerns for research needs in contested environments.

  13. ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE TEACHER OF PHYSICAL CULTURE ARE IN INFORMATIVELY-EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriy V. Dragnev

    2011-01-01

    In the article the aspects of professional development of future teacher of physical culture are examined in the informatively-educational environment of higher educational establishment. Importance of introduction of information and telecommunication technologies opens up in the sphere of higher education; the components of informatively-educational environment are given; a concept „Professional development” and „informatively-educational environment opens up”. Specified, that informative su...

  14. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  15. Politics of change: the discourses that inform organizational change and their capacity to silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kim

    2016-09-01

    Changes in healthcare organizations are inevitable and occurring at unprecedented rates. Such changes greatly impact nurses and their work, yet these experiences are rarely explored. Organizational change discourses remain grounded in perspectives that explore and explain systems, often not the people within them. Change processes in healthcare organizations informed by such organizational discourses validate only certain perspectives and forms of knowledge. This fosters exclusionary practices, limiting the capacity of certain individuals or groups of individuals to effectively contribute to change discourses and processes. The reliance on mainstream organizational discourses in healthcare organizations has left little room for the exploration of diverse perspectives on the subject of organizational change, particularly those of nurses. Michel Foucault's work challenges dominant discourse and suggest that strong reliance's on specific discourses effectively disqualify certain forms of knowledge. Foucault's writings on disqualified knowledge and parrhesia (truth telling and frank speech) facilitate the critical exploration of discourses that inform change in healthcare organizations and nurses capacities to contribute to organizational discourses. This paper explores the capacity of nurses to speak their truths within rapidly and continuously changing healthcare organizations when such changes are often driven by discourses not derived from nursing knowledge or experience. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Design of an anesthesia and micro-environment information management system in mobile operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wenchang; Wu, Qingfu; Tan, Shulin

    2013-08-01

    We have designed a mobile operating room information management system. The system is composed of a client and a server. A client, consisting of a PC, medical equipments, PLC and sensors, provides the acquisition and processing of anesthesia and micro-environment data. A server is a powerful computer that stores the data of the system. The client gathers the medical device data by using the C/S mode, and analyzes the obtained HL7 messages through the class library call. The client collects the micro-environment information with PLC, and finishes the data reading with the OPC technology. Experiment results showed that the designed system could manage the patient anesthesia and micro-environment information well, and improve the efficiency of the doctors' works and the digital level of the mobile operating room.

  17. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  18. Understanding Coral's Short-term Adaptive Ability to Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisthammer, K.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Corals in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii are under chronic pressures from sedimentation and terrestrial runoffs containing multiple pollutants as a result of large scale urbanization that has taken place in the last 100 years. However, some individual corals thrive despite the prolonged exposure to these environmental stressors, which suggests that these individuals may have adapted to withstand such stressors. A recent survey showed that the lobe coral Porites lobata from the `high-stress' nearshore site had an elevated level of stress ixnduced proteins, compared to those from the `low-stress,' less polluted offshore site. To understand the genetic basis for the observed differential stress responses between the nearshore and offshore P. lobata populations, an analysis of the lineage-scale population genetic structure, as well as a reciprocal transplant experiment were conducted. The result of the genetic analysis revealed a clear genetic differentiation between P. lobata from the nearshore site and the offshore site. Following the 30- day reciprocal transplant experiment, protein expression profiles and other stress-related physiological characteristics were compared between the two populations. The experimental results suggest that the nearshore genotype can cope better with sedimentation/pollutants than the offshore genotype. This indicates that the observed genetic differentiation is due to selection for tolerance to these environmental stressors. Understanding the little-known, linage-scale genetic variation in corals offers a critical insight into their short-term adaptive ability, which is indispensable for protecting corals from impending environmental and climate change. The results of this study also offer a valuable tool for resource managers to make effective decisions on coral reef conservation, such as designing marine protected areas that incorporate and maintain such genetic diversity, and establishing acceptable pollution run-off levels.

  19. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods: In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58–64 years (N=3254) from the Capital...... psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level....... Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly...

  20. Information Storage and Management Storing, Managing, and Protecting Digital Information in Classic, Virtualized, and Cloud Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Services, EMC Education

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of a bestseller, now revised and update throughout! This new edition of the unparalleled bestseller serves as a full training course all in one and as the world's largest data storage company, EMC is the ideal author for such a critical resource. They cover the components of a storage system and the different storage system models while also offering essential new material that explores the advances in existing technologies and the emergence of the "Cloud" as well as updates and vital information on new technologies. Features a separate section on emerging area of cloud computi

  1. The cricket and the ant : Organizational trade-offs in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peli, Gabor; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Organizations face trade-offs when they adopt strategies in changing resource environments. The type of trade-off depends on the type of resource change. This paper offers an organizational trade-off model for quantitative resource changes. We call it the "Cricket and Ant" (CA) model, because the

  2. The Representation of Human-Environment Interactions in Land Change Research and Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Manfredo, M.J.; Vaske, J.J.; Rechkemmer, A.; Duke, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land change is the result of multiple human-environment interactions operating across different scales. Land change research needs to account for processes ranging from global trade of food and energy to the local management of land resources at farm and landscape level. Land change has a pronounced

  3. Detecting Rumors Through Modeling Information Propagation Networks in a Social Media Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of today's pervasive influence of social media content and activities, information credibility has increasingly become a major issue. Accordingly, identifying false information, e.g. rumors circulated in social media environments, attracts expanding research attention and growing interests. Many previous studies have exploited user-independent features for rumor detection. These prior investigations uniformly treat all users relevant to the propagation of a social media message as instances of a generic entity. Such a modeling approach usually adopts a homogeneous network to represent all users, the practice of which ignores the variety across an entire user population in a social media environment. Recognizing this limitation of modeling methodologies, this study explores user-specific features in a social media environment for rumor detection. The new approach hypothesizes that whether a user tends to spread a rumor is dependent upon specific attributes of the user in addition to content characteristics of the message itself. Under this hypothesis, information propagation patterns of rumors versus those of credible messages in a social media environment are systematically differentiable. To explore and exploit this hypothesis, we develop a new information propagation model based on a heterogeneous user representation for rumor recognition. The new approach is capable of differentiating rumors from credible messages through observing distinctions in their respective propagation patterns in social media. Experimental results show that the new information propagation model based on heterogeneous user representation can effectively distinguish rumors from credible social media content.

  4. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.

    2010-09-01

    development in 2010 and is likely to manage the system after 2011. The European Commission in its Communication in 2009 on disaster risk prevention also calls for improving and better sharing of data on disasters, disaster risk mapping and disaster risk management, in the context of the EU civil protection mechanism. Such information might also be linked to the planned EU Clearinghouse on climate change adaptation. The activities of EEA on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (including disaster risk reduction) include indicators of the impacts of climate change; a regularly updated overview of national assessments and adaptation plans on the EEA web site and specific focused reports, e.g. on adaptation to the challenges of changing water resources in the Alps (2009) and on analysis of past trends in natural disasters (due in 2010) and regular expert meetings and workshops with EEA member countries. The ECAC presentation will include the latest developments in the EU Clearinghouse on adaptation and progress in relevant EEA activities.

  5. Designing healthcare information technology to catalyse change in clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lester

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The gap between best practice and actual patient care continues to be a pervasive problem in our healthcare system. Efforts to improve on this knowledge_performance gap have included computerised disease management programs designed to improve guideline adherence. However, current computerised reminder and decision support interventions directed at changing physician behaviour have had only a limited and variable effect on clinical outcomes. Further, immediate pay-for-performance financial pressures on institutions have created an environmentwhere disease management systems are often created under duress, appended to existing clinical systems and poorly integrated into the existing workflow, potentially limiting their realworld effectiveness. The authors present a review of disease management as well as a conceptual framework to guide the development of more effective health information technology (HIT tools for translating clinical information into clinical action.

  6. Research result information for agriculture and environment. No.12; Nogyo kankyo kenkyu seika joho. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-26

    Essential purposes of productivity improvement, which human being have desires in agriculture for a long time, can not be discussed without considering relations with the environment, nowadays. In these situations, significant investigations have been created among the researches in the agriculture and environment field in response to the requirements of the time. In this report, results of 41 main researches submitted to the agriculture and environment research promotion conference in FY 1995 are compiled. This field covers the environment and resource characterization, the agrioecology, and the environment assessment and control. The environment and resource characterization field includes studies on the micro-meteorological mechanism of desert expansion due to excess pasturage, the salt removal function of clays, and the protection of ground water quality by grassland. The agrioecology field includes studies on the antimicrobial substance contained in Glycyrrhiza glabra against the soil decease of potatoes caused by Streptomyces scabies and the new plant growth obstruction substance contained in Sphenoclea zeylanica. The environment assessment and control field includes studies on the producing district change prediction of main grains accompanied with global environmental change and the carbon balance in the ecosystem of farm lands and rice fields. This report includes a lot of noticeable papers. 103 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. I.T. Changes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Motivation, Trust, and Resistance to Change in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, Nathan Paul

    2012-01-01

    Change is an organizational inevitability. There are few fields that undergo change more rapidly than information technology. Keeping up with the pace of change in a field so inclined toward change may take a unique toll on workers in information technology. Yet, little has been done to investigate workers' orientations towards change in this…

  8. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  9. Landscape changes in the environment due to military actions and their epidemic risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushelnitsky A.D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the military-ecological and man-caused-anthropogenic factors on the environment state and natural processes. Epidemic risks and consequences resulted from landscapic changes of the environment which arise as a result of war and destruction of ecosystems are described.

  10. Changes in School Competitive Food Environments after a Health Promotion Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H.; Mallya, Giridhar; Brensinger, Colleen; Tierney, Ann; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Schools can reduce student access to competitive foods and influence healthy food choices by improving the school nutrition environment. This study describes changes in competitive nutrition environments in 100 K-8 schools participating in the Philadelphia Campaign for Healthier Schools. Methods: Interviews with school staff were used…

  11. Design for Distributed Moroccan Hospital Pharmacy Information Environment with Service Oriented Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Omrana, Hajar; Nassiri, Safae; Belouadha, Fatima-Zahra; Roudiés, Ounsa

    2012-01-01

    In the last five years, Moroccan e-health system has focused on improving the quality of patient care services by making use of advanced Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) solutions. In actual fact, achieving runtime and efficient information sharing, through large-scale distributed environments such as e-health system, is not a trivial task. It seems to present many issues due to the heterogeneity and complex nature of data resources. This concerns, in particular, Moroccan Hos...

  12. DYNAMICS OF VIEWS ON ETHICS OF PEDAGOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Kolgatin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Didactical demands for pedagogical diagnostics and its realisation specific characters in information and communication learning environment of university are analysed. The questions of ethics and information security of pedagogical diagnostics are considered. Ethic aspects, connected with using of the automated pedagogical diagnostic systems, are underlined. Results of survey of students about their view points on issues of security of pedagogical diagnostics data are discussed.

  13. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  14. Information security management: a proposal to improve the effectiveness of information security in the scientific research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandria, Joao Carlos Soares de

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the connectivity in the business environment, combined with the growing dependency of information systems, has become the information security management an important governance tool. Information security has as main goal to protect the business transactions in order to work normally. In this way, It will be safeguarding the business continuity. The threats of information come from hackers' attacks, electronic frauds and spying, as well as fire, electrical energy interruption and humans fault. Information security is made by implementation of a set of controls, including of the others politics, processes, procedures, organizational structures, software and hardware, which require a continuous management and a well established structure to be able to face such challenges. This work tried to search the reasons why the organizations have difficulties to make a practice of information security management. Many of them just limit to adopt points measures, sometimes they are not consistent with their realities. The market counts on enough quantity of standards and regulations related to information security issues, for example, ISO/IEC 27002, American Sarbanes-Oxley act, Basel capital accord, regulations from regulatory agency (such as the Brazilians ones ANATEL, ANVISA and CVM). The market researches have showed that the information security implementation is concentrated on a well-defined group of organization mainly formed by large companies and from specifics sectors of economy, for example, financial and telecommunication. However, information security must be done by all organizations that use information systems to carry out their activities, independently of its size or economic area that it belongs. The situation of information security in the governmental sector of Brazil, and inside its research institutions, is considered worrying by the Brazilian Court of Accounts (TCU). This research work presents an assessment and diagnostic proposal of

  15. Mathematical modeling environment as a promoter changes traditional conceptions of the math teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Gonçalves Machado Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present, through episodes, modifications made by the teacher during the interaction in the research environment, a state public school in the outskirts of Belem. Were analyzed four episodes, in which we see significant changes in his posture classroom. The episodes are meant to highlight these changes, which we believe are the interactions of the characters from the environment, the teacher with the teacher-researcher and it with his students

  16. Information and Communication Technology and Cultural Change How ICT Changes Self-Construal and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control

  17. Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Miguel Chevin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species are experiencing sustained environmental change mainly due to human activities. The unusual rate and extent of anthropogenic alterations of the environment may exceed the capacity of developmental, genetic, and demographic mechanisms that populations have evolved to deal with environmental change. To begin to understand the limits to population persistence, we present a simple evolutionary model for the critical rate of environmental change beyond which a population must decline and go extinct. We use this model to highlight the major determinants of extinction risk in a changing environment, and identify research needs for improved predictions based on projected changes in environmental variables. Two key parameters relating the environment to population biology have not yet received sufficient attention. Phenotypic plasticity, the direct influence of environment on the development of individual phenotypes, is increasingly considered an important component of phenotypic change in the wild and should be incorporated in models of population persistence. Environmental sensitivity of selection, the change in the optimum phenotype with the environment, still crucially needs empirical assessment. We use environmental tolerance curves and other examples of ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change to illustrate how these mechanistic approaches can be developed for predictive purposes.

  18. Information Technology-Based Innovation in International Marketing Education: An Exploration of Two Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Haghirian, Parissa; Yu, Shasha

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) innovations have and continue to have a significant impact on international marketing practice and customer interactions. With the marketing environment becoming increasingly dependent on technology, marketing teaching in higher education faces a challenging task of effectively leveraging technology in diverse learning…

  19. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: The Effect of Consumer Risk Information on Human Disease Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Frewer, L.J.; Jonge, de R.

    2008-01-01

    The improvement of food safety in the domestic environment requires a transdisciplinary approach, involving interaction between both the social and natural sciences. This approach is applied in a study on risks associated with Campylobacter on broiler meat. First, some web-based information

  20. Information on the Economic--Social Environment as Didactic Material for Bachelor's or Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Teodoras

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research is to investigate how particular information from the environment serves as didactic material for students of Siauliai University Faculty of Social Sciences in learning to carry out scientific analysis and theoretical generalization of data in their theses. Methodology: The main sources--Internet databases,…

  1. PRACTICAL ASPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH TECHNICAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Rodionov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach is offered to development of the informational and educational environment of high technical school,based on deep integration of electronic educational content with methods and tools for the engineering problemssolving. The application program interface (API is used asthe main integration instrument, which modern Its have.

  2. Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Short-term and Long-term Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerauer, Peter; Müller, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    field experiment with 24 participants at a mathematics exhibition to measure the effect of AR on acquiring and retaining mathematical knowledge in an informal learning environment, both short-term (i.e., directly after visiting the exhibition) and long-term (i.e., two months after the museum visit). Our...

  3. Developing a Reform-Minded Science Teaching Identity: The Role of Informal Science Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for reform in science education around the world set high goals for beginning elementary teachers. Concurrently, existing literature indicates a number of challenges that beginning elementary teachers face. In this paper an argument is put forward about the integration of informal science environments in elementary teacher…

  4. Enhancing University Teachers' Information and Communication Technology Usage by Using a Virtual Learning Environment Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageel, Mohammed; Woollard, John

    2012-01-01

    The research project is a case study focussing on the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) implemented to increase the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by university teachers in Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. The study aims to investigate the effect of the VLE as the vehicle for a training course in ICT designed to…

  5. Fostering Creativity through Inquiry and Adventure in Informal Learning Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Aaron; Henrickson, Jeni

    2015-01-01

    Self-directed, inquiry-based learning opportunities focused on transdisciplinary real-world problem solving have been shown to foster creativity in learners. What tools might we provide classroom teachers to scaffold them and their students through this creative process? This study examines an online informal learning environment and the role the…

  6. Neurally and Ocularly Informed Graph-Based Models for Searching 3D Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-03

    mmedia). riding in a car. The environment was displayed to the subject on a 30′′ Apple Cinema HD display with a 60 Hz refresh rate, and subtended...simulations in Pohlmeyer et al (2011), supplementary information). The identity of the image, and the side of the subject’s viewpoint on which it

  7. The use of mobile games in formal and informal learning environments: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used

  8. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  9. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning…

  10. CONCEPTUAL ASPECTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE TRAINING OF BACHELORS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Патимат Магомедовна Исаева

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes aspects of the implementation of information and educational environment in order to implement the priorities for the development and implementation of innovative distance learning technologies for the transition from a traditional institution in the model of the innovation Institute, which connects professional, cultural or scientific competence of bachelors. The essence of the problem ongoing research is the need to achieve efficiency new quality of education, i.e. the transition to a higher level of preparation of bachelors.In accordance with the requirements of Federal state educational standard of higher education in conditions of modernization of education, teacher’s professional work is increasingly associated with innovative research innovative research of the educational process.It was the introduction of electronic information-educational environment is one of the main directions for the preparation of future bachelors and forces to reconsider their views on the content of the educational system. Describes the experience of creation of information-educational environment of Pyatigorsk state linguistic University on the basis of Moodle. Thanks to the creation of information-educational environment in high schools, teachers, parents, and students aware of all the events of the learning process and in the world of science and, moreover, this system gives you the opportunity to maintain close communication with teachers and between students.

  11. Informative-Consulting Model for Ecological Estimation of Influence of NPP on Surrounding Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenko, N.I.; Vlasova, E.V.; Korotenko, M.N.; Pyshnaya, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    In the NAEK 'Energoatom' the development of informative-consulting model (ICM) for ecological estimation of influence of NPP on surrounding an environment has began. In ICM the use of modern program complexes is foreseen that will allow to analyses data of the radio ecological monitoring in the real-time mode and promote the validity of administrative decisions

  12. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  13. Enhancing Beginners' Second Language Learning through an Informal Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakowa, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools are used increasingly to support second language learning, but there have been limited studies involving beginner learners, multiple technologies, and informal settings. This current study addresses this gap and investigates the factors affecting students' interest in a nongraded online learning environment and what kinds of tools,…

  14. IMAGE information monitoring and applied graphics software environment. Volume 2. Software description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.W.; Ng, K.B.; Upham, G.L.

    1986-09-01

    The EPRI Information Monitoring and Applied Graphics Environment (IMAGE) system is designed for 'fast proto-typing' of advanced concepts for computer-aided plant operations tools. It is a flexible software system which can be used for rapidly creating, dynamically driving and evaluating advanced operator aid displays. The software is written to be both host computer and graphic device independent

  15. The Dynamics of Opportunity and Threat Management in Turbulent Environments: The Role of Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ki

    2011-01-01

    This study explains the role of information technologies in enabling organizations to successfully sense and manage opportunities and threats and achieve competitive advantage in turbulent environments. I use two approaches, a set-theoretic configurational theory approach and a variance theory approach, which are theoretically and methodologically…

  16. Perceptions of Psychological and Physical Safety Environments of Information Technology Employees: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sheila C.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of psychological and safety environments of an oil and gas multinational enterprise. Twenty information technology professionals were interviewed to explore their feelings, perceptions, beliefs, and values of the phenomenon. The interviews elicited data about facets…

  17. SOFTWARE-TOOL PLATFORM OF DIDACTIC DESIGN OF INFORMATION LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN SECONDARY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. Shevchenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Annotation In the article considered problems of theoretical meaning in the context of terminology that used in distance education, practical aspects of designing methods of didactic implementation and practical solutions as for to organization of information education environment and personal-oriented implementation of its educational process in secondary general education school.

  18. The public library : environment for the formulation of risk indicators in the information society

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-López, Ana; López-Gijón, Javier; Gálvez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this third millennium faces us to a set of changes that are the culminating point of processes generated from the second half of the 20th century and that they are directly linked to the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The Information Society, through Internet, is favouring the globalization and simultaneously promoting social paradigmatic changes as the sustainable development and the risk society that slow –but of form maintained– go being outlined as an a...

  19. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    , functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program......Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  20. Toward an Economy of Information for Organizations in a Limited-Growth Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harvey K.

    Information overload, technological change, and financial problems combine with a possible moratorium on growth to increase the need for more rational, systematic, and quantified approaches to information activities in organizations. For communication managers who wish to develop more cost-effective and user-responsive programs, one possible…

  1. Copyright Issues for the Creators and Users of Information in the Electronic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues that deal with the interface of copyright law and online systems. Areas of change needed to maintain the balance between users and creators of electronic information are identified, limits of the Copyright Act are explored, and it is suggested that existing copyright law can be applied to electronic information. (four references)…

  2. Military Leadership in the Context of Challenges and Threats Existing in Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kacała

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the role of a military leader in engaging the challenges and threats existing in the I nformation Environment (IE. Military leadership is crucial for the functioning of a particular form of hierarchical institution, namely the armed forces, in their external surrounding called O perational Environment (OE. A specific type of O E is I nformation Environment (IE characterized by the three dimensions: physical, informational and cognitive. Moreover, its characteristics include the occurrence of a number of challenges and threats. The most important challenges include: overabundance of information, unstructured information, problematic value of information and low information-related competences of its users. I n turn, the most important of the threats identified in the I E are disinformation and propaganda. The role of an effective leader is to prevent, and if it is impossible, to alleviate the consequences of the challenges and threats that may disrupt or even prevent the achievement of the objectives set by an organisation.

  3. Maximising meaning : Creating a learning environment for reading comprehension of informative texts from a Vygotskian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijk, Y.; Volman, M.; de Haan, D.; van Oers, B.

    Sociocultural theories based on the work of Vygotsky have been increasingly influential in educational sciences. Developmental education (DE) is a pedagogical approach based on Vygotskian theory that has inspired primary schools in the Netherlands to change the learning environment innovatively in a

  4. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.; Burtner, IV E.R.; Doehle, J. R.; Hampton, S. D.; La Mothe, R. R.; Nordquist, P. L.; Zarzhitsky, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL's safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide ''vision''@ for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  5. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henry, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, IV, E. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doehle, J. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hampton, S. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); La Mothe, R. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nordquist, P. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zarzhitsky, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL’s safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide “vision” for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  6. Water Cycle Dynamics in a Changing Environment: Advancing Hydrologic Science through Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.; Kumar, P.; Rhoads, B. L.; Wuebbles, D.

    2007-12-01

    As one ponders a changing environment -- climate, hydrology, land use, biogeochemical cycles, human dynamics -- there is an increasing need to understand the long term evolution of the linked component systems (e.g., climatic, hydrologic and ecological) through conceptual and quantitative models. The most challenging problem toward this goal is to understand and incorporate the rich dynamics of multiple linked systems with weak and strong coupling, and with many internal variables that exhibit multi-scale interactions. The richness of these interactions leads to fluctuations in one variable that in turn drive the dynamics of other related variables. The key question then becomes: Do these complexities lend an inherently stochastic character to the system, rendering deterministic prediction and modeling of limited value, or do they translate into constrained self- organization through which emerges order, and a limited group of "active" processes (that may change from time to time) that determine the general evolution of the system through a series of structured states with a distinct signature? This is a grand challenge for predictability and therefore requires community effort. The interconnectivity and hence synthesis of knowledge across the fields should be natural for hydrologists since the global water cycle and its regional manifestations directly correspond to the information flows for mass and energy transformations across the media, and across the disciplines. Further, the rich history of numerical, conceptual and stochastic modeling in hydrology provides the training and breadth for addressing the multi- scale, complex system dynamics challenges posed by the evolution question. Theory and observational analyses that necessitate stepping back from the existing knowledge paradigms and looking at the integrated system are needed. In this talk we will present the outlines of a new NSF-funded community effort that attempts to forge inter- disciplinary

  7. Informed consent: using a structured interview changes patients' attitudes towards informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, P J; O'Keefe, L; Adcock, S

    1993-09-01

    Patients want to know more about their condition and its proposed treatment. Gaining patients' confidence before treatment reduces the changes of their seeking legal redress for an unexpected outcome. As part of a prospective study of informed consent for surgery we have assessed the attitudes of patients towards informed consent when different types of consent interview are used. We found that most patients are happy to do as their doctor advises but think the informal consent interview is important because it gives them information; they also want to know about most, but not all, complications of the procedure. One quarter worried about the anaesthetic, about one eighth worried about 'not waking up' and similar proportions worried about complications and other things such as pain and nausea. Most patients think that the consent form is a legal document. In addition patients who had an informal interview felt obliged to sign the consent form and thought it had medicolegal implications. In contrast those who had a structured interview felt less obliged to sign the consent form and more involved in the decision to operate.

  8. Individual Differences in Behavioural Reaction to a Changing Environment in Mice and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1987-01-01

    Aggressive and non-aggressive male mice differ in their reaction to a changing social environment. In order to investigate if this differentiation holds also for non-social situations male mice are trained in a standard maze task, whereafter a change (extramaze and intramaze, respectively) is

  9. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar; Agarwal, Saurav; Mahadevan, Aditya; Chakravorty, Suman; Tomkins, Daniel; Denny, Jory; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    , such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Mironescu

    2013-01-01

    Change is a factor of impact on managerial functions especially upon those related to the coordination and training of the human resources. Change management is a broad spectrum of means, referring to different types of change , however, it is generally used in the processing management and in the strategic management, in the information management , including the electronic one. The analysis of changes inside the organization is very important , these changes allow the organizations to be mo...

  11. Change: Threat or opportunity for human progress? V. 5. Ecological change: Environment, development and poverty linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdar, U.

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of 18 articles that examine the changing ecological balance of the world and its effect on human prosperity. The problems caused by global warning, climate change and environmental degradation will have serious effects in both the short and the long term. Two of the 18 articles fall within INIS scope: these have been indexed separately. Tabs

  12. Change: Threat or opportunity for human progress V. 5. Ecological change: Environment, development and poverty linkages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirdar, U [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This volume consists of 18 articles that examine the changing ecological balance of the world and its effect on human prosperity. The problems caused by global warning, climate change and environmental degradation will have serious effects in both the short and the long term. Two of the 18 articles fall within INIS scope: these have been indexed separately. Tabs.

  13. Learning Is Change: Creating an Environment for Sustainable Organizational Change in Continuing and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which learning itself is a form of organizational change and, as such, supports organizational readiness for change. The study considers a continuing education unit within a major Canadian university that managed to transform its decentralized and independent student records and administration system (student…

  14. Development of patient centric virtual organizations (PCVOs) in clinical environment for patient information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohyuddin; Gray, W A; Bailey, Hazel; Jones, Wendy; Morrey, David

    2007-01-01

    A novel Virtual Organization framework which incorporates wireless technology support is presented in the research work. The Virtual Organization is designed for a clinical environment to provide better patient information management and enhanced collaborative working of multidisciplinary care teams. The analysis studies the current clinical practices and looks at the general patient information resource structure currently in use for patient care. Based on this problem analysis and current requirements of the multi-disciplinary care team members, we propose a generic and sustainable Patient Centric Virtual Organization (PCVO) framework to complement the functionality of the existing infrastructure by incorporating wireless technologies support for improved patient information provision at the point of care. The preliminary results of the study identify and classify the specific point of care tasks suited to appropriate information resources needed by the care team members. This paper concentrates on the patient information management aspects brought in by incorporating wireless technologies at the point of care using patient information resources in a decentralized and distributed computing environment. This applied research is carried out in the secondary and tertiary care sector in the cancer domain. For the analysis and results of the pilot project, we have used a case study of a local NHS Cancer Hospital.

  15. Stochastic and information-thermodynamic structures of population dynamics in a fluctuating environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation in a fluctuating environment is a process of fueling environmental information to gain fitness. Living systems have gradually developed strategies for adaptation from random and passive diversification of the phenotype to more proactive decision making, in which environmental information is sensed and exploited more actively and effectively. Understanding the fundamental relation between fitness and information is therefore crucial to clarify the limits and universal properties of adaptation. In this work, we elucidate the underlying stochastic and information-thermodynamic structure in this process, by deriving causal fluctuation relations (FRs) of fitness and information. Combined with a duality between phenotypic and environmental dynamics, the FRs reveal the limit of fitness gain, the relation of time reversibility with the achievability of the limit, and the possibility and condition for gaining excess fitness due to environmental fluctuation. The loss of fitness due to causal constraints and the limited capacity of real organisms is shown to be the difference between time-forward and time-backward path probabilities of phenotypic and environmental dynamics. Furthermore, the FRs generalize the concept of the evolutionary stable state (ESS) for fluctuating environment by giving the probability that the optimal strategy on average can be invaded by a suboptimal one owing to rare environmental fluctuation. These results clarify the information-thermodynamic structures in adaptation and evolution.

  16. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  17. A food environments feedback system (FoodBack) for empowering citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Williams, Rachel; Tawfiq, Essa; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-11-14

    This study developed a systems-based approach (called FoodBack) to empower citizens and change agents to create healthier community food places. Formative evaluations were held with citizens and change agents in six diverse New Zealand communities, supplemented by semi-structured interviews with 85 change agents in Auckland and Hamilton in 2015-2016. The emerging system was additionally reviewed by public health experts from diverse organizations. A food environments feedback system was constructed to crowdsource key indicators of the healthiness of diverse community food places (i.e. schools, hospitals, supermarkets, fast food outlets, sport centers) and outdoor spaces (i.e. around schools), comments/pictures about barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and exemplar stories on improving the healthiness of food environments. All the information collected is centrally processed and translated into 'short' (immediate) and 'long' (after analyses) feedback loops to stimulate actions to create healthier food places. FoodBack, as a comprehensive food environment feedback system (with evidence databases and feedback and recognition processes), has the potential to increase food sovereignty, and generate a sustainable, fine-grained database of food environments for real-time food policy research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Integration of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of a natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFiehler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with our environment we generally make use of egocentric and allocentric object information by coding object positions relative to the observer or relative to the environment, respectively. Bayesian theories suggest that the brain integrates both sources of information optimally for perception and action. However, experimental evidence for egocentric and allocentric integration is sparse and has only been studied using abstract stimuli lacking ecological relevance. Here, we investigated the use of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of naturalistic scenes. Participants encoded a breakfast scene containing six objects on a table (local objects and three objects in the environment (global objects. After a 2s delay, a visual test scene reappeared for 1s in which one local object was missing (=target and of the remaining, one, three or five local objects or one of the global objects were shifted to the left or to the right. The offset of the test scene prompted participants to reach to the target as precisely as possible. Only local objects served as potential reach targets and thus were task-relevant. When shifting objects we predicted accurate reaching if participants only used egocentric coding of object position and systematic shifts of reach endpoints if allocentric information were used for movement planning. We found that reaching movements were largely affected by allocentric shifts showing an increase in endpoint errors in the direction of object shifts with the number of local objects shifted. No effect occurred when one local or one global object was shifted. Our findings suggest that allocentric cues are indeed used by the brain for memory-guided reaching towards targets in naturalistic visual scenes. Moreover, the integration of egocentric and allocentric object information seems to depend on the extent of changes in the scene.

  19. The Impact of Complexity, Rate of Change and Information Availability on the Production Planning and Control Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Assen (Marcel); S.L. van de Velde (Steef)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe organizational theory literature argues that the more uncertain the environment, the more likely the firm’s operational decision structure is decentralized. However, it remains unclear which uncertainty dimensions (i.e. complexity, rate of change and lack of information) impacts the

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 48: Valuing information in an interactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration effort has been devoted over the past 30 years to developing methods and means of assessing the value of information. Two approaches - value in exchange and value in use - dominate; however, neither approach enjoys much practical application because validation schema for decision-making is missing. The approaches fail to measure objectively the real costs of acquiring information and the real benefits that information will yield. Moreover, these approaches collectively fail to provide economic justification to build and/or continue to support an information product or service. In addition, the impact of Cyberspace adds a new dimension to the problem. A new paradigm is required to make economic sense in this revolutionary information environment. In previous work, the authors explored the various approaches to measuring the value of information and concluded that, in large measure, these methods were unworkable concepts and constructs. Instead, they proposed several axioms for valuing information. Most particularly they concluded that the 'value of information cannot be measured in the absence of a specific task, objective, or goal.' This paper builds on those axioms and describes under which circumstances information can be measured in objective and actionable terms. This paper also proposes a methodology for undertaking such measures and validating the results.

  1. Accounting Information Systems Implementation and Management Accounting Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredmar Krister

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an on-going discussion within management accounting research regarding how to work with performance measures. In the process of developing new forms of performance measurement the task of choosing business metrics is central. This process is closely connected to the implementation of IT solutions. Objectives: In order to understand how new performance measurement solutions are implemented and used, it becomes crucial to understand how measures are selected and how new accounting information systems (AIS are developed and implemented. Methods/approach: The paper builds on the case of an on-going AIS project at a large, public university in Sweden. The empirical material was collected using a semi-action research approach over a two-year period. The majority of the material comes from written documentation and minutes. Results: Even though the implementation of a new AIS triggers a change in the management accounting practice, this study shows that this is done in more than one perspective. Conclusions: As the project develops, new priorities and objectives evolve, which in the end shape what management accounting change becomes.

  2. European research on Climat change impact on human health and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pogonysheva I. A.; Kuznetsova V. P.; Pogonyshev D. A.; Lunyak I. I.

    2018-01-01

    European countries have accumulated a considerable body of research that proves both direct and indirect influence of climate change on human health. The article analyses “Protecting health in an environment challenged by climate change: European Regional Framework for Action”. The article gives a detailed analysis of the work of European Office of World Health Organisation and The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe related to climate change.

  3. Changes in sensory reweighting of proprioceptive information during standing balance with age and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Engelhart, D.; Maier, A.B.; Schouten, A.C.; van der Kooij, H.; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    With sensory reweighting, reliable sensory information is selected over unreliable information during balance by dynamically combining this information. We used system identification techniques to show the weight and the adaptive process of weight change of proprioceptive information during standing

  4. Analysis of the evolution of precipitation in the Haihe river basin of China under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangyi; Liu, Jiahong; Gong, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation is one of the important factors of water cycle and main sources of regional water resources. It is of great significance to analyze the evolution of precipitation under changing environment for identifying the evolution law of water resources, thus can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the formulation of related policies and measures. Generally, analysis of the evolution of precipitation consists of three levels: analysis the observed precipitation change based on measured data, explore the possible factors responsible for the precipitation change, and estimate the change trend of precipitation under changing environment. As the political and cultural centre of China, the climatic conditions in the Haihe river basin have greatly changed in recent decades. This study analyses the evolution of precipitation in the basin under changing environment based on observed meteorological data, GCMs and statistical methods. Firstly, based on the observed precipitation data during 1961-2000 at 26 meteorological stations in the basin, the actual precipitation change in the basin is analyzed. Secondly, the observed precipitation change in the basin is attributed using the fingerprint-based attribution method, and the causes of the observed precipitation change is identified. Finally, the change trend of precipitation in the basin under climate change in the future is predicted based on GCMs and a statistical downscaling model. The results indicate that: 1) during 1961-2000, the precipitation in the basin showed a decreasing trend, and the possible mutation time was 1965; 2) natural variability may be the factor responsible for the observed precipitation change in the basin; 3) under climate change in the future, precipitation in the basin will slightly increase by 4.8% comparing with the average, and the extremes will not vary significantly.

  5. Learning by Doing Approach in the Internet Environment to Improve the Teaching Efficiency of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-S.; Xie, Hua

    This paper presents a learning-by-doing method in the Internet environment to enhance the results of information technology education by experimental work in the classroom of colleges. In this research, an practical approach to apply the "learning by doing" paradigm in Internet-based learning, both for higher educational environments and life-long training systems, taking into account available computer and network resources, such as blogging, podcasting, social networks, wiki etc. We first introduce the different phases in the learning process, which aimed at showing to the readers that the importance of the learning by doing paradigm, which is not implemented in many Internet-based educational environments. Secondly, we give the concept of learning by doing in the different perfective. Then, we identify the most important trends in this field, and give a real practical case for the application of this approach. The results show that the attempt methods are much better than traditional teaching methods.

  6. Climate change and changing attitudes. Effect of negative emotion on information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijnders, A.L.

    1998-12-17

    Chapter 2 describes our first study of the relations between negative emotion, information processing, and attitudes within the field of environmental communication. This study examined how the level of fear with regard to climate change influenced the processing of information about energy-efficient lighting. The consequences for the relations between attitudes, intentions, and behaviour were also assessed. A moderate fear level merely seemed to have an effect on attitudes by stimulating systematic information processing. Provided that strong arguments were presented this resulted in more favourable attitudes. Although there were indications that a high fear level also increased systematic information processing, this effect seemed to be dominated by a direct positive effect on attitudes. Though the relation between attitudes and behavioural intentions was fairly strong regardless of fear level, actual behaviour could only be reliably predicted from behavioural intentions when the level of fear was high. Chapter 3 describes a study aimed at replicating the findings of the first study. In addition this study took into account the effect of pre-existing differences in concern about climate change. The consequences for attitude stability were also examined. Again some indications were found that a moderate fear level increased systematic processing. Regarding the effect of level of pre-existing concern, we mainly found a direct positive effect on attitudes. No evidence was found that the level of fear or concern through stimulating systematic processing resulted in more persistent attitudes. Chapter 4 describes a study examining the effects of induced fear level and the level of pre-existing concern on the processing of information about the implementation of a European energy tax. No evidence was found that the induced fear level influenced,the elaboration of this information. However, the level of pre-existing concern did appear to have an impact: Elaboration was

  7. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  8. A state-of-the-art review of built environment information modelling (BeIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tah J.H.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements that constitute the built environment are vast and so are the independent systems developed to model its various aspects. Many of these systems have been developed under various assumptions and approaches to execute functions that are distinct, complementary or sometimes similar. Furthermore, these systems are ever increasing in number and often assume similar nomenclatures and acronyms, thereby exacerbating the challenges of understanding their peculiar functions, definitions and differences. The current societal demand to improve sustainability per­formance through collaboration as well as whole-system and through-life thinking is driving the need to integrate independent systems associated with different aspects and scales of the built environment to deliver smart solutions and services that improve the well-being of citizens. The contemporary object-oriented digitization of real-world elements appears to provide a leeway for amalgamating the modelling systems of various domains in the built environment which we termed as built environment information modelling (BeIM. These domains include architecture, engineering, construction as well as urban planning and design. Applications such as building information modelling, geographic information systems and 3D city modelling systems are now being integrated for city modelling purposes. The various works directed at integrating these systems are examined, revealing that current research efforts on integration fall into three categories: (1 data/file conversion systems, (2 semantic mapping systems and (3 the hybrid of both. The review outcome suggests that good knowledge of these domains and how their respective systems operate is vital to pursuing holistic systems integration in the built environment.

  9. A vector-product information retrieval system adapted to heterogeneous, distributed computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Vector-product information retrieval (IR) systems produce retrieval results superior to all other searching methods but presently have no commercial implementations beyond the personal computer environment. The NASA Electronic Library Systems (NELS) provides a ranked list of the most likely relevant objects in collections in response to a natural language query. Additionally, the system is constructed using standards and tools (Unix, X-Windows, Notif, and TCP/IP) that permit its operation in organizations that possess many different hosts, workstations, and platforms. There are no known commercial equivalents to this product at this time. The product has applications in all corporate management environments, particularly those that are information intensive, such as finance, manufacturing, biotechnology, and research and development.

  10. Integrating INIS into a high energy physics information environment thoughts from CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Yeomans, Joanne; Baudic, Romain; Picchioli, Ingrid; International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management : Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development. Special Session : The Role of INIS in Knowledge Preservation

    2004-01-01

    Information searchers from the high energy physics community expect an integrated information environment. The CERN Library offers its print and electronic collections through a combined Web interface and maintains the database by semi-automated processes to upload bibliographic and full-text records. Suggestions are offered by which INIS could develop its own Web interface and better match HEP users’ expectations. These include implementing full-text linking, increasing currency, expanding search and display functions and developing the richness of the data. Links with the National Nuclear Data Center and Crossref could also increase its visibility.

  11. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ritohardoyo; P Priyono

    2016-01-01

    Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the ...

  12. Yoga Therapy: Building a Holding Environment for Somatic and Psyche Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Bud

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on ideas from D.W. Winnicott and the work of Quaker theologian Parker Palmer, this article discusses the concept of a holding environment, its refined understanding in the literature over the years, and how it can be optimally used in yoga therapy. The evidence shows that effectively establishing a holding environment can facilitate both somatic and deep structural change in a client, facilitating healing from primal wounding as well as the potential reconnection to the true self.

  13. Changing anatomies of Information Literacy at the postgraduate level: refinements of models and shifts in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Spiranec

    2010-09-01

    longer be conceived of as a schematic, linear or rules-driven process. Such profound changes suggest renewed conceptions and focal points of IL at the postgraduate level which will take into account the fluid nature of current information environments. New IL frameworks should acknowledge that it is not always possible to a priori determine the best information and resources to use or apply one valid strategy for solving a particular problem. IL programs should therefore move ahead by abandoning the limited present approach according to which there is only one right answer or path to this answer and instead offer insight into the variety of complex layers our current information universe consists of. Assessment models in IL should mirror this renewed IL conceptions as well, which basically implies the negation of the rubrics and checklist approach commonly associated with IL assessment models. After discussing changes in information landscapes brought about the Web 2.0 and examining transformed premises of scientific work within such environments, the authors will plea for reconceptualizations of IL on the postgraduate level and propose new modes of assessment that will recognize this transformation.

  14. Complex Genotype by Environment interactions and changing genetic architectures across thermal environments in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Damian K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists studying adaptation under sexual selection have spent considerable effort assessing the relative importance of two groups of models, which hinge on the idea that females gain indirect benefits via mate discrimination. These are the good genes and genetic compatibility models. Quantitative genetic studies have advanced our understanding of these models by enabling assessment of whether the genetic architectures underlying focal phenotypes are congruent with either model. In this context, good genes models require underlying additive genetic variance, while compatibility models require non-additive variance. Currently, we know very little about how the expression of genotypes comprised of distinct parental haplotypes, or how levels and types of genetic variance underlying key phenotypes, change across environments. Such knowledge is important, however, because genotype-environment interactions can have major implications on the potential for evolutionary responses to selection. Results We used a full diallel breeding design to screen for complex genotype-environment interactions, and genetic architectures underlying key morphological traits, across two thermal environments (the lab standard 27°C, and the cooler 23°C in the Australian field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. In males, complex three-way interactions between sire and dam parental haplotypes and the rearing environment accounted for up to 23 per cent of the scaled phenotypic variance in the traits we measured (body mass, pronotum width and testes mass, and each trait harboured significant additive genetic variance in the standard temperature (27°C only. In females, these three-way interactions were less important, with interactions between the paternal haplotype and rearing environment accounting for about ten per cent of the phenotypic variance (in body mass, pronotum width and ovary mass. Of the female traits measured, only ovary mass for crickets

  15. A Method for Evaluating Information Security Governance (ISG) Components in Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, M.; Ula, M.; Fuadi, W.

    2017-02-01

    As modern banking increasingly relies on the internet and computer technologies to operate their businesses and market interactions, the threats and security breaches have highly increased in recent years. Insider and outsider attacks have caused global businesses lost trillions of Dollars a year. Therefore, that is a need for a proper framework to govern the information security in the banking system. The aim of this research is to propose and design an enhanced method to evaluate information security governance (ISG) implementation in banking environment. This research examines and compares the elements from the commonly used information security governance frameworks, standards and best practices. Their strength and weakness are considered in its approaches. The initial framework for governing the information security in banking system was constructed from document review. The framework was categorized into three levels which are Governance level, Managerial level, and technical level. The study further conducts an online survey for banking security professionals to get their professional judgment about the ISG most critical components and the importance for each ISG component that should be implemented in banking environment. Data from the survey was used to construct a mathematical model for ISG evaluation, component importance data used as weighting coefficient for the related component in the mathematical model. The research further develops a method for evaluating ISG implementation in banking based on the mathematical model. The proposed method was tested through real bank case study in an Indonesian local bank. The study evidently proves that the proposed method has sufficient coverage of ISG in banking environment and effectively evaluates the ISG implementation in banking environment.

  16. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change.

  17. Information Environment is an Integral Element of Informational Space in the Process of Professional Development of Future Teacher of Physical Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Dragnev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines information environment as an integral element of information space in the process of professional development of future teacher of physical culture, notes that the strategic objective of the system of higher education is training of competent future teacher of physical culture in the field of information technologies, when information competence and information culture are major components of professionalism in modern information-oriented society

  18. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; George, Emma S; Feng, Xiaoqi; Merom, Dafna; Bennie, Andrew; Cook, Amelia; Sanders, Taren; Dwyer, Genevieve; Pang, Bonnie; Guagliano, Justin M; Kolt, Gregory S; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2018-01-26

    Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails ( n = 5), rail stops/lines ( n = 4), supermarkets and farmers' markets ( n = 4) and park and green space ( n = 2). Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data), to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  19. Do Natural Experiments of Changes in Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity and Diet? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya MacMillan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and/or diet in residents, were included. From five electronic databases, 2084 references were identified. A narrative synthesis was conducted, considering results in relation to study quality. Nineteen papers, reporting on 15 different exposures met inclusion criteria. Four studies included a comparison group and 11 were pre-post/longitudinal studies without a comparison group. Studies reported on the impact of redeveloping or introducing cycle and/or walking trails (n = 5, rail stops/lines (n = 4, supermarkets and farmers’ markets (n = 4 and park and green space (n = 2. Eight/15 studies reported at least one beneficial change in physical activity, diet or another associated health outcome. Due to limitations in study design and reporting, as well as the wide array of outcome measures reported, drawing conclusions to inform policy was challenging. Future research should consider a consistent approach to measure the same outcomes (e.g., using measurement methods that collect comparable physical activity and diet outcome data, to allow for pooled analyses. Additionally, including comparison groups wherever possible and ensuring high quality reporting is essential.

  20. Report on Asian Environment Information Network; 'Asia kankyo joho network' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The goal is the construction of Asian Environment Information Network (AEInet) in accordance with a contract signed between Indonesia's LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Science) and NEDO under NEDO's Research Cooperation Project Concerning the Development of Environment Measuring Laser Radar (LR). The network is so designed and constituted as to operate on a private line between Indonesia and Japan via IP (Internet protocol) and to enable the exchange on the Internet network of the data collected/analyzed by the Indonesian LR system and of articles of e-mail between scientists of the two countries. The AEInet will be utilized for the collection/analysis of LR-collected data; exchange of observed data and the result of processing; provision of support to environment information scientists in exchanging e-mail and information; and the search of databases for the implementation of the project. In this paper, the outline and functions of the system, network system design, WWW server construction, network operating status, joint researches with Indonesia, etc., are described. (NEDO)

  1. VisComposer: A Visual Programmable Composition Environment for Information Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the amount of data being collected has increased, the need for tools that can enable the visual exploration of data has also grown. This has led to the development of a variety of widely used programming frameworks for information visualization. Unfortunately, such frameworks demand comprehensive visualization and coding skills and require users to develop visualization from scratch. An alternative is to create interactive visualization design environments that require little to no programming. However, these tools only supports a small portion of visual forms.We present a programmable integrated development environment (IDE, VisComposer, that supports the development of expressive visualization using a drag-and-drop visual interface. VisComposer exposes the programmability by customizing desired components within a modularized visualization composition pipeline, effectively balancing the capability gap between expert coders and visualization artists. The implemented system empowers users to compose comprehensive visualizations with real-time preview and optimization features, and supports prototyping, sharing and reuse of the effects by means of an intuitive visual composer. Visual programming and textual programming integrated in our system allow users to compose more complex visual effects while retaining the simplicity of use. We demonstrate the performance of VisComposer with a variety of examples and an informal user evaluation. Keywords: Information Visualization, Visualization authoring, Interactive development environment

  2. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  3. Energy, the Environment and Behaviour Change: A survey of insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baddeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of climate change is largely undisputed but moderating the impacts not only of climate change but also of resource depletion is a complex, multi-faceted problem. Technical solutions will have a large role to play but engineering behaviour change within households and firms is essential to harnessing the potential for energy efficient consumption, production and investment. To inform debates about behavior change, this paper explores some insights from behavioural economics including ...

  4. Coastal Climate Change Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation in the Natural and Built Environments: Progress of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Herman, B.; Vernaza-Hernández, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Area Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership, funded by the National Science Foundation, seeks to develop new ways to educate citizens about global climate change. The core themes are sea level rise and impacts of climate change in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea. CACCE focuses on helping partners, educators, students, and the general public gain a fundamental and working understanding of the interrelation among the natural environment, built environment, and social aspects in the context of climate change in coastal regions. To this end, CACCE's objectives reported here include: 1) defining the current state of awareness, perceptions, and literacy about the impacts of climate change; and 2) testing a model of transdisciplinary research and learning as a means of training a new generation of climate professionals. Objective one is met in part by CACCE survey efforts that reveal Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers hold many non-scientific views about climate change and climate change science and provide inadequate instruction about climate change. Associated with objective two are five Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL) pilot projects underway in schools in Florida and Puerto Rico. In the CACCE Partnership the stakeholders include: students (K-16 and graduate); teachers and education researchers; informal science educators; scientists and engineers; business and industry; policy makers; and community members. CACCE combines interdisciplinary research with action research and community-based participatory research in a way that is best described as "transdisciplinary". Learning occurs in all spheres of interactions among stakeholders as they engage in scientific, educational, community and business activities through their legitimate peripheral participation in research communities of practice. We will describe the process of seeking and building partnerships, and call for a dialogue

  5. Electronic Informational and Educational Environment as a Factor of Competence-Oriented Higher Pedagogical Education in the Sphere of Health, Safety and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerilova, Galina S.; Kartavykh, Marina A.; Ageeva, Elena L.; Veryaskina, Marina A.; Ruban, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the question of computerisation in health, safety and environment teachers' training in the context of the general approaches and requirements of the Federal National Standard of Higher Education, which is realised through designing of electronic informational and educational environment. The researchers argue indispensability…

  6. The heat is on: Australia's greenhouse future. Report to the Senate Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Art References Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    On 11 August 1999, the Senate referred matters pertaining to global warming to the Environment, Communications, Information Technology and the Art References Committee for inquiring. The Committee is reporting on the progress and adequacy of Australian policies to reduce global warming, in light of Australia's commitments under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also critically evaluates the effectiveness Australian Government programs and policies, both state and Federal, in particular those aiming to provide for the development of emerging renewable energies, energy efficiency industries and the more efficient use of energy sources and the extent to which the Government's relations with industry under the Greenhouse Challenge Program are accountable and transparent. Projected effect of climate change on Australia's ecosystems and the potential introduction of national system of emissions trading within Australia are also examined

  7. Change Management in Information Technology - A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadi Hasan Miraz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art of research in Information Technology (IT in Change Management (CM. Initial studies indicate that investments into CM in IT often do not add the predictable value, neither to the CM division himself nor to the association supported by the CM section. A basis for further study into this complex and inter disciplinary area is therefore needed. This literature review will contribute to this basis. Based on a Systematic Literature Review (SLR method, journal articles, with a focus on CM in IT were found. Relevant articles were organized in categories according to focus on Technology, IT layer, CM process and theory, research method applied and type of findings. Finally research gaps were identified. There seems to be a general belief in technology combinations as a way to speed up the rather slow IT diffusion process in CM. It is documented that current research into CM in IT has an unbalanced focus on few specific technologies, IT layers and CM processes, and that further research should focus more on the IT implementation process and use. Knowledge from application and use could be fed back into (and strengthen conceptualization and progress, thereby adding more value to CM. Only the search engine Scopus is used. This is the first review paper focusing on CM in general in IT, giving an overview of the area and delivering a basis for further research.

  8. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li Lee; Chong, Ving Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985-86 and 2014-15) interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO) analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus) were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica). Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons) were unaffected. Centropages

  9. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lee Chew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985–86 and 2014–15 interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica. Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons were unaffected

  10. Response of marine copepods to a changing tropical environment: winners, losers and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Li Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Climate change concurrent with anthropogenic disturbances can initiate serial changes that reverberate up the food chain with repercussions for fisheries. To date, there is no information available concerning the combined effects of global warming and human impacts on tropical marine food webs. While temperate copepods respond differently to warming and environmental stressors, the extent to which tropical copepods can adapt to rising temperature of already warm waters remains unknown. We hypothesize that sea warming and other anthropogenic disturbances over the long term will have the greatest impact on the copepod community in nearshore waters where their effects are accentuated, and therefore vulnerable and resilient species could be identified. Methods. Zooplankton samples were collected during two time periods (1985–86 and 2014–15) interposed by marked anthropogenic disturbances, and at the same five stations located progressively from inshore to offshore in Klang Strait, Malaysia, following the asymmetrical before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Copepods were identified to species, and results were interpreted by univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (PERMANOVA, PCO) analyses of the computed species abundance and diversity measures. Results. Copepod total abundance was not significantly different among stations but higher after disturbance than before disturbance. However, changes in the abundance of particular species and the community structure between time periods were dramatic. Coastal large-bodied calanoid species (e.g., Acartia spinicauda, Calanopia thompsoni, Pseudodiaptomus bowmani and Tortanus forcipatus) were the most vulnerable group to disturbance. This however favored the opportunistic species (e.g., Oithona simplex, O. attenuata, Hemicyclops sp., Pseudomacrochiron sp. and Microsetella norvegica). Small-bodied copepods (e.g., Paracalanus sp., Parvocalanus crassirostris and Euterpina acutifrons) were unaffected. Centropages

  11. Application of the Risk Map for Assessment Destructive Effects of Essential Environment on the Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladlena Sergeevna Atkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the business continuity as a necessary element of the strategy of information security. The analysis of the requirements of federal legislation, standards, recommendations and guidelines to ensure the availability, disaster recovery, and recovery of data and information structures of organizations in their operation was conducted. The proposed approach to assessing the possible destabilizing factors and emergency situations includes the model of the environment where the information systems are operational processing key business processes of the organization, and the method for risk assessment to each of the destabilizing effects. Technique of risk assessment expects to use quantitative and qualitative approach to drawing three zone risk maps.

  12. In the Growing Information Mall, Some Things Never Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailley Fargo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Fidel, R., Davies, R. K., Douglass, M. H., Holder, J. K., Hopkins, C. J., Kushner, E. J.,…. Toney, C. D. (1999. A visit to the information mall: Web searching behavior of high school students. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(1, 24-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI1097-4571(199950:13.0.CO;2-W Abstract Objective – The research study aimed to discover high school students’ information searching behaviour on the Web and suggest Web changes that would benefit student learning. This study was conducted in 1999, seven years after the Internet was publicly available and on the cusp of Web 2.0. Design – Field study with class observations, students thinking aloud at their terminals, and interviews with the students after their searching. The study’s duration was three class searching sessions. Setting – West Seattle High School in Seattle, Washington. This school had a diverse population of students, with 50% students of color and many of these students first generation to finish high school. Due to a grant from Microsoft, West Seattle had operational four computer labs. Subjects – Eleventh and twelfth graders in a horticulture class. There were eight student participants, six males and two females. Five of these students were in 12th grade and three were in 11th grade. The teacher for this class, the school librarian, and the principal of West Seattle High School were also interviewed for this project. Methods – Qualitative, case-study method was used with controlled comparison. Team members observed the students while they searched and wrote down descriptions of the students’ searching methods. After the three observation sessions and interviews with the students, team members wrote up a case study for each student. The students’ think-aloud audio, along with all the interviews conducted, were recorded. This type of method can be considered an early version of usability testing and user

  13. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Francisco Caracheo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  14. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  15. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  16. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  17. Agent-Oriented Privacy-Based Information Brokering Architecture for Healthcare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmutalib Masaud-Wahaishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels—locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc. that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  18. Agent-oriented privacy-based information brokering architecture for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaud-Wahaishi, Abdulmutalib; Ghenniwa, Hamada

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels-locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc.) that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  19. Changes in hospital nurse work environments and nurse job outcomes: an analysis of panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutney-Lee, Ann; Wu, Evan S; Sloane, Douglas M; Aiken, Linda H

    2013-02-01

    One strategy proposed to alleviate nursing shortages is the promotion of organizational efforts that will improve nurse recruitment and retention. Cross-sectional studies have shown that the quality of the nurse work environment is associated with nurse outcomes related to retention, but there have been very few longitudinal studies undertaken to examine this relationship. To demonstrate how rates of burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction changed in a panel of hospitals over time, and to explore whether these outcomes were associated with changes in nurse work environments. A retrospective, two-stage panel design was chosen for this study. Survey data collected from large random samples of registered nurses employed in Pennsylvania hospitals in 1999 and 2006 were used to derive hospital-level rates of burnout, intention to leave current position, and job dissatisfaction, and to classify the quality of nurses' work environments at both points in time. A two-period difference model was used to estimate the dependence of changes in rates of nurse burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction on changes in nurse work environments between 1999 and 2006 in 137 hospitals, accounting for concurrent changes in nurse staffing levels. In general, nurse outcomes improved between 1999 and 2006, with fewer nurses reporting burnout, intention to leave, and job dissatisfaction in 2006 as compared to 1999. Our difference models showed that improvements in work environment had a strong negative association with changes in rates of burnout (β=-6.42%, pjob dissatisfaction (β=-8.00%, pburnout, intention to leave current position, and job dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The persistence of the attentional bias to regularities in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ru Qi; Zhao, Jiaying

    2015-10-01

    The environment often is stable, but some aspects may change over time. The challenge for the visual system is to discover and flexibly adapt to the changes. We examined how attention is shifted in the presence of changes in the underlying structure of the environment. In six experiments, observers viewed four simultaneous streams of objects while performing a visual search task. In the first half of each experiment, the stream in the structured location contained regularities, the shapes in the random location were randomized, and gray squares appeared in two neutral locations. In the second half, the stream in the structured or the random location may change. In the first half of all experiments, visual search was facilitated in the structured location, suggesting that attention was consistently biased toward regularities. In the second half, this bias persisted in the structured location when no change occurred (Experiment 1), when the regularities were removed (Experiment 2), or when new regularities embedded in the original or novel stimuli emerged in the previously random location (Experiments 3 and 6). However, visual search was numerically but no longer reliably faster in the structured location when the initial regularities were removed and new regularities were introduced in the previously random location (Experiment 4), or when novel random stimuli appeared in the random location (Experiment 5). This suggests that the attentional bias was weakened. Overall, the results demonstrate that the attentional bias to regularities was persistent but also sensitive to changes in the environment.