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Sample records for changement climatique au

  1. Impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouedraogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact des changements climatiques sur les revenus agricoles des agriculteurs au Burkina Faso, en utilisant l’approche ricardienne. Cette méthode permet de modéliser les revenus agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques, hydrologiques et socio-économiques. Plusieurs modèles économétriques ont été testés sur la base des données primaires de la campagne agricole 2002-2003. Ces modèles ont permis d’établir d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base des prévisions du groupe d’experts intergouvernemental sur l’évolution du climat (GIEC. Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu et le climat est non linéaire. L’impact marginal de la température sur le revenu agricole est de -19,9 dollars US par hectare tandis que celui de la précipitation est de +2,7 dollars US par hectare. L’analyse des élasticités montre que l’agriculture est très sensible à la précipitation au Burkina. L’augmentation des précipitations de 1% entraine une hausse des revenus agricoles de 14,7%. Cependant, une augmentation des températures de 1% entraine une baisse des revenus agricoles de 3,6%. Les analyses de sensibilité ont montré que les paysans perdront 93% de leurs revenus suite à une augmentation de la température de 5°C. Ils perdront tout leur revenu suite à une diminution des précipitations de 14% (ceteris paribus. Du fait des conditions climatiques déjà difficiles, les scenarii de diminution des précipitations ou/et d’augmentation des températures sont très dommageables à l’agriculture au Burkina. Par ailleurs, l’étude a montré que la pratique de l’irrigation et l’accès à la vulgarisation ont un effet

  2. L’adaptation au changement climatique en région wallonne

    OpenAIRE

    EcoRes-TEC Conseil; Amelung, Bas; Biernaux, Martin; Cauchy, Adeline; Céron, Jean-Paul; Cornélis, Philippe; Dubois, Ghislain; Frisson, Gwenn; Henrard, Séverine; Joveneau, Amélie; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud; Mouazan, Erwan; Pouria, Xavier; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-01

    Les changements climatiques sont à présent une certitude au niveau mondial. Le 4 ème rapport du GIEC, publié en 2007, met en évidence l’origine et les responsabilités humaines liées à ce phénomène. Toutes les parties du globe sont susceptibles d’être affectées. Il n’y a pas un domaine ni un secteur d’activité qui n’en ressentira pas les effets d’où le besoin d’une nécessaire adaptation. Dès 2006, la Commission Européenne s’est engagée vers la probléma...

  3. Les hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d’Or face au changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltraud Wimmer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude traite des hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d'Or, Bourgogne face au changement climatique observé. Les données regroupent les séries bourguignonnes de température et de précipitation des stations de Météo France (1989-2009, la carte des hêtraies de l'Institut forestier national (IFN, un modèle numérique de terrain (MNT, SRTM et quatre indices de vulnérabilité du hêtre identifiés dans la littérature. La méthode repose sur une interpolation fine (mailles de 100 m de ces indices par régression-krigeage. Les résultats permettent de cartographier les risques actuels.

  4. Les hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d’Or) face au changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Waltraud Wimmer; Yves Richard

    2013-01-01

    L'étude traite des hêtraies du Châtillonnais (Côte-d'Or, Bourgogne) face au changement climatique observé. Les données regroupent les séries bourguignonnes de température et de précipitation des stations de Météo France (1989-2009), la carte des hêtraies de l'Institut forestier national (IFN), un modèle numérique de terrain (MNT, SRTM) et quatre indices de vulnérabilité du hêtre identifiés dans la littérature. La méthode repose sur une interpolation fine (mailles de 100 m) de ces indices par ...

  5. « L’Amazonie – victime des changements climatiques ? »

    OpenAIRE

    Weissenberger, Sebastian; Silva, Delaine Sampaio da

    2010-01-01

    La forêt d’Amazonie est un des biomes les plus riches et les plus importants de la Terre. Cependant, son avenir est gravement menacé par les changements climatiques. L’effet de ces changements est indissociable de celui des activités humaines. Ainsi, la déforestation est responsable de plus de la moitié des émissions de gaz à effet de serre du Brésil. La lutte contre les changements climatique au Brésil passe donc en premier lieu par la lutte contre la déforestation. Cette lutte fait face aux...

  6. Développement intégré, gestion des risques et adaptation communautaire au changement climatique dans un système montagne-plaine au nord de la Tanzanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wisner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une analyse préliminaire d’un travail mené le long des pentes des montagnes et dans les plaines du nord de la Tanzanie. Un fort degré d’interdépendance a pu être mis en évidence parmi des groupes d’individus de langues et de cultures différentes, de statuts socio-économiques variés. Leurs interactions se situent le long de gradients environnementaux allant de l’amont à l’aval. On désignera cela « adaptation socio-géographique » au changement climatique. Cependant, l’analyse et la discussion présentées ajoutent la complexité à n’importe quelle notion simpliste « d’adaptation au changement climatique » puisque les changements sont multiples et l’adaptation, de fait, reste complexe.

  7. Impacts du changement climatique sur les prairies permanentes

    OpenAIRE

    Cochard, Catherine; Bloor, Juliette; Zwicke, Marine; Duru, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Le changement climatique se caractérise par une augmentation dans l’atmosphère des gaz à effet de serre qui sont les acteurs principaux du réchauffement de l’air. De plus, ce changement climatique moyen s’accompagne d’une augmentation de la variabilité du climat avec l’apparition plus fréquente d’évènements dits extrêmes. Des travaux expérimentaux de manipulation des principales variables du changement climatique ont mis en évidence des effets bénéfiques pour la production de prairies permane...

  8. Communiquer le changement climatique: un voyage dans les stratégies et plans d'adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoverinck, F.; Dubois, G.; Amelung, B.

    2013-01-01

    Les stratégies d’adaptation au changement climatique devraient normalement s’appuyer sur la meilleure information climatique disponible. Or le constat scientifique initial est souvent transformé, interprété, mis en forme par le processus de politique publique. Le message original s’en trouve modifié

  9. Changement climatique et prairie :l'essentiel des impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Jean Louis; Bernard, Françoise; Graux, Anne-Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Quels impacts le changement climatique est-il susceptible d’avoir au cours du XXIe siècle sur l’agriculture française et tout particulièrement sur nos systèmes cultivés ? Pour répondre à cette question, 17 équipes de 8 organismes de recherche et de développement agricole, coordonnées par l’Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), ont collaboré quatre années durant au projet de recherche CLIMATOR (2007 – 2010) financé par l’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) dans le cadre du ...

  10. LE CHANGEMENT CLIMATIQUE ET LA FORÊT MÉTROPOLITAINE FRANÇAISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÉRARD BELTRANDO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Les signes du changement climatique semblent de plus en plus nombreux et les écosystèmes en place, ainsi que les activités humaines qui en dépendent, s’y adaptent au mieux de leur possibilité. La forêt - dont le fonctionnement et la productivité sont étroitement dépendants du climat - est particulièrement concernée et, mis à part les effets des événements de fréquence rare (tempêtes de décembre 1999, canicule et sécheresse de l’été 2003…, son taux de croissance s’est accrut depuis près d’un demi-siècle et en particulier depuis les années 1980. Mais cette augmentation a des limites qui pourront être atteintes rapidement et pas uniquement sous l’effet du changement climatique. Comment le changement climatique va-t-il se répercuter sur la forêt métropolitaine française ? Quel scénario de changement climatique faudrait-il prendre en compte ? Quels conseils peuvent être connus aux forestiers qui doivent gérer et planter des arbres qui seront exploités par les générations futures ?

  11. Changements climatiques au Maghreb : vers des conditions plus humides et plus chaudes sur le littoral algérien ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nouaceur, Zeineddine; Laignel, Benoit; Turki, Imen

    2013-01-01

    Des changements climatiques importants affectent une grande partie de notre planète. Les différents modèles prévoient ainsi une hausse probable des précipitations et des températures dans plusieurs régions du monde. Le présent travail analyse l'évolution des températures et des pluies enregistrées sur le littoral algérien pendant plus de quarante années. Les évolutions de ces deux paramètres témoignent des bouleversements climatiques subis ces dernières années par l'Afrique du Nord et le Gran...

  12. Des archipels en péril ? Les Maldives et les Kiribati face au changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Duvat, Virginie; Magnan, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Cet article propose une lecture originale de la vulnérabilité des territoires aux risques naturels liés à la mer. À partir de l’analyse des cas des archipels coralliens des Kiribati (océan Pacifique) et des Maldives (océan Indien), il place au cœur de la démarche la notion de « système de ressources », fondée sur les caractéristiques à la fois physiques et anthropiques de ces pays. Ce faisant, il montre quelles interactions jouent aujourd’hui, qui expliquent le caractère systémique de la vuln...

  13. Etude du processus de changement vecu par des familles ayant decide d'adopter volontairement des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Michel T.

    Les activites humaines energivores telles l'utilisation intensive de l'automobile, la surconsommation de biens et l'usage excessif d'electricite contribuent aux changements climatiques et autres problemes environnementaux. Bien que plusieurs recherches rapportent que l'etre humain est de plus en plus conscient de ses impacts sur le climat de la planete, ces memes recherches indiquent qu'en general, les gens continuent a se comporter de facon non ecologique. Que ce soit a l'ecole ou dans la communaute, plusieurs chercheurs en education relative a l'environnement estiment qu'une personne bien intentionnee est capable d'adopter des comportements plus respectueux de l'environnement. Le but de cette these etait de comprendre le processus d'integration de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. A cette fin, nous nous sommes fixe deux objectifs : 1) decrire les competences et les procedes qui favorisent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles et 2) decrire les facteurs et les dynamiques familiales qui facilitent et limitent l'adoption de comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques dans des familles. Des familles ont ete invitees a essayer des comportements personnels et collectifs d'attenuation des changements climatiques de sorte a integrer des modes de vie plus ecologiques. Sur une periode de huit mois, nous avons suivi leur experience de changement afin de mieux comprendre comment se produit le processus de changement dans des familles qui decident volontairement d'adopter des comportements d'attenuation des changements climatiques. Apres leur avoir fourni quelques connaissances de base sur les changements climatiques, nous avons observe le vecu de changement des familles durant huit mois d'essais a l'aide de journaux reflexifs, d'entretiens d'explicitation et du journal du chercheur. La these comporte trois articles scientifiques. Dans le premier article, nous presentons une

  14. Le rôle des facteurs locaux sur les effets des changements climatiques au Quaternaire supérieur sur les environnements naturel du Néguev septentrional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Yair

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Les régions sèches sont souvent considérées sensibles aux changements climatiques. Pour ces régions, une relation positive est souvent proposée entre la pluie annuelle moyenne et les données de l'environnement, par des scientifiques appartenant à des disciplines diverses. Cependant les modèles climatiques globaux sont encore incapables de prévoir d'une façon précise l'évolution du climat à l'échelle régionale et ses effets possibles sur l'environnement. De plus, ces modèles sont impuissants à traduire l'influence que des facteurs non climatiques tels que la lithologie et les sols, ainsi que des facteurs biologiques, exercent sur la répartition de l'eau dans l'espace et le temps. En d'autres termes, le même changement climatique régional prévu aura probablement des effets différents dans les secteurs rocheux, lœssiques ou sableux. Le Néguev septentrional offre des conditions très favorables pour l'étude des effets possibles du changement climatique prévu, le long d'un gradient pluviométrique régional où les unités physiographiques varient dans l'espace. Deux cas sont considérés. Le premier traite des effets sur l'environnement du dépôt d'un couvert lœssique lors d'une phase climatique humide au Quaternaire supérieur. Le second examine l'influence de croûtes biologiques de surface sur le régime hydrique d'une zone sableuse le long d'un gradient pluviométrique actuel. Dans les deux cas, le gradient pluviométrique est accompagné par d'autres gradients (géomorphologiques, pédologiques, biologiques. Les données obtenues attirent l'attention sur les relations complexes entre le gradient pluviométrique et les autres gradients, qui peuvent entraîner des effets négatifs sur les ressources hydriques et sur la qualité de l'environnement.Dryland areas are usually regarded as highly sensitive to climate change. A positive relationship between average annual rainfall and environmental variables is often assumed

  15. Les ecarts de financement en matiere d'adaptation aux changements climatiques - avec la perspective des CPDN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Anne; Bee, Skylar; Puig, Daniel

    rapport sur les écarts financiers et les options permettant de les combler. Le rapport sera publié au printemps 2016. Cette mise à jour doit contribuer aux débats lors de la 21ème session de la Conférence des Parties (COP 21) à la Convention-Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques (CCNUCC......). Elle comprend les principales conclusions concernant les coûts et les financements de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques du rapport AGR 2014 du PNUE ainsi que les conclusions préliminaires de l’évaluation de 2016. De plus, elle s’appuie sur les réflexions concernant les coûts de l’adaptation et...... les besoins de financement présentes dans les composantes adaptation des Contributions Prévues Déterminées au niveau National (CPDN) (INDC) – soit les engagements post 2020 que les pays se proposent mettre en oeuvre dans le cadre d’un nouvel accord mondial sur les changements climatiques....

  16. Le changement climatique et le syndicalisme, quels engagements possibles ? Entretien avec Marcel Grignard, secrétaire général adjoint de la CFDT

    OpenAIRE

    Bompard, Jean-Pierre; Desbois, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Marcel Grignard a conduit la délégation de la CFDT au sommet de Copenhague sur le changement climatique. A ce titre, il a été interviewé sur les rapports entre technologies de l’information et développement durable, thématique du numéro 106-107 de la revue Terminal.

  17. « L’Amazonie – victime des changements climatiques ? » « The Amazon forest – victim of climate change? » « A Amazônia – vítima das mudanças climáticas ? »

    OpenAIRE

    Delaine Sampaio da Silva; Sebastian Weissenberger

    2010-01-01

    La forêt d’Amazonie est un des biomes les plus riches et les plus importants de la Terre. Cependant, son avenir est gravement menacé par les changements climatiques. L’effet de ces changements est indissociable de celui des activités humaines. Ainsi, la déforestation est responsable de plus de la moitié des émissions de gaz à effet de serre du Brésil. La lutte contre les changements climatique au Brésil passe donc en premier lieu par la lutte contre la déforestation. Cette lutte fait face aux...

  18. Changement climatique et atrophie des masses glaciaires : quelles mutations pour les paysages islandais ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Chenet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Le Changement climatique global observé depuis la fin du Petit Age glaciaire en Islande entraîne un retrait généralisé des fronts glaciaires. Ce retrait engendre de nouvelles dynamiques sur les surfaces déglacées, liées à la libération d’eau de fonte et à la détente postglaciaire. La datation par la lichénométrie des arcs morainiques et des terrasses fluviatiles permettent de reconstruire l’évolution des marges proglaciaires du Morsárjökull et du Skaftafellsjökull (sud-est de l’Islande depuis la fin du Petit Âge glaciaire. Les versants sont le théâtre d’importants processus d’éboulisation et de chutes de blocs, tandis que l’on observe des phénomènes d’incision et de diminution du tressage au niveau des cours d’eau.The Global Warming which occurs since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland leads to the retreat of the glacier fronts. This retreat has induced new dynamics in the glacier foreland, especially related to glacial meltwater and post-glacial release. Lichenometrics measures on moraines ridges and paleosandurs provide us the opportunity to reconstruct the evolution of the proglacial areas of the Morsárjökull and the Skaftafellsjökull (South-east Iceland since the end of the Little Ice Age. Important processes of rockslides and rockfalls occur on slopes, whereas proglacial rivers undergo phenomena of incision and abandon of minor channels.

  19. Changement climatique et développement des territoires de montagne : quelles connaissances pour quelles pistes d’action ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le changement climatique est aujourd’hui une réalité au niveau international comme à celui des territoires locaux. Les travaux récents mettent préférentiellement l’accent sur l’analyse des conséquences du changement climatique. Cet article se propose de questionner et de qualifier l’impact du changement climatique dans les territoires montagnards des Alpes. Un premier axe de réflexion concerne l’évolution de la dangerosité de la montagne. Une montagne plus dangereuse se profile-t-elle ? Selon quels types de risques et avec quelles intensités ? Cependant, l’approche des risques naturels et de leur dynamique face au changement climatique ne saurait occulter le type d’activités économiques et les modes d’aménagements déjà existants de ces territoires. En ce domaine, l’économie touristique est prédominante en montagne. Sa pérennité comme sa vitalité constituent à l’évidence une priorité pour les acteurs territoriaux. Ces derniers ont mis en place des stratégies d’adaptation face au changement climatique. Pour mettre en place des approches intégrées face au changement climatique, les relations croisées entre risques naturels et modes d’aménagement des territoires montagnards appellent à encourager des lectures en termes de vulnérabilité territoriale.Climate change is today a reality at both the international and more local levels. Recent studies have focussed mainly on analysing the consequences of climate change. The present article seeks to examine and qualify the impact of climate change in the mountain areas of the Alps. A first line of enquiry concerns the changing level of danger in the mountain environment. Are mountain areas becoming more dangerous and, if so, in terms of what types of risks and to what degree? However, adopting an approach based on an analysis of natural hazards and their dynamics in response to climate change cannot ignore the economic activities and types of

  20. Modélisation Intégrée du Changement Climatique - Contribution de l'optimisation par Oracle

    OpenAIRE

    Drouet, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    La modélisation intégrée du changement climatique a été introduite il y a une vingtaine d’années pour faire le lien entre les sciences humaines, les sciences de la vie et celles du climat afin de répondre aux questions des décideurs sur le problème du changement climatique. Cette thèse présente la méthode de couplage des dynamiques du climat et de l’économie et reformule de cette façon les problèmes d’optimisation de politiques climatiques. À partir de la méthode d’optimisation par oracle et l...

  1. Un cadre conceptuel pour explorer localement les facteurs de vulnérabilité et les options d’adaptation aux changements climatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, Nathalie; Santos Silva, Julia; Plante, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Cet article décrit un cadre conceptuel pour explorer les facteurs affectant la vulnérabilité aux aléas reliés au climat ainsi que des options d’adaptation aux changements climatiques. Ce cadre permet de guider des réflexions dans un langage simple et non technique, tout en étant compatible avec différentes conceptualisations de la vulnérabilité. Il a été développé à travers l’élaboration d’un plan d’action pour l’adaptation avec l’administration municipale de Rivière-au-Tonnerre sur la Côte-N...

  2. Changement climatique et domaines skiables: simulation en Savoie et Haute-Savoie à l’horizon 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Loubier

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Les domaines skiables et le changement climatique posent des questions importantes et nouvelles pour les espaces montagnards. Dans les hautes vallées où ces domaines sont souvent le moteur principal du développement local, on peut s'interroger sur la pérennité du modèle économique de l'or blanc à moyen terme quand les modèles de simulation du climat tablent sur une élévation de la température moyenne comprise entre 1,5° et 5° en 2100. Nous avons tenté de simuler les effets du changement climatique à l'horizon 2015, sur les domaines skiables de Savoie et Haute Savoie.

  3. Challenges of Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Nigeria: a Synthesis from the Literature Les enjeux de l’adaptation agricole au changement climatique au Nigéria : synthèse de la littérature Retos de la adaptación agrícola al cambio climático en Nigeria: una síntesis de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm A. Enete

    2010-12-01

    services, and encouragement for the formation of farmer groups.Le changement climatique est peut-être la menace environnementale la plus sérieuse qui pèse sur la lutte contre la faim, la malnutrition, les maladies et la pauvreté en Afrique, principalement en raison de son impact sur la productivité agricole. Cet article aborde les enjeux de l’adaptation agricole au changement climatique au Nigéria dans les catégories Faim et Pauvreté ; Financement de la recherche et du développement de technologies dans le secteur de l’agriculture ; Pratiques agricoles traditionnelles ; Libéralisation des échanges commerciaux et Développement du marché ; Politiques, Institutions et Biens publics ; et Informations et Capital humain. La population rurale, qui produit plus de 70 % des denrées alimentaires consommées au Nigéria, est extrêmement pauvre et doit faire face à la malnutrition et aux maladies. L’Etat, tout comme le secteur privé, qui devraient stimuler le secteur par le biais de politiques cohérentes de financements solides et du développement d’infrastructures, n’ont pas accordé au problème la priorité qu’il mérite. En outre, les bénéfices attendus de la libéralisation du commerce n’ont pas été répercutés sur les agriculteurs africains, ce qui n’est pas sans relation avec l’inefficacité du système des marchés locaux. Par ailleurs, les agriculteurs sont lents à modifier leurs pratiques agricoles, comme les feux de brousse, la déforestation et l’agriculture pluviale. Ils manquent de l’éducation, des informations et de la formation nécessaires pour s’adapter au changement climatique. Le gouvernement devrait non seulement décentraliser ses programmes sur la pauvreté / le VIH-SIDA et sur la recherche agricole (financement et activités mais aussi les rendre participatifs. En outre, différents éléments pourraient être mis en place : un cadre de politique agricole nationale explicite ; une planification des systèmes d

  4. Quel futur pour les services écosystémiques de la forêt alpine dans un contexte de changement climatique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Courbaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La forêt de montagne produit de nombreux services écosystémiques qui vont être affectés par les changements climatiques. On attend une remontée des essences en altitude qui pourrait conduire à une diminution des résineux et des espèces du subalpin. Ces changements d’essences pourraient avoir un impact négatif sur la biodiversité et sur la production de bois d’œuvre. On observe cependant également une augmentation de la productivité favorable à la production de bois énergie et au moins temporairement de bois d’œuvre, ainsi qu’au stockage de carbone. Face à une augmentation possible des évènements climatiques extrêmes, les changements de végétation pourront être marqués par des épisodes de dépérissements, très négatifs pour la filière économique, la protection contre les risques naturels et la biodiversité. Le changement climatique affectera la forêt également de manière indirecte en augmentant la demande en énergie renouvelable et en stockage de carbone. Les incertitudes sur les prédictions de changements de végétation sont élevées, ce qui rend délicate la définition de stratégies d’adaptation de la gestion forestière. Une gestion de crises efficace, un accompagnement des évolutions naturelles de la forêt basé sur une interaction recherche-gestion (gestion adaptative, et la prise en compte explicite de la notion d’incertitude paraissent des éléments essentiels au maintien des services écosystémiques fournis par la forêt.Mountain forests produce a large number of ecosystem services that are going to be affected by climate change. We are expecting an increase in high altitude species that could result in the decrease in resinous and subalpine species. These changes in species could adversely affect biodiversity and timber production. However, we also observe an increase in productivity that favours the production of energy wood and, at least temporarily, timber, as well as carbon

  5. Impact des changements climatiques sur l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffara sud-est tunisien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Jeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue la vulnérabilité de l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffera sud-est tunisien aux changements climatiques en utilisant la méthode Ricardienne. Cette méthode consiste à exprimer les revenus nets agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques et socio-économiques. Ces modèles ricardiens ont été testés sur la base des données d’une enquête réalisée dans le cadre de projet de développement dans la plaine Jeffera pour la compagne agricole 2002-2003.  Ces modèles ont permis d’exprimer d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base de scenario A2 résultat de la projection faite par le modèle HadCM3 à l’échelle nationale et régionale de la Tunisie.Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu agricole et le climat est non linéaire. De même, les effets négatifs de certaines options d’adaptation ont montré que  l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffera est une agriculture paysanne basée sur le travail familial qui nécessite aujourd’hui un capital financier important et une marge de modernisation afin d’améliorer l’activité agricole dans les années futures. Tandis que les effets positifs de certaines autres options peuvent être servir comme des points de réflexion dans l’élaboration des stratégies d’adaptation aux changements climatiques comme l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies d’irrigation et l’intégration de l’activité de l’élevage dans l’exploitation agricole.

  6. Les représentations du changement climatique dans les médias écrits belges francophones

    OpenAIRE

    Vokou, Antigoni

    2015-01-01

    La problématique du changement climatique constitue un enjeu capital pour les prochaines années sur le plan environnemental, socio-économique et politique. Des solutions politiques, scientifiques et sociales sont requises pour limiter la hausse du réchauffement de la planète à des seuils tolérables pour permettre à la nature et aux sociétés de s'adapter. C'est sur ce point que le rôle des médias d'information pèse sur la balance. Ils possèdent une dynamique relativement à sa construction dans...

  7. Les mangroves face aux changements climatiques : Le cas à la fois typique et particulier du Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Yann; Cu, Pham Van

    2016-01-01

    Dans le contexte des changements climatiques dont l’une des conséquences est la montée du niveau de la mer, les régions côtières de certains pays se trouvent particulièrement exposées. C’est notamment le cas du Vietnam, dont les 3200 km de littoral sont pour la plupart des zones très sensibles du fait de leur très faible altitude. Auparavant, le pays disposait d’une importante mangrove qui constituait une protection naturelle idéale contre beaucoup d’aléas naturels. Victimes ces dernières déc...

  8. Quelle adaptation de notre agriculture au changement climatique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisson Nadine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the result of a balance between soil, climate, plants and cropping techniques applied by the farmers. Once one of those elements, in this case the climate, is perceptibly modified in a sustainable way, it is important that the other elements are also modified to respect the balance. To adapt to climate change farmers can modify their strategic or tactic decisions. But the very first point is to have good ideas of what are to be expected in terms of climate modifications and their agronomic consequences: acceleration of crop cycles, increase of summer droughts and increase in inter-season and inter-annual variability. Concerning strategic choices, one must not expect revolution and climate change will not deeply modify cropping systems. Yet rainfed crops will be more difficult in the south while summer crops and crop successions will become easier in the north. Escape strategies in terms of crop and genotype choices could be advantageous. An important point of discussion is about sowing dates. If they could theoretically be advanced for summer crops, the soil water status may not be adequate for allowing farmers to enter fields with heavy machines. It is also because of soil dryness that winter crops sowing should be delayed. In order to provide the farmers with more quantified results an ANR project, CLIMATOR, is proceeding.

  9. Changement climatique : d’atermoiements en piétinements, allons-nous vers les désastres annoncés ? [Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Cet éditorial du numéro spécial de Terminal intitulé « Le développement durable à l'épreuve des nouvelles technologies de l'information » analyse les résultats de la XVIe conférence des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques, tenue à Cancùn en décembre 2010, et dessine les perspectives de la prochaine conférence de Durban.

  10. L’équité au cœur des politiques climatiques : l’exemple des négociations relatives au climat et de la recherche de solutions à la crise énergétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Aubrée

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’article débat de la question de l’équité dans la lutte contre les changements climatiques. Il établit un parallèle entre le développement pris au niveau international de la négociation entre Etats d’une part, et la pauvreté au niveau d’une collectivité d’autre part. Dans les deux cas, il s’agit à la fois d’un principe moral essentiel, mais aussi d’une condition centrale des consensus et donc de la réussite des politiques face au défi climatique. La question de l’équité renvoie aussi très vite au changement nécessaire des modes de vie vers plus de sobriété.The article debates Equity Issues in the Climate Change debate is debated. A parallel is set between the development issues at the international level of negotiations between States, and poverty alleviation at the local community level. In both cases, the discussions stem from an essential moral principle, but also as a requisite for consensus and thus a condition of success of climate change policies to combat Climate Change. The issue of equity brings also forward the necessary modification of consumption patterns, into more frugal modes.

  11. Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel (dir., 2010, Le changement climatique : Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère, Presses Universitaire du Septentrion, Lille, 358 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rocher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage « Le changement climatique. Quand le climat nous pousse à changer d’ère », édité par les Presses Universitaire du Septentrion dans la collection Environnement et société, coordonné par Helga-Jane Scarwell et Isabelle Roussel, rassemble autour de la question du changement climatique plusieurs contributions de chercheurs en géographie, pour la plupart membres du laboratoire TVES de Lille. Ce livre apporte un éclairage original et intéressant, alliant des études de cas comportant un fo...

  12. Impacts du changement climatique sur les calendriers agricoles : Exemples de cultures céréalières du Plateau lorrain

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier, Thomas; De La Torre, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Cette étude conduite pour déterminer si les cycles des céréales sont modifiés avec le changement climatique, articule pour la première fois les conduites menées par les agriculteurs du Nord-Est de la France et celles de gestionnaires de dispositifs d’expérimentation agronomique. Menée en Lorraine, elle essaie de tester l'hypothèse formulée en Finlande en 2008: les dates de semis et de récolte sont avancées. Les calendriers culturaux sont examinés avec deux méthodes : (i) des enquêtes chez 12 ...

  13. Eau et changement climatique. Tendances et perceptions en Afrique de l’Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Pierre; Perrin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    L’Afrique de l’Ouest, plus spécifiquement sa frange semi-aride que constitue le Sahel, a connu, au cours de ces dernières décennies, deux crises majeures de sécheresse presque contiguës dans les années 1970 et 1980. Cependant, depuis les années 1990, les tendances pluviométriques montrent globalement un retour vers des moyennes antérieures aux années 1970. Toutefois, cette amélioration des totaux pluviométriques annuels semble être partiellement le fait d’une intensité des pluies plus importa...

  14. Modification des conditions de maturation du raisin en Bourgogne viticole liée au réchauffement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Madelin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les répercussions du changement climatique, en particulier celles qui sont liées à l’augmentation des températures, s’observent dans de nombreux vignobles dans le monde. En Bourgogne, depuis 20 ans, cette évolution thermique modifie les conditions de la maturation, moment-clef pour la typicité du vin et sa signature terroir-millésime. Après une étude de l’évolution des températures en Bourgogne montrant en particulier une rupture en 1987-1988, une analyse comparée des conséquences phénologiques, à partir des données thermiques et des dates des stades de développement, est proposée pour deux sites côte-d’oriens en Côte et en Hautes-Côtes de Beaune (Savigny-lès-Beaune et La Rochepot. Les résultats montrent un transfert latitudinal et altitudinal des températures et des indices viticoles sur 20-30 ans, ainsi qu’un « double effet » du réchauffement climatique lors de la maturation, lié à l’augmentation des températures et au décalage temporel de cette période, qui se place de plus en plus souvent en août.Impacts of climate change such as those related to global warming, are observed in many vineyards in France and as in other vineyards in the world. In Burgundy, since 20 years, this evolution of the temperatures changes the maturation conditions, key time for "typicité" and signature of "terroir-millésime". After a study of the changes in Burgundy temperatures (which shows a thermal rupture in 1987-1988, a comparative analysis of the phenologic consequences is performed using thermal data and development dates for two vineyard sites in Côte and Hautes-Côtes de Beaune (Savigny-lès-Beaune et La Rochepot. The results show a latitudinal and vertical transfer of the temperatures and vine’s indexes over a 20-30 year period as well as a double effect of climate warming in the maturation stage attributed to the increase in temperatures and the time shift of this period (which occurs most often in August.

  15. Les géographes - climatologues français et le changement climatique aux échelles régionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Beltrando

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En France, sur le sujet du changement climatique et quel que soit son origine, les géographes - climatologues se sont majoritairement intéressés à la description et l’explication de la variabilité du climat à diverses échelles de temps et d’espace sur des périodes écoulées. Ils se sont moins investis sur les formes d’adaptations tenant compte des résultats des simulations du climat futur, tel qu’il est envisagé à partir des calculs obtenus par les modèles numériques du climat. Cette frilosité s’explique en partie par le manque de précision et de fiabilité accordé aux résultats produits par ces modèles, aux échelles des territoires occupés par les sociétés humaines, mais aussi parce que les travaux de géographes montrent depuis longtemps que les sociétés humaines - indépendamment du changement climatique sous l’effet des gaz à effet de serre additionnels - ont une part directe dans bien des catastrophes qui les affectent (construction dans des zones inondables, production agricole dans des régions où la pluviométrie peut être insuffisante certaines années…. Les géographes-climatologues, commencent à utiliser des nouvelles sorties de modèle à des échelles plus opérationnelles pour proposer des formes d’adaptations spécifiques à chaque territoire et à chaque secteur économique. Ces recherches prospectives sont réalisées en tenant compte à la fois de la part d’incertitude des résultats produits par des modèles numériques, mais aussi des particularités des groupes sociaux et des milieux physiques dans lesquels s’inscrivent ces changements. Cela est un préalable nécessaire à toutes formes de réflexion approfondies sur l'identification des facteurs d’adaptation.In France, on the topic of climate change, the geographer climatologists are focused on the description and explanation of climate variability at various temporal and spatial scales on last period. They are less

  16. Instabilité de terrain dans les Préalpes fribourgeoises (Suisse) au cours du Tardiglaciaire et de l'Holocène: influence des changements climatiques, des fluctuations de la végétation et de l'activité humaine

    OpenAIRE

    Dapples, Florence; Caron, Christian; Raetzo, Hugo; Kienholz, Hans; Strasser, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    L'accroissement des fréquences et de l'impact de processus d'instabilités de terrain tels que des coulées de boue, laves torrentielles, glissements de terrain ou éboulements, au cours de la dernière décennie, a démontré la nécessité de mieux connaître les causes et la dynamique de ces processus. Ce travail de recherche s'inscrit dans une démarche visant à préciser les relations complexes ayant existé, au cours du Tardiglaciaire et de l'Holocène, entre l'occurrence de phénomènes instables et l...

  17. Températures et indices bioclimatiques dans le vignoble du Val de Loire dans un contexte de changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Quenol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La variabilité spatiale et temporelle du climat à l’échelle régionale peut parfois être marquée. Les différences spatiales observées peuvent être dues à la proximité ou non d’un océan, à la topographie, l’altitude, ou bien encore à la position latitudinale des stations. Le Val de Loire, l’une des grandes régions viticoles françaises, du fait de son orientation est-ouest, connaît des nuances climatiques assez marquées avec une influence océanique à l’ouest, liée à la proximité de l’Océan Atlantique, qui s’atténue en allant vers l’est où le climat est marqué par des caractéristiques plus continentales. De ce fait, différentes caractéristiques climatiques viticoles sont observées dans la vallée de Loire. Depuis le milieu du XXe siècle, un réchauffement généralisé est observé à partir de toutes les stations Météo - France. Ce réchauffement est plus sensible depuis la fin des années 80. Cette augmentation de température se répercute logiquement sur les indices bioclimatiques viticoles.Spatial and temporal climate variability at regional scale can sometimes be important. Spatial observed differences can be explained by the nearness or not of ocean, topography, elevation or latitude… Important climatic nuances are observed in the Loire Valley, one of the big French wine-producing areas, because of its East-West orientation. The oceanic influences close to the coast are gradually deteriorated to the East with more continental influences. As a result various climatic characteristics are observed in the Loire Valley vineyards. Since the middle of the 20th century, a regional warming has been noticed. This warming has been more significant since the end of the 80’s. This increase of temperature is reflected in the bioclimatic indices.

  18. Adaptation to climate change in France; L'adaptation au changement climatique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report first comments some data and facts illustrating climate change. It discusses its various impacts (extreme meteorological events, dramatic impacts on ecosystems with the possible disappearance of some vegetal and animal species, crisis regarding food resources, health risks, population migrations notably because of sea level rise), and briefly evokes these impacts in France. It outlines the need for adaptation and describes the different adaptation principles: reduction of vulnerability, and anticipation of changes and of their impacts. It comments how adaptation and mitigation are two complementary approaches. It presents the French State strategy with its national adaptation strategy, its national adaptation plan, the mandatory elaboration of regional schemes for climate, air and energy, and the action of local communities

  19. Economics of adaptation to climate change; Economie de l'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch.; Hallegatte, St.; Lecocq, F.

    2010-02-15

    This report proposes a general economic framework for the issue of adaptation to climate change in order to help public and private actors to build up efficient adaptation strategies. It proposes a general definition of adaptation, identifies the major stakes for these strategies, and discusses the assessment of global costs of adaptation to climate change. It discusses the role and modalities of public action and gives some examples of possible adaptation measures in some important sectors (building and town planning, energy and transport infrastructures, water and agriculture, ecosystems, insurance). It examines the regional and national dimensions of adaptation and their relationship, and defines steps for implementing an adaptation strategy. It describes and discusses the use of economic tools in the elaboration of an adaptation strategy, i.e. how to take uncertainties into account, which scenarios to choose, how to use economic calculations to assess adaptation policies

  20. Humanity faced with climatic change; L'Humanite face au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R.; Lesourne, J

    2009-07-01

    Humanity is for the first time confronted with a global change phenomenon of the eco-sphere which makes her entering a long transition era with at the same time economical, social and political impacts. Every country and every human activity will be impacted. The resulting problems may be solved by changing our way of life, limiting transports and by the large-scale implementation of existing technologies or technologies under development. The challenge is not to reject technology but to intensify the efforts to develop and adapt it according to the real needs of populations. (J.S.)

  1. National plan for adaptation to climate change; Plan national d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report first explains the rationale for such a plan, and discusses the costs associated to climate change impacts. It presents two scenarios for climate change in France during the 21. century, highlights the weight of uncertainty for the results of these scenarios, and indicates some current consequences. Then, it presents the Plan content and gives an overview of the Plan governance and evaluation. It proposes a set of action sheets which contain the main adopted measures and briefly describe some implemented or projected actions. These sheets concern the different fields of application of the plan: cross-cutting actions, health, water resources, biodiversity, natural hazards, agriculture, forest, fishery and aquaculture, energy and industry, transport infrastructures and systems, urban planning and built environment, tourism, information, education and training, research, finance and insurance, coasts, mountains, European and international actions, governance

  2. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  3. Adaptation aux impacts du changement climatique sur les écosystèmes aquatiques continentaux, conclusion de l'ARP ADAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdeaux, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Les écosystèmes d’eau douce sont d’importants réservoirs de biodiversité très sensibles au changement global. Outre leur intérêt propre, les enjeux qui s’y rattachent sont multiples : importance pour le maintien de la biodiversité terrestre, services écologiques (régulation et épuration de l’eau et énergie renouvelable) et engagements réglementaires. Aux conventions internationales et directives européennes protégeant certains types d’espèces et d’habitats, s’ajoute la DCE qui demande le reto...

  4. Etude de l'affaiblissement du comportement mecanique du pergelisol du au rechauffement climatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie

    Le rechauffement climatique predit pour les prochaines decennies, aura des impacts majeurs sur le pergelisol qui sont tres peu documentes pour l'instant. La presente etude a pour but d'evaluer ces impacts sur les proprietes mecaniques du pergelisol et sa stabilite a long terme. Une nouvelle technique d'essai de penetration au cone a taux de deformation controle, a ete developpee pour caracteriser en place le pergelisol. Ces essais geotechniques et la mesure de differentes proprietes physiques ont ete effectues sur une butte de pergelisol au cours du printemps 2000. Le developpement et l'utilisation d'un modele geothermique 1D tenant compte de la thermodependance du comportement mecanique ont permis d'evaluer que les etendues de pergelisol chaud deviendraient instables a la suite d'un rechauffement de l'ordre de 5°C sur cent ans. En effet, la resistance mecanique du pergelisol diminuera alors rapidement jusqu'a 11,6 MPa, ce qui correspond a une perte relative de 98% de la resistance par rapport a un scenario sans rechauffement.

  5. Exploitations agricoles climate-intelligentes? Etudes de cas au Burkina Faso et en Colombie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, N.; Pédelahore, P.; Howland, F.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Comment satisfaire la sécurité alimentaire tout en s'adaptant au changement climatique et en l'atténuant ? Quelles sont les principales menaces pesant sur les agricultures du Sud ? Comment les agriculteurs du Sud répondent-ils à ces menaces ? Quelles sont les propositions de la recherche agronomique

  6. Enjeux politiques de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques dans les projets de gestion intégrée des zones côtières à Madagascar 

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamasinoro, Jessica Onitsoa; Sarrasin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Pour faire face aux changements climatiques, les pays économiquement pauvres comme Madagascar ont été invités par les Nations-Unies à soumettre un Programme d’actions nationales d’adaptation (PANA) qui identifie les projets jugés prioritaires en matière d’adaptation. On trouve parmi ces derniers la gestion intégrée des zones côtières (GIZC). Celle-ci résulte aussi d’une mise à jour du Livre blanc de la politique de développement durable des zones côtières et marines ayant mené à l’élaboration...

  7. L’environnement naturel et le changement climatique pendant les années Bush : la pertinence d’une différenciation des échelles territoriales Climate Change and the Natural Environment in the Bush Years: The Relevance of Territorial Scale Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available L’attitude de l’administration fédérale au cours des huit années de l’administration Bush contraste avec celle du contexte des années 1960-1970 pour ce qui concerne la prise en compte de l’environnement naturel dans les décisions économiques. Toutefois, cet engagement limité du président Bush sur la question du changement climatique dans les débats internationaux n’a pas pour autant réduit les capacités de mobilisation des États et des villes sur ce thème.On the issue of whether climate change should be taken into account in economic decisions, the federal administration’s attitude during the Bush Presidency sharply contrasted with the attitudes of earlier administrations, particularly in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The limited concern for climate change which the federal government exhibited in the international arena did not reduce, however, the mobilization of states and local communities on this issue.

  8. Climate change and employment. A case study of Finland; Changement climatique et emploi. Cas de la Finlande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    elements contribuent a ce que la Finlande ait une des plus importantes intensites energetiques de l'UE, aussi bien par habitant que par unite de PIB produite. L'objectif assigne a la Finlande dans le cadre du protocole de Kyoto est la stabilisation des emissions de GES sur la periode 2008-2012 au niveau de celles de 1990, c'est-adire 70,5 millions de tonnes, tous secteurs confondus. Les hypotheses prises en compte comprennent un taux de croissance annuel moyen de 2,3 % par an entre 2002 et 2012, l'industrie connaissant une croissance legerement superieure a cette moyenne avec 2,4 % par an, les services croissant quant a eux au rythme du PIB et la construction un peu plus lentement. Les emissions dues aux secteurs non soumis a quotas d'emissions sont supposees rester stables. La projection a 2010 en tenant compte des mesures prises pour limiter les rejets de CO2 est estimee a 79,7 MT d'emissions, soit 13 % au-dela du niveau de l'annee de reference. Cette augmentation est due pour l'essentiel aux emissions de CO2 des secteurs energetiques et industriels, qui ont vu leurs emissions augmenter respectivement de 18 % et 64 % depuis 1990. Les mesures prises consistent en: economies d'energie pour 3 a 4 Mt par an, grace a des engagements volontaires et un soutien gouvernemental; promotion des energies renouvelables pour 4 a 5 Mt par an, via une taxation favorable, des aides a l'investissement et des programmes de R et D; une nouvelle unite nucleaire devant permettre une reduction des emissions de CO2 de 10 Mt par an; une taxation de la production de chaleur residentielle en fonction du CO2 emis. Un scenario 'avec mesures additionnelles' aboutit quant a lui a un niveau d'emissions de 71,1 Mt, soit seulement 0,9 % au-dela de l'objectif. La repartition de ces emissions entre les differents secteurs donne: 44,4 Mt pour la production d'energie, en croissance de 1 % par rapport a 1990; 13,2 Mt pour le secteur des

  9. Climats et risques : changements d'approches, Denis LAMARRE, sous la direction de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peyrusaubes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les risques climatiques… enjeux pluridisciplinairesVoici un ouvrage de grande qualité émanant du GDR RICLIM (Groupement de recherche sur les risques liés au climat intégré depuis 2005 au Département "Environnement, développement durable" du CNRS. Ce recueil de dix contributions s'organise en trois parties : la première axée sur les représentations du changement climatique, la deuxième sur des exemples de recherche appliquée, la troisième sur les perspectives des risques liés au changement cl...

  10. Climatic change; Le Changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch. de [Universite de Paris-Dauphine, 75 - Paris (France); Caisse des depots, Mission climat, 75 - Paris (France); Delbosc, A. [Caisse des depots, Mission climat, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Received ideas about climatic change are a mixture of right and wrong information. The authors use these ideas as starting points to shade light on what we really know and what we believe to know. The book is divided in three main chapters: should we act in front of climatic change? How can we efficiently act? How can we equitably act? For each chapter a series of received ideas is analyzed in order to find those which can usefully contribute to mitigate the environmental, economical and social impacts of climatic change. (J.S.)

  11. Climate change; Le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Based on contributions on 120 French and foreign scientists representing different disciplines (mathematics, physics, mechanics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and so on), this report proposes an overview of the scientific knowledge and debate about climate change. It discusses the various indicators of climate evolution (temperatures, ice surfaces, sea level, biological indicators) and the various factors which may contribute to climate evolution (greenhouse gases, solar radiation). It also comments climate evolutions in the past as they can be investigated through some geological, thermal or geochemical indicators. Then, the authors describe and discuss the various climate mechanisms: solar activity, oceans, ice caps, greenhouse gases. In a third part, the authors discuss the different types of climate models which differ by the way they describe processes, and the current validation process for these models

  12. Robert et Maya Kandel, La Catastrophe climatique, Hachette, 2009, 237 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Semal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Kandel, astrophysicien et directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS, n’en est pas à son premier ouvrage sur le réchauffement climatique. Dans ce nouvel essai (co-rédigé avec sa fille Maya Kandel, il est intéressant de constater un changement de ton assez représentatif de l’inquiétude croissante des scientifiques à l’égard du bouleversement climatique en cours. Tout en rappelant qu’il a longtemps fait preuve de méfiance à l’égard des discours catastrophistes, Robert Kandel annonce dès l’i...

  13. Réponses culturelles aux changements rapides de la nature

    OpenAIRE

    Heyd, Thomas; Dupuis, Irène

    2012-01-01

    Au vu du changement climatique auquel nos sociétés devront faire face dans un futur proche, les questions relatives à la vulnérabilité et à la résilience sont devenues d’une importance capitale. Jusqu’à présent, les efforts pour fortifier la résilience ont été centrés au niveau des réformes des infrastructures matérielles et sociales. Des idées sur l’amélioration des structures physiques, comme des protections contre les inondations par les fleuves à grande crue et contre la mer en cas de for...

  14. « L’Amazonie – victime des changements climatiques ? » « The Amazon forest – victim of climate change? » « A Amazônia – vítima das mudanças climáticas ? »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaine Sampaio da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La forêt d’Amazonie est un des biomes les plus riches et les plus importants de la Terre. Cependant, son avenir est gravement menacé par les changements climatiques. L’effet de ces changements est indissociable de celui des activités humaines. Ainsi, la déforestation est responsable de plus de la moitié des émissions de gaz à effet de serre du Brésil. La lutte contre les changements climatique au Brésil passe donc en premier lieu par la lutte contre la déforestation. Cette lutte fait face aux enjeux actuels du développement en Amazonie, en premier lieu l’élevage et l’agriculture à grande échelle. Certains éléments des politiques récentes du Brésil vont dans le sens d’un développement moins « sauvage » en Amazonie, mais se heurtent à des intérêts économiques et politiques. Les initiatives internationales comme Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD, dans le cadre d’un accord climatique, peuvent fournir des incitatifs économiques cruciaux. Il est dans tous les cas primordial qu’un tel développement soit adapté à la réalité amazonienne et se fasse en collaboration avec les populations locales dans une optique de développement social autant qu’écologique ou économique.The Amazon rainforest is one of most important ecosystems on earth and a biodiversity hotspot. Its future is however in peril due to the effects of climate change and human activities. Climate models predict a severe die-back of the Amazon forest by the end of this century, accompanied by the release of vast quantities of carbon actually stored in the vegetation. Deforestation is currently responsible for over one half of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions. Fighting deforestation is therefore Brazil’s most efficient way to reduce its emissions. This is however contrary to current development schemes in the Amazon region, and in particular large scale agricultural and cattle raising farms. However, Brazil

  15. Face to the climatic change: to opt for the best solutions; Face au changement climatique: opter pour les meilleures solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-03-15

    In the arsenal of potential actions to take in the face of climate change, some options are better than others. The most complete possible assessment of their health impact must guide decision-making. This procedure is complex but can lead to important health benefits. (author)

  16. The struggle against climate change in the United Kingdom; La lutte contre le changement climatique au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the United Kingdom has been the first country in the world to adopt a law to struggle against climate change, The Climate Change Act 2008, which specifies a 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), this report propose an overview of the actions implemented by this country in the political, economical, and technological fields to struggle against climate change. The various organisations and political institutions concerned by this struggle are presented (governmental organisations and institutions, non governmental institutions). The content of the Climate Change Act is described: definitions of constraints and requirements, carbon reduction commitment (CRC), carbon budgets, systems and programmes dealing with energy production (Renewable Obligation, household energy supplier obligations), with firms (Climate Change Levy, Climate Change Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowances), with transports (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme), with buildings (Low Carbon Building Programme, Home Energy Saving Programme), with research and communication. Then, discussing the economy of climate change, this report comments the content of the Stern report, the reactions about it, and the economical consequences of struggle against climate change. These consequences can be drawbacks (increase of energy costs, inequalities of abilities to face transition costs, loss of international competitiveness) or benefits. The consequences of the economical crisis are also briefly discussed, as well as the consequences of the solutions to this crisis. The third part of this report gives an overview of the low carbon engineering and technology in the United Kingdom in the energy sector (renewable energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage) and in the transport sector. The last part comments the objectives of the 2009 Copenhagen conference.

  17. Sécheresse, aides et changements alimentaires au Sahel nigéro-tchadien

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Charles CLANET

    2013-01-01

    Le Sahel nigéro-tchadien a certainement les ressources vivrières les plus variées de l’Afrique tropicale. Aussi, si les populations des régions de vieilles traditions en tirent admirablement parti, parvenant à se faire connaître par leurs cuisines, les éleveurs en revanche ne consomment que des céréales à peine transformées qu’ils combinent aux laitages qu’ils produisent. Lorsqu’ils furent confrontés aux diverses crises climatiques, les Sahéliens ne modifièrent guère leurs habitudes alimentai...

  18. Mark Lynas, 2004, Marée montante, Editions Au Diable Vauvert, 382 p

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Maillefert

    2005-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, au statut ambigu (récit de voyage autobiographique ? reportage autour du monde rapportant les opinions des populations locales sur le changement climatique ? livre engagé d’un militant écologique ?) apparaît d’emblée déroutant, mais aussi stimulant et dérangeant car il oblige le lecteur à mesurer concrètement la question de la réalité du changement climatique, de manière à en saisir, sur le terrain, les conséquences immédiates pour les populations locales.  Récit de voyage, repor...

  19. Mark Lynas, 2004, Marée montante, Editions Au Diable Vauvert, 382 p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Maillefert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage, au statut ambigu (récit de voyage autobiographique ? reportage autour du monde rapportant les opinions des populations locales sur le changement climatique ? livre engagé d’un militant écologique ? apparaît d’emblée déroutant, mais aussi stimulant et dérangeant car il oblige le lecteur à mesurer concrètement la question de la réalité du changement climatique, de manière à en saisir, sur le terrain, les conséquences immédiates pour les populations locales. Récit de voyage, report...

  20. Cities and adaptation to climate change. Report to the Prime Minister and to the Parliament; Villes et adaptation au changement climatique. Rapport au Premier ministre et au Parlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this report sets the general problematic framework: positive and negative impacts of climate change on cities, city vulnerability factors, and adaptation ways to reduce urban vulnerability. The second part addresses adaptation strategies. It is based on an analysis of the implementation of adaptation actions by several French and foreign cities. It highlights levers and obstacles for adaptation, and identifies other policies which could support the adaptation effort. It also highlights the recent multidisciplinary dynamics of research on the sustainable city, and the implementation of projects for the reduction of city vulnerability and the adaptation of cities to climate change. Some programs are presented in appendix

  1. Dynamique climatique de l'océan Pacifique ouest équatorial au cours du Pléistocène récent

    OpenAIRE

    Garidel-Thoron, Thibault

    2002-01-01

    L'océan Pacifique ouest équatorial, zone océanique la plus chaude du globe, est au cœur des cellules de circulation atmosphérique de mousson (méridienne) et de Walker (zonale). Les assemblages des foraminifères planctoniques, leur géochimie et leur morphométrie ainsi que les assemblages de coccolithophoridés nous ont permis de reconstruire la dynamique climatique de cette zone au Pléistocène récent Nous avons développé une nouvelle fonction de transfert non biaisée par la structure des écosys...

  2. Conférence extérieure - Université de Genève: La modélisation numérique des extrêmes climatiques: Projections pour l'Europe et la Suisse d'ici 2100 - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : + 41 22 379 63 83 (secrétariat) Tél : + 41 22 379 62 56 (réception) Fax: + 41 22 379 69 22 Lundi 15 janvier 2007 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg La modélisation numérique des extrêmes climatiques: Projections pour l'Europe et la Suisse d'ici 2100 Prof. Martin Beniston / Chaire de Climatologie de l'Université de Genève Les nombreuses catastrophes liées au climat (canicule 2003 en Europe; inondations en Suisse en 2005; sécheresse en Australie; ouragans Katrina, etc.) donnent l'impression que les catastrophes climatiques qui touchent de nombreuses parties du monde sont la preuve du réchauffement climatique. A voir... Pourtant, les changements climatiques représentent l'un des thèmes de préoccupation majeure de ce début du 21e siècle, du moins pour les scientifiques sinon pour le monde politique. Car si l'ampleur, et surtout la rapidité du changement, sont aussi importants que ce que laissent entrevoi...

  3. Impact des changements climatiques sur les écosystèmes alpins : comment les mettre en évidence et les prévoir ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel G. Yoccoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Les écosystèmes alpins vont être grandement influencés par les changements climatiques à venir, mais d’autres facteurs, tels que l’utilisation des terres ou les espèces invasives, pourront aussi jouer un rôle important. Le climat peut influencer les écosystèmes à différents niveaux, et nous en décrivons certains, en mettant l’accent sur les méthodes utilisées et les données disponibles. Le climat peut d’abord modifier la phénologie des espèces, comme la date de floraison des plantes ou la date d’éclosion des insectes. Il peut ensuite affecter directement la démographie des espèces (survie, reproduction, dispersion et donc à terme leur répartition. Il peut enfin agir sur les interactions entre espèces – le couvert neigeux par exemple modifie le succès de certains prédateurs. Une caractéristique des écosystèmes alpins est la présence d’un manteau neigeux important et pourtant l’influence de la neige reste relativement mal connue, en particulier pour des raisons logistiques. Même si nous avons fait des progrès importants dans le développement de modèles prédictifs, surtout pour ce qui est de la répartition des plantes alpines, il reste à mettre en place des réseaux d’observations et d’expériences permettant de mieux tenir compte de la variabilité des écosystèmes alpins et des interactions avec le climat.Alpine ecosystems will be greatly impacted by climatic change, but other factors, such as land use and invasive species, are likely to play an important role too. Climate can influence ecosystems at several levels. We describe some of them, stressing methodological approaches and available data. Climate can modify species phenology, such as flowering date of plants and hatching date in insects. It can also change directly population demography (survival, reproduction, dispersal, and therefore species distribution. Finally it can effect interactions among species –snow cover for example

  4. La lutte contre les aléas climatiques au Burkina Faso. Acquis et défis de l’agro-écologie : le cas de la Région Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Billaz, René

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La Région Nord du Burkina Faso a donné lieu à de nombreux travaux, dont j’ai tenté de rendre compte dans un texte récent : « Lutte contre l’aridité climatique au Burkina Faso ; quarante ans de recherche et d’appui au développement ; bilan et perspectives ». En cette année 2012 où la communauté internationale focalise sa réflexion sur l’eau, il me semble utile de revenir de façon plus détaillée et plus quantitative sur le défi que représente la lutte contre les aléas climatiques, ...

  5. The climatic change; Le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    For a long time the climatic change was the prerogative of the scientists. It is today a stake of the international policy. After a short presentation of a scientific evaluation of the situation, this document presents the policies of the fight against the climatic warming (Kyoto protocol, economical instruments), debates on the Usa attitude and the nuclear and general information on the topic (chronology, bibliography, glossary and Internet addresses references). (A.L.B.)

  6. Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Jean-Claude; Royer, Jean-François; Chauvin, Fabrice

    2008-09-01

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades.

  7. Agriculture et changement climatique: enjeux et solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions. According to the latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture. Several models highlight the increasingly negative effects of increased temperatures on crop yields and livestock farming in developing countries. These impacts can be caused by negative physiological effects for plants and animals, which result from higher temperatures or the proliferation of pests and diseases caused by the latter. The increased number of extreme weather events, especially floods, and changing precipitation patterns are linked to climate changes. These factors dramatically affect the crop production potential of agricultural land. Populations in the developing world, which are already vulnerable and exposed to food insecurity, are the most seriously affected. In many countries in the southern hemisphere, agriculture actually represents the main source of income for a major proportion of the active population. Combined with increased demographic pressure, climate changes therefore help to exacerbate the pressure on global food systems. In addition, it should be noted that agriculture also plays a key role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore at the heart of a variety of complex issues. In light of these facts, it is essential that we make every effort to identify solutions, aimed at adapting to climate changes and alleviating the contribution of certain agricultural practices to the latter, in order to respond to all the challenges that they create. This involves reinforcing research initiatives aimed at understanding and quantifying the problems, while identifying steps that need to be taken in order to limit these problems. It also involves lobbying for appropriate policies to be put into place, based on the results of this research. Last but not least, it involves developing field projects in order to identify and promote appropriate farming practices and create conditions that will help them become more widespread. With this in mind, we welcome the Montpellier Declaration initiative (http://csa2015.cirad.fr, which was developed at the Third Global Science Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture (Climate Smart Agriculture 2015 that was held in this city on 16-18 March 2015. At this event, over 600 research scientists and 150 stakeholders/policy makers - from 75 countries and 5 continents – confirmed that climate smart agriculture has become a benchmark, which creates synergies and may lead to innovative and global solutions at local, regional and international level. The participants also confirmed that climate smart solutions exist and could become a reality if the conditions and public policies lend themselves to these solutions. We encourage all readers of Tropicultura to learn more about the work completed at this conference, in order to understand issues linked to climate change and identify sources of inspiration, so that we can overcome the constraints that it imposes.

  8. Industrie des corps gras et changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosque Fabrice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Whether the industry wants to anticipate the new regulations concerning the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, or better control the costs of fluctuating fossil energy, the Bilan Carbone® assessment is a tool available to evaluate the company’s exposure, or even vulnerability, pertaining (related to these two strategic axes for the development of corporate activity. ITERG has carried out 15 Bilan Carbone® in oils and fats industry. This method is a solution for ranking emissions source by source and a good start to launch a dynamic process to reduce these emissions. In all the cases of the study, the emissions are strongly related to raw materials, freight, packaging, and consumption of fossil energy. The reduction of GHG emissions, is possible with an increased utilisation of the biomass, an improved valorisation of by-products by anaerobic digestion with recovery of the produced biogas for energy needs, and when rail, canals, rivers, or seas are preferably chosen to road transport for freight. In the oleochemicals industry, GHG emissions related to the raw materials can be reduced by the development of bio-lubricants, and innovative new products formulation based on vegetable resources.

  9. Du neuf avec du vieux : la politique climatique influence-t-elle l’aide bilatérale au développement ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Michaelowa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la Conférence des Nations unies sur l’environnement et le développement qui s’est tenue à Rio de Janeiro en 1992, les donateurs bilatéraux et multilatéraux affirment que l’aide au développement a été axée toujours davantage sur des interventions respectueuses du climat. Dans le cadre de l’aide relative à l’énergie, cela devrait se traduire par une intensification sensible des projets liés aux énergies renouvelables et à l’efficacité énergétique. L’examen d’une nouvelle base de données réunissant des centaines de milliers de projets bilatéraux d’aide au développement nous permet d’établir si cette réorientation a bel et bien eu lieu. Or, contrairement aux attentes, il s’avère que la part des projets financés par des fonds bilatéraux et consacrés aux énergies renouvelables et à l’efficacité énergétique n’a pas progressé entre 1980 et 2008. Cette part a fortement varié en fonction des prix du pétrole ; elle présente notamment une crête coïncidant avec le deuxième choc pétrolier du début des années 1980. L’impact des accords internationaux portant sur le climat est mineur, voire inexistant. Les énergies renouvelables « traditionnelles » telles que l’hydroélectricité et la géothermie ont fléchi alors que les « nouvelles » énergies renouvelables ont connu deux temps forts, au début des années 1980 et à la fin des années 1990. Les différences entre les pays donateurs sont énormes. Plusieurs pays, dont des « climatosceptiques » comme les Etats-Unis et l’Australie, mais aussi le Royaume-Uni et la Suisse, ont présenté un recul constant. Les pionniers autoproclamés du climat tels que l’Allemagne, les Pays-Bas, la Norvège et la Suède affichent des pics liés tant aux chocs pétroliers qu’à la politique climatique internationale. Une « nouvelle » aide au développement liée à l’atténuation du réchauffement climatique n’est pr

  10. Climate Change Impacts in the sub-Antarctic Islands Technical Report N.2 of ONERC; Impacts du changement climatique dans les iles subantarctiques. Rapport Technique N.2 de l'ONERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Difficult to apprehend as a whole, the polar regions constitute the Arctic to the North, an ocean surrounded by emerged lands, and the Antarctic to the South, a continent bordered by the Austral Ocean where a belt of sub Antarctic islands lies. Climate change impacts on sub Antarctic islands are varied, direct and indirect: glacier retreat, more favourable conditions for introduced species, marine biodiversity modification, etc. This report discusses the French, British, Australian, South African and New Zealand sub Antarctic islands, the climatic evolutions and the resulting impacts, focused especially on biodiversity. The Observatoire National sur les Effets du Rechauffement Climatique and the International Polar Foundation have been joined in this endeavour by the French polar institute Paul-Emile Victor, the administration of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF in French) and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. (authors)

  11. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  12. Policy for the struggle against climate change in the United Kingdom; Politique de lutte contre le changement climatique au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, S. [Mission Economique a Londres (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This article briefly presents the content of the 'Climate Change Bill' which was to be voted by the British Parliament by the end of 2008. This bill created an independent institution, the 'Climate Change Committee', which will counsel the government on the optimal path for emission reductions on the basis of economical, technological, social, and environmental criteria, and will also give its opinion on the aimed emission reduction level. Besides this governance institution, the struggle against climate change is based on two other bills, the 'Energy Bill' and the 'Planning Bill'. The first one deals with the development of technologies in renewable energies, in offshore gas storage, and in carbon capture, and also with the financing of nuclear waste processing and nuclear installation dismantling. The second one aims at simplifying urban planning rules, and proposes the creation of and independent planning commission. The author gives data on the particularly important expected emission reductions obtained through the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS)

  13. Joint sciences academies statement: global response to climate change; Declaration commune des Academies des sciences sur la reponse globale au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    Taking into account that there is now strong evidence that significant global warming is occurring, the Joint Science Academies, urge, by this statement, all nations in the line with the UNFCCC principles, to take prompt action to reduce the causes of climate change, adapt to its impacts and ensure that the issue is included in all relevant national and international strategies. Some recommendations are also given. (A.L.B.)

  14. Adaptation to the climatic change: the propositions of the ONERC; Adaptation au changement climatique: les propositions de l'ONERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This document aims to be compromise step between the scientific analysis and the implementing of an action plan. It presents four main objectives: actions for the public security and safety,reduction of the inequalities facing the risks, limitation of the costs and preservation of the natural patrimony. It proposes a synthesis and actions principles in nine axis, applicable to every topics and studied geographical levels. (A.L.B.)

  15. Changement de lune, changement de temps : vrai ou faux ?

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Daniel; Gresset-Bourgeois, Claude; Vermot-Desroches, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    National audience La plupart de nos contemporains accordent à la lune une influence sur le déclenchement des naissances, la croissance des plantes ou encore les changements du temps. Qu'en est-il vraiment ? Toutes les lunaisons qui ont eu lieu de janvier 1900 à décembre 2006 sont passées au crible afin de vérifier cette hypothèse.

  16. Changement climatique et viticulture en Champagne : du constat actuel aux prévisions du modèle ARPEGE-Climat sur l’évolution des températures pour le XXIe siècle 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Beltrando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans le vignoble de Champagne, le changement climatique, perceptible depuis la fin des années 1980, se manifeste par une tendance à la précocité des stades phénologiques et par une amélioration de la qualité des raisins vendangés. Mais cette évolution interpelle le milieu professionnel car, si elle se poursuit, elle pourrait devenir néfaste pour la qualité de la production de raisin (chaleur estivale trop importante, taux d’alcool élevé…. Afin d’apporter des éléments de réponse sur l’évolution des températures (moyennes et extrêmes quotidiens dans un contexte d’augmentation de la concentration en gaz à effet de serre, les données de température quotidiennes calculées par le modèle numérique ARPEGE-Climat (Retic de Météo-France sont validées par comparaison avec celles mesurées à Reims-Courcy sur la période 1950-2006. Puis, les simulations obtenues sur la période 2001-2100 par ce modèle sont analysées  pour les trois scénarios les plus couramment utilisés par l’IPCC [B1 (optimiste, A1B (intermédiaire, A2 (pessimiste]. Les résultats montrent une tendance non linéaire vers un réchauffement de l’air mais aussi une grande variabilité des températures d’un scénario à l’autre. A partir des années 2060, les modèles fournissent des prévisions de températures qui, auront  des répercussions majeures sur l’activité vitivinicole, surtout pour le scénario pessimiste (A2.In Champagne vineyard, Climate Change already observed since the end of 1980’s, showed by precocity of phenology as harvests and quality improvement of grapes. This temporal evolution calls out to wine growers because if this evolution continues, it could become harmful to grape production quality (summer heat waves, lack of water, high alcohol rate…. In the aim to find responses concerning temperature evolution (means and daily extremes in a context of  greenhouse concentration rise, daily temperature data

  17. Peuples et évolution climatique en Afrique nord-tropicale, de la fin du Néolithique à l’aube de l’époque moderne Peoples and climate change in northern tropical Africa from the end of the Neolithic till the dawn of the modern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Maley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La fin du Néolithique, au cours du IIIe millénaire BP, a correspondu à l’affaiblissement des périodes humides et à la mise en place de la géographie actuelle dans la zone sud-saharienne et sahélienne, qui s’étend de l’Atlantique au lac Tchad. Depuis cette époque le climat a cependant continué à beaucoup varier. La succession des différents épisodes climatiques, phases humides ou phases arides – et leurs interactions complexes –, est précisée. Ces faits climatiques sont mis en parallèle avec l’évolution archéologique et historique des différentes phases culturelles. Dans cette immense région, souvent à la limite de conditions naturelles extrêmes, les évènements climatiques ont toujours eu des conséquences très importantes sur l’évolution des peuplements humains. Le relativement bon synchronisme des principaux changements culturels, d’ouest en est à travers la bande sahélienne, paraît avoir été fréquemment contrôlé par le rôle directeur des changements climatiques majeurs et des variations environnementales qui en ont résulté.At the end of the Neolithic Era, during the third millennium BCE, there were fewer humid periods of weather, and the sub-Saharan Sahelian zone, from the Atlantic to Lake Chad, assumed its current geographical form. Since then, the climate has continued undergoing major variations. The succession of climatic episodes, humid or dry, is pointed out along with their complex interactions. These variations are placed in parallel to cultural phases of evolution in archeology and history. Climate-related events have always had heavy consequences on the peopling of this vast region, often subject to extreme natural conditions. The relative synchronism between the principal cultural trends from west to east across the Sahel seems to have often been subject to swings in the climate and the resulting environmental changes.

  18. Environnement climatique du Pacifique Sud

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    L'environnement climatique du Pacifique Sud est conditionné par "l'extrême océanité" de la région et l'interaction étroite entre l'atmosphère et l'océan qui conditionne la vie et l'ensemble des paramètres environnementaux des pays insulaires. Les deux principaux phénomènes climatiques qui affectent la région sont : ENSO (El Nino and Southern Oscillation) et le réchauffement global. Ces deux signaux climatiques, facteurs principaux de la variabilité climatique, font sentir leurs actions sur l'...

  19. Climatic change and nuclear energy; Changement climatique et energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2000-08-15

    The data presented in the different chapters lead to show that nuclear energy ids not a sustainable energy sources for the following reasons: investments in nuclear energy account financing that lacks to energy efficiency programmes. The nuclear programmes have negative effects such the need of great electric network, the need of highly qualified personnel, the freezing of innovation in the fields of supply and demand, development of small performing units. The countries resort to nuclear energy are among the biggest carbon dioxide emitters, because big size nuclear power plants lead to stimulate electric power consumption instead of inducing its rational use. Nuclear energy produces only electric power then a part of needs concerns heat (or cold) and when it is taken into account nuclear energy loses its advantages to the profit of cogeneration installations. Finally nuclear energy is a dangerous energy source, difficult to control as the accident occurring at Tokai MURA showed it in 1998. The problem of radioactive wastes is not still solved and the nuclear proliferation constitutes one of the most important threat at the international level. (N.C.)

  20. Climatic change and nuclear; Changement climatique et nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M

    2003-07-01

    One of the main priorities of the WWF is to increase the implementing of solutions relative to the greenhouse effect fight. In this framework the foundation published a study on the nuclear facing the climatic change problem. The following chapters are detailed: the nuclear and the negotiations on the climatic change; the nuclear close; the unrealistic hypothesis of the nuclear forecast; the nuclear facing other energy supplying options; supplying efficiency for heating, electric power, gas and renewable energies; the consumption efficiency facing the nuclear; the economical aspects; the deregulation effect; the political aspects; the nuclear AND the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  1. Climatic changes: a major challenge; Changement climatique: un defi majeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    To sensitize the public opinion and change the energy consumption habits, the ADEME (french Agency for the environment and the energy mastership) published a document on the climatic change problem and its consequences. A state of the art of the situation, the international agreements and solutions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  2. The economy of the climatic change; Economie du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, J.

    2011-01-15

    In his introduction, the author recalls that the climatic warming up is admitted by everybody and that the Total firm follows the recommendations of the main point of the scientific community to integrate it in a permanent way in its approach. (O.M.)

  3. Forest and climate change; Foret et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    After having recalled the challenges the French forest has to face, and a brief overview of the status of forests in the world, this report proposes an overview of actions which are implemented to strengthen the carbon sequestration role of forests, at the international level and in France. It discusses the distribution of carbon, the forest carbon stocks (in the world, Europe and France), the actions against climate change, the costs and financing of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the forest sector. It comments the status of international negotiations and how forests are taken into account. It presents the French forest and wood sector (characteristics of the forest in metropolitan France and overseas, wood as material and as energy). It recalls the commitment of the Grenelle de l'Environnement, and indicates the current forest studies

  4. Climatic change. What solutions?; Le Changement climatique. Quelles solutions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2009-07-01

    From 1990 to the present day, worldwide greenhouse gas emissions have increased by about 25%. Fighting climatic change has become an urgency: we only have 15 years in front of us to inflect the trajectory of worldwide emissions and to avoid a temperature rise of more than 2 deg. C during this century. Therefore, how is it possible to explain the shift between the need of an urgent action and the apparent inertia of some governing parties? How is it possible to implement a worldwide governance capable to answer the urgency of the fight against climatic change? These are the two questions that this pedagogical and concrete book tries to answer by analysing the different dimensions of climatic change and by making a first status of the building up of the international action, and in particular of the Kyoto protocol. For the post-2012 era, research and negotiations are in progress with the objective of reaching an agreement for the Copenhagen conference of December 2009. Several architectures are possible. This book shades light on the advantages and limitations of each of them with the possible compromises. It supplies a pluri-disciplinary approach of the international negotiations, often considered as complex by the general public. Content: 1 - understanding the climatic change stakes: climatic stakes, the main actors behind the figures, the technical-economical stakes; 2 - understanding the present day architecture of the fight against climatic change: strengths and weaknesses of the Kyoto protocol; encouraging research and technology spreading; the other action means in developing countries; 3 - what structure for a future international agreement?: the Bali negotiation process; the ideal vision: an improved Kyoto protocol; the pragmatic vision: individualized commitments; the negotiation space; preventing a planned fiasco. (J.S.)

  5. Ethics and climate change; Ethique et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, O.; Bard, E.; Berger, A.; Besnier, J.M.; Guesnerie, R.; Serres, M.

    2009-07-01

    Faced with climate change what is the position of scientists, of economists and of political decision makers? And the one of philosophers, of moralists, and of theologians? Finally, what is the position of anyone of us? This question of ethical aspect has been rarely tackled in France so far. Prepared after a colloquium held in Paris in 2009, this book combines scientifical, philosophical, moral and theological perspectives accessible to anyone. It stresses on the novelty and urgency of the ethical thought concerning a question having a strong impact of the humanity future, and more particularly on the future of the most vulnerable of us. If the human being is capable to mobilize himself collectively for a universal cause, he can stay on individualistic positions as well, in particular when he has to care of the fate of the generations to come. This book is a philosophical-scientifical thought which aims at bringing together four main views on this issue. (J.S.)

  6. The Paris-Nairobi climate initiative. Access to clean energy for all in Africa and countries vulnerable to climate change. Access to energy, sustainable development and climate change; Initiative climat Paris-Nairobi. Acces aux energies propres en Afrique et dans les pays vulnerables au changement climatique. Livre-Blanc, Acces a l'energie, developpement durable et changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-21

    The first part of this report highlights the importance of a universal access to energy, the role of public policies and renewable energies, the need to implement sustainable economic models for energy services, and indicates the major objectives and essential actions for these purposes. The second part outlines the weakness of electricity production in Africa, the degradation of the energy mix balance, the vulnerability to climate change, and the fact that Africa, like other countries vulnerable to climate change, possess huge and unexploited renewable energy resources (biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind). The third part proposes an approach to energy services by developing sustainable cooking, supplying energy to support rural development and to poles of economic growth, by developing sustainable cities (notably in transports and buildings), and by developing national and regional electricity grids. The last part addresses the issue of energy financing in developing countries

  7. Bien-être émotionnel au travail et changement organisationnel Emotional Well-Being at Work and Organizational Change: The Essilor Case Bienestar emocional en el trabajo y cambio organizacional : el caso de Essilor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Remoussenard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aujourd’hui, la plupart des entreprises mettent en place des projets de changements organisationnels afin de s’adapter aux modifications d’un environnement très concurrentiel. Ce faisant, elles se heurtent à des difficultés liées notamment aux situations de mal-être que ces changements peuvent induire. Notre étude vise à explorer les effets de nouvelles politiques managériales sur le bien-être émotionnel des salariés. Plus précisément, nous explorons les politiques mises en œuvre par un des sites du Groupe Essilor dans le contexte d’un changement organisationnel. Nous analysons d’un point de vue quantitatif et qualitatif les effets induits par ces politiques sur les salariés et sur la façon dont Essilor-Dijon en tient compte dans sa gestion des collaborateurs pour améliorer le bien-être au travail. À la lumière de nos résultats, il apparaît que les émotions sont au cœur de la conduite du changement, pouvant jouer le rôle de freins ou de leviers en fonction des choix managériaux.Nowadays, companies are implementing organizational change in order to be able to adapt to an increasingly competitive environment. Because of this context, firms are often confronted with problems linked to stressful situations that they themselves have brought about. We explored the policies which were applied by one of the branches of the Essilor Group in an organizational change context. First, we quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed the effects which this policy has had on stress-related issues. Second, we looked at how Essilor-Dijon took into account these effects in managing its staff so as to improve their well-being at work. Our results show that emotions appear to be at the heart of managing change and can either be obstacles or facilitators, depending on the choices made by management.Hoy en día, la mayoría de las empresas están llevando a cabo proyectos de cambio organizacional con el objetivo de adaptarse a las

  8. Climatic servitude: climate change, business and politics; La servitude climatique: Changement climatique, Business et Politique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belouve, J.M.

    2009-07-01

    This book is together a contemporary history book and a global dossier about a topic of prime importance in our civilization. It treats of the history of science, of ideas and events put in the modern civilization context, of science situation and scientific controversies, of the media aspects, of carbon economy and its related business, of Al Gore's and Maurice Strong's biographies, and finally, it makes a critical geopolitical analysis and makes proposals for a renovated ecology. In the conclusion, the author shows how climate change has become the hobbyhorse of a new thinking trend, namely the New World Order, aiming at conducting people to the acceptance of constraining policies encompassing the energy security of nations, new taxes, a worldwide economic disruption, the limitation of the World's population, and a World governance supported by the United Nations and not constrained by classical democratic rules. (J.S.)

  9. Impact des changements climatiques sur la répartition géographique des aires favorables à la culture et à la conservation des fruitiers sous-utilisés : cas du tamarinier au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fandohan, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of climate change on the geographical distrubution of suitable areas for cultivation and conservation of underutilized fruit trees: case study of the tamarind tree in Benin. Climate change may limit integration of Underutilized Agroforestry Fruits Trees (UAFT into formal cropping systems as a strategy to increase rural household income in Africa. The present study analyzed the potential impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of suitable areas for tamarind (Tamarindus indica L., an economically important UAFT species. Presence records of the species were collected and combined with bioclimatic data derived from the Worldclim data base and from soil type data. The Maximum Entropy Modeling principle (MAXENT was used in combination with a Geographic Information System (GIS to forecast current and future (horizon 2050 suitable habitats for the cultivation and conservation of the species. Three different climate models were used for future predictions (the CCCMA, HadCM3 and CSIRO models under IPCC scenario A2. Under current conditions, 65% of the national area and 87% of the national protected area network were found to be highly suitable for the cultivation and conservation of local tamarind ecotypes, respectively. It is possible that an increase in rainfall (CCCMA and HadCM3 models will convert the currently highly suitable zones (semi-arid and subhumid dry into poorly suitable areas at horizon 2050. A decline in precipitation (CSIRO model could also convert the currently poorly suitable zones (sub-humid humid into highly suitable zones. In the case of an aridification of the climate (CSIRO, cultivation and conservation of tamarind could become possible all over Benin and/or require the introduction of ecotypes from more arid areas. The predictive capacity of climatic models is constantly improving and it is therefore recommended that such studies be undertaken in order to better inform decision making for the optimum use of UAFT species.

  10. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  11. Caractérisation des saisons de pluies au Burkina Faso dans un contexte de changement climatique et évaluation des impacts hydrologiques sur le bassin du Nakanbé

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Boubacar

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to a description of the variability in the rainfall regime over the West African Sahel and an assessment of the impacts of this variability on the water resources in the region from a set of some hydrological models. Although, many results of some studies on rainfall variability over Sahel during the last five decades (1961-2009) show a significant decrease in the annual rainfall amount since 1970. This rainfall deficit has entailed a severe hydric stress in the region. Burkin...

  12. Guidebook for territories' support in the analysis of their socio-economical vulnerability to climate change; Guide d'accompagnement des territoires pour l'analyse de leur vulnerabilite socio-economique au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The work of the inter-ministerial group 'Impacts of Climate Change, Adaptation and Associated Costs for France', which met between March 2007 and October 2009, led to a sector-based assessment of all climate change related impacts and of associated adaptation measures. The aim was to obtain quantified elements that could underpin public policy decision-making and especially development of the National Adaptation Plan. While the sectoral analyses focused on quantifying the costs of adaptation, the approach of the 'Territories' group, co-steered by the Datar (regional development delegation) and Ademe (agency for energy management and environment), addressed the subject of interactions between players and activities, both spatial (sharing of resources between different uses, etc.) and temporal (transition from one situation to another, etc.) and the corresponding means for adjustment. It was in this context that the SOeS proposed a methodology for diagnosis of the socio-economic vulnerability of a given sub-national territory in the face of climate change. This document provides a broad-brush outline of the accompanying guidelines developed by Sogreah Consultants SAS for use by local players. A three step approach is followed to draw up the vulnerability profile of a territory: 1 - characterising the territory by the identification of the priority activities and physical features; 2 - using the analysis tools to produce a matrix of indices of vulnerability to climate change per hazard; 3 - drawing up an initial vulnerability profile by bringing together the information from the matrix and that from feedback, either by activity or group of activities, or by environment, depending on aims. The profile leads to identification of the important issues as well as allowing identification of potential impacts to be studied in more depth. Guidelines were tested in three pilot territories facing different climate change issues: Wateringues, in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais region; GPD cites maritimes in the Languedoc-Roussillon region; and Scot ouest in the Alpes-Maritimes region. The purpose of this test phase was to provide a real-world example of implementation of an analysis and mobilization process. It provided a practical illustration of an approach to using the guide as a support for vulnerability analysis as well as allowing identification of users' questions about application of the guidelines. Throughout implementation of the approach proposed by the guidelines, attention must be paid to several methodological points, especially the following: - as for all of the inter-ministerial group's work, scenario known as 'constant economy' is assumed; - the socio-economic importance given to activities in a given territory does not necessarily reflect the ranking that local players would give; - the vulnerability considered here does not include environmental issues such as biodiversity; - the vulnerability indices proposed are general in nature: demographics, sectoral interactions, etc.; numerous factors can alter the matrix locally and collection of local data should, therefore, help to construct a 'territorialised' matrix for potential impacts and corresponding vulnerability

  13. Evaluer et prioriser les technologies d’adaptation au changement climatique. Orientations pratiques pour une analyse multicritères et l’identification et évaluation de critères afférents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    L'objectif de ce guide est de guider les consultants, les décideurs et les experts techniques sur la façon de faciliter les discussions pour prioriser les technologies d'adaptation, et de soutenir les parties prenantes dans l'identification des critères appropriés pour cette analyse....

  14. Adaptation to climate change in the field of water: where does France stand?; Adaptation au changement climatique dans le domaine de l'eau: ou en est la France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redaud, J.L. [Conseil General de l' Agriculture, de l' Alimentation et des Espaces Ruraux (CGAAER), 75 - Paris (France); Gillet, M. [Observatoire National sur les Efets du Rechauffement Climatique, Ministere de l' Ecologie, de l' Energie, du Developpement Durable et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, 75 - Paris (France); Chartier-Touze, N. [Partenariat Francais pour l' Eau (PFE), 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Climate change today constitutes a two-fold challenge. We have to take steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, referred to as 'attenuation', while adopting strategies and measures for 'adaptation' to climate change, in other words take steps in advance to limit the impact of climate change and the corresponding damage. The potential effects of climate change on water resources are numerous and in particular affect the distribution of rainfall, the recharging of rivers and aquifers, water supplies, the frequency and intensity of extreme meteorological events, such as drought and flooding, and aqua-tic biodiversity. This will have indirect effects on virtually all environmental and economic sectors. The water sector is therefore particularly closely concerned by adaptation to climate change. (authors)

  15. After Kyoto: equity stakes and efficiency in the negotiation on the climatic change; Au-dela de Kyoto: enjeux d'equite et d'efficacite dans la negociation sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.; Criqui, P.; Viguier, L. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie - IEPE-CNRS/ Universite Pierre Mendes-France, 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommetter, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2000-07-01

    The first difficulty to get over in the international negotiation on the climatic change, has been and still remain the distribution of the efforts and the research of the equity in the objective determination. This paper aims to show that facing the different interests of each countries, a single rule of differentiation is not possible. The first part is a review of the different charts of the objectives differentiation discussed or proposed in the international negotiation process on the greenhouse effect. It aims to find a bond between the the charts and the equity. The second part proposes the quantification of a scenario of the emission licenses attribution for 2030 for all the world countries. (A.L.B.)

  16. ONERC. Observatoire National sur les Effets du Rechauffement Climatique (National Observatory of Climate warming effects). Report to the Prime Minister and to Parliament. Climate changes and public health risks in France; Changements climatiques et risques sanitaires en France. Rapport au Premier Ministre et au Parlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After having recalled the climate change context and the activities of the ONERC (the French National Observatory of Climate Warming Effects) since its previous report, this report gathers several contributions by as many scientists. They propose analysis, comments and discussions on various topics: human diseases which might be influenced by climate change in France (heat waves and allergies, emergence of animal and human diseases, potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases, infectious diseases in overseas territories, public health consequences), surveillance and health alert systems (infectious disease national surveillance and monitoring network, emergency response, satellite imagery, public health and risk management, lessons learned from the chikungunya pandemic), public health and risk management (overview of international works on the relationship between climate change and public health, public health consequences of climate change)

  17. La défense face aux défis du dérèglement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Alex

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans un rapport rédigé il y a plus de dix ans, le Pentagone établissait un lien entre sécurité et changement climatique. Depuis lors, l’étude du potentiel crisogène du phénomène s’est approfondie. Du fait de sa propension à renforcer le pouvoir de nuisance des aléas naturels et à, indirectement, produire de nouveaux risques, il est désormais considéré comme un « multiplicateur de menace » (Center for Naval Analyses 2007. Le changement climatique est ainsi un enjeu de premier plan pour les acteurs de la défense, institutionnels, militaires et industriels, et soulève plusieurs problématiques. Dans un premier temps se pose évidemment la question des risques et menaces sécuritaires découlant des manifestations des changements climatiques (modification du régime des précipitations, hausse du niveau des mers et océans, multiplication des phénomènes climatiques exceptionnels et l’étude de leur propension à générer de l’insécurité. Dans un deuxième temps se pose celle des réponses à y apporter en matière doctrinale (réflexion stratégique, opérationnelle (gestion de crise mais aussi en termes capacitaires (impacts sur l’outil militaire. Enfin, il convient d’étudier dans un troisième temps, et c’est là un paradoxe, les conséquences sur la sécurité internationale des politiques et stratégies d’adaptation qui seront développées par les Etats ou d’autres acteurs pour faire face aux défis posés par le dérèglement climatique.

  18. Evolutions et enjeux de la coopération internationale au développement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Perroulaz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le volume de l’aide publique au développement (APD fournie par les pays de l’OCDE atteint de nouveaux records. Les flux enregistrés au titre de l’APD incluent toutefois des catégories de dépenses qui ne concourent pas à l’objectif de réduction de la pauvreté dans les pays en développement. Les économies émergentes et les donateurs privés procurent une part croissante de l’aide. Des progrès ont été réalisés dans la mise en œuvre de la Déclaration de Paris sur l’efficacité de l’aide dans quelques domaines comme le déliement de l’aide, mais les résultats ne sont pas à la hauteur des attentes. L’approche demeure trop souvent techniciste et élude les dynamiques politiques qui ont une incidence majeure sur l’efficacité de l’aide. La question de la cohérence des politiques publiques au service du développement revient sur le devant de la scène, alors que les débats sur le changement climatique appellent à reconsidérer certains objectifs et stratégies des agences de coopération.

  19. Les Caisses d’épargne face à l’avènement d’un groupe bancaire universel : le changement organisationnel entre ingénierie managériale de la mémoire et attachement au passé The Caisses d'Epargne, a mutual savings bank in transition to a global banking Group: Organisational change between managing institutional memory and attachment to the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tassel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Il est d’usage d’aborder le changement organisationnel sous l’angle de sa gestion, de son accompagnement ou de sa conduite. Si l’on ne peut nier le caractère opératoire de ces approches, elles passent sous silence la dimension essentielle pour la compréhension du changement que constitue le rapport à la mémoire et au passé.A partir d’une enquête ethnographique de terrain menée de 2003 à 2007 au sein d’une grande institution bancaire (le Groupe Caisse d’Epargne, cet article entend montrer quelques uns des enjeux proprement mémoriels que le changement engage : difficultés à reconnaître l’entreprise dans ce qu’il advient d’elle, production managériales visant à renouer le lien entre présent et passé que le changement est venu altérer, mise en place, par les collaborateurs de pratiques qui permettent de maintenir l’engagement originel de l’organisation.Organisational change is usually considered from a management or an implementation point of view. This approach, as operational as it may be, ignores the relationship to memory and the past generally, which is fundamental in order to understand changes.Based on ethnographic field studies carried out from 2003 and 2007 at a major financial institution (Caisse d'Epargne Group, this article purports to shed light on certain memory-based challenges induced by change: difficulties to recognise the company as it evolves, managerial efforts to link the current situation with the past, which has been altered by the changes, conducts of staff members influenced by a willingness to uphold the original mission of the organisation. 

  20. SOS-21, jeu de sensibilisation aux enjeux du réchauffement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Arnaud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Les jeux de simulation et en particulier les « serious games » peuvent aider les citoyens à non seulement prendre conscience des dangers du réchauffement climatique mais aussi à adopter des comportements respectueux de l’environnement en s’inscrivant dans le cadre du développement durable. Le meilleur moyen de les impliquer est de leur proposer des indicateurs personnalisés leur permettant de mesurer les émissions de GES provoquées par leurs activités quotidiennes et de leur en montrer les conséquences sur l’environnement. Après avoir rappelé les principaux paramètres relatifs au réchauffement climatique, l’article explore les alternatives au scénario catastrophe avant d’aborder les possibilités d’apprentissage offertes par le jeu de simulation SOS-21.

  1. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in knowledge.

  2. Expected impacts of climate change on extreme climate events; Impacts du changement climatique sur les evenements climatiques extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planton, S.; Deque, M.; Chauvin, F. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques/groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (CNRM/GAME), 31 - Toulouse (France); Terray, L. [Centre Europeen de Recherches Avancees en Calcul Scientifique, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-09-15

    An overview of the expected change of climate extremes during this century due to greenhouse gases and aerosol anthropogenic emissions is presented. The most commonly used methodologies rely on the dynamical or statistical down-scaling of climate projections, performed with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Either of dynamical or of statistical type, down-scaling methods present strengths and weaknesses, but neither their validation on present climate conditions, nor their potential ability to project the impact of climate change on extreme event statistics allows one to give a specific advantage to one of the two types. The results synthesized in the last IPCC report and more recent studies underline a convergence for a very likely increase in heat wave episodes over land surfaces, linked to the mean warming and the increase in temperature variability. In addition, the number of days of frost should decrease and the growing season length should increase. The projected increase in heavy precipitation events appears also as very likely over most areas and also seems linked to a change in the shape of the precipitation intensity distribution. The global trends for drought duration are less consistent between models and down-scaling methodologies, due to their regional variability. The change of wind-related extremes is also regionally dependent, and associated to a poleward displacement of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The specific study of extreme events over France reveals the high sensitivity of some statistics of climate extremes at the decadal time scale as a consequence of regional climate internal variability. (authors)

  3. Climate warming: answering some basic questions; Le rechauffement climatique (le changement climatique): reponse a quelques questions elementaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancovici, J.M

    2009-07-01

    Illustrated by many graphs, drawings, figures and tables, this long publication offers a detailed overview of the physical aspects of climatic change (definition of the greenhouse effect, explanation and assessment of warming, relationship and differences between greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, between climate change and greenhouse effect induced by human activity, and between meteorology and climate) and states some generalities on greenhouse effect gases. The author then discusses prospective issues on climatic change (notion of average temperature, role and liability of climate models, evolutions of temperatures and precipitations in different places, influence of greenhouse gas reduction), the various risks associated with climatic change (changes of sea currents, impact on ecosystems, diseases, ozone depletion, geographical differences, threat from methane hydrate). After a presentation of the carbon cycle, the next chapters are discussing the scientific discourses, the assessment of greenhouse effect in our everyday life, the impact of possible collective and individual actions, the relationship between greenhouse effect and economy, and strategic choices in France on airports and on nuclear energy.

  4. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios; Modelisation climatique du Bassin mediterraneen: variabilite et scenarios de changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somot, S

    2005-12-15

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  5. Les dynamiques territoriales associées au soja et les changements fonctionnels en Amazonie. Le cas de la région de Santarém, Pará, Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La croissance progressive de la demande internationale de produits céréaliers et légumineux pour le fourrage animal et l´alimentation humaine a entraîné une expansion continue des terres cultivées au Brésil. L´intérêt des multinationales du secteur agroalimentaire (qui ont réalisé de grands investissements dans le pays et les facilités données par le gouvernement pour inciter et développer les activités agro-exportatrices, ont également favorisé l’expansion de ces cultures agricoles. La progression a gagné les régions de cerrado et plus récemment de l´Amazonie, provoquant de profondes transformations dans l´organisation du territoire en donnant de nouvelles fonctions aux différents lieux. Santarém, une ville historique de l´Amazonie brésilienne, qui a une localisation privilégié á la confluence des fleuves Tapajós et Amazones, et à l’extrémité Nord de la route BR-163, est sur le devant de la scène de toutes ces mutations récentes. C’est un centre urbain qui dirige un processus de changement régional défini par la reconversion et la spécialisation productive dans le milieu rural.The progressive increase in the international demand for cereals and leguminous plants for human and animal consumption has motivated a continuous expansion in the cultivated land in Brazil. This expansion is encouraged by the interest of multinationals of the agro-alimental sector that have made large investments in the country, and by the aid provided by the government to promote and reassert the agro-exporters activities. This progression has gone as far as the cerrado latitudes and, most recently, in the Amazonia, where it has generated profound transformations in the organization of the area and given new roles to different places. Santarém, a historical city in the Amazon which utilizes its privileged location where the Tapajós and Amazonas Rivers confluence, as well as the northern vertex of the BR-163 highway, is the

  6. Labels de la construction : quelle contribution possible au facteur 4 ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Laforest

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Le facteur 4, souvent évoqué comme objectif à atteindre face aux enjeux énergétiques et au changement climatique, est caractérisé par une double identité. Faisant à la fois référence à une augmentation de la productivité des ressources (facteur 4 « énergétique » et à l’atténuation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (facteur 4 « climatique », il constitue l’objectif à atteindre dans les 40 ans. Dans ce but, différents secteurs d’activité se sont approprié ces concepts. Dans le secteur de la construction, la volonté d’améliorer les performances énergétiques et environnementales des bâtiments est passée par la création depuis les années 1990 des systèmes de labellisation. Les labels, par leurs approches normatives, se veulent être une des voies permettant de mettre en place les changements nécessaires pour atteindre les facteurs 4. Le but de cet article est d’étudier les différents types de labels de la construction et de voir comment et jusqu’à quel point ils permettent, ou non, d’atteindre les objectifs des facteurs 4.Factor 4, which is often presented as an objective to deal with energy and climate change issues, is characterized by a double identity. Referring at the same time to an increase of resources productivity (factor 4 for energy and to greenhouse gas attenuation (factor 4 for climate, it constitutes challenge to be reached in 40 years. To this end, the various branches of industry have adapted these concepts. In the building sector, this appropriation has been translated since 1990 by the creation of labeling systems. The labels by their standardized approach endeavor to be the precursors and the essential to drive these changes to the factors 4. The goal of this paper is to study the various types of labels that apply to sustainable construction and to study how and at which degree they contribute to factors 4 objectives.

  7. La centration sur le processus du changement : l'apport de l'intervention systémique à l'amélioration du bien-être au travail

    OpenAIRE

    Althaus, Virginie; Grosjean, Vincent; Brangier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Pour intervenir sur la santé et le bien-être au travail, il est souvent d'usage de recourir à des méthodes centrées diagnostic, au sein desquelles une compréhension fine de la situation précède l'action. Des auteurs soulignent néanmoins les limites de cette approche lorsqu'il s'agit de mobiliser les connaissances accumulées sur la situation de travail en vue de la transformer. Par contraste, les interventions affiliées au paradigme systémique se focalisent sur le proce...

  8. : Droit, changement climatique et production agricole en Amérique centrale

    OpenAIRE

    Ballar, Rafael,

    2010-01-01

    Intervention dans le cadre du Forum 2010 LASCAUX - SPIDH. 19 pages.; International audience; No podemos dejar de preocuparnos por las indicaciones que la ciencia, la técnica y las estadísticas nos muestran sobre los efectos del cambio climático para los suelos, la biodiversidad y sus resultados negativos para la producción de alimentos. Se hace necesario, hoy más que nunca, que los esfuerzos a nivel regional se coordinen y se establezcan a nivel interno de los países centroamericanos, polític...

  9. Energy policy and climate change; Changement climatique et nouvelle donne energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ducroux, R. [CIRENE (France)

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-two billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) are released in the air each year from the burning of fossil fuels. The problem of these massive emissions of CO{sub 2} and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} content requires a drastic decrease of CO{sub 2} emissions worldwide. While enhancing natural carbon sinks (reforestation, soils conservation, etc...) can only buy tune for the next decades, energy savings, CO{sub 2} capture/storage and the development of non-fossil energy sources (hydropower, nuclear, wind power,...) can be highly beneficial. In order to secure future energy needs while stabilizing the CO{sub 2} atmospheric concentration around 550 ppm, the ratio of the CO{sub 2} emitted per unit of energy produced must decrease from 2.6 t CO{sub 2}/toe to 0.5-1.1 t CO{sub 2} /toe by 2100. In a growing world economy, now dependent on fossil fuels for 90% of its energy, this will require a vast increase in the supply of carbon-free power. Among these energy sources, hydropower and nuclear energy (operated under western safety and environmental standards) are the most readily available sources capable of supplying vast amount of energy at a competitive price. Wind power is also to be encouraged, as it is expected to approach the competitiveness threshold soon. The French example, where fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions were cut by 27% in a matter of a few years (1979-1986) despite increasing energy consumption, suggests that implementing CO{sub 2} stabilization is technically feasible at a competitive price.

  10. Climatic changes: explicative guide of international agreements; Changements climatiques: guide explicatif des accords internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The following themes of the negotiation in the United Nations Convention framework, on the climatic changes and the kyoto protocol are taken into account: the observation, the information communication, the policies and the measures, the developing countries, the flexibility mechanisms, the soils utilizations and the regime evolution. For each theme the document recalls quickly how the theme is detailed in the Convention and in the Protocol, it presents then the decisions and the adopted rules and defines the agreements contain, in terms of challenges and implication in the protocol implementation. (A.L.B.)

  11. Climatic change and new energy deal; Changement climatique et nouvelle donne energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ducroux, R. [Centre d' Initiative et de Recherche en Energie et Environnement, CIRENE, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2002-07-01

    The fast increase of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} content linked with the massive consumption of fossil fuels and the threat this increase exerts on the climate equilibrium of the Earth represent the new deal of the governments energy policy. In an expanding world economy which depends on fossil energies for 90%, the abatement of the effluents necessary for a stabilization of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} represents an extremely complex task. Three ways can be explored: the energy consumption mastery, the capture and geological trapping of CO{sub 2} and the increased use of non-fossil energies. In this strategy, the hydroelectric and electro-nuclear resources represent a major stake because of their strong production potential and economical efficiency. The development of renewable energy sources must be encouraged, in particular the wind power which should become competitive after some technological improvements have been made. In France the CO{sub 2} emissions have been reduced of 27% between 1979 and 1986 thanks to the implementation of an efficient policy and despite a significant increase of the energy demand. (J.S.)

  12. The french researches on the climatic change; Les recherches francaises sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Scientists were the first to prevent decision makers on the risk of the climatic change bond to the greenhouse gases emissions. The results of the third GIEC report confirmed that the main part of the global warming of the last 50 years is due to the human activities. This document presents the major results of the french researches during the last five years: the planet observation, the climate evolution study, the simulation of the future climate, the climatic change in France, the impacts of the climatic change on the marine and earth biosphere, the climatic risks and the public policies, the health impacts, the 2003 heat and the research infrastructures. (A.L.B.)

  13. IMPACT DES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES ET DISTRIBUTION SPATIALE DES OISEAUX MARINS DE L'OCÉAN AUSTRAL

    OpenAIRE

    Péron, Clara

    2011-01-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), accelerated global warming is now non-equivocal. The aim of this PhD thesis was to assess past and recent climate changes in the Austral ocean and evaluate whether impact of these changes on seabirds spatial distribution was already discernible and/or predictible. Using historical vessel-based surveys data on 12 seabirds species, we documented a decrease in abundance of three species and found distinct changes in distribution ...

  14. Climate mission: territory action and climatic change; Mission climat: action territoriale et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthuis, Ch. de

    2005-04-15

    The France will reach with difficulties the Kyoto objectives concerning the greenhouse gases emission reduction, if only the emissions from the industry are concerned. Thus the local collectivities have a great role to play. The author explains the importance of the local communities initiatives, details the example of the United States where the federal structure leaves many rooms for manoeuvre, points out the importance of the transportation sector in the greenhouse gases emission and discusses the local collectivities policy facing the renewable energies development, the energy conservation and the energy efficiency of the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  15. Expertise and governance of climate change; Expertise et gouvernance du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinas de Munagorri, R.; Colson, R. [Nantes Univ. (France); Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ. and Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Leclerc, O. [Paris Ouest-Nanterre La Defense Univ. (France); Rousseau, S. [CNRS, Lab. Droit et Changement Social (France); Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, Lab. Institutions et Dynamiques Historiques de l' Economie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Cachan (France)

    2009-07-01

    Global warming has become in few years a prominent problem which requires the implementation of a world governance to be solved. However, the share of human activities in the global warming phenomenon and the actions susceptible to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission generate scientifical, political and legal conflicts at the same time. Assessing the taking into account of climate change by international institutions raises several questions. By what process a true fact can become established at the world scale? Are experts free or constrain by procedure rules? How to regulate the worldwide carbon trade? Is the governance requirement foreseen in international systems respected by decision making practices? How to explain experts' omnipresence in the observance mechanisms of climate change treaties? Is their influence determining, at the international and internal scale, in the elaboration of a climate law? These questions, analyzed by researchers in law and political science, are indissociable of method stakes with an inter-disciplinary horizon. This book, result of a collective work, is not limited to a description of standards and actors' practices in force. Its ambition is to apprehend law, science and politics in their interactions. Climate change is an appropriate topic to think about the links between the different scientific disciplines. The book concludes with a prospective about the contribution of laws analysis to expertise which involves the dogmatic, realistic and epistemologic aspects. (J.S.)

  16. The understanding of world climate change; Les connaissances sur le changement climatique mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled that the problem of global warming in relationship with human activities has been studied since the end of the nineteenth century and since then by different scientific programs, the author describes how the IPCC's or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report is produced. He briefly comments how Earth's temperature is determined and the various natural parameters which influence the climate on Earth. He recalls how the IPCC showed the actual influence of human activities, and which changes have actually been observed

  17. Stratospheric ozone, ultraviolet radiation and climate change; Ozone stratospherique, rayonnement ultraviolet et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, O. [Met Office Hadley Centre (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    It is well known that an overexposure to ultraviolet radiation is associated with a number of health risks such as an increased risk of cataracts and skin cancers. At a time when climate change is often blamed for all our environmental problems, what is the latest news about the stratospheric ozone layer and other factors controlling ultraviolet radiation at the surface of the Earth? Will the expected changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere and changes in our climate increase or decrease the risk for skin cancer? This article investigates the role of the various factors influencing ultraviolet radiation and presents the latest knowledge on the subject. (author)

  18. Les différents scénarios du changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déqué Michel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of a climate change along the 21st century is now widely accepted : the world population and consumption growth will lead to an increase in greenhouse effect. In order to explore possible evolutions in agreement with the laws of physics, numerical modeling is the most appropriate tool. ARPEGE-Climate is the atmospheric model of the French meteorological service. It has been run over the 21st century to simulate possible evolutions under three hypotheses of increase in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration. This model covers the globe with a rather high resolution over southern Europe (50 km. The results show a larger warming in summer than in winter and a spatially variable response for precipitation.

  19. Ireland and climate change; L'Irlande et le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzepski, G.; Lerouge, Ch.

    2010-05-15

    As the rise of sea level, the higher frequency of tempests, and the threat of water shortages in some parts of the country are the major stakes for Ireland in the struggle against climate change, this report gives an overview of greenhouse gas emissions in this country (globally and per sector) and of their evolution. It presents the Irish policy to struggle against climate change since 2000, its public actors (ministries, agencies), its different action plans (National Climate Change Strategy, energy sector planning, promotion of renewable energies, transport sector planning), and sector-based and tax measures implemented in Ireland. It discusses the limitations of the current policy (insufficient results, limited domestic measures, socioeconomic obstacles, complex political steering), describes the new European context and the present Irish context (economic crisis). Some new orientations are discussed

  20. Changement climatique et évolution du stockage de carbone dans les sols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrouays Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews our current knowledge and understanding on carbon storage in soils under the effect of climate change and land management. For the French metropolitan territory, the carbon storage potential and possible effects of climate change on carbon decrease are of the same order of magnitude. It might be more important to preserve existing large stocks (for example in peat than to try to create new ones. Whatever the changes are, they will be very difficult to prove within carbon accounting over short periods.

  1. Climate change: the knowledge and the possible; Changement climatique: les savoirs et les possibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Treut, H. [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, 94 - Ivry sur Seine (France); Huet, S. [Journaliste a Liberation, Domaine de l' Information Scientifique, 75 - Paris (France); Chappellaz, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Godard, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Dept. Humanites et Sciences Sociales, Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    Ultimatum, justice, crisis, green development, skepticism, controversy.. climate change is making noise in the beginning of this- 21 century and is going to make much more. In order to act with full knowledge of the facts, it is recommended to get the information from the right source and to make a precise status of the available knowledge. Then, this knowledge must be analyzed to understand how it has been obtained, discussed, validated, spread and sometimes distorted. This is what the authors of this book are applying themselves to do: two climatologists, one economist and one journalist are joining their skills and give us the keys that allow us to decode the paradoxes and challenges of the climate question. They provide us with intellectual arms to fight against the insincere skepticism and to discuss about the rational skepticism. (J.S.)

  2. Impacts potentiels d'un changement climatique sur le pergelisol dans le nord canadien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obretin, Calin

    This thesis explores the potential impacts of a climate change due to the greenhouse gases on the state and the evolution of the permafrost in the Canadian North. The permafrost represents the half of the Canadian national territory and a change of its current state will echo in all spheres of activity, on the biosphere and on the environment generally. In spite of the evident importance of the subject, there is no precise idea as to how the permafrost will react to the climate change and to what extent the frozen layer will be disrupted. This thesis investigates this problem by using a methodological approach inspired by the Canadian model on the evolution of permafrost (TTOP) coupled with a theoretical approach based on the theory of the complex neuronal systems. The general objective of this thesis is to improve the Canadian model of evolution of permafrost (TTOP-Temperature one the Top Of Permafrost) created by Smith and Riseborough in 1996, its structure of computation, spatial resolution and to determine the state of the permafrost in the study area between 2010 and 2100. The study zone is situated in the Mackenzie Basin (N-W.T) on a north-south transect of 1440 by 720 km. The first objective of the research is to derive maps of the annual values of temperature on the top of the permafrost from 2010 to 2100 by using an improved dynamic model of the evolution of permafrost (TTOP-A). Thereafter, these values are compared with those obtained by Smith and Riseborough (1996). The values of the evolution of air temperature for this period are supplied by the climatic scenarios CGCM32 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1. Secondly, this thesis has as an objective the production of the maps of the thickness of permafrost for 2100 with a spatial resolution of 25 km. More exactly, we determine the evolution of the values of thickness of permafrost for the three climatic scenarios mentioned above. Furthermore, the study proposes: i) a new method for downscaling of climate data by using a Determined Stochastic Model, ii) the integration of soil type, iii) the integration of the soil humidity, iv) the integration of the values of thickness of the snow layer and v) the integration of remote sensing data (SSM/I). As a rule, the results obtained by the TTOP-A model reveal that the mean values of temperature at the surface of the permafrost follow closely the values of air temperature and that they are similar to those found by Smith and Riseborough (1996) and Heginbottom and coll. (1995). Also, the differences of the values of temperature on the surface of permafrost between 2010 and 2100 are similar to the values published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Concerning the second objective of this thesis, the spatio-temporal dynamics of the permafrost until 2100 demonstrates that, in the study zone, the surface perturbed by global warming will be 37 %, 60 % and 29 % according to the scenarios CGCM3 SRES A1B, CGCM3 SRES A2 and CGCM3 SRES B1 respectively. The permafrost layer inside this zone will disappear by 20 %, 32 % and 18 % according to the scenarios mentioned before. These results lead us to believe that the estimations made by Smith and Riseborough were overvalued in the context of two of three current climates scenarios compared to that of the 1996. Finally, this study demonstrates that the method of downscaling of climate data using the neuronal network within a Determined Stochastic Model gives good results and it represents a reliable option which lends itself to large-scale generalizations. Keywords: permafrost, downscaling, snow, soil humidity, climate scenarios, neuronal network, Determined Stochastic Model, climate change, CGCM3, TTOP. 2The third generation Coupled Global Climate Model [CCCma, 2010].

  3. Changement climatique et traitement du manioc dans le sud-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change and Cassava Processing in Southeast Nigeria. Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat to whom African agriculture is confronted today, essentially because of its impact on pre- and post-harvest agricultural productivity. Available literature shows that most of the recent studies on climate change and agriculture were mainly focused on pre-harvest, with little or no emphasis on post-harvest issues. This study aims to provide empirical information on the effect of climate change on cassava processing and on the cost-effectiveness of indigenous adaptation practices relative thereto. The study was conducted in two randomly selected states of southeast Nigeria and in four randomly selected agricultural zones, two from each state. The data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 320 randomly selected cassava processors. The result of the analysis shows that the respondents were predominantly women who, in addition to cassava processing, also grow cassava. Virtually all of them were, not only aware of climate change, but also aware that it will have effects on cassava post-harvest operations. The respondents suggest that as a result of climate change, the length of time cassava tubers can stay in the soil without spoiling has been decreasing while the water content of cassava tubers has been increasing. In addition, the storage quality of all the products has been deteriorating, just as the growth of spoilage moulds in the products during storage has been increasing. Moreover, the fermentation period for akpu and alibo has been increasing while there has been a general decline in the quantity of product yield after processing for all the products. Some of the adaptation measures used by the processors include increased use of water, palm oil, hired labour and wood fuel, increased harvesting of cassava earlier than usual, processing of more adaptive varieties of cassava, shifts in the timing of processing as the weather also shifts and increased fermentation in the open spaces. There were also some relatively new adaptation practices such as the use of detergents, nails, beans and bitter leaf to aid fermentation, especially for the production of akpu and alibo. In terms of profitability, the four adaptation practices with high profitability indices were, in order of decreasing importance, increased use of sundrying, water, hired labor and palm oil. The study therefore recommends that breeding of improved varieties of cassava should begin to target those that are tolerant to excessive and extreme fluctuations of rainfall, heat and flood. In addition, the adaptation practices with high profitability indices should be vigorously disseminated. Also, further studies, especially on the chemistry of the observed relatively new adaptation practices should be explored.

  4. Tropical cyclones and climate change; Les cyclones tropicaux et le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.C. [Centre Europeen de Recherches Avancees en Calcul Scientifique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Royer, J.F.; Chauvin, F. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologique (CNRM), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2008-09-15

    Results from observations and modelling studies, a number of which having been used to support the conclusions of the IPCC fourth assessment report, are presented. For the past and present-day (since 1970) periods, the increase of strong cyclonic activity over the North Atlantic Ocean appears to be in good correlation with increasing temperature of the ocean surface. For regions where observational data are of lesser quality, the increasing trend is less clear. In fact, assessing long-term changes is made difficult due to both the multi-decennial natural variability and the lesser coverage of observations before satellites were made available. Indirect observational data, such as those derived from quantitative estimations of damage caused by tropical cyclones, suffer from many artefacts and do not allow the resolving of the issue either. For the future, only numerical three-dimensional climate models can be used. They nevertheless run presently with too-large grid-sizes, so that their results are still not converging. Various simulations lead indeed to different results, and it is very often difficult to find the physical reasons for these differences. One concludes by indicating some ways through which numerical simulations could be improved, leading to a decrease of uncertainties affecting the prediction of cyclonic activity over the next decades. (authors)

  5. Quebec in action against climate change; Le Quebec en action contre les changements climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Quebec's commitment to the obligations of the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) was discussed. Quebec has shown leadership on the Canadian and international scene by making a firm pledge to reduce its share of atmospheric emissions while contributing to the world effort. In 1995, Quebec published its first action plan for the implementation of UNFCC. The action plan focused mainly on stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in Quebec through the adoption of voluntary measures. Thereafter, in 2000, the government of Quebec set up a second more ambitious action plan to control and reduce its emissions of GHGs. In 2001, Quebec adhered to the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers Climate Change Action Plan, a concerted gesture by states and provinces to address the climatic change issue.This plan includes all branches of industry and provides a regional base on which participating governments can collaborate. This report described Quebec's performance in the transportation sector. Use of public transit increased by 8 per cent in 5 years, despite a strong competition with cars. Quebec is also a leader in hydroelectricity. As a result, Quebec produces nearly half the GHGs per capita than the Canadian average. In addition, it can offer its citizens stable electricity prices which are amongst the lowest in North America. This report also discussed Quebec's adoptions of energy efficiency measures, wind energy, and GHG reduction technologies that include recycling carbon dioxide; biofuels; electric cars; the Ouranos initiative on climate change and climate change monitoring stations in the Arctic. figs.

  6. National program of struggle against the climate change; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-17

    The French national program of struggle against the climate change deals with the principal sources of pollution i.e. industry, transports, buildings, agriculture and forests wastes, gas refrigerants and power production. The document contains 12 chapters. First chapter concerns the France's responsibilities regarding the climatic change. The following issues are addressed: 1. The phenomenon, the gas releases and the potential impact; 2. The international negotiations and the European engagements; 3. France's effort for pollutant release abatement. The second chapter describes the principal options of the program. It presents: measures, economical constraints, long term structure actions upon offer. The third and the forth chapters deal with the industrial and transport releases and relating abatement measures. Chapter number five concerns the pollutant released in the building sector, i.e. those related to the dwelling houses, the current and proposed measures for reducing the harmful releases. The issue of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide releases and absorptions in the sector agriculture-forests is addressed in chapter 6. The contribution of these releases to the greenhouse effect amounts up to 18% (with 11, 33% and 56%, fractions from the three gas emissions, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, respectively). Measures for release reduction are presented as well as actions to improve the knowledge of the processes. A special addendum gives estimates and the implications the storms of December 1999 had upon the national program. The waste sector contributes by 3% to the greenhouse effect while the power production sector, by 8%. The fraction of release of the three principal pollutant gases are 87%, 12% and 1%, respectively. The results of a scenario based on extant and proposed measures for release abatement are presented for the period 1990-2010. The chapter 8 devoted to the power production sector presents also the results obtained from the development of renewable energy resources. Increasing efforts are undertaken particularly in the promising sector of the wind power which, cost benefit estimations show, could become comparable with the hydropower. The issue of releases of refrigerant gases is addressed in the chapter number 9. An estimation is given showing that the major contributions (more than 75%) to the total refrigerant pollution come from the agriculture and food industry, commercial refrigeration, frigorific transport and industrial application. Among abatement measures, reinforcing the control, fluid recovery, fiscal measures and research-development actions are mentioned. The chapter number 10 deals with the different territorial levels, the chapter 11 presents the transversal measures, the chapter 12 deals with the tools for follow-up the implementation of the measures against the greenhouse effect and adaptation to the national plan.

  7. National inventory report for France under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol - CCNUCC, March 2011; Rapport national d'inventaire pour la France au titre de la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques et du protocole de Kyoto - CCNUCC, Mars 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Nicco, Laetitia; Andre, Jean-Marc; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Druart, Ariane; Gueguen, Celine; Jabot, Julien; Jacquier, Guillaume; Joya, Romain; Martinet, Yann; Mathias, Etienne; Prouteau, Emilie; Serveau, Laetitia; Vincent, Julien; Allemand, Nadine; Bastide, Aurelie; Gavel, Antoine; Kessouar, Sabrina; Tuddenham, Mark [CITEPA, 7 Cite Paradis, 75010 Paris (France); Millard, Frederique; MArtineaud, Helene; MILLION, Aurelien; Nikov, Dimitar [Ministere de l' ecologie, du Developpement durable, des Transports et du Logement - MEDDTL, Direction generale de l' energie et du climat - DGEC, Grande Arche, Tour Pascal A et B, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France); Guittet, Olivier [CCDC Climat, 47, rue de la Victoire, 75009 Paris (France)

    2011-03-15

    This national inventory report supplies emission data for France within the period 1990-2009, concerning all the substances that contribute to enhancing the greenhouse effect, required under: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the second year of commitment to the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012). The substances covered are the direct greenhouse gases comprising the Kyoto Protocol 'basket of six': carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances, hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), have also to be reported by the Parties under the Convention. For the period 1990-2008 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/SBSTA/2006/9), as defined by the UNFCCC. Several changes have been added to take into account the remarks of the reviews of UNFCCC. Although significant continuous progress has been achieved in terms of the sources covered and the quality of estimates, considerable uncertainties remain concerning emissions. A table indicating uncertainties based on current knowledge has been included. Future reviews of these data are always possible, if not probable, to take into account both changes in methodology and work underway at international level with a view to improving knowledge and rules on compiling and presenting emissions. This report also includes the supplementary information required under Article 7, paragraph 1, and Article 3, paragraph 14 of the Kyoto Protocol. Emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP), which decreased by 9.4% in 2009 compared to 1990. However, this overall trend masks contrasting situations depending on the gases considered. Without LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry), the level of CO{sub 2} emissions is 4.6% lower in 2009 than in 1990, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions fell by 16.4% and 32, 6% respectively. The inventory also shows a strong increase in mass hydro-fluorocarbons emissions (+ 1158%). Taking into account structural differences in the molecules, the result is 'only' a 316% increase in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP). Expressed in CO{sub 2} equivalent, in the period 1990-2009, PFC and SF{sub 6} emissions fell by 91.5% and 71.5% respectively. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounted for the largest share in total GWP emissions (without LUCF) in 2009 (73.7%), followed by N{sub 2}O (12.2%), CH{sub 4} (10.8%), HFCs (3.0%), PFCs (0.1%), and SF{sub 6} (0.1%). Energy sector is the most important emitting source in 2009 in France in regard to the IJNFCCC source categories with 71.2% of the GWP without LULUCF. Agriculture represents 18.8% of the GWP, industrial processes, 7.4% and waste, 2.4%. Since 1990, energy and waste contributions have increased whereas contributions of the two other sectors have decreased. Key air pollution trends include: - a steady increase in emissions in the transport sector since 1990 (+9%), however with a decrease since 2005 (-7%), - a considerable reduction in N{sub 2}O emissions in the chemical industry (-84%), and to a lesser extent from agricultural soils (-16.5%), - a fall in CH{sub 4} fugitive emissions as a result of the closure of coal mines, - the decline in the use of PFCs in favour of HFC and the major increase in emissions of these compounds (+1158%). In 2009, the CO{sub 2} balance for LULUCF is a net removal which represents 12.5% of the total emissions without LULUCF of GHG expressed as CO{sub 2} equivalent. Between 1990 and 2009, there was a downward trend in mass emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect: -75% for sulphur dioxide, -62% for carbon monoxide, -36% for nitrogen oxides and - 46% for non-methane volatile organic compounds. Under the Kyoto Protocol, GHG emissions (excluding LULUCF and emission credits) amounted to 507 Mt eq. CO{sub 2} in 2009 corresponding to a reduction of 9.8% reduction compared to 1990. Concerning LULUCF under the Kyoto Protocol, related activities are managed with the articles 3.3 and 3.4. In the frame of the article 3.4, credit ceiling for France is 0.88 Mt C/year i.e. 3.2 Mt CO{sub 2}e per year. This ceiling is actually less important than the sink estimated by France for forest managed lands. Concerning article 3.3, the 2008 and 2009 balance is a net source. However the sink calculated for article 3.4 should help offset the estimated emissions in article 3.3 for the two first years of commitment.

  8. Parties at the convention of the United Nations on climatic change and second meeting of the parties to the Kyoto protocol; Parties a la convention-cadre des Nations-Unies sur les changements climatiques et seconde reunion des parties au Protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Kenya hosted the second meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in conjunction with the twelfth session of the conference of the Parties to the climatic change convention, in Nairobi from 6 to 17 November 2006. This document presents in a first part the key areas discussed at Nairobi; in a second part the international framework with the consequences of the Kyoto protocol implementation; and in the last part the demonstrable progresses of the France in the policy effects, tendencies concerning the greenhouse gases and the respect of the commitments. (A.L.B.)

  9. L'heure des changements au Conseil du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 126th session today under the chairmanship of Professor Maurice Bourquin. A review of the year's activities by outgoing Director General Luciano Maiani, a new structure for CERN, and the Globe of Innovation were among the items on the agenda

  10. Changement technologique et formation tout au long de la vie

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Behaghel

    2006-01-01

    We study the correlation between technical or organisational change and the incidence of firm-provided training across age groups, in order to test the hypothesis that older workers suffer from a comparative disadvantage with regard to training, whose consequences increase in times of changes. We obtain contrasted results. Organisational change is correlated with more frequent training in the main task and, to a lower extent, in management and teamwork, for all age groups. The rise in trainin...

  11. Document climatic change no. 02: transport and climatic warming, a high risk symposium; Fiche changement climatique no. 02: transport et rechauffement climatique, un carrefour a haut risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents data on the greenhouse effect gases emission for various transport (vehicles, train, plane, boat), the measures adopted by the governments and an analysis of the today situation. It proposes also some solutions and attitudes to decrease the emission of these greenhouse effect gases. (A.L.B.)

  12. Gestion Technique Centralisée en Génie Climatique

    CERN Document Server

    Pepinster, P

    1999-01-01

    Il y a une quinzaine d'années, la Division ST a introduit sur les équipements de chauffage et de climatisation du CERN, des systèmes de contrôle locaux à microprocesseur en lieu et place des chaînes de régulation devenues obsolètes. Adoptée dans une volonté d'évolution technologique et dans une démarche de rationalisation des dépenses d'énergie, cette technique s'est répandue sur les différents sites du Laboratoire au fil des années. Depuis les applications de confort climatique dans les bâtiments tertiaires, jusqu'au conditionnement d'air des accélérateurs et des expériences, en passant par l'autocontrôle des chaufferies centrales, ces 'Unités de Traitement Locales' (UTL) sont aujourd'hui interconnectées en un système de Gestion Technique Centralisée d'environ 140 sous-stations. L'objet du document est de présenter la structure actuelle de ce système GTC, d'en montrer les possibilités et l'intérêt dans son exploitation quotidienne au CERN, et d'aborder ses évolutions futures.

  13. Refrigeration engineering and air conditioning: answers to climatic changes; Froid et conditionnement d'air: reponses aux changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heap, R.D.

    2002-07-01

    This paper examines the nature of climatic changes and their possible environmental consequences, and gives a summary of the policy approach adopted to tackle this question. Greenhouse gases include the traditional refrigerants and the recent ones. The impact of the Montreal protocol on the abatement of the climatic change is examined and the consequences of the Kyoto protocol on the refrigeration and air conditioning engineering are presented. The actions the industry should carry out in order to reduce the climatic changes are listed and the article stresses on the progresses made so far. Many actions remain to be implemented, in particular in the domain of good practices promotion and training. The international institute of refrigeration engineering (IIF) has un important role to play in this task. (J.S.)

  14. Strategies of petroleum companies facing climate change issues; Strategies des compagnies petrolieres face a la problematique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, St.

    2005-05-01

    The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)

  15. Struggle against climate change; Lutte contre le changement climatique. document de politique transversale projet de loi de finances pour 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document first proposes a presentation of the cross-cutting policy defined for the struggle against climate change. It notably presents its various programs. It describes the implemented strategy which aims at reducing on a short term greenhouse gas emissions with the available technologies, at making the climate challenge a driver for economic competitiveness, at developing the knowledge on climatic change and at preparing the necessary adaptation measures, and at stating on the international scene the French commitment and its dynamic role in front of the climate challenge

  16. Climate change at the coast: from global to local; Impact du changement climatique sur la cote: de global a local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkinson, A.R. [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom); East Anglia Univ., School of East Science, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The IPCC has recently documented substantial changes in the global heat content of the oceans, salinity, sea level, thermal expansion and biogeochemistry. Over the 21. century anticipated climate related changes include: a rise in sea level of up to 0.6 m or more; increases in sea surface temperatures up to 3 deg. C; an intensification of tropical and extra tropical cyclones; larger extreme waves and storm surges; altered precipitation/ run-off; and ocean acidification. The Tyndall Centre has been exploring how to down-scale the global analysis to the local level within the framework of a coastal simulator. The simulator provides information on possible future states of the coast through the 21. Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links models within a nested framework, recognizing three scales: (1) global, (2) regional, and (3) local. The linked models describe a range of processes, including marine climate (waves, surges and mean sea level), sand bank morpho-dynamics, wave transformation, shoreline morpho-dynamics, built environment scenarios, ecosystem change, and erosion and flood risk. Analyses from the simulator reinforce conclusions from IPCC WG2: coasts will be exposed to increasing risks over coming decades due to many compounding climate-change factors; the impact of climate change on coasts will be exacerbated by increasing human induced pressures; the unavoidability of sea-level rise even in the longer-term frequently conflicts with present day human development patterns and trends. (author)

  17. Multiple aspects of climate change - Summary of presentations; Les multiples facettes du changement climatique - Resume des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Jean-Claude; Bauer, Pierre; Le Treut, Herve [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 78280 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Woeppelmann, Guy [Universite de la Rochelle, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Kouraev, Alexei; Remy, Frederique; Berthier, Etienne [Legos, 31401 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Lehodey, Patrick [CLS, 31520 Ramonville St Agne (France); Lebourgeois, Francois [ENGREF, AgroParisTech, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Chuine, Isabelle [CEFE, CNRS, Montpellier (France); Vennetier, Michel [CEMAGREF, 13182 Aix en Provence cedex 5 (France); Duchene, Eric [INRA-Universite de Strasbourg, 68021 Colmar Cedex (France); Lafaye, Murielle [CNES, 31401 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2011-08-15

    The French Meteorological Society (SMF) organized its annual scientific day on March 23, 2011 on the topic of the multiple aspects of climate change. The aim was to take stock of the lessons learnt from the different meteorological markers in several domains (agriculture, forests, ecosystems, rise of sea level, changes in marine biodiversity, health, snow and ice caps..). This paper summarizes the seven presentations given at this meeting: 1 - climate change today and tomorrow (H. Le Treut); 2 - rise of oceans level: estimations and regional variability (G. Woeppelmann); 3 - polar caps and continental cryo-sphere as seen from space (A. Kouraev, F. Remy and E. Berthier); 4 - impact of climate change on exploited marine populations: projections and uncertainties (P. Lehodey); 5 - stakes of climate change on agricultural and winery activities in France (E. Duchene); 6 - impact of climate change on forest trees phenology and consequence on their survival and operation (F. Lebourgeois, I. Chuine and M. Vennetier); 7 - 'tele-epidemiology': a health-aid in a climate change context. (J.S.)

  18. The many facets of climate change - Conference proceedings; Les multiples facettes du changement climatique - Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This conference day on climate change was organized by the French meteorological society (SMF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure of Paris. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Eight presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Climate change today and tomorrow, the research stakes (Herve Le Treut, IPSL); 2 - Rise of sea levels: estimations and regional variability (Guy Woeppelmann, La Rochelle Univ.); 3 - Polar ice caps and continental cryo-sphere as seen from space (A. Kouraev, F. Remy, E. Berthier, LEGOS); 4 - Impacts of climate change on exploited marine populations: projections and uncertainties (Patrick Lehodey, CLS); 5 - Climate change stakes on agricultural and winery activities in France (Eric Duchene, INRA); 6 - Impacts of climate change on forest trees phenology and their consequences on trees life and survival (Francois Lebourgeois, ENGREF); 7 - Remote-epidemiology: a health-aid in a climate change context (Murielle Lafaye, CNES); 8 - Socio-economic aspects and adaptation: a climate history, for what? (Emmanuel Garnier, Caen Univ.)

  19. Assurer la sécurité alimentaire dans un contexte de changement climatique : un défi collectif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillou Marion

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to renew our agricultural model: 1 billion people still suffer from starvation nowadays, we are running short with fossile resources and climate change is already transforming agriculture throughout the World. Food security is at stake for the decades to come and most of the international decision makers are becoming aware of it, as illustrated by a series of conferences and summits which include: the G20 summit on agriculture in Paris (June 2011 and the Earth Summit which took place in Rio on last June. However, while preparing for those important meetings decision-makers were in need for an accurate and comprehensive information on the latest scientific results. This is the reason why the international commission on sustainable agriculture and climate change was set up in 2011. Made of 13 eminent scientists, this international commission was in charge of identifying which policy changes and actions are needed to help the world achieve food security in the face of climate change. After 15 months of working, the commission issued its final report in March 2012 and this article is aimed at introducing the main conclusions of this report.

  20. Impacts du changement climatique sur la croissance et le développement du blé en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gate Philippe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge acquired over the paste decades on wheat physiology allows for an estimation of the impacts of key climatic factors on wheat physiology, yield components, as well as a quantification of the main climatic risks for the crop. Using historical weather data sets starting in 1955 from a large number of weather stations, we have concluded that a certain number of climatic risks have changed through comparison of two sequences: 1955-1980 and 1981-2005. Despite a significant anticipation of phenological stages, number of grains perm2 has been significantly affected by an incresase in water stress during stem extension; also, kernel weight is more strongly penalized through the joint effects of increased drought and especially increased heat stress during grain filling. These tendancies vary geographically. Certain regions have been affected early on (mediteranean region, whereas others are almost untouched as yet (western maritime front. Studies using projected future weather data validates this tendancy and allows its extrapolation. We propose adaptation pathways through escape based on varietal earliness and identify new phenological ideotypes and modes of growth better adapted to future risk. As a complement, the interest of selecting for cultivars tolerant to abiotic stresses is put forward, especially cultivars efficient with regards to water use and resistant to high temperatures. For these aspects, simple diagnostic methods and characterization tools are given. Finally, a preliminary analysis of the adaptation of cropping practices (sowing, nitrogen fertilization, lodging control is initiated.

  1. Built cultural heritage facing climate change risks; Le patrimoine culturel bati face aux risques du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Roger-Alexandre [Paris-Est Creteil Univ., 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Martin, Daniel [Ministere de l' Ecologie, du Developpement durable, des Transports et du Logement, Grande Arche, Tour Pascal A et B, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    The built cultural heritage would face important risks in the frame of climate change. They are well identified by the major international organizations, but only in a qualitative manner, and mainly refer on the action of water or on its absence. The most active research is supported by the European Commission. The results obtained by the European project 'Noah's Ark' are the most important at the day. Dose-Response Functions with predictive climate models are used to produce vulnerability maps at a European scale of which one example is presented. The recommendations of the Council of Europe for policy makers and researchers are developed as a conclusion. Three case studies are synthesized in annex of this article: Venice, London and Paris. (authors)

  2. Le changement climatique à partir de 850 av. J.-C. et l'expansion de la culture scythe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Geel; N.A. Bokovenko; V.A. Dergachev; H. Parzinger; G.I. Zaitseva

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Climatic change since 850 BC and development of the Scythian culture. The climate shift to more humid conditions at the Subboreal/Subatlantic transition in Northwest Europe is also evident in southern Siberia. Regions that originally were semi-deserts developed into attractive steppe areas

  3. Effects of climate change on US agriculture; Les effets du changement climatique sur l'agriculture americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, L

    2007-08-15

    The USA are a major producer of food and fiber products in the world. The US agriculture represents more than 25% of the world trades of wheat, corn, soy and cotton. The cultivated surfaces and the pasture lands represent 210 million Ha (17% of the US territory) and 300 million Ha (26% of the US territory), respectively. The agricultural production represents less than 2% of the US GDP, put the agriculture products make about 5% of the US exports. The climate change may have some impacts on the overall agriculture industry, from the plant growth to the conditions of competition on international markets. In 2001, the US global change research program, published an evaluation report about the potential consequences of the climate change on the US agriculture. The conclusions of the panel of experts, based on climate, cultivation and economical models, was that the CO{sub 2} levels and climate changes of the 21. century would have no negative impact on the US agriculture. The average effects, on the contrary, would be rather positive, depending on the type of culture and on the region considered. Today, the experts have entertained lot of doubts about the 2001 forecasts: the fertilizing effect of CO{sub 2} is more and more criticized and an efficient supply of water appears as seriously compromised for many regions. Experts stress also on the lack of consideration for extreme climatic events, and for crop vermin and diseases. This document reanalyzes the conclusions of the 2001 report in the light of the works carried out more recently at the Agriculture Research Service (ARS). The proceedings of expert's interviews are attached in appendixes. (J.S.)

  4. Sécheresses des sols en France et changement climatique : Résultats et applications du projet ClimSec

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Soubeyroux; N. Kitova; Blanchard, M.; Vidal, J.P.; E. Martin; P. Dandin

    2012-01-01

    The ClimSec project has studied the impact of climate change on drought and soil water over France by using a climatological reanalysis of the SAFRAN/ISBA/MODCOU suite (SIM) since 1958. Standardized drought indices for precipitation (SPI) and soil moisture (SSWI) have been defined for research purposes to characterize the various kinds of events. They were then adapted for operational hydrological monitoring and used to assess the exceptional drought of spring 2011. These indices were also ca...

  5. Challenges of climate change. Which climate governance?; Les enjeux du changement climatique. Quelle gouvernance pour le climat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A.; Cros, Ch

    2007-07-01

    This report deals with the main challenges of climate change, and attempts to answer some questions: what is the temperature increase foreseen by scientific experts? Who will be affected by the consequences of climate change? Are there technologies to reduce emissions? If yes, why are they not diffused? Is it justified to ask developing countries to do something? Are concurrence distortions a real problem? Which are the main sectors where emissions are to be reduced? Are tools developed at the international level efficient? What is the present assessment for the clean development mechanism? What can be thought of technological partnerships developed with the United States? Then, the report comments the present status of international discussions, proposes a brief assessment of the Kyoto protocol ten years after its implementation, and proposes some improvement pathways.

  6. Modèle mathématique à bilan d'énergie du changement climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Ogutu, Benjamin Keroboto Za'Ngoti

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to build a global reduced-complexity model of coupled climate-economy-biosphere interactions, which uses the minimum number of variables and equations needed to capture the fundamental mechanisms involved and can thus help clarify the role of the different mechanisms and parameters. The Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model takes an integrated assessment approach to simulating global change. While many integrated assessment models treat abatement costs mere...

  7. Challenges of Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Nigeria: a Synthesis from the Literature Les enjeux de l’adaptation agricole au changement climatique au Nigéria : synthèse de la littérature Retos de la adaptación agrícola al cambio climático en Nigeria: una síntesis de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Anselm A. Enete; Taofeeq A. Amusa

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat to the fight against hunger, malnutrition, disease and poverty in Africa, mainly through its impact on agricultural productivity. This paper discusses the challenges of agricultural adaptation to climate change in Nigeria under the categories (adapted from FAO, 2001) - Hunger and Poverty; Agricultural funding for research and technology development; Traditional agricultural practices; Trade Liberalization and Market Development; ...

  8. Le changement: inquiétude ou motivation des enseignants ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gremaud, Céline; Roth, Tiphaine; Stierli-Cavat, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ce mémoire traite du changement. Dans le cadre de cette recherche, nous nous sommes intéressées à la manière dont les enseignants de CIN et de CYP1 appréhendent le changement. Nous souhaitions découvrir et comprendre la manière dont le changement investit notre vie d’enseignant. Le choix de ce thème a été décidé dans le but de nous armer pour notre vie professionnelle future. D’un point de vue théorique, le changement est complexe. Selon Perrenoud (1999), il peut être de deux types : so...

  9. Analyse rétrospective de l'évolution climatique récente en Afrique du Nord-Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Soto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude vise à évaluer et à comprendre les tendances climatiques récentes et les ruptures de stationnarité au Maroc, en Mauritanie, au Sénégal et sur le proche océan. Pour cela est entreprise une analyse statistique de l'évolution annuelle des températures de l'air, des pressions atmosphériques au niveau de la mer, des précipitations et de la dynamique éolienne.Les analyses confirment le tournant climatique des années 1970-1980. Ainsi les températures varient-elles localement, avec un réchauffement sensible au-dessus de l'Océan Atlantique entre 40°N et 14°N, au Maroc et au Sénégal (région du Nord, alors que le Sud-Est de la Mauritanie se refroidit. De même, le renforcement de la pression atmosphérique est accompagné d'un renversement de l'harmattan, avec une augmentation de la fréquence de sa composante orientale.L'éclairage apporté par les données paléoclimatiques ne permet pas de déterminer une analogie uniforme avec les deux derniers extrêmes climatiques connus (optimum climatique holocène et dernier maximum glaciaire. Le réchauffement littoral et continental, de même que le renforcement de la composante franchement orientale de l'harmattan, rappellent les caractéristiques de la circulation atmosphérique du début de l'Holocène. Cependant l'augmentation des précipitations au cours des dernières années est moins significative. Par ailleurs, le renforcement de la pression atmosphérique suggère, d'un côté, le renforcement de l'agglutination anticyclonique continentale et, d'un autre, un affaiblissement de la dépression saharienne pendant l'été.Le signal climatique s'avère donc complexe à saisir, dans ses dimensions spatiale et temporelle, et requiert d'étendre l'étude à d'autres variables aussi bien qu'à d'autres périodes analogues.The following study aims to evaluate and understand the recent climatic trends and significant stationary breaks in Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal and

  10. Innovation et recomposition territoriale au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Boujrouf, Saïd

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Les processus de recomposition territoriale au Maroc se caractérisent par une dynamique continue, reflet des grands changements qui ont affecté les différents secteurs du pays au cours du xxe siècle. Le renouvellement territorial au Maroc est un processus de recomposition permanent, depuis les trames traditionnelles (qu’elles soient tribale, confessionnelle liée aux confréries ou encore « seigneuriale » caïdale) jusqu’aux maillages territoriaux les plus récents en communes et rég...

  11. L'entrepreneuriat institutionnel : le rôle des individus dans les processus de changement institutionnel

    OpenAIRE

    Battilana, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Comment les individus peuvent ils agir en entrepreneurs institutionnels malgré les pressions institutionnelles qui s'exercent sur eux ? Dans cette étude, je montre que la position des individus dans le champ a un impact sur leur susceptibilité d'agir en entrepreneurs institutionnels. Pour tester le modèle que je développe, j'utilise des données concernant 93 projets de changements qui ont été mis en oeuvre par 93 managers au sein du National Health Service entre 2002 et 2004. Les résultats de...

  12. Aérosols atmosphériques propriétés et impacts climatiques

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    L’hypothèse d’une cause anthropique au réchauffement climatique est désormais considérée comme valide par la très grande majorité de la communauté scientifique. Les gaz à effet de serre ne sont toutefois pas les seuls facteurs de modification du climat. Le rôle des aérosols doit aussi être souligné : il est admis que ces derniers ont partiellement masqué le pouvoir réchauffant des gaz à effet de serre depuis le début de l’ère industrielle. Ils interagissent en outre fortement avec le cycle de l’eau et un certain nombre de cycles biogéochimiques. C’est l’ensemble de ces interactions – entre aérosols, rayonnement, cycle hydrologique, etc. – que ce livre propose de passer en revue. Après avoir décrit les principales propriétés physiques et chimiques des aérosols, le livre expose les principes de modélisation des aérosols à grande échelle ; il décrit ensuite la théorie du transfert radiatif dans l’atmosphère, les techniques de télédétection et d’observati...

  13. Changements de pratique en viticulture bourguignonne et interactions sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnone, Claude

    2003-01-01

    En Bourgogne, les viticulteurs sont aujourd'hui fortement incités à adopter des pratiques d'agriculture raisonnée. Un travail de recherche, appuyé sur des enquêtes, a été engagé dans une commune de Saône-et-Loire pour saisir en quoi des viticulteurs peuvent opérer des changements de pratique et comment ces changements peuvent être expliqués par leur position sociale. L'analyse du réseau complet des dialogues professionnels sur le thème des pratiques viticoles distingue des viticulteurs appart...

  14. Les négociations climatiques : vingt ans d’aveuglement ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Aykut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Le régime climatique est, parmi les régimes internationaux qui concernent l’environnement, unique à la fois par son importance, le nombre de partenaires impliqués, le rôle de l’accompagnement scientifique, les moyens déployés, la régularité des conférences onusiennes consacrées et l’ampleur de ces rendez-vous planétaires. La déception après l’échec de la conférence de Copenhague en 2009 fut à la hauteur des attentes suscitées. Il y a eu différentes tentatives d’expliquer cet échec. A la différence de ces analyses, qui gardent leur pertinence, mais adoptent un regard plutôt « internaliste » du régime climatique, nous allons montrer en quoi l’impasse actuelle des négociations reflète un schisme plus large entre une réalité de l'extérieur, celle de la globalisation des marchés, de l’exploitation effrénée des ressources d’énergies fossiles et des Etats pris dans une concurrence économique féroce, et de l’autre, une sphère des négociations et de la gouvernance qui véhicule l’imaginaire d’un « grand régulateur central » apte à définir et distribuer des droits d’émissions mais de moins en moins en prise avec la réalité extérieure. A travers les principales étapes de l’histoire des négociations – signature de l’UNFCCC, Protocole de Kyoto, non-ratification des États-Unis, montée des émergents, échec de Copenhague et préparations pour Paris 2015 –, nous suivrons l’évolution d’un cadrage qui agrandit le schisme au lieu de le réduire. L’histoire du régime climatique est aussi celle d’un décalage entre temporalités : la lenteur des négociations contraste avec des accélérations dans le monde réel – globalisation économique, gaz de schiste aux États-Unis, ascension des émergents, mais aussi essor des renouvelables dans plusieurs pays – insuffisamment reflétés dans les négociations.

  15. Contribution of the working group 2 to the fourth evaluation report of the inter government expert group on the climatic change. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; Contribution du Groupe de travail 2 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'expert intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: impacts, adaptation et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document exposes the results of the fourth evaluation report of the working group II of the inter government experts group on the climatic change. This evaluation presents the today scientific understanding of the climatic change impacts on the humans and their adaptation ability and vulnerability. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and new knowledge added since the third evaluation report. (A.L.B.)

  16. Contribution of the the working group 1 to the fourth evaluation report of the intergovernmental experts group on the climate evolution. Evaluation 2007 of the climatic changes the physical scientifical bases. Abstract for the deciders; Contribution du groupe de travail 1 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques les bases scientifiques physiques. Resume a l'intention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This report describes the progresses in the knowledge of the scientifical understand of the natural and human causes of the climatic change. It is based on the GIEC evaluations and the last six years of research with scenario and simulations. (A.L.B.)

  17. No. 3425 National Assembly. No. 56 Senate, report on the contributions of the science and the technology to the sustainable development Tome 1: the climatic changes and the energy transition: over the crisis; No. 3425 Assemblee Nationale. No. 56 Senat, rapport sur 'les apports de la science et de la technologie au developpement durable' Tome 1: 'changement climatique et transition energetique: depasser la crise'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    Energy crisis can be avoided by the use of anticipation policies. After an examination of the technologies, concerning the energy production and more particularly the electricity, the energy conservation, the new transport modes and the new houses architecture, the authors noted that these policies exist, but need time to implement. In this framework this report aims to defines the situation and bring some recommendations and answers to implement a real policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Evolutions du climat et de la végétation lors de la transition Eocène-Oligocène en domaine continental : le cas du bassin de Rennes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghirardi, Julie; Jacob, Jérémy; Huguet, Arnaud; Bauer, Hugues; Le Milbeau, Claude; Giovanni, Christian Di; Quesnel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    International audience Le refroidissement affectant la Transition Eocène-Oligocène (TEO) est un des changements climatiques majeurs du Cénozoïque. C’est au cours de cette transition climatique que la calotte polaire antarctique se développe et devient permanente. En conséquence, de nombreuses perturbations environnementales ont vraisemblablement affecté la biosphère. Afin de comprendre l’impact de cette transition climatique sur les environnements continentaux, la matière organique préserv...

  19. Life Cycle Assessment Applied to Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Analyse de cycle de vie appliquée au reformage catalytique du naphta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portha J.-F.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Facing the increase of environmental concerns in the oil and gas industry, engineers and scientists need information to assess sustainability of chemical processes. Among the different methods available, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is widely used. In this study, LCA is applied to a catalytic reforming process using the Eco- Indicator 99 as life cycle impact assessment method. The main identified environmental impacts are fossil fuels consumption, climate change and respiratory effects due to inorganics compounds. The influence of different process parameters (feed composition, reaction temperature is determined with respect to environmental impacts. Two allocation methods are analysed (mass and exergetic allocation and two different process versions are compared in order to determine the effect of some improvements on environmental impact. Les considérations liées à l’environnement doivent de plus en plus être prises en compte par les ingénieurs et les scientifiques afin de juger de la durabilité des procédés chimiques dans l’industrie pétrolière et gazière. Parmi les différentes méthodes d’analyse environnementale, l’Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV est très utilisée. Dans cette étude, l’ACV est appliquée au procédé de reformage catalytique du naphta en utilisant la méthode Eco-Indicateur 99 comme méthode d’analyse des impacts du cycle de vie. Les principaux impacts environnementaux du procédé sont la consommation de combustibles fossiles, le changement climatique et les effets sur la respiration liés aux composés organiques. L’influence de différents paramètres (composition de l’alimentation, température de réaction sur les impacts environnementaux est testée. Deux méthodes d’allocation sont analysées (allocation massique et énergétique et deux versions du procédé de reformage catalytique sont comparées afin de déterminer les améliorations possibles permettant de minimiser les impacts.

  20. Modélisation de l’habitat des ressources halieutiques dans le golfe de Gabès et projections selon un scénario de changement global

    OpenAIRE

    T. HATTAB; F. BEN RAIS LASRAM; Sammari, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Le golfe de Gabès situé au sud-est de la Tunisie, est la région où l’activité de pêche est la plus développée du pays. L’intensité de cette activité a eu des conséquences négatives sur l’écosystème (diminution de la productivité, changements dans la composition spécifique des assemblages, recul du couvert végétal etc…) qui, par ailleurs, est le siège d’une pollution importante et où le changement global se fait de plus en plus ressentir. Il est maintenant démontré que le changemen...

  1. Studies in Petroleum Composition Changes in the Nature of Chemical Constituents During Crude Oil Distillation Études de la composition du pétrole Changements de nature des constituants chimiques au cours de la distillation du pétrole brut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available As one part of a research program investigating the composition of petroleum feedstocks, a detailed investigation has been made of the influence of distillation on the distribution of nitrogen, metals and coke precursors originally in a heavy crude oil. This work also allows an assessment to be made of the influence of thermal effects (i. e. still-pot temperature on functionality distribution. In all senses of the word, the distillation process concentrates nitrogen, metals, coke precursors and, other functionalities in the residuum. Furthermore, the distillation process causes some minor molecular alterations to the feedstock constituents. This information is not only relevant for laboratory studies of process effects but also for laboratory studies of recovery operations that may be greatly influenced by functionality occurrence and distribution in crude oils. Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche sur la composition des charges de pétrole, l'influence de la distillation sur la répartition de l'azote, des métaux et de produits de tête présents au départ dans les huiles brutes lourdes, a été étudiée en détail. Ce travail permet également d'évaluer l'influence des effets thermiques (c'est-à-dire la température de l'évaporateur sur la répartition des groupements fonctionnels. Dans tous les sens du terme, le processus de distillation concentre l'azote, les métaux et les produits de tête ainsi que d'autres groupes fonctionnels du résidu. De plus, le processus de distillation provoque des modifications moléculaires mineures des constituants de la charge. Cette information concerne les études de laboratoire portant sur les effets du processus mais aussi celles qui sont consacrées aux opérations de récupération pouvant être influencées notablement par la présence et la répartition de groupes fonctionnels dans les huiles brutes.

  2. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change; Energie, le monde ne devrait pas opter pour le nucleaire pour lutter contre le rechauffement climatique. Nucleaire et changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, S

    2007-06-15

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  3. Climatic change and indigenous and non-indigenous ravagers : a new reality?; Changements climatiques et les ravageurs indigenes et exotiques : une nouvelle realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regniere, J.; Cooke, B.; Logan, J.A.; Carroll, A.; Safranyik, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Forest Service

    2005-07-01

    The impact that climate change may have on ecological diversity was discussed with particular reference to the movement of indigenous and non-indigenous insects that are harmful to trees. Insects in particular, are more likely to evolve rapidly and adapt to ecological change. Those with a high rate of reproduction and which can move long distances will colonize new habitats and survive a wide range of bio-physical conditions. This PowerPoint presentation included a series of graphs, tables and charts to illustrate the increased presence of various harmful insects in northern forests, including the balsam twig aphid, balsam gall midge, gypsy moth, hemlock looper, western spruce budworm, and forest tent caterpillar. It was shown that large changes in ecosystems are expected to occur at northern latitudes and higher altitudes. tabs., figs.

  4. How to account for irreversibility in integrated assessment of climate change?; Comment tenir compte de l'irreversibilite dans l'evaluation integree du changement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha Duong, M

    1998-04-15

    How to account for irreversibility in integrated assessment of climate change? This Ph. D. thesis in Economics balances discounting, technical progress and the inertia of existing capital stock against uncertainty and the inertia of socio-economic systems to examine the issue of near term limitations of greenhouse gases emissions. After a general overview in chapter 2, and a more historical presentation of the debates in chapter 3, chapter 4 proceeds to review a large number of integrated assessment models. Chapter 5 introduces a Model on the Dynamics of Inertia and Adaptability of energy systems: DIAM, used to discuss how much previous studies might have overestimated the long term costs of CO{sub 2} limitations and underestimated adjustment costs. It shows that, given a target date for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration stabilisation, a higher inertia implies a lower optimal concentration trajectory. In a sequential decision framework, chapter 6 shows that current uncertainties about which CO{sub 2} concentration ceiling would not present dangerous interference with the climate system justifies precautionary action. Finally, chapter 7 uses the irreversibility effect theory to define formally situations of decision under controversy and compare the irreversibility of CO{sub 2} accumulation with the irreversibility of investments needed to moderate it. An option value for greenhouse gases emissions limitations is computed. (author)

  5. The climatic warming: an initiation guidebook to climate changes; Le rechauffement climatique: un guide d'initiation aux changements du climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, F.

    2003-07-01

    Among all environmental consequences of the human activities, the climatic warming up is without any doubt the most serious threat. This book explains how greenhouse gases have warmed up the Earth's atmosphere to allow the development of life, a subtle equilibrium today endangered by the human activities. The author describes the mechanisms of the climatic system and presents the different scenarios established from the most recent models. Then it presents the main expected changes due to the global warming. The observed and foreseen trends are described using graphics, showing the probable consequences on the sea level, on the environment and on the world economy. Finally, some alternatives to limit the consequences of climatic change are listed (clean energy sources, transportation systems, etc..). (J.S.)

  6. Climatic change: back to the IIF talk at La Haye; Changements climatiques: retour sur la communication de l'IIF a La Haye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, J.L.

    2002-07-01

    This document reprints the communication given by F. Billiard, head of the international institute of refrigeration (IIF), at the COP-6 conference of La Haye (November 2000). In his talk, F. Billiard explains the contribution of the refrigeration industry to the global warming which is mainly due to the leaks of refrigerants (CFC, HCFC, HFC) and to the carbon dioxide emissions corresponding to the electric power consumption of refrigerating machineries, air-conditioners and heat pumps. Thus, the abatement of these greenhouse gas emissions requires an improvement of the confinement of the refrigeration equipments and a continuous optimization of their energy efficiency. A second part analyzes the key points of this communication and the choice of some objective appreciation criteria for the remedial actions to be implemented. A glossary completes the document. (J.S.)

  7. La science forestière en soutien des négociations internationales sur les changements climatiques et ses implications locales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest science in support to international negotiation on climate change and its local consequences. This article gives an analysis of the major scientific questions underlying the decision making process dealing with forest monitoring under the topic land use, land use change and forestry as a driving force for climate change. It first gives the major scientific findings used as guidelines for political decisions since 1988. It than gives the head-lines of scientific reports which were requested as decision tools in the international negotiation on climate change and describes the redaction process in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. After a prospective analysis on key political issues around the Kyoto Protocol, the article concludes on the need for scientific expertise in the follow up of these technical debates.

  8. Impacts du changement climatique sur les bilans de carbone et de gaz à effet de serre de la prairie permanente en lien avec la diversité fonctionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarel, Amélie

    2011-01-01

    In France, the grassland ecosystem represents an important part of the total of agricultural landscape and provides important economic and ecological services. This multifunctional ecosystem is a complex biological system where atmosphere, plants and soil interact together,via the biogeochemical cycles (particularly carbon and nitrogen cycles). In order to maintain goods and services from grasslands in changing environmental conditions, current research on the grassland ecosystem focus on the...

  9. 2007 status of climate changes: synthesis report. Summary for policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: rapport de synthese. Resume a l'intention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This Synthesis Report is based on the assessment carried out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It provides an integrated view of climate change as the final part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Topic 1 summarises observed changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, regardless of their causes, while topic 2 assesses the causes of the observed changes. Topic 3 presents projections of future climate change and related impacts under different scenarios. Topic 4 discusses adaptation and mitigation options over the next few decades and their interactions with sustainable development. Topic 5 assesses the relationship between adaptation and mitigation on a more conceptual basis and takes a longer-term perspective. Topic 6 summarises the major robust findings and remaining key uncertainties in this assessment.

  10. The trans-national corporations and the social-historical institution of climate change; Les firmes transnationales et l'institution social-historique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, M

    2007-06-15

    Our thesis relates to the trans-national corporations whose activities are blamed in the climate change problem. It deals with their actions in relation to the political process engaged by the states at the beginning of the 1990's, and with their influence on the definition of the solutions to be brought to the problem. More precisely, as part of a broader reflection on the social-historical institution of the problem - the fact that it is instituted, by means of the imaginary, in and by particular societies, at a certain moment of their history and for a certain time - and considering the period extending from 1989 to 2001, we wanted to elucidate two things. On the one hand, why, for (or against) what and how did these corporations act (i.e. the cause, the aim and the content of their actions) in relation to the political process. And, on the other hand, up to what point these actions (making the most of a 'relational power'), but also the sole fact that the studied corporations exist (a situation from which they derive an 'institutional power'), had effects on the process and, more especially, on the definition of the solutions. The choice of analysing these major 'non-st= ate' actors arose from two intermingled motivations. The main motivation was to demonstrate the need to take into account these large firms (in addition to the states, the interstate institutions and the other non-state actors) to be able to understand the evolution of the political process, and thus to remedy at the lack of studies on the subject. The other motivation was to contribute, more in filigree, at the comprehension of the way capitalism - understood as a 'social regime' (i.e. a specific type of institution of the society) that can exist only in and by the corporation - face this problem which, more than any other ecological problem, deeply questions it, that means threatens it. (author)

  11. Impacts du changement climatique sur l'hydrologie et la gestion des ressources en eau du bassin de la Meuse (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauwens, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of climate change on hydrological regimes and water resources management in the Meuse catchment. A review. This review examines the consequences of climate change on the hydrology of the Meuse catchment and on various water-related socio-economic sectors. It sums up the different modeling approaches in hydrological modeling, placing emphasis on current modeling assumptions and the restrictions inherent within them. It is useful to consider land use evolution and adapted management within the context of climate change, particularly with reference to agriculture. More specifically, a broader usage of physically-based hydrological models would be useful in order to represent climate change scenarios and possible adaptation tracks at the catchment scale. These physically-based hydrological models are able to represent a wide range of phenomena occurring in the water-soil-plant continuum. They thus allow a refinement of global hydrological solutions at the catchment scale, especially during low flow periods. Moreover, such models pave the way for the analysis of scenarios aimed at creating adaptation in the use and management of soils.

  12. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study; Impacts du changement climatique sur le potentiel eolien en France: une etude de regionalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  13. Le changement climatique d'origine humaine. Rappel de quelques résultats générauxAnthropogenic climate change: general results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Michel

    1999-02-01

    The IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) reports have highlighted major results, which constitute a relevant framework for the specific papers in this issue. Both facts established with large confidence level and models results are presented.

  14. Synthesis of the 2011 'struggle against climate change' DPT; Synthese du DPT 2011 lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    A DPT is a document of transverse policy in France. This paper presents the DPT which addresses the struggle against climate change. It briefly presents the French budget effort on this topic, indicates some programs addressing this issue and contained in the DPT, comments the expenses of these programs which are taken into account in the DPT, evokes incentive mechanisms based on tax expenses. It finally evokes the indicators aimed at assessing the success or failure of these programs

  15. Impact of climate change on heavy precipitation events of the Mediterranean basin; Impact du changement climatique sur les evenements de pluie intense du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, D.; Beaulant, A.L.; Deque, M.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Martin, E.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana Segui, P.; Ribes, A.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France et CNRS, Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (GAME), 31 - Toulouse (France); Boe, J. [California Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A second topic covered by the CYPRIM project aims to characterize the evolution of heavy precipitation events in Mediterranean in the context of climate change. To this end, a continuous climate simulation from 1960 to 2099 has been run using a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model under IPCC A2 emission scenario. Various techniques of down-scaling, down to the very fine 2 km scale, and methods to highlight synoptic environments favourable to heavy rain, have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on precipitation and hydrology over South-East France, both for the whole autumn season and the heavy rain events. (authors)

  16. Transports and climate change: framework for public action; Transports et changement climatique: cadre de reference pour l'action publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D. [Ministere de l' Ecologie, de l' Energie, du Developpement Durable et de l' Amenagement du territoire (MEEDDAT), 92 - La Defense (France)

    2008-07-01

    The author proposes an analysis of instruments to be implemented within the frame of a 'transports and climate change' sector-based plan. This analysis is based on a modelling of this sector, and includes some of the instruments proposed in the Stern report. After a presentation of this analysis framework, the author comments the issue of articulating technological policies and those aiming at the modification of behaviours through the setting of an appropriate price-signal. This aspect is further studied by taking a pre-existing substantial fuel taxing into account. Then the issue of articulation with transport policy is examined for the assessment of infrastructures which would be alternative to roads.

  17. Long term impact of climate change on the metropolitan coast; Impacts a long terme du changement climatique sur le littoral metropolitain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In its first part, this report describes global physical phenomena: air and sea temperature rise, modification of the tempest regime, precipitations, ocean stratification. Then, it describes some more specific physical effects of climate change: average sea level rise, sea currents (global, regional and local oceanic circulation), and wave modification on the coast. It describes the effects of various media due to sea submersion, erosion and accretion, ocean acidification, salinization increase of underground coastal waters, modification of the composition of biotic communities, biological invasions, and appearance of new toxicities for mankind

  18. Les scénarios globaux de changement climatique et leurs incertitudesGlobal scenarios of climate change and associated uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Hervé

    2003-06-01

    The changes in the atmospheric chemical composition since the beginning of the industrial era have no equivalent throughout the Quaternary. All model simulations indicate that, without a significant decrease of the greenhouse gases emissions, climate is bound to change importantly during the years and decades to come. The precise forecast of these changes is made difficult both by the characteristics of natural systems which are not entirely predictable - as well as by our present and future socio-economic choices. To cite this article: H. Le Treut, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  19. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France; Evaluation du cout des impacts du changement climatique et de l'adaptation en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document reports the works of an inter-departmental group and of sector-based and transverse groups which aimed at assessing the impacts of climate change. After a first contribution about the assessment methodology, the works of sector-based groups and transverse groups are reported. These groups are dealing with agriculture, forest, infrastructures and built environment, tourism, energy, health, water, natural risks (and insurance and adaptation to climatic change in metropolitan France), biodiversity and land. For each of them, challenges, assessment approaches, first results and perspectives are discussed

  20. Climate change and growth of the residential sector in emerging countries; Changement climatique et croissance du secteur residentiel dans les pays emergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, C

    2008-07-01

    As the development current status in emerging countries (urbanization, industrialization) is a major opportunity to build low carbon economies, the author highlights the importance of a priority action in the field of infrastructures, and that such action would contribute to a better control of energy demand growth. She also comments some data according to which the residential and tertiary sector represents 30 to 40% of the whole primary energy consumed, is the first sector in terms of contribution in greenhouse gas emission in OECD countries, and presents a dramatic growth in China for example. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in OECD countries, the author states that new and available technologies allowing the control of energy demand must be better diffused. As far as the residential sector is concerned, she identifies two possibilities: to replace coal by gas (an expensive solution for households) or to go on with coal while improving building thermal performance. She notices that some institutional obstacles remain, and that international cooperation must be strengthened.

  1. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research; Changement climatique et santeaux Etats-Unis: impacts, adaptations et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M

    2009-11-15

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  2. International negotiations on climate change towards a new international deal?; Les negociations sur le changement climatique: vers une nouvelle donne internationale?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This document reports the work performed by the French 'Centre d'Analyse Strategique' until the first of November within the perspective of a new international agreement to struggle against climate change beyond 2012. The basic idea is that such an agreement will have a meaning only if it is signed and ratified by the both main greenhouse gas emitting countries, the United States and China. A first part of this report describes the context and the post-2012 negotiation perspectives, as well as the status of international cooperation in the field of climate change. The two following chapters present syntheses of the climate policies and negotiation postures of China and United States. Then, the authors give an overview of the strategic interests and postures of some other big countries like India, Brazil, Russia, Canada, OPEC countries, and so on. The last part deals with issues of rights of intellectual property applied to the elaboration of 'clean' technologies and to international technological transfers.

  3. Climate change: a reality for the French overseas territories; Le changement climatique: une realite pour l'outre-mer francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, Th.; Cravatte, S. [IRD / Legos, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-05-15

    Warming of the climate system is now unequivocal (see GIEC, 2007). Sea surface temperature and salinity are analyzed for the last decades in the vicinity of French overseas territories, as regional indicators of the related climatic changes. We show a non-homogenous increase in temperature for all territories, as well as a freshening of the waters in the tropical Pacific and an increase of surface salinity in the Atlantic suggesting a drastic modification of the global water cycle. (authors)

  4. Le rôle de la biomasse dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et dans la diversification énergétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Jean-Louis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduce greenhouse gas emissions, sequestrate carbon and contribute to the security of energy: these objectives will be for some part the result of mobilization of biomass. France, with its forest area (the third country in Europe and its 7,5 Ma of set-aside area can hope to substitue each year till 20% of the fossil energy she needs.

  5. Risques et impacts environnementaux des retenues d’altitude pour la production de neige de culture dans un contexte de changement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Gaucherand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les retenues d’altitude sont des ouvrages hydrauliques implantés dans les stations de loisirs de montagne et destinés à créer une réserve d’eau, dédiée principalement à la production de neige de culture. Leur implantation en altitude en fait indubitablement des retenues spécifiques, subissant et induisant des risques et des impacts sur leur environnement anthropique et écologique. Le Cemagref a engagé un projet de recherche sur la sûreté des retenues d’altitude. Le présent article est issu de ces travaux et vise à établir un état des lieux des risques liés aux retenues d’altitude et de leurs impacts sur l’environnement. Il replace le développement des retenues d’altitude dans leurs contextes sociétal, social et environnemental. Il développe ensuite les risques et impacts des retenues d’altitude, en focalisant son analyse sur les différents risques et aléas spécifiques auxquels sont exposés les ouvrages, et sur les différents impacts environnementaux liés à la réalisation et la gestion des retenues.Mountain reservoirs are hydraulic structures implanted in recreational mountain resorts designed to provide a water reserve mainly used for the production of artificial snow. Their implantation in high-altitude zones makes them highly specific reservoirs subjected to and inducing risks and impacts on their human and ecological environment. Based on in-depth bibliographic and field research, Cemagref has launched a study on mountain reservoirs. The present article aims to establish the current state of the risks related to mountain reservoirs and their impacts on the environment, placing the development of mountain reservoirs in their societal, social, and environmental contexts. It will then develop mountain reservoir risks and impacts, focusing on the specific risks and uncertainties to which these structures are exposed, and the different environmental impacts related to the construction and management of these reservoirs.

  6. Potential evolution of the Seine River flood regime under climate change; Evolution potentielle du regime des crues de la Seine sous changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducharne, A.; Habets, F.; Gascoin, S.; Oudin, L. [UMR Sisyphe, UMR 7619 CNRS/UPMC, 75 - Paris (France); Sauquet, E. [Cemagref, UR Hydrologie-Hydraulique, 69 - Lyon (France); Hachour, A.; Viennot, P. [Centre de Geosciences, MINES ParisTech, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Deque, M.; Martin, E. [CNRM, Meteo-France, 31 - Toulouse (France); Page, Ch.; Terray, L. [CERFACS, Sciences de l' Univers, URA 1875 CERFACS/CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Thiery, D. [BRGM, Service Eau, 45 - Orleans (France)

    2011-02-15

    We regionalized 12 different scenarios of anthropogenic climate change in the Seine River basin, which were used as input to 5 different hydrological models. The resulting hydrological scenarios all agree on a marked depletion of the water resources during the 21. century, with an annual mean decrease in both water table level and river discharge. At the seasonal scale, the reduction of river flow is more marked on low than on high flows, the decrease of which is also less robust. The response of extreme flows is even more contrasted, and the QJXA10 high-flow quantile (annual daily maximum with an average return period of 10 years) would not change significantly during the 21. century. Our results also suggest that the 100-year flood, extrapolated using the Gradex method, would remain of the same order of magnitude as today. (authors)

  7. To share the Knowledge and to get a dialog going. The climatic change; Partager la connaissance et ouvrir le dialogue. Le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This document aims to inform the public on the climatic change situation and consequences. It presents in a first part the today situation of the global warming and the physical consequences on the environment. The second part is devoted to the consequences on the human activities and the necessary adaptations. The last part discusses the ethical and political aspects, the way of life of the society and wonders on the possible evolutions. (A.L.B.)

  8. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change; 4. communication nationale a la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  9. Etat qualitatif des eaux de la nappe du val d'Orléans : impact du changement climatique et gestion durable de la ressource

    OpenAIRE

    Joigneaux, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is the impact of climate change on groundwater quality in the Val of Orléans (France). First, geochemical studies made on Loire River and related spring with isotopic composition and major elements revealed a mixing between Loire river water and older karst water in the aquifer. Calcite precipitation and Fe-Hydroxydes formation in the karst play a major role on the behaviour and fate of trace elements. Then, geochemical studies on contaminants like pesticids and pharmace...

  10. Modélisation des impacts du changement climatique sur les écosystèmes prairiaux. Voies d'adaptation des systèmes fourrragers

    OpenAIRE

    Graux, Anne-Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Grasslands ensure a variety of services to the agricultural community and the society as a whole. Dairy and beef production are the major objectives of grassland management. However, they are also effective to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sequestering the atmospheric carbon into the soil. Considering the challenges of demographic and climate changes (CC), anticipating the risks associated to the continuity of these services is to date a major societal concern (and is likely to r...

  11. Impacts du changement climatique sur l'hydrologie et la gestion des ressources en eau du bassin de la Meuse (synthèse bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Bauwens, A.; Sohier, C.; Degré, A.

    2013-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on hydrological regimes and water resources management in the Meuse catchment. A review. This review examines the consequences of climate change on the hydrology of the Meuse catchment and on various water-related socio-economic sectors. It sums up the different modeling approaches in hydrological modeling, placing emphasis on current modeling assumptions and the restrictions inherent within them. It is useful to consider land use evolution and adapted management wit...

  12. LES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES ENTRE REALITE ET LEURRE : LEURS REPRESENTATIONS SOCIALES AUPRES DES ACTEURS TOURISTIQUES EN STATION DE SPORTS D’HIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA MARC

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A great number of authors modeled the phenomenon of anthropogenic global warming yet few of them identified society’s reaction to those models. This paper identifies the social representations of climate change among territorialized tourism actors in the Eastern Pyrenees ski resorts. Analyzing the links between climate change and the ski industry is highly relevant as natural snow is considerably sensitive to climate change. The case study concerns the region of Cerdagne-Capcir located in the French département of Pyrénées-Orientales. For two consecutive winter seasons, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, we carried out a survey among skiers, local tourism decision-makers, administratives and tourism professionals in nine ski resorts. A questionnaire was distributed to skiers while a face-to-face interview was conducted with the other tourism actors cited above. The quantitative data regarding the skiers’ social representations was analyzed thru the prototypical and categorical analysis, a method developed by P. Verges, a French social psychologist. The qualitative data resulting from the face-to-face interviews led to the identification of seven categories of attitudes towards climate change in the decision-making process: immutability, irealistic optimism, technocracy, scepticism, belief in a conspiracy theory, realism and catastrophism. Climate change social representations differ at the level of both the skiers’ nationalities (French / Spanish and the tourism actors categories (offer – local decision-makers, administratives and tourism professionals / demand – the skiers.

  13. Le changement climatique accroît la mobilisation des métaux d'origine naturelle dans des environnements de haute altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharescu, Dragos,; Hooda, Peter,; Burghelea, Carmen,; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The ...

  14. National program to fight against the climatic change 2000/2001; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique 2000/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Some great principles have given directions for this report. balance between internal measures and market mechanisms, the energy control and saving at production and consumption, the setting up of incentive economical tools, the necessity of a precise information about the consequences, in term of greenhouse gases emissions for any public or private investment decision. A big uncertainty assigns the interactions between the climate warming and its modifications. The policy duty is to take into account the scientific statements by implementing the caution principle. (N.C.)

  15. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    for alternative national development policies for infrastructure and water supply that provide resilience against climate variability and climate change. Le développement durable a été proposé comme cadre pour intégrer les politiques sur le développement et le changement climatique dans les pays en développement....... L'intégration du changement climatique aux politiques de développement durable permettrait à ces pays d'accomplir leurs objectifs de développement tout en abordant le changement climatique. Un nombre de programmes de recherche ont étudié la manière de réaliser les synergies potentielles au niveau...... plupart des politiques de développement ne mèneront pas à un modèle de développement durable, vu qu'elles n'abordent pas de manière suffisante la question du changement climatique. Cependant, de bonnes opportunités existent pour intégrer les politiques en vue d'accomplir les objectifs de développement...

  16. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  17. Modélisation du changement d’échelles en télédétection par une méthode neuronale : application a l’étude de l’évolution de l’occupation hivernale des sols en Bretagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Houet

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Le suivi de la couverture hivernale des sols constitue un des principaux enjeux de la réduction de la pollution de la ressource en eau en Bretagne, la présence de la végétation entravant les transferts de flux polluants vers les cours d’eau. Le suivi du ratio « sols nus / sols couverts » peut être réalisé à l’aide d’instruments satellitaires de façon quotidienne à une échelle régionale, mais à une résolution spatiale grossière par des capteurs de type SPOT VEGETATION (1 km. Il peut également être effectué à une résolution spatiale fine par des capteurs tel que SPOT HRVIR (20 m mais avec une acquisition d’images une ou deux fois par hiver seulement sur un territoire plus limité. Toute évolution de ce ratio, détectée à l’échelle régionale, peut être issue de variations de la couverture hivernale des sols, mais également de l’influence de facteurs climatiques. Les changements observés doivent alors être validés par une analyse à l’échelle locale. Le lien entre les images des deux capteurs est établi à partir du développement d’une méthode neuronale basée sur une carte de Kohonen. L’originalité de cette méthode réside dans l’utilisation de la dimension temporelle pour résoudre ce problème de changement d’échelles.

  18. Patrick Criqui, Benoît Faraco, Alain Grandjean, 2009, Les États et le carbone, Presses Universitaires de France, France, 192 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available À quelques semaines du Sommet de Copenhague, paraissait cet ouvrage traitant du changement climatique et des politiques susceptibles d’être mises en œuvre pour y faire face. Au regard d’une production intellectuelle assez significative dans ce domaine, depuis quelques années déjà, ce nouvel ouvrage se distingue surtout par l’attention portée aux outils économiques – notamment taxes et quotas –  visant la réduction des émissions. Écrit par trois spécialistes des questions climatiques et énergé...

  19. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  20. Emigration, mutations sociales et changements culinaires en pays mixtèque (Oaxaca, Mexique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Comme dans d’autres régions du Mexique, les paysans du haut pays mixtèque (Etat d’Oaxaca ne vivent pratiquement plus de l’agriculture, sinon des revenus de leurs parents émigrés aux États-Unis. Dans la région, le phénomène de la migration a énormément augmenté au cours des dix dernières années. Comme la majorité des jeunes adultes émigrent, de nombreux foyers ne sont plus composés que de la mère et des enfants ou des grands-parents et des petits-enfants. Avec des ressources monétaires plus importantes, l’équipement des cuisines se modernise, impliquant des bouleversements techniques dans les préparations culinaires ; la consommation de viande et d’aliments industriels augmente tandis que celle de légumes spontanés diminue. Simultanément, divers programmes de développement, impulsés par le gouvernement, provoquent des changements profonds au niveau de l’économie familiale, de l’organisation sociale et du rôle des femmes. Actuellement le statut économique des familles ne dépend plus de l’étendue de leurs terres, mais du nombre de leurs membres qui travaillent « au Nord ». Néanmoins, le riche patrimoine culinaire de cette population est préservé, en particulier à l’occasion des repas festifs.Emigration, Social Mutations And Food Changes In The Mixtec Highlands (Oaxaca, MexicoLike in many regions of Mexico, farmers of the Mixtec Highlands, for the most part, no longer make a living from agriculture, but rather rely on money sent home by migrant family members. People from this region have been migrating for several decades, but this phenomenon, now mainly to the United States, has tremendously increased in the past ten years. Since most young adults have migrated, many households are composed of mothers and children or grandparents and grandchildren. As more monetary resources are available, the kitchen equipment is more modern, resulting in technical changes in culinary preparations. Meat and

  1. Du possible, sinon j’étouffe! L’écologie politique au temps des catastrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afeissa Hicham-Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L’histoire de l’écologie politique, telle qu’elle s’est déroulée en France au cours des deux dernières décennies, peut être interprétée comme étant orientée par une contestation progressive du rôle de l’expertise scientifique dans la détermination exclusive des actions qu’il convient d’entreprendre pour faire face à la crise environnementale. Un telle évolution est salutaire en ce qu’elle a libéré un espace de réflexion et d’action politique. Or la configuration actuelle du problème du réchauffement climatique est telle qu’elle menace de faire perdre cet avantage. Aussi convient-il de travailler à reconfigurer la crise écologique pensée sous les espèces du réchauffement climatique afin de pouvoir donner un sens à ce qu nous arrive et ainsi donner consistance au présent de l’action et de l’initiative.

  2. Macro economic model in agriculture domain for the analysis of the climatic change impact and policies effects in term of efficiency and equity. Short version of the final report at the GICC, february 2002; Modele macro-economique a dominante agricole pour l'analyse de l'impact du changement climatique et des effets des politiques en terme d'efficacite et d'equite. Version abregee du rapport de fin d'etude au GICC, fevrier 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, F.; Piketty, M.G.; Boussard, J.M

    2002-02-15

    The aim of the study is the determination of a detailed model of the world economy, allowing the simulation of the effect of numerous economic policies, especially those which are involved at a world scale to avoid the greenhouse effect gases emissions. This model is based on the previous model, as the GTAP from which the data are used. (A.L.B.)

  3. Analyse qualitative et quantitative de la production de semences du sapin pectiné (Abies alba) en région méditerranéenne française et détermination des facteurs environnementaux associés

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Les écosystèmes forestiers sont aujourd’hui touchés par les conséquences des changements globaux en cours. Les conditions climatiques prévues au cours des prochaines décennies devraient induire des modifications dans la plasticité et l’évolution des espèces et conduire à des changements dans leur distribution géographique. Les populations d’arbres établis en marge de leur aire de distribution sont particulièrement sensibles aux modifications de leur environnement et sont déjà contraintes ces ...

  4. Les objets en matière osseuse au Levant sud du treizième au quatrième millénaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Le Dosseur

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available L’organisation des sociétés préhistoriques du Proche-Orient a connu de profonds changements au cours de la vaste période qui s’étend du treizième au quatrième millénaire avant le présent. Celle-ci s’articule autour de deux grands processus : la Néolithisation et la Chalcolithisation. Le premier marque le passage progressif des sociétés mobiles prédatrices, qui prévalaient au Paléolithique, aux sociétés productrices, souvent sédentaires. C’est au Néolithique, en effet, qu’apparaissent l’agricu...

  5. Répondre au défi de la déforestation tropicale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pirard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Près de treize millions d’hectares de forêts tropicales disparaissent chaque année. Ce phénomène a de multiples causes, parmi lesquelles la plus sérieuse est l’expansion agricole. De nombreux instruments dits « de marché » ont été élaborés pour y remédier, notamment dans le cadre de la lutte contre le changement climatique, car les forêts ont la caractéristique de stocker du carbone. Parmi ceux-ci, le mécanisme REDD+ domine les débats, même s’il met du temps à se mettre en place. Mais peuvent-ils vraiment rivaliser avec les profits attendus de l’agriculture ou avec la hausse continue de la demande alimentaire ? Innovent-ils réellement ? Dans quelle mesure font-ils appel aux marchés ? Sont-ils conçus de manière à déjouer les ressorts de l’économie politique ? S’appuyant sur une solide expérience de terrain, l’auteur mène une réflexion sur les pistes à privilégier pour des mécanismes souvent transfrontaliers dans leur principe et confrontés à des enjeux de relations internationales.

  6. Régulation en génie climatique froid, climatisation, chauffage

    CERN Document Server

    Desmons, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Après un rappel des bases de l'électronique et de l'hydraulique nécessaires en régulation climatique, cet ouvrage donne tous les éléments méthodologiques et technologiques pour : concevoir les systèmes de régulation adaptés aux installations de froid, de climatisation et de chauffage ; mettre en oeuvre les régulateurs (entrées / sorties, réglage, paramétrage, dépannage, repérage et contrôle) ; pratiquer la maintenance des installations. Il regroupe notamment plusieurs cas pratiques de régulation d'installations réelles : groupe à eau glacée, bloc opératoire, pompes à chaleur, régulation numérique, détente directe, alimentation en fluide frigoporteur. Cette seconde édition révisée et mise à jour s'enrichit également d'une section sur les installations photovoltaïques et d'un nouveau chapitre sur la régulation numérique et les systèmes informatiques. Cet ouvrage constitue un outil de travail indispensable aux ingénieurs et techniciens en froid et génie climatique et en régu...

  7. Perspectives psychologiques sur le changement d' attidudes et de comportement du conducteur. (Psychological perspectives on changing driver attitude and behaviour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenbeld, C. Levelt, P.B.M. & Heidstra, J.

    2000-01-01

    D' un point de vue psychologique, plusieurs techniques de changement du comportement peuvent etre utilisees pour modifier les comportements a risque du conducteur, telles que l' information, la recompense, la punition. La motivation qui sous-tend les comportements de conduite determine dans une large mesure la reussite des strategies de changement du comportement. L' article distingue trois grandes classes de comportements du conducteur : le comportement raisonne ou planifie, le comportement ...

  8. La qualité de services dans les administrations publiques : un défi du changement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Amiel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Les démarches « Qualité » issues du secteur privé atteignent progressivement l’ensemble du secteur public. Il n’est pas simple de transposer des outils du secteur marchand, dominé par des principes économiques, à des administrations soumises à une philosophie de gestion publique. Les biais bureaucratiques des administrations et la logique politique plus qu’économique qui anime le secteur non marchand nécessite une contextualisation fine des outils et méthodes importées du privé. Les approches « Qualité » renforcent l’apparition des concepts de management moderne qui tentent de s’implanter dans la plupart des administrations publiques, elles introduisent notamment la culture de la définition d’objectifs et de la mesure qui est son corollaire. Se mettre à l’écoute de l’usager pour mieux satisfaire ses besoins et ses attentes constituent un enjeu majeur pour l’administration publique car les intérêts des différents bénéficiaires d’une saine gestion publique sont, par nature même, antagonistes. S’appuyant sur l’usager, les différentes approches méthodologiques de gestion de la qualité permettent d’en faire le levier du changement ou de la modernisation dans le secteur public. Le défi est plus d’ordre culturel que d’ordre méthodologique. Les outils de la Qualité peuvent être transposés sans difficultés au sein du secteur public, mais c’est l’usage concret qui en sera fait qui leur donnera leur réelle valeur d’amélioration.

  9. Le long cheminement vers l’acclimatation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabeaud , Martine

    2013-01-01

    « Lutter contre le changement climatique », selon l’expression impropre mais « consacrée », serait une réponse nécessaire au réchauffement de la planète depuis le milieu du XIX e siècle. Le terme de réchauffement a d’ailleurs été remplacé progressivement par « changement climatique », ce qui élargit la problématique à toutes sortes de conséquences directes ou indirectes de la hausse thermique. Ces dernières étant envisagées comme négatives, alors qu’antérieurement toute période chaude était q...

  10. The Endangered Arctic, the Arctic as Resource Frontier: Canadian News Media Narratives of Climate Change and the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Mark C J; Smith, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    The Arctic is one of the most radically altered parts of the world due to climate change, with significant social and cultural impacts as a result. Using discourse network analysis and qualitative textual analysis of articles published in the Globe and Mail and National Post during the period 2006 to 2010, we identify and analyze key frames that interpret the implications of climate change on the Arctic. We examine Canadian national news media coverage to ask: How does the Arctic enter media coverage of climate change? Is there evidence of a climate justice discourse in relation to regional disparities in the risks and harms of climate change between northern and southern Canada? Climate change in the Arctic is often framed through the lens of Canadian national interests, which downplays climate-related social impacts that are already occurring at subnational political and geographical scales. L'Arctique est une des régions du monde la plus radicalement altérée par le changement climatique, menant comme résultat des importants changements sociaux et culturels. En utilisant l'analyse des réseaux de discours ainsi que l'analyse textuelle qualitative des articles publiés dans le Globe and Mail et le National Post de 2006 à 2010, nous identifions and analysons des cadres clés qui servent à interpréter les conséquences du changement climatique dans l'Arctique. Nous examinons la couverture des médias nationaux canadiens pour pouvoir demander : comment est-ce que l'Arctique s'insère dans la couverture médiatique du changement climatique? Est-ce qu'il y a de la preuve d'un discours de la justice climatique en relation des disparités régionales des risques et méfaits du changement climatique entre le Canada du nord et du sud? Le changement climatique dans l'Arctique est souvent encadré à travers le prisme des intérêts nationaux canadiens, ce qui minimise les impacts sociaux reliés au climat qui se produisent actuellement aux échelons sous

  11. The Endangered Arctic, the Arctic as Resource Frontier: Canadian News Media Narratives of Climate Change and the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Mark C J; Smith, Jillian

    2016-08-01

    The Arctic is one of the most radically altered parts of the world due to climate change, with significant social and cultural impacts as a result. Using discourse network analysis and qualitative textual analysis of articles published in the Globe and Mail and National Post during the period 2006 to 2010, we identify and analyze key frames that interpret the implications of climate change on the Arctic. We examine Canadian national news media coverage to ask: How does the Arctic enter media coverage of climate change? Is there evidence of a climate justice discourse in relation to regional disparities in the risks and harms of climate change between northern and southern Canada? Climate change in the Arctic is often framed through the lens of Canadian national interests, which downplays climate-related social impacts that are already occurring at subnational political and geographical scales. L'Arctique est une des régions du monde la plus radicalement altérée par le changement climatique, menant comme résultat des importants changements sociaux et culturels. En utilisant l'analyse des réseaux de discours ainsi que l'analyse textuelle qualitative des articles publiés dans le Globe and Mail et le National Post de 2006 à 2010, nous identifions and analysons des cadres clés qui servent à interpréter les conséquences du changement climatique dans l'Arctique. Nous examinons la couverture des médias nationaux canadiens pour pouvoir demander : comment est-ce que l'Arctique s'insère dans la couverture médiatique du changement climatique? Est-ce qu'il y a de la preuve d'un discours de la justice climatique en relation des disparités régionales des risques et méfaits du changement climatique entre le Canada du nord et du sud? Le changement climatique dans l'Arctique est souvent encadré à travers le prisme des intérêts nationaux canadiens, ce qui minimise les impacts sociaux reliés au climat qui se produisent actuellement aux échelons sous

  12. Aliments purs, aliments sain(ts, la dimension identitaire des peurs alimentaires au Danemark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Elène Delavigne

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Le rapport aux aliments et à l’alimentation est marqué au Danemark par la recherche de produits purs, c’est-à-dire sûrs et bons pour la santé et par une politique de la santé publique présente au quotidien. Les débats médiatiques sur les peurs alimentaires font une grande place aux réflexes identitaires « défensifs », dimension confortée par la prise en compte du changement d’échelle décisionnelle au sein de l’Europe et la conscience du jeu d’harmonisation législatif nécessaire dans ce cadre.

  13. Effet des conditions climatiques sur le niveau du lac Sidi Ali (Moyen Atlas, Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le lac Sidi Ali est un lac naturel d'altitude (2070-2080 m, sans exutoire superficiel, déterminé par le barrage d'une coulée basaltique. Doté d'un bassin versant apparent de 15,6 km2, il est alimenté par des eaux de ruissellement et par des sources karstiques. Son niveau subit des variations très fortes, annuelles et interannuelles, sous le contrôle des conditions climatiques, et en particulier des pluies et de l'évapotranspiration. Les périodes de sécheresse qui ont marqué les trois dernières décennies, se sont traduites par un abaissement du niveau de près de 7 m. Mais les précipitations abondantes des années 2008-09 et 2009-10 ont provoqué une nette remontée. Une régression multiple d'assez bonne qualité (r = 0,87 lie la variation annuelle du niveau (d'août à août à différents paramètres (conditions climatiques et niveau initial du lac.Lake Sidi Ali is a natural lake at high altitude (2070-2080 m, without surface outlet, determined by the dam of a basalt flow. With an apparent catchment of 15.6 km2, it is fed by runoff and karst springs. Its level shows strong annual and interannual variations, depending on weather conditions, particularly rainfall and evapotranspiration. Droughts that have marked the last three decades have resulted in a lowering of about 7 m of the water level. But heavy rainfall that occurred in 2008-09 and 2009-10 caused a marked rise. A multiple regression of sufficient quality (r = 0.87 binds the annual change (from august to august at differents parameters (weather conditions and initial level of the lake.

  14. La contagion liée au changement des anticipations : évidence de la crise coréenne

    OpenAIRE

    Ayadi, Mohamed; Khallouli, Wajih; Sandretto, René

    2008-01-01

    Working paper GATE 08-16 The object of this article, applied to the case of Korean currency crisis of 1997-1998, is to identify the contagion through an empirical study of the investor anticipations dynamics which is freed from the pseudo explanation hiding place misery by ‘sunspot'. To this end, we develop a, Markov-switching model in line with Jeanne and Masson (2000), but in which we use endogenous probabilities of transition between the states from the economy so as to be able at the s...

  15. De l'université virtuelle au campus numérique : simple effet de traduction ou changement de paradigme.

    OpenAIRE

    Thibault, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    C'est dans le domaine de l'enseignement à distance que semble s'être cristallisée, dans la deuxième moitié des années 90, la rencontre entre le rêve technologique et le rêve éducatif ou formatif. Ce phénomène s'est appuyé sur de nombreux discours produits par des chercheurs, des experts d'organismes internationaux, des journalistes ou des personnalités politiques. Cette recherche, basée sur l'analyse d'un corpus de textes d'origines différentes, propose de mettre en lumière les liens qui unis...

  16. Capteur climatique

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletret, R.; Berger, X.

    1983-01-01

    L'association système héliothermique-pompe à chaleur constitue une des voies les plus prometteuses pour réduire la consommation de chauffage en énergie primaire des bâtiments. Le couplage d'une pompe à chaleur eau/eau à un capteur sans vitrage à ruissellement d'eau froide présente de par sa simplicité un intérêt technicoéconomique évident. Les apports calorifiques proviennent non seulement de l'énergie solaire incidente mais aussi de l'enthalpie de l'air. De nombreuses expériences ont permis ...

  17. L'extension récente du muskuwaari au Nord-Cameroun : dynamique endogène et nouveaux besoins de recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Bertrand; Fotsing, Eric; Gautier, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Au Nord-Cameroun, l'extension du sorgho repiqué, amorcée dans les années 50, prend aujourd'hui des proportions remarquables: dans l'ensemble des plaines de l'Extrême-Nord, les surfaces cultivées varient entre 150 000 et 200 000 ha selon les conditions climatiques de l'année. Cette extension peut être expliquée avant tout par l'augmentation en besoins vivriers liée à l'accroissement démographique, mais aussi par le développement de la culture cotonnière sur des terres auparavant destinées au v...

  18. France 2001. Third national communication under the UN framework convention on climate change; France 2001. Troisieme communication nationale a la convention cadre des nations unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In line with obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, France, like all the signatories of the convention, is required periodically to provide a National Communication following a plan established by the Conference of Parties to the Convention. This document provides information on national actions related to climate change. It also aims to help our country respect its commitments and encourage the release of information so as to enable an examination and in-depth evaluation of the implementation of the commitments made under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the 1998 European agreement on burden-sharing within the European Union. (author)

  19. Atmospheric sulfur and climate changes: a modelling study at mid and high-southern latitudes; Soufre atmospherique et changements climatiques: une etude de modelisation pour les moyennes et hautes latitudes Sud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castebrunet, H

    2007-09-15

    The mid and high-southern latitudes are still marginally affected by anthropogenic sulfur emissions. They are the only regions in the world where the natural cycle of the atmospheric sulfur may still be observed. Sulfur aerosols are well-known for their radiative impact, and thus interact with climate. Climate can in turn affect atmospheric sulfur sources, distribution and chemistry. Antarctic ice cores provide information on the evolution of climate and sulfur deposition at the surface of the ice sheet at glacial-interglacial time scales. The aim of this thesis is to develop and use modeling towards a better understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle in antarctic and sub-antarctic regions. Ice core data are used to validate model results under glacial climate conditions. An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) coupled to a sulfur chemistry module is used: the LMD-ZTSulfur model, version 4. An update of both the physical and chemical parts of the model. The model was first performed. The impact of there changes on modelled sulfur cycle are evaluated for modern climate. Further, boundary conditions are adapted to simulate the atmospheric circulation and sulfur cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. In the model, sulfur is found to be highly sensitive to antarctic sea-ice coverage, which is still poorly known during the ice age. An original dataset of ice-age sea-ice coverage was developed. Its impact on the oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide, main precursor of sulfur aerosols at high-southern latitudes, is discussed. Using the same oceanic sulfur reservoirs as for present day climate, the model broadly reproduces the glacial deposits of sulfur aerosols on the Antarctic plateau, suggesting little impact of climate on oceanic sulfur production in the Antarctic region. Sensitivity tests were carried out to draw an up-to-date status of major uncertainties and difficulties facing future progress in understanding atmospheric sulfur and climate. (author)

  20. Data base of climatic change simulations for the impact studies. Final report; Base de donnees des simulations de changement climatique a l'usage des etudes d'impact. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcher, J.; Leboucher, V.; Planton, S.; Valcke, S

    2003-12-15

    Data used for the study of the climatic change impact on the environment and the society come from climate models and are affected by uncertainties. It is necessary to quantify the resulting errors in the models. The data base provides a comparison of simulations of climatic change in France. The final report presents the project methodology. Three projects using the distributed simulations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  1. Introducing land-cover and land-use changes in a climate scenario of the 21. century; Prise en compte des changements de vegetation dans un scenario climatique du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voldoire, A

    2005-03-15

    The main objective of this work has been to run a climate simulation of the 21. century that includes not only greenhouse gases and aerosols emitted by human activity but also land-use and land-cover changes. To achieve this goal, the integrated impact model IMAGE2.2 (developed at RIVM, The Netherlands) was used, which simulates the evolution of greenhouse gases concentrations as well as land-cover changes. This model has been coupled to the general circulation model ARPEGE/OPA provided by the CNRM. Before coupling the models, sensitivity experiments with each model have been performed to test their respective sensitivity to the forcing of the other. Ultimately, a simulation with the two models coupled together has shown that interactions between climate and vegetation are not of primary importance for century scale studies. (author)

  2. Climatic changes: from the Rio convention to the Bonn and Marrakech agreements. Instructions for use of international agreements - 2002; Changements climatiques: de la convention de Rio aux accords de Bonn et Marrakech. Guide explicatif des accords internationaux - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This guideline details the international agreements concerning the climatic changes since the Rio convention, ten years ago. The keeping of rules, the information communication, the policies and measures, the developing countries actions, the flexibility mechanisms and the land use are developed. Key dates and french-english glossary are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  3. The commitment of the refrigeration engineering sector in favor of sustainable development and mitigation of climatic changes; L'engagement du secteur du froid en faveur du developpement durable et de l'attenuation des changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This note was edited by the international institute of refrigeration engineering (IIF) at the occasion of the world summit on sustainable development (Johannesburg, August 26-September 4, 2002). It presents first the contribution of the refrigeration engineering to the sustainable development (food conservation, air-conditioning, industry, space heating, health, energy..) and stresses on the important difference of technological advance between developed and developing countries. In a second part, this note presents the challenges of the refrigeration engineering in front of the global warming threat: direct emissions of greenhouse gases (refrigerant leaks), and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions due to the manufacturing and use of heat pumps and air-conditioning systems. The strategy implemented by the refrigeration industry to mitigate the global warming concerns the use of alternate refrigerants with low environmental impact and the optimization of technologies to reduce the energy consumption of refrigeration systems. (J.S.)

  4. Déforestation et changement climatique : agir sur les causes. Ce que le marché (carbone) ne peut faire...----- Deforestation and climate change: acting on the causes. What the (carbon) market cannot do...

    OpenAIRE

    Karsenty, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Avec une perte estimée à environ 13 millions d'hectares en moyenne par an entre 2000 et 2005 - 7,3 millions d'hectares, en prenant en compte les reboisements, selon la FAO -, la déforestation tropicale constitue une source majeure d'émission de gaz à effet de serre. De l'ordre de 4,4 à 5,5 Gt CO2 (ce dernier chiffre incluant la dégradation des tourbières) par an selon les dernières estimations, ces émissions contribueraient à 12-15 % des émissions annuelles anthropiques de CO2 (de 8 à 20 %, e...

  5. Management of the climatic change impacts program GICC 1999. Final evaluation 1999-2001; Gestion des impacts du changement climatique programme GICC 1999. Compte rendu final 1999-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nys, C

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the program was to determine if a modification of the forests management, can generate consequences on the soil carbon storage and reduce the carbon sinks function of the forestry. It aims also to prepare (by data providing) the validation of forestry parameters of the evolution model of carbonaceous soils reserves. Three impact type were considered: the trees age, the effect or fertilizer-enrichment and the effect of the forest treatment. (A.L.B.)

  6. Territorial action plans against the climatic change. Good practices of european towns. State of lthe art 2002; Les plans d'action territoriaux contre le changement climatique. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes. Etat de l'art 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    By their actions and their choices in matter of public buildings and wastes management or electric power production and distribution, the collectivities aim to be an example and to bring information to make the public aware of the greenhouse effect. A collectivity which builds an action plan to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions begins to realize an inventory which includes an energy accounting and the CO{sub 2} emissions evaluation. Objectives can then be decided. In a second part the towns realize cooperations and organize the management and the evaluation of the projects. Some examples of european towns are described to illustrate the study. (A.L.B.)

  7. The observance of the Kyoto Protocol on climate changes: stakes of the international control of compliance with commitments; L'Observance du protocole de Kyoto sur les changements climatiques. Les enjeux du controle international du respect des engagements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maljean-Dubois, S. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ. Paul Cezanne, CERIC-UMR 6201, CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2007-07-01

    The author presents the conclusions of multidisciplinary research which has examined the relationship between the Kyoto protocol's observance mechanisms (control of compliance of commitments and sanction in case of non compliance) and the more conventional mechanisms of international conflict solving. It also examines the peculiar characteristics of these mechanisms, whether legal or not. Finally, the author examines the impact of the adopted procedure, and whether it is constraining.

  8. Talks and status of the national conference of the national program of fight against climate change; Discours et bilans de la conference nationale du programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In order to fulfill its commitments in the Kyoto protocol for the abatement of greenhouse gases emissions, France has started important environmental actions: the creation of the national program of fight against climate change (validated in January 2000), the integration of the problem of climate change in government actions (collective services and state-region contracts), creation of a national laboratory of global warming effects, creation of a research council on climate change and durable development, presentation of an annual status of the actions carried out in the framework of the national program. This last point was the aim of the conference held in Paris in June 2001. Debates were organized around four main sectors: industry, energy, buildings and transportation systems. The topics approached during the round-tables raised several essential questions for the fight against climate change: which practice changes are needed in the industry and energy production activities? Which actions need to be carried out in new and existing buildings to save energy? Which consistent transportation policies need to be implemented in urban areas? Is a rail-road traffic re-balancing possible? Which importance can have the territory organizations? What are the public expectations in front of the climate change risk? This document brings together the talks of Mrs D. Voynet, Minister of national development and environment, the talk of Mr R.G. Schwartzenberg, Minister of research, the talk of Mr C. Pierret, State Secretary of Industry, and a sectoral status (transports, industry, energy, buildings and mastery of electricity demand) of the first year of the program presented by Mr M. Mousel, head of the inter-ministry mission on greenhouse effect. The document ends with a presentation of the British and European climate change programs. (J.S.)

  9. État des connaissances et incertitudes sur le changement climatique induit par les activités humainesScientific basis and uncertainties of human induced climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessy, Jean-Claude

    2001-12-01

    During the 20th century, the mean temperature of the air at the ground level has increased by 0.6±0.2 °C and the warmest air temperatures occurred after 1980. These were significantly warmer than those of the last millennium. Simultaneously, rain and drought, cold and heat wave frequencies have changed, mountain glaciers retreated and the sea-level increased by ˜10 cm. This warming was at least in part induced by human activities and will continue during the next decades. Its amplitude will depend on the rate of greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols emissions, i.e. on energetic scenarios. Pending scientific uncertainties include cloud variations and interactions between the physical parts of the climate system and the biogeochemical cycles and the biosphere.

  10. Health impacts of climate change in France. Which challenges for the InVS?; Impacts sanitaires du changement climatique en France. Quels enjeux pour l'InVS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Based on a literature survey, this report proposes a synthetic overview of the main health risks which might be induced by climate change in France. For each of them, it identifies the existing surveillance and alert systems, and proposes orientations for their adaptation. After a description of the climate and environment context, and a presentation of the adopted method of selection of health risks potentially impacted by climate change, the report gives an overview of these risks and of the associated surveillance systems. It discusses the evolution perspectives in terms of surveillance and alert tools, of relationship with research activities, of surveillance of health effects of actions which reduce greenhouse gas emissions, of interdisciplinary development, and of international cooperation

  11. Climate change in the Alps: impacts and natural risks. ONERC's Technical Report N.1; Changement climatiques dans les Alpes: Impacts et risques naturels. Rapport Technique N.1 de l'ONERC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Mountain ranges are very sensitive to climatic variations. The impacts of climate change on theses territories can be various, from the modification of the biodiversity to the permafrost melting and the evolution of natural hazards. The assessment of temperature rise and its impacts on mountains constitutes an important issue considering the strong uncertainties and the specific sensitivity linked to these areas. The territorial manager - policy makers and technicians - have to deal with this questioning for the implementation of short term actions as well as for strategic choices in terms of land planning and spatial development. This is why 22 public institutions from seven Alpine countries were involved in the European ClimChAlp project. The ONERC participated actively to this project in collaboration with the Rhone-Alpes Region and the Pole Grenoblois Risques Naturels. This report is based on the synthesis realised by the French partners to propose a common base of knowledge about climate change and its impacts in the Alps. (authors)

  12. Climatic change impacts, adaptation and associated costs in France. Intermediate report. June 2008; Impacts du changement climatique, adaptation et couts associes en France. Document d'etape. Juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report aims at promoting the awareness of sector-based and land challenges of climate change in terms of impacts. It gives a wide overview of the present knowledge on sector-based vulnerabilities, and allows the identification of some paths for the alleviation of these vulnerabilities. After a discussion of objectives and context, of methodological choices (data, modalities to take impacts and adaptation into account, impact assessment approach) thematic woks are reported. They are dealing with health (population vulnerability to climate change with the example of 2006 heat wave), agriculture, forest and water, energy, tourism, natural risks and insurance, territories. For each of these topics, the reports discusses vulnerability aspects, the present knowledge about the impact of climate change, and identifies the core problems as well as studies which remain to be performed

  13. Is Carbon Offsetting an Elaborate Charade? Climate Change: the Mirage of Greenhouse Gas Emission Compensation Mechanisms; La compensation carbone: un marche de dupes? Changement climatique: le leurre des mecanismes de compensation des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragniere, A. [Lausanne Univ., Institut de Politiques Territoriales et d' Environnement Humain (IPTEH) (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    There is now a massive scientific consensus around global warming and the subject is a major focus of media interest in most industrialized countries. The man-made origin of the phenomenon is also generally accepted; hence the efforts expended by those in government, the international community, environmental organizations etc. to limit its scope by acting on its main driver, greenhouse gas emissions. It is in this context that a market in the voluntary compensation of greenhouse gas emissions has developed in recent years. This is known as the ''voluntary carbon offsetting market'' and consists in selling activities or projects that are supposed, in the medium or long term, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby compensating for the climatically damaging effects of the purchasers' current activities. In other words, buyers may be said to be giving themselves a clear conscience about today's emissions by paying for an act of emission-reduction tomorrow. Though the principle may seem praiseworthy, on closer inspection the idea of carbon offsetting, as currently on offer, turns out to be deceptive. Augustin Fragniere demonstrates the point here with a precise analysis of the estimates and forecasts available in this field (showing how disputable the up-front emissions assessments are), and also of the spatial and temporal dimensions that are very largely concealed by the players in the carbon offsetting market. He shows, lastly, that carbon offsetting mechanisms lead to action being postponed, with an aggravation of the harm done and an increased need for action in the future as a consequence, whereas concrete initiatives to promote behavioural change in the present would have both quicker and clearer effects on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Climate Change after Cancun: An Agreement on Principles, but lacking Levers of Change; Le changement climatique apres Cancun. Un accord sur les principes mais sans leviers d'action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbosc, A. [CDC Climat, 75 - Paris (France); De Perthuis, Ch. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    Climate change and its potentially serious consequences for our planet first appeared on the agenda of major international negotiations at the Rio Summit in 1992. Arduous negotiation ensued, culminating in the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, which set quantified targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to 2012. Since then, the configuration of the highly complex negotiations (on account of the large number of participants and disparity of economic situations) has changed a great deal, as could be seen at the Copenhagen conference of December 2009 and, more recently, the agreement struck at Cancun in late 2010. Anais Delbosc and Christian de Perthuis, close observers of climate-related economic issues, sum up the state of international climate negotiation in this article. Where have we got to? How have the discussions developed? What are the points of agreement and disagreement? What economic mechanisms have been put in place and so on? After reviewing the history, Delbosc and de Perthuis outline the Cancun agreement, before looking in more detail at a 'variable geometry system of commitment'. They show, in particular, how difficult it is to compare the commitments made by the various parties to the negotiations. However, they do stress that the developed countries are, in general, falling short of the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. They go on to formulate a number of proposals designed to take the commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions further, for example by strengthening and unifying the system of measurement and verification of how the various countries are meeting the targets to which they have committed themselves, while nonetheless taking account of their varying situations. Lastly, they propose a more efficient use of the various existing economic instruments, and go on to remind us of the weaknesses that were not resolved by the Cancun agreement, which the Durban Conference, scheduled for late 2011, will have to strive to overcome. (authors)

  15. How can public policies accelerate the progress in technologies for the struggle against climate change?; Comment les politiques publiques peuvent-elles accelerer le progres sur les technologies de lutte contre le changement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the three stages of the technical progress according to Schumpeter (invention, innovation and diffusion), and the roles of R and D and learning in this process, the author briefly comments the cost evolution of different energy production technologies between 1980 and 1995, proposes a simple modelling of the learning system under the influence of public policies, and indicates the research themes by 2050. Then, she discusses the fact that the R and D level is not socially optimal, notably because of market imperfections, and also because some innovations may have applications within a time which is too long for companies. This is the reason why the State generally takes care of fundamental research. She discusses either demand-based or supply-based public policies aiming at accelerating the progress in low carbon technologies, describes the international cooperation in R and D (agreement on research on low carbon technologies, standards), and how to promote the diffusion of technology towards developing countries (problem of emission increase in these countries, technology transfer in general and within the frame of the convention on climate change, public development support and direct foreign investments)

  16. Which role for methane emissions reduction in climate change mitigation policies; Quel role pour les reductions d'emission de methane dans la lutte contre le changement climatique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, O. [Met Office-Hadley Centre (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Various arguments have been put forward to justify a rapid action to mitigate climate change through reductions in methane emissions. As part of a multi-gas emission reduction approach this requires defining an equivalence between methane and carbon dioxide. In this article, we discuss the physical and economical basis for a quantitative estimate of such an equivalence. Although this equivalence depends on a parameter which involves a value judgement on the most appropriate timescale for climate change, we show that it is difficult to justify a methane weight that is much different from the 100-year global warming potential that is currently used in the framework of the Kyoto protocol. (author)

  17. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change; 15 plans climat - energie territoriaux regions et departements, animateurs territoriaux de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  18. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France. Second phase report. September 2009; Evaluation du cout des impacts du changement climatique et de l'adaptation en France. Rapport de la deuxieme phase. Septembre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Firstly, this report presents the context and challenges of works dealing with climate change adaptation assessment: observations and perspectives of climate change, concepts and definitions of adaptation to climate change, adaptation within national, European and international context, objectives and organisation of the France's inter-departmental Group. It describes the chosen methodology: hypothesis, methodological tools (climate model), bibliographical tool, and heat wave counting methodology. It discusses the present results, outlines the encountered difficulties and discusses the perspectives for future work

  19. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change; L'economie de l'effet de serre: point sur les engagements internationaux de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again.

  20. La résilience des systèmes socio-écologiques des États atolliens dans le contexte du changement climatique : le cas de Kiribati (Pacifique Sud)

    OpenAIRE

    Longépée, Esméralda

    2014-01-01

    The threats to states entirely composed of atolls from climate change and associated sea-level rise have been widely publicized. The Republic of Kiribati is an atoll country situated in Pacific Ocean settled by 100,000 inhabitants. Over the past centuries, the atoll communities of Kiribati have developed natural resource management systems that have enabled their survival. Over the past decades, globalization has caused rapid changes, especially regarding lifestyles and relationships of atoll...

  1. Climatologie des états de mer en Atlantique nord-est : analyse du climat actuelet des évolutions futures sous scénarios de changement climatique par descente d'échelle dynamique et statistique

    OpenAIRE

    Laugel, Amélie

    2013-01-01

    Wave climate analysis is of utmost importance to understand the evolution and dynamics of coastal zones, to estimate the occurrence of extreme events, to design protections for ports, onshore and offshore infrastructure, to characterize wave resources for wave energy conversion, to quantify sediment erosion and accretion processes, et cetera. Thus, this thesis project aims to improve knowledge of wave climatology in the growing context of climate change prediction with a two-step approach: (i...

  2. Climate change: what perspectives for the development of renewable energies in France and in Europe?; Changement climatique: quelles perspectives pour le developpement des energies renouvelables en France et en Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousel, M. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, MIES, 75 - Paris (France); Kandel, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Connor, H. [HELIO International (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The greatest challenge facing the world at the beginning of the century, according to hundreds of business and government leaders is climate change. Different propositions can help fighting against a global warming. The development of renewable energy sources, ( wind power, geothermal power) the market of carbon dioxide, the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, path by path, the building and the heat network are so possibilities that are studied. (N.C.)

  3. Impacts of the climatic change on the biodiversity and on the carbon cycle in prairies (IMAGINE); Impacts du changement climatique sur la biodiversite et le cycle du carbone en prairie (IMAGINE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussana, J.F

    2007-07-01

    The Imagine project uses a combination of experimental and modelling techniques to investigate the impacts of climate change on plant communities comprising herbaceous and woody species. We describe our novel experimental approach and present results from two studies carried out in contrasting climates: a mountain site in the Massif Central and a Mediterranean site at Montpellier. We show that above-ground biomass, community leaf traits and grass species phenology in a mountain grassland community respond to elevated temperature (+3.5 C), summer drought and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. We demonstrate that elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} can mitigate the negative effects of summer drought on above-ground biomass, and may facilitate woody seedling establishment. After one year of study, changes in species composition are limited but there is a trend towards an increased abundance of dicot species under elevated CO{sub 2}. Work on an artificial plant community at Montpellier shows a negative effect of drought on net photosynthesis, transpiration rates and total respiration measured at the community level. We also find a significant increase in leaf decomposition rates in response to elevated temperature. In contrast, net primary productivity, microbial activity and soil respiration rates show no significant effects of climate treatments. (authors)

  4. To widen the action tools against the climatic change by domestic projects. Evaluation report; Elargir les instruments d'action contre le changement climatique grace aux projets domestiques. Rapport d'evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, E.; Dominicis, A. de; Leguet, B.; Leseur, A.; Perthuis, Ch. de

    2005-11-15

    In the framework of the climatic change fight, each country aims to implement tools of emissions reduction. In France, the european system of CO{sub 2} quotas exchange, applied on the more emitted installations, covers less than 30% of the national carbon emissions. The other 70% are free of taxes. The 'climate mission' realized an evaluation of the emission reduction in the case of a new policy aiming to develop domestic projects of emission control. This report presents the study and its conclusions: the domestic projects, the possibilities of these projects in the transportation agriculture and forests and building sectors, the implementing conditions.

  5. The climatic change and the coastal areas. The sea level rise: risks and answers; Le changement climatique et les espaces cotiers. L'elevation du niveau de la mer: risques et reponses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskoff, R

    2000-07-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the ecological, economic and human effects of the earth warming on coastal regions and more particularly the deltas. It also aimed aware the experts, the socio-economic and political actors of these regions on the consequences of the unavoidable sea level rise and on the measures that people can implemented to limit its effects. (A.L.B.)

  6. National program of fight against the climate change. 2. annual evaluation and forecasting; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique. 2. bilan annuel et voies d'avenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This conference discussed the actions realized in the framework of the National Plan of Fight against the Climatic Change (PNLCC). The first part presents the problem, the evaluation of the PNLCC application and the control tools. the second part is devoted to the transport sector and the second to the buildings and the electric power demand control. The last part deals with the prospective and the challenges of the PNLCC. (A.L.B.)

  7. Program GICC - AQUABIO. Possible consequences of the climatic change on the aquatic and river french biocenoses. Final report; Programme GICC - AQUABIO. Consequences potentielles du changement climatique sur les biocenoses aquatiques et riveraines francaises. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, D. [Lyon-1 Univ., CNRS UMR 5023, Ecologie des Hydrosystemes Fluviaux, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2003-11-15

    The consequences of the climatic change can modify the ecosystems. The aim of this research program is to analyze the impacts of the climatic change on the propagation of the exotic species in France in aquatic and river environment, the population of macro invertebrates and fishes in the french rivers and the socio economic challenges. The methodology is based on the simulation from the exploitation of great data bases and the combination of many approaches at different scales. (A.L.B.)

  8. A program hove to eco-taxes. Evaluation of the national program of fight against the climatic change (PNLCC); Un programme en panne d'ecotaxe. Evaluation du programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique (PNLCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This report evaluates the implementing of the National Program of Fight against the Climatic Change (PNLCC) 18 months after its publication. The government policy efficiency is discussed for each sectors and actions to be adopted are proposed: industry, transports, building, forests, wastes, refrigerating gases and energy production, mastership and demand. (A.L.B.)

  9. Changements climatiques et variations du champ magnetique terrestre dans le sud de la Patagonie (Argentine) depuis 51 200 ans reconstitues a partir des proprietes magnetiques des sediments du lac Laguna Potrok Aike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise-Pronovost, Agathe

    Rock magnetism is influenced by climate and by the Earth's magnetic field. The goal of this thesis is to use the rock magnetic properties of the long sedimentary sequence from the lake Laguna Potrok Aike (106 m, 51200 cal BP) to derive paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic records in a key area of the Southern Hemisphere that is poorly documented. Laguna Potrok Aike (52°S, 70°W) is located in southeastern Patagonia (Argentina) in the path of the strong Southern Hemisphere westerly winds and in the source area of the dust deposited in Antarctica during Glacial periods. The lake geographical location is therefore ideal to reconstruct past changes in aeolian activity and climate changes in Patagonia. It is also a key location to reconstruct past changes of the geomagnetic field because the Southern Hemisphere is significantly under-documented relative to the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, the proximity of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) as well as the Southern Hemisphere high flux lobes could allow identifying differences in the paleomagnetic field evolution in southern South America relative to the much more documented Northern Hemisphere. For his strong potential to provide high-resolution climatic, aeolian and paleomagnetic records beyond the last climatic transition, the maar lake Laguna Potrok Aike was drilled in the framework of the International scientific Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) for the Potrok Aike maar lake Sediment Archive Drilling prOject (PASADO). In this thesis, high-resolution rock-magnetic and physical properties are used in order to reconstruct paleoclimate and paleomagnetic records from the southernmost part of South America. In the first chapter, the full-vector paleomagnetic record (inclination, declination and relative paleointensity) derived from the sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike. A grain size influence on the relative paleointensity record (NRM/ARM) was corrected using the median destructive field of the natural remanent magnetisation (MDFNRM). Full-vector comparison of the new paleomagnetic record with other records from southern South America, elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere, as well as dipole field models and compilations reveal similar millennial-scale variability. The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion and possibly the Mono Lake as well as the Hilina Pali excursions are recorded and suggest the global nature of these events. Nevertheless comparison with the Lake Baikal and Biwa records located on the opposite side of the globe in Siberia and Japan respectively reveals a different behaviour at ca. 46000 cal BP in Laguna Potrok Aike and in southern South America, hinting at a non-dipolar origin. In the second chapter, rock-magnetic proxies of dust and wind intensity since 51200 cal BP are constructed. The combined use of rock magnetism and grain size data allowed identifying the median destructive field of the isothermal remanent magnetisation (MDFIRM) as best reflecting silt-sized magnetite typically transported by wind in suspension over short distances. The MDF IRM displays similar variability than other wind intensity proxies derived from marine and lacustrine sediments, peat bug and speleothem records from Patagonia since the last climatic transition and from the Southern Hemisphere since 51200 cal BP. In addition, estimation of the flux of magnetite to the lake, investigation of the grain size influence on magnetic susceptibility and comparison with distal Patagonian dust records from the Southern Ocean and Antarctica indicate that the magnetic susceptibility signal from Laguna Potrok Aike is a dust record at the multi-millennial scale. In the third chapter, rock-magnetic proxies of runoff events associated with extreme precipitation and permafrost melt since 51200 cal BP are presented. The runoff events are identified by the presence of high coercivity magnetic mineral (such as hematite and goethite) which its pedogenic origin is inferred from geological, limnological, stratigraphic and climatic evidence. The runoff events are generally associated with mass movement deposits during time of enhanced lake productivity in Laguna Potrok Aike and are also coeval within the limit of the chronology to warm atmospheric conditions recorded in Antarctica. In addition, we show that the authigenic formation of iron sulfide such as greigite is strictly associated to reworked sands and tephra layers providing the required suboxic conditions and dissolved sulfate. As a whole, rock magnetism of the sediment from Laguna Potrok Aike provides a high quality full-vector paleomagnetic record as well as rock-magnetic proxies of past climate changes in southeastern Patagonia that are also associated with climate changes in Antarctica. Keywords: [Paleomagnetism, sediment magnetism, paleoclimatology, Laguna Potrok Aike, Patagonia, Southern Hemisphere, millennial- to centennial-scale variability, last Glacial period, Holocene, wind intensity].

  10. Proposition d'interface Science-Société pour la gestion intégrée de la ressource en eau dans un contexte de changements climatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Water is a vital need for Human and each society have to manage it at best to meet this basic need today and in the future.Current climatic changes and especially global warming strongly impact hydrosystems and economical activities of mountainous areas, forcing these territories to adapt to these new conditions. Socio-economic development choices have also a great importance in water shortages occurrence. In this thesis a model coupling representations of water resources and and socio-econom...

  11. To break away from fossil fuels : a contribution to solve climatic change and energy security for Quebec; S'affranchir des carburants fossiles : une contribution a la lutte aux changements climatiques et a la securite energetique du Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, P.; Seguin, H.; Waridel, L.

    2006-06-15

    In response to growing energy demands, Quebec has proposed the construction of 3 deep water terminals to accommodate methane tankers which transport liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper focused on the proposed Gros Cacouna Port project in the St. Lawrence Seaway which is currently under study and subject to approval. Equiterre, questioned the energy security aspect of the proposal and argued that increasing Quebec's reliance on increasingly expensive energy would decrease energy security. In addition, importation of LNG would bring a clear exit of capital outside the province. Equiterre also argued that reliance on fossil fuels should be decreased in order to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to climate change. The organization questioned whether the economic and social need for the proposed project justifies a greater dependency on fossil fuels and the associated impact on the environment and fragile ecosystems of the St. Lawrence. It was suggested that alternative solutions such as renewable energy sources and energy efficiency should be explored in order to promote sustainable development, increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gases. Equiterre argued that Quebec can and must decrease, and even eliminate, its dependence on fossil fuels, including natural gas, for Quebec's economic, social and environmental well-being. For these reasons, Equiterre recommended that the proposed project be rejected, particularly since the project proponents failed to show the real impact that the project would have on Quebec markets. 72 refs., 10 tabs., 21 figs.

  12. Passer du local au national, ou comment devient-on député sous la Restauration ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Verdier

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’interroge sur la nature du changement d’échelle en l’associant à celle du changement de registre. Il s’appuie sur l’étude de l’imbrication de deux processus en cours dans les années 1830-1840. Le premier correspond aux évolutions du discours d’un député qui, s’appuyant en début de carrière sur le territoire local qui l’a élu, s’en abstrait progressivement au profit de l’échelle nationale. Le second processus concerne le débat sur la réforme du tarif postal qui voit progressivement disparaître la référence au territoire et à ses rugosités, au profit d’une approche par les relations sociales. L’ensemble est à voir dans le cadre des années qui précèdent l’arrivée du la IIe République qui amènera le suffrage universel, le tarif unique et l’adhésion de ce député à l’idéal républicain.

  13. Au-delà de la ¡ Revolución !

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Rebotier

    2008-01-01

    La « Révolution Bolivarienne » fait irruption au terme d’un siècle de changements fondamentaux qui transforment le pays dans les cadres de l’exploitation pétrolière, à l’origine de bien des caractéristiques actuelles. L’élection du président se fait sur l’échec d’une démocratie négociée et au terme de deux décennies de crise qui exacerbent les difficultés sociales. Pour autant, si l’ordre sociopolitique et symbolique est mis en cause, l’ordre économique reste peu affecté. Le chavisme change l...

  14. Facteur 4 : le chantier social et politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Présentation de l’appel à communicationFace au défi majeur du changement climatique, technologues, modélisateurs et économistes, et non des moindres, ont décrit des réponses possibles. Du GIEC à Lord Stern, du LEPII au CIRED en passant par Mc-Kinsey, la division par quatre ou plus à l’horizon 2050 des émissions dans les pays développés puis dans les pays émergents est décrite comme difficile mais possible. Cependant, l’accent est encore trop peu mis sur les changements d’ordre institutionnel,...

  15. Globalisation et changement d’échelle dans le gouvernement urbain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.V. Savitch

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les relations entre la mondialisation et le changement d’échelle urbaine. Il considère que les dynamiques à l’œuvre dans le processus de mondialisation (politiques néo-libérales, compétition territoriale, suburbanisation conduisent à de nouvelles contraintes pesant sur les villes. Une des réponses les plus pertinentes que les villes peuvent générer repose sur le changement d’échelle de leurs institutions en bâtissant de nouvelles structures ou en les restructurant pour renforcer leur capacité d’action. Ce processus conduit à reconfigurer les modes de gouvernance et donc le pouvoir urbain sur de nouvelles bases géographiques. Ce type de manipulation territoriale est un instrument qui agit sur l’allocation des ressources entre acteurs, en inclus certains, en exclue d’autres, établit de nouvelles priorités sur l’agenda politique. Cinq types de dynamiques institutionnelles sont présentées et analysées à partir de cas concrets: 1 les villes fusionnées 2 le gouvernement à plusieurs niveaux 3 la coopération partagée 4 les communautés urbaines et 5 les villes non contiguës. Une première évaluation est menée en tentant de mettre jour l’efficacité, le contrôle démocratique et la capacité à générer du développement économique respectifs de ces cinq modèles qui présentent tous des avantages et des inconvénients. Le recours à l’un ou l’autre de ces modèles s’explique essentiellement par les valeurs auxquels il renvoie et par des contingences politiques et économiques. Ils ne garantissent pas non plus un type particulier d’effet même si un changement d’échelle bien maîtrisé peut renforcer la position d’une ville face à la mondialisation.This article explores the relationship between globalization and urban rescaling. It suggests that forces emanating from globalization (neo liberal politics, increased competition, economic restructuring and suburbanization have

  16. Plus haut « sommet » de la moitié sud de l’atoll de Tarawa à Kiribati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Gaillard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’altitude, ou l’absence d’élévation, constitue un puissant argument politique et médiatique dans le contexte contemporain du changement climatique. Cette photo prise à South Tarawa, Kiribati, est une parfaite illustration du discours tenu par certains gouvernements des pays les moins élevés au monde pour attirer l’attention sur leur territoire.Ainsi, les médias internationaux ont récemment fait leurs titres de l’initiative du gouvernement de Kiribati, et notamment de son charismatique présid...

  17. Gouvernance de la sécheresse : le cas du bassin versant de la Vilaine aval (Bretagne, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA JEUNESSE, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conduire une politique efficace en matière d’adaptation aux évolutions climatiques est un enjeu pour les collectivités et tous les acteurs des territoires, notamment dans le domaine de la gestion de la ressource en eau. À partir des premiers résultats d’une analyse de la gouvernance de la sécheresse dans le bassin versant de la Vilaine aval en Bretagne, cet article nous montre comment les éléments de la gouvernance de l’eau peuvent jouer un rôle dans la mise en place de mesures adaptées à la sécheresse face aux impacts liés au changement climatique.

  18. Climate change and the development of mountain areas: what do we need to know and for what types of action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is today a reality at both the international and more local levels. Recent studies have focussed mainly on analysing the consequences of climate change. The present article seeks to examine and qualify the impact of climate change in the mountain areas of the Alps. A first line of enquiry concerns the changing level of danger in the mountain environment. Are mountain areas becoming more dangerous and, if so, in terms of what types of risks and to what degree? However, adopting an approach based on an analysis of natural hazards and their dynamics in response to climate change cannot ignore the economic activities and types of development that already exist in these areas. In this respect, the tourism economy is predominant in mountain regions. Its durability and vitality undoubtedly constitute a priority for local actors. It is not surprising therefore that the latter have set up strategies for adapting to climate change. For planners and decision-makers to ensure integrated approaches in dealing with climate change, it is important that the complex links between natural risks and the types of development in mountain areas are better understood, which calls for a more detailed analysis of the environment in terms of territorial vulnerability.Le changement climatique est aujourd’hui une réalité au niveau international comme à celui des territoires locaux. Les travaux récents mettent préférentiellement l’accent sur l’analyse des conséquences du changement climatique. Cet article se propose de questionner et de qualifier l’impact du changement climatique dans les territoires montagnards des Alpes. Un premier axe de réflexion concerne l’évolution de la dangerosité de la montagne. Une montagne plus dangereuse se profile-t-elle ? Selon quels types de risques et avec quelles intensités ? Cependant, l’approche des risques naturels et de leur dynamique face au changement climatique ne saurait occulter le type d

  19. Évaluation de la durée de stockage des concentrés érythrocytaires transfusés au CHUV

    OpenAIRE

    GOSSIN M.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXTE Au CHUV, plus de 15'000 concentrés érythrocytaires (CE) sont transfusés chaque année, leur stockage maximum est fixé à 42 jours. La conservation des produits sanguins est une étape critique, car, avec le temps, ils subissent des changements qui altèrent leurs fonctions biologiques, dont celle de délivrer l'oxygène aux tissus. Ces altérations sont appelées «lésions de stockage» et leurs effets cliniques sont...

  20. L’articulation ABC-CRM au service d’une gestion du couple coût-valeur:le cas d’une entreprise de micronutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Zouhair Djerbi

    2009-01-01

    (VF)Cet article décrit l’expérimentation visant à concilier consommation de ressources, à l’aide de la démarche ABC/M (Activity-based costing/management ou comptabilité et gestion par activités) et valeur client, au travers du CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Nous verrons, au travers d’un cas, que l’articulation entre ces deux approches permet de progresser dans la gestion simultanée des coûts et de la valeur. Le changement de stratégie intervenu dans l’entreprise au cours de l’expérim...

  1. Stratégies méritocratiques et motivation au travail dans la fonction publique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Amiel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Les efforts de modernisation des administrations publiques passent par une réforme en profondeur des modes de fonctionnement. L’importance de la fonction de gestion des ressources humaines est déterminante dans le succès des opérations de changement. La mobilisation des énergies au bénéfice d’un but commun reste un souci essentiel des dirigeants. L’encouragement et la valorisation de comportements méritants est au cœur des réflexions. Des stratégies méritocratiques diverses sont envisagées. Elles ne peuvent cependant être développées en dehors des aspects liés à la motivation au travail. La théorie de Vroom peut servir de fil conducteur à cette réflexion et éviter que des stratégies bureaucratiques, impersonnelles et soutenues par un paradigme de linéarité ne prennent le pas sur celles qui mettent l’individu au centre du débat en tenant compte de ses besoins, de ses aspirations et de ses valeurs.

  2. Développement et changement. Le développement professionnel collectif des enseignants face aux réformes dans les lycées agricoles publics

    OpenAIRE

    Germier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    La dimension collective du travail enseignant constitue aujourd’hui un enjeu prégnant des réformes éducatives. Cette recherche ethnographique étudie les liens entre développement et changement. Nous envisageons le travail collectif des enseignants sous l’angle des interactions entre développement professionnel et changement institutionnel. Reprenant à notre compte l’hypothèse de l’émergence du collectif d’enseignants comme un nouvel acteur des systèmes éducatifs, nous lui attribuons la capaci...

  3. Ultra-relativistic Au+Au and d+Au collisions:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    In this talk I will review PHOBOS data on charged particle multiplicities, obtained in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at RHIC. The general features of the Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions results will be discussed and compared to those of /line{p}p collisions. The total charged particle multiplicity, scaled by the number of participant pairs, is observed to be about 40% higher in Au+Au collisions than in /line{p}p and d+Au systems, but, surprisingly at the same level of e+e- collisions. Limiting fragmentation scaling is seen to be obeyed in Au+Au collisions.

  4. Biodiversity and global change. Adaptative responses to global change: results and prospective. IFB-GICC restitution colloquium; Biodiversite et changement global. Reponses adaptatives au changement global: resultats et prospective. Colloque de restitution IFB-GICC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despres, L.; Hossaert-Mckey, M.; Martin, J.F.; Pont, D.; Valero, M.; Chave, J.; Benizri, E.; Amiaud, B.; Boury-Esnault, N.; Fritz, H.; Lavelle, P.; Martin, F.; Poulet, S.; Blanchard, F.; Cheddadi, R.; Dupouey, J.L.; Hulle, M.; Michaux, J.; Souissi, S.; Bridault, A.; Dambrine, E.; Gomez, B.; Thevenard, F.; Legendre, S.; Suc, J.P.; Zeitoun, V.; Bezancon, G.; Frascaria-Lacoste, N.; Ponsard, S.; Bourguet, D.; Vigne, J.D.; Doyen, L.; Joly, P.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Garnier, E.; Lebaron, Ph.; Boulinier, Th.; Chuine, I.; Jiguet, F.; Couvet, D.; Soussana, J.F.; Weimerskirsch, H.; Grosbois, V.; Bretagnolle, V

    2006-07-01

    Global change is the consequence of the worldwide human print on ecology. The uncontrolled use of fossil fuels, the urbanization, the intensifying of agriculture, the homogenization of life styles and cultures, the homogenization of fauna and vegetation, the commercial trades, the bio-invasions, the over-exploitation of resources and the emergence of new economic powers (China, India, Brazil..) represent an adaptative dynamics of interactions which affects the overall biosphere and the adaptative capacities and the future of all species. Biodiversity is an ecological and societal insurance against the risks and uncertainties linked with global change. The French institute of biodiversity (IFB) has created a working group in charge of a study on global change and biodiversity, in particular in terms of: speed and acceleration of processes, interaction between the different organization levels of the world of living, scale changes, and adaptative capacities. 38 projects with an interdisciplinary approach have been retained by the IFB and the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development. The conclusion of these projects were presented at this restitution colloquium and are summarized in this document. The presentations are organized in 7 sessions dealing with: global changes and adaptation mechanisms; functional responses to global changes; spatial responses to global changes; temporal responses to global changes; selective answers to global changes; available tools and ecological services; scenarios and projections. (J.S.)

  5. Les défis de la réconciliation des objectifs de développement dans le contexte du changement démographique 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Provo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à déterminer si l’initiative de développement basé sur les ressources (ABDI, Asset-Based Development Initiative de la Commission régionale des Appalaches (ARC, Appalachian Regional Commission aux États-Unis réconcilie les objectifs de développement économique dans les communautés qui présentent un changement démographique. À travers des études de cas reposant sur des entretiens informatifs clés menés dans les communautés de la Virginie Occidentale et un examen de projets financés par l’ARC, les auteurs tentent de répondre à deux questions fondamentales : « Le leadership communautaire a-t-il évolué et s’est-il adapté au programme ? » et « Les nouveaux projets différaient-ils clairement, en termes d’objectifs, de contenu ou de résultats, des projets antérieurs ? ». Les similitudes économiques et démographiques entre les communautés alpines et appalachiennes, notamment en ce qui concerne le rôle des immigrants, suggèrent que les conclusions de cette étude seront pertinentes pour d’autres régions de montagnes et pourraient contribuer à un débat entre spécialistes du développement en montagne.This paper considers whether the US Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC Asset-Based Development Initiative (ABDI reconciles economic development objectives in communities experiencing demographic change. Through a case study approach utilizing key informant interviews in Southwest Virginia communities and a review of ARC-funded projects, the authors consider two main questions. Did community leadership change or adapt to the program? Were new projects demonstrably different in objectives, content, or outcomes than past projects? Economic and demographic similarities between Alpine and Appalachian communities, particularly in the role of in-migrants, suggest that this study’s findings will be relevant for other mountain regions and could contribute to a conversation among

  6. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... ethnographic component of the dissertation consists of four articles, all emphasizing the au pairs’ agency by viewing their migration as a dynamic personal and social experience. Arguing that Filipina au pairs tend to be understood primarily from the perspective of their precarious situation as domestic...... of their Danish host families. Based on their migratory status as au pairs, these young migrants must therefore negotiate the different moral and contractual rights and obligations that characterize the local and transnational family ties in which they are engaged. This study of Filipina au pair migration through...

  7. Changement des mentalités et changements institutionnels : des impératifs pour crédibiliser la démocratie en Afrique

    OpenAIRE

    Ongono Bikoe, Danielle Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Pour à nouveau donner confiance aux Africains et les inciter à participer à la vie politique de leurs pays, des actions doivent être menées aussi bien en dehors du processus électoral que pendant les élections et autant auprès des citoyens qu’au sein des institutions : améliorer l’éducation et la sensibilisation à la démocratie, par l’intermédiaire des médias et de l’école, assurer l’autonomie des institutions responsables des élections, limiter les pou­voirs des chefs d’État, réduire le nomb...

  8. Administration du personnel ou gestion des ressources humaines au sein de la fonction publique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Duvillier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien souvent, dans le langage courant comme au sein de nombreux ouvrages scientifiques, on tend à confondre "l'administration du personnel" et "la gestion des ressources humaines". Au regard des politiques de mobilité et d'évaluation des performances au sein de l'administration publique, nous souhaiterions toutefois mettre en lumière une différence essentielle entre un mode de gestion du personnel qui, basé sur un important corpus juridique, répond aux strictes contraintes réglementaires et légales en la matière et une pratique de gestion des ressources humaines caractérisée par la mise en oeuvre de méthodes plus "relationnelles" qui, nécessitant une forte volonté de changement tant de la part du monde politique que des acteurs de terrain, pourrait, lorsque les statuts le permettent, conduire à une meilleure prise en considération des aspirations des fonctionnaires dans une perspective d'amélioration du service public.

  9. Développement, crises et adaptation des territoires du soja au Mato Grosso: l'exemple de Sorriso Desenvolvimento, crises e adaptação dos territórios da soja em Mato Grosso : o exemplo de Sorriso

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Magri Ferreira; Patricio Mendez del Villar; Damien Arvor; Vincent Dubreuil; Margareth Simões Penello Meirelles

    2009-01-01

    L’expansion de la culture du soja au sud de l’Amazonie brésilienne dans les années 1990 a permis l’émergence de nouveaux territoires intégrés à « l’économie monde » après la phase pionnière des décennies 1970 et 1980. Cependant, la baisse des cours, la « rouille asiatique » (maladie du soja), la variabilité climatique et les tensions environnementales ont entraîné la filière agricole dans une crise profonde entre 2004 et 2007.  Cette crise a alors mis en exergue les limites de ce modèle de dé...

  10. Le défi de la construction d’un public pour le journalisme au temps de Google Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Demers, François

    2012-01-01

    Ce texte entend attirer l’attention sur l’une des transformations que connaît le journalisme contemporain, soit l’abandon d’une représentation du public comme formé de citoyens au profit d’un destinataire-cible qu’il s’agit de trouver. Ce changement découle de la précarité dans laquelle les médias sont plongés par le contexte d’hyperconcurrence : se construire un public et le garder est devenu un défi majeur. En réaction, les médias tentent de bénéficier des outils informatiques qui quadrille...

  11. L'éducation au développement durable, l'école et les territoires apprenants.

    OpenAIRE

    DUSSAUX, Maryvonne

    2011-01-01

    En réponse à la crise économique, sociale et environnement, l’idée d’un développement durable s’impose de plus en plus dans l’action publique. L’éducation est présentée comme essentielle à la réussite du changement espéré et une “ éducation au développement durable ” se concrétise dans les établissements scolaires et sur les territoires. Notre problématique est de repérer les potentialités d’innovation dont cette politique éducative est porteuse et quels sont ses effets sur le projet éducatif...

  12. Le ruissellement sur le site protohistorique du Puech de Mus (Sainte-Eulalie-de-Cernon, Aveyron, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Fillâtre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Le site du Puech de Mus est localisé sur le Causse du Larzac à 842 m d'altitude, 20 km au sud-est de Millau. Il a permis de connaître l'évolution du ruissellement sur une échelle de temps débutant après le Néolithique et se terminant aujourd'hui. Or, cette période est cruciale pour la région des Grands Causses, car elle se rapporte à une phase d'érosion bien connue liée au changement climatique du Subboréal au Subatlantique, et à une intense exploitation de la forêt à l'Âge des Métaux. L'arti...

  13. L’influence de l’administration militaire allemande sur les changements de personnel au sein de la magistrature belge (1940-1944)

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur 1. Introduction L’étude de la magistrature belge durant l’occupation allemande de la Seconde Guerre mondiale est inévitablement liée à l’histoire de l’administration militaire de l’occupant. En effet, la Belgique ainsi que les départements français du Nord et du Pas-de-Calais dépendent alors du ressort du Militärbefehlshaber, le général Alexander von Falkenhausen, gouverneur militaire de la Belgique durant l’occupation nazie. L’administration militaire est alors comp...

  14. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne;

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  15. Les noms des quartiers dans la ville d’Oran. Entre changement officiel et nostalgie populaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Boumedini, Belkacem; Hadria, Nebia Dadoua

    2013-01-01

    La décolonisation en Algérie s’est accompagnée d’une réappropriation symbolique de l’espace toponymique. L’algérianisation des odonymes (du grec « odos » : rue), s’est concrétisée en 1963 par un décret officialisant le remplacement des noms français des quartiers par d’autres  algériens. Aujourd’hui encore dans des villes comme Oran, les vieux comme les jeunes préfèrent appeler les quartiers oranais par leurs toponymes français au lieu du toponyme algérien. Notre article tentera d’expliquer c...

  16. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H. [Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tahara, S. [Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Okada, T. [Niigata College of Technology, Kamishin’eicho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2076 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn{sub 1-c}Au{sub c} with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ{sub 3d} due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ{sub 3d} and E{sub F} in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  17. Pour une approche discursive des politiques publiques environnementales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Baillat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la montée des préoccupations environnementales au début des années 1970, relatives notamment à la gestion des territoires et des ressources naturelles, et plus récemment aux impacts du changement climatique sur les sociétés humaines, l’environnement n’a cessé de faire l’objet de nombreux débats politiques et scientifiques. Les questions environnementales ont ainsi engendré des réseaux d’influence et des interactions entre acteurs de nature et d’échelles différentes, porteurs d’intérêts divergents et parfois même contradictoires. Combinée à l’extrême technicité des questions en jeu, cette multiplicité d’échelles et d’acteurs tend à brouiller les cartes des débats environnementaux. Le changement climatique, la protection de la biodiversité ou la désertification constituent autant d’exemples pour lesquels l’identification des causes et des solutions présente une grande complexité scientifique et technique...

  18. Dire le temps, dire le changement Talk about time, talk about change. A socio-discursive analysis on how temporality is put into words in an organization on the move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Carcassonne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Comment parle-t-on aujourd’hui de son temps de travail dans les organisations en mouvement ? La mise en mots de ce temps permet-elle de donner du sens à son activité, comme l’entend Schütz, en envisageant la rétrospection et la prospection du point de vue d’une temporalité chronologique ? À la lumière des apports des théories narratives ayant insisté sur cette temporalité chronologique, mais aussi des apports des théories phénoménologiques ayant insisté sur la temporalité affective, nous analysons des extraits d’entretiens où des acteurs de l’entreprise contemporaine évoquent leur temps de travail sur un mode très affectif, avec une difficulté à se projeter dans l’avenir ou à relire le passé. Si les unités discursives renvoyant à une temporalité narrative affective ne sont pas répertoriables a priori, nous proposons cependant en conclusion une synthèse des différents aspects repérés dans les extraits. La façon de dire le thème des changements permanents qui touchent aujourd’hui l’entreprise nous interpelle finalement en ce qu’elle n’apparaît pas propre à une catégorie spécifique de personnel mais se repère à de multiples niveaux de responsabilités dans l’organisation. Le contexte de changement permanent de l’univers productif français influencerait ainsi les mises en récit, lesquelles sont de moins en moins marquées par des scansions clairement repérables mais soumises à une temporalité plus cyclique, vécue et dite sur un mode affectif, au sens phénoménologique du terme.How does one speak today about one’s time of/at work in organizations on the move? Following Schütz, who considers retrospection and projection from the point of view of a chronological temporality, does putting this time into words make it easier to give one’s activity meaning? We will take into account the contributions of narrative theories that emphasize this “chronological temporality” but

  19. Etre touareg au Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Edmond BERNUS

    1992-01-01

    Après une présentation générale de leur espace, de leur culture commune, des stéréotypes dont ils font l'objet, les Touaregs maliens sont décrits dans leurs diversités régionales. Les révoltes passées, celle de Firhoun, le héros de 1916, puis celle de l'Adrar des Iforas en 1963-64 contre le gouvernement de Modibo Keita, précédent la révolte qui s'étend depuis 1990 au Niger et au Mali avec des guerriers sachant manier armes et voitures. Attaques et répression sauvage se succèdent dans une spir...

  20. Introduction au droit commercial

    OpenAIRE

    Thirion, Nicolas; Delvaux, Thierry; Benoit-Moury, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Le cours d'introduction au droit commercial, destiné à des non-juristes, a pour objet de décrire, dans ses grandes lignes, le régime juridique applicable à l'organisation et au fonctionnement de l'économie. Les liens avec des disciplines autres que le droit, notamment l'économie et l'histoire, seront privilégiés, afin d'adapter la matière aux besoins et centres d'intérêts d'étudiants en sciences humaines. Après une introduction générale, le cours s'articule autour de la trilogie fondamentale ...

  1. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  2. Magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au and Fe-Au alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, S.; Shimakura, H.; Tahara, S.; Okada, T.

    2015-08-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, Fe-Au and Cu-Au alloys was investigated as a function of temperature and composition. Liquid Cr1-cAuc with 0.5 ≤ c and Mn1-cAuc with 0.3≤c obeyed the Curie-Weiss law with regard to their dependence of χ on temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities of liquid Fe-Au alloys also exhibited Curie-Weiss behavior with a reasonable value for the effective number of Bohr magneton. On the Au-rich side, the composition dependence of χ for liquid TM-Au (TM=Cr, Mn, Fe) alloys increased rapidly with increasing TM content, respectively. Additionally, the composition dependences of χ for liquid Cr-Au, Mn-Au, and Fe-Au alloys had maxima at compositions of 50 at% Cr, 70 at% Mn, and 85 at% Fe, respectively. We compared the composition dependences of χ3d due to 3d electrons for liquid binary TM-M (M=Au, Al, Si, Sb), and investigated the relationship between χ3d and EF in liquid binary TM-M alloys at a composition of 50 at% TM.

  3. Au-delà de la ¡ Revolución !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Rebotier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available La « Révolution Bolivarienne » fait irruption au terme d’un siècle de changements fondamentaux qui transforment le pays dans les cadres de l’exploitation pétrolière, à l’origine de bien des caractéristiques actuelles. L’élection du président se fait sur l’échec d’une démocratie négociée et au terme de deux décennies de crise qui exacerbent les difficultés sociales. Pour autant, si l’ordre sociopolitique et symbolique est mis en cause, l’ordre économique reste peu affecté. Le chavisme change le visage du Venezuela, affecte à différents degrés la géopolitique régionale, mais peine à consacrer les changements radicaux dont l’annonce est sans cesse repoussée et flirte avec des poussées autoritaristes toujours annoncées.The “Bolivarian Revolution” rises at the end of a century of huge transformations for the country as regards oil exploitation. This still has a lot of consequences today. The election of President is the product of both the failure of a negotiated democracy and two decades of crisis which sharpen inequalities. Nevertheless, both the socio political order and symbolic order can be questioned, but economic order is not really modified. Chavism changes part of the face of Venezuela, affects regional geopolitics on different degrees, but shows some difficulties to make radical changes come true. The worrisome drift of authoritarianism is still potential.La « Revolución Bolivariana » aparece al final de un siglo de cambios profundos que transforman el país en el marco de la explotación petrolera, dando origen a muchas de las características actuales del país. La elección del presidente Chávez es el producto del fracaso de una democracia negociada y de dos décadas de crisis que multiplican las dificultades sociales. Dicho eso, bien puede ser cuestionado el orden sociopolítico y simbólico, pero el orden económico resulta poco afectado. El chavismo cambia la cara de Venezuela

  4. Vivre, vivre au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    Tardits, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Comment faire face au caractère récurrent des catastrophes naturelles et liées à l’homme ? À la prévention, on se doit d’adjoindre une vision écologique plus large et renouvelée. Un débat sur le modèle énergétique du nucléaire et sur nos modèles de développement urbains et sociétaux s’impose.

  5. Des femmes au tribunal

    OpenAIRE

    Le Pape, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Les archives judiciaires constituent une source essentielle pour les études des sociabilités africaines en situation coloniale. Cet article prend appui sur l’analyse des procès tenus, entre 1923 et 1939, au tribunal du premier degré d’Abidjan, il vise à décrire les argumentations contradictoires par lesquelles femmes et hommes expliquent leurs différends dans l’espace du prétoire. Les registres issus des « juridictions indigènes » permettent également d’apprécier sur quels repères se fondent ...

  6. Des ignames au riz

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanoff, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    L'igname a toujours été une nourriture importante pour les populations littorales et nomades du monde insulindien. Cependant, avec l'installation du héros civilisateur Gaman le Malais chez le peuple de la reine Sibian, le riz va devenir la composante essentielle des repas moken. En intégrant Gaman en son sein, la société moken va devoir répondre au double défi posé par la menace de la riziculture et de l'islam. En donnant femme à Gaman, en adoptant le nomadisme pour échapper à l'islam ...

  7. Introduction au titre I

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pline a eu dans sa carrière d’homme public à défendre les intérêts de l’Etat et des particuliers, à épurer des comptes, à juger et arbitrer. Ainsi le voulait l’ordonnancement du cursus honorum du Bas-Empire, héritier sur tous ces points de la tradition des charges publiques de la République. Les premières tâches du petiturus furent essentiellement judiciaires - on songe au vigintivirat - et elles se poursuivirent par des fonctions de moyenne importance (préture consulat) puis de haute adminis...

  8. Description d'un processus de debureaucratisation de l'appareil administratif etatique au moyen de differentes techniques de gestion des ressources humaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault DUVILLIER

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet exposé1 consiste à expliquer un processus de débureaucratisation de l'appareil administratif étatique au moyen de techniques de gestion des Ressources humaines. Pour ce faire, il convient de s'entendre sur le concept de bureaucratie autant que sur celui de gestion des Ressources humaines. En disséquant une organisation définie comme bureaucratique en ses diverses composantes, nous pourrons ainsi mieux émettre des pistes de débureaucratisation. Précisément, les différentes techniques de gestion des Ressources humaines dont je ferai état ici permettront de faciliter le changement organisationnel souhaité.

  9. Photoelectrochemical studies of DNA-tagged biomolecules on Au and Au/Ni/Au multilayer nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of nanowires (NWs for labeling, sensing, and sorting is the basis of detecting biomolecules attached on NWs by optical and magnetic properties. In spite of many advantages, the use of biomolecules-attached NWs sensing by photoelectrochemical (PEC study is almost non-existent. In this article, the PEC study of dye-attached single-stranded DNA on Au NWs and Au-Ni-Au multilayer NWs prepared by pulse electrodeposition are investigated. Owing to quantum-quenching effect, the multilayer Au NWs exhibit low optical absorbance when compared with Au NWs. The tagged Au NWs show good fluorescence (emission at 570 nm, indicating significant improvement in the reflectivity. Optimum results obtained for tagged Au NWs attached on functionalized carbon electrodes and its PEC behavior is also presented. A twofold enhancement in photocurrent is observed with an average dark current of 10 μA for Au NWs coated on functionalized sensing electrode. The importance of these PEC and optical studies provides an inexpensive and facile processing platform for Au NWs that may be suitable for biolabeling applications.

  10. L’occupation de l’Europe par les chasseurs du Paléolithique supérieur: une question de climat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Demars

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available On présente le modèle d’occupation de l’Europe occidentale par les chasseurs préhistoriques du Paléolithique supérieur. Pendant cette période, la fin de la glaciation du Würm, on assiste à des changements climatiques. La répartition des sites montre de grandes différences entre les régions et dans le temps. Avant le Maximum glaciaire, à l’Aurignacien et au Gravettien, la «Corne Aquitano-Cantabrique» possède un très grand nombre de sites par rapport au reste de l’Europe. Lors du Maximum glaciaire, l’Europe septentrionale et centrale est abandonnée. Au Tardiglaciaire, le réchauffement climatique entraîne une multiplication des sites, résultat de la colonisation des plaines de l’Europe septentrionale.

  11. L’introduction des technologies de surveillance dans le travail policier. Facteur de changement ou de réassurance ? Introducing Surveillance Technologies into Police Work. Factor of Change or Reassurance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïk Purenne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La collecte et l’analyse de données ne constituent pas des phénomènes récents. Néanmoins, d’importants changements se sont produits dans ce domaine au cours des dernières décades, faisant de la surveillance un outil à part entière des institutions modernes. Cet article analyse la manière dont les technologies de surveillance comme la vidéosurveillance, les banques de données ou encore la cartographie de la criminalité entrent en interaction, au sein des institutions chargées de la lutte contre la délinquance, avec le monopole étatique de la violence légitime. L’étude empirique de deux services de police français (un service dédié à la police des transports ferroviaires et une unité d’enquête composée d’agents issus d’administrations différentes montre que ces technologies sont mises au service d’un ciblage de l’action de police sur des territoires ou des individus identifiés comme « à risque ». Elle tend à relativiser, dans le contexte français, l’hypothèse d’un mode de surveillance qui serait synonyme d’un adoucissement du contrôle social. Elle suggère que l’usage des technologies de surveillance peut aussi bien aider à la relégitimation de moyens de contrôle traditionnels à une époque où la discrétionnarité du travail policier est de plus en plus contestée.Data collection and analysis is not a recent phenomenon. However, major changes have occurred in recent decades and surveillance now appears as a general tool in modern institutions. This paper is concerned with analyzing the way surveillance technologies such as CCTV, databases, or crime mapping concretely interact with the State’s traditional monopoly of force in the institutions charged of crime control. The empirical study of two French police services (a transit police department and an inter-institutional detective squad reveals that these technologies are used by police managers to target high-risk territories and

  12. Le marketing au concret

    OpenAIRE

    Gaglio, Gérald

    2010-01-01

    Le terme “marketing” suscite généralement la méfiance, car il est spontanément associé à l’idée de manipulation. Au-delà, que font, concrètement, les “gens du marketing” ? Afin d’apporter des pistes de réponse à cette question, nous nous penchons dans cet article sur les enjeux relatifs à un matériau censé alimenter les réflexions et décisions des marketeurs : les études qualitatives de marketing research réalisées dans le cadre de réunions de consommateurs. Cette approche nous conduit à expl...

  13. Introduction au titre II

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    159. L’objet de notre propos est de démontrer que l’Administration dispose, à la suite du juge, d’un véritable pouvoir normatif. L’admettre suppose d’en identifier les différentes manifestations qui s’expriment essentiellement par voie de circulaires administratives, de réponses ministérielles et d’avis administratifs et qui ne sauraient être assimilées au pouvoir réglementaire que l’Administration détient par ailleurs. L’ordre logique de la démonstration sera donc semblable à celui adopté po...

  14. Grazalema revisitée : changement social et culturel dans un village de la sierra andalouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Campuzano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazalema revisitée : changement social et culturel dans un village de la sierra andalouse. Nous essayons, dans cet article, de préciser le contexte intellectuel et scientifique de l’étude de Grazalema par J. Pitt-Rivers ainsi que les conditions dans lesquelles cette enquête a été réalisée. La dictature franquiste qui soupçonnait toute présence étrangère, a, en particulier, compliqué singulièrement la tâche de l’ethnologue. Nous nous sommes également intéressés à l’impact de l’œuvre dans le milieu universitaire espagnol. L’originalité de la pensée de Julian Pitt-Rivers, l’absence d’études anthropologiques en Espagne, à cette période ont probablement été à l’origine de polémiques, parfois assez violente autour de ses travaux, polémiques que nous exposons dans ce texte. Toutefois l’œuvre de Julian Pitt Rivers, plus de cinquante ans après sa parution garde tout son intérêt.Grazalema Revisited: Social and Cultural Change in a Sierra Andalusia Village. In this article we set out to specify the intellectual and scientific context of J. Pitt-Rivers’ study of Grazalema, as well as the conditions under which the survey was carried out. The Francoist dictatorship was suspicious of any foreigner’s presence and made the anthropologist’s task particularly complicated. We also take a look at the work’s impact on the Spanish academic environment. The originality of Julian Pitt-Rivers’ thought and the lack of anthropological studies in Spain at the time were no doubt responsible for the controversy – quite violent, at times – surrounding his work, controversy which we shall be discussing in this article. Nevertheless, even over fifty years after it first appeared, Julian Pitt Rivers’ work is still of great interest.

  15. Photosensibilite de la silice dopee au germanium: Effet de l'implantation ionique a haute energie et de l'illumination ultraviolette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Mourad

    La photosensibilité est un phénomène largement exploité de nos jours dans les applications nécessitant un changement d'indice de réfraction permanent. Ce changement est observé dans des fibres optiques ou des guides plans quand ils sont exposés à la lumière ultraviolette. Plusieurs mécanismes seraient responsables de ce changement. Le modèle qui revient le plus dans la majorité des études entreprises à ce sujet est celui des centres de couleurs. Partant de ce modèle, nous avons concentré nos recherches dans cette thèse à l'études des propriétés optiques des défauts dans les verres à base de silice dopée au germanium. Dans la première partie de la thèse, nous utilisons la technique de l'implantation ionique pour induire d'énormes quantités de défauts dans des guides plans. L'abondance de ces défauts nous a permis d'étudier leurs interactions avec la lumière ultraviolette et de détecter une dépendance en longueur d'onde de leur évolution en fonction de la dose de rayonnement délivrée par le laser. Leur disparition ou leur transformation en d'autres défauts se traduit directement par un changement de l'indice de réfraction selon les analyses de Kramers-Kronig. Nous avons étudié en profondeur les transformations des défauts qui absorbent autour de 5 eV et qui sont en grande majorité responsables du changement de l'indice de réfraction dans ce genre de matériau. Deux défauts sont connus et sont à l'origine de cette bande d'absorption. Le défaut NOMV (Neutral Oxygen mono-Vacancy) qui absorbe à 5.06 eV et le défaut GLPC (Germanium Lone Pair center) qui absorbe à 5.14 eV. Des mesures d'absorption optiques et de résonance paramagnétique électronique montrent des liens étroits entre la disparition de l'un ou de l'autre de ces deux défauts et de l'émergence de nouveaux défauts paramagnétiques absorbant à plus hautes énergies. Le recuit thermique de plusieurs échantillons nous a permis de conclure que les deux d

  16. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  17. “L’homme qui n’élève pas ses enfants ne devrait pas être appelé un père” ?* Les tendances du discours sur la paternité et le dilemme paternel au Japon

    OpenAIRE

    TAGA, Futoshi

    2011-01-01

    La paternité japonaise a longtemps été caractérisée par un engagement professionnel exacerbé et une absence marquée au niveau familial. Cependant, le contexte économique et politique récent a induit certains changements dans la manière d’appréhender la paternité. Il est ainsi possible d’identifier trois types de positionnements dans les discours récents relatifs à la paternité au Japon : 1) le père “pourvoyeur”, garantissant les ressources économiques nécessaires aux besoins des enfants, 2) l...

  18. Éléments pour une sociologie du changement pénal en Occident. Eclairage des concepts de rationalité pénale moderne et d’innovation pénale Theoretical Problematization of Penal Innovation: The Case of Community Service in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Cauchie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Les changements qui se produisent dans le système de droit pénal occidental et la manière de les analyser sont au cœur de cette contribution. Notre article se veut en effet une réflexion sur l’innovation en tant qu’outil sociologique pour observer le changement pénal. Après avoir souligné les obstacles sociologiques que la sociologie critique rencontre pour identifier des changements (innovants au sein du système de droit pénal (1, nous explorerons la problématisation théorique de l’innovation pénale ainsi que son point de départ, la rationalité pénale moderne (2. Plus concrètement, et à titre de mise à l’épreuve de notre opérationnalisation théorique, nous réfléchirons ensuite aux fenêtres d’opportunités qui se présentent pour une lecture innovante du changement pénal. À ce titre, nous nous focaliserons essentiellement sur l’une d’entre elles : les travaux communautaires. Derrière leur ambivalence, ceux-ci présentent en effet certaines « prédispositions» à l’innovation, surtout dans le casbelge (3. Deux éléments cruciaux en termes de potentiel innovateur seront ainsi décrits : la mutation statutaire d’une mesure en peine d’une part ; l’émergence d’un modèle pénal de l’aide qualifiable d’inattendu d’autre part(3.1.. Après avoir décrits et situés historiquement ces deux éléments, nous proposerons un examen plus pointu de la dimension innovatrice de la mutation statutaire (3.2. et du modèle d’aide émergent (3.3., l’objectif ici étant moins de prétendre à l’exhaustivité empirique que de susciter un intérêt pour les enjeux théoriques et conceptuels de nos propos.This paper is essentially concerned with current changes in the criminal justice system and the analysis thereof. To put it simply, we are not totally satisfied with the theoretical interpretations of these changes. We then show how unsatisfactory these interpretations are, from both an ethical and

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-Zr system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 金展鹏; 刘华山

    2003-01-01

    Au-Zr binary system was reassessed by using the calculation phase diagram (CALPHAD) technique based on experimental thermodynamic data and newly reported phase diagrams. The excess Gibbs energies of the three terminal solutions and the liquid phases were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial. All the intermetallic phases were treated as stoichiometric compounds with the exception of ZrAu which is modeled by a two-sublattice model, (Au,Zr) : (Au, Zr). The results show that there exist seven intermetallics: Zr3Au, Zr2Au, Zr5Au4,Zr7Au10, ZrAu2 , ZrAu3, and ZrAu4 in the system. The eutectoid reaction: β(Zr) →α(Zr)+Zr3Au takes place at 1 048 K and the maximal solubility of Au in α-Zr is 4.7 % (mole fraction). The maximal solubility of Zr in Au is 6.0%(mole fraction) at 1 347 K. The homogeneity range of ZrAu phase is about 44.5%-52.9%(mole fraction) of Au. The present assessment fits experimental data very well.

  20. The renewable energies and raw materials in France. Situation and perspectives of development within the framework of the fight against the climatic change; Les energies et matieres premieres renouvelable en France. Situation et perspectives de developpement dans le cadre de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ADEME proposes to evaluate the situation of the renewable energies utilization in France. The three types of utilizations are analyzed: heat, electric power and fuels. The renewable products in substitution to the petrochemistry are also considered. Two chapters are devoted to the perspectives development and the international context is discussed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Plan climate 2003 Group Agriculture - Forest - By-products, 12 propositions to fight against the climatic change in the agriculture sector; Plan climat 2003 Groupe Agriculture - Foret - Produits derives, 12 propositions pour lutter contre le changement climatique dans le secteur de l'agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, Ch.; Bochu, J.L.; Pointereau, Ph.; Doublet, S.

    2003-07-01

    These propositions have been elaborated by the Salengro association in the framework of the Plan Climate 2003, at the ADEME request. These measures aims to fight against the climatic change in the agriculture domain: tractors fuels, energy mastery, renewable energies in fossil fuels substitution, wood buildings, hedges and linear afforestation, nitrogen balance equilibrium, agriculture policy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  3. Vertebrates population response to the climatic change - pertinence of the environmental indicators and influence of the demographic strategies and consequences for the biodiversity dynamic; Reponses demographiques des vertebres aux changements climatiques - pertinence d'indicateurs environnementaux et influence des strategies demographiques et consequences pour la dynamique de la biodiversite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimerskirch, H

    2007-07-01

    There is a growing interest and major challenge to understand the way environmental variability and climatic change have affected and will affect ecosystems and populations. Long-term records of population parameters of vertebrates are rare, but invaluable to address this challenge. The network CLIMPOP brings together French researchers working with long term data collected on individually marked animals to study the effects of climate change on a range of vertebrate populations (reptiles, birds and mammals) and standardised methods to link climatic factors and demographic parameters. The funding from GICC-IFB has allowed the CLIMPOP group to hire a post doc bridging methodologists and ecologists, organize a workshop and support field studies. Several analyses on a series of vertebrates have been carried out on the link between large-scale and small-scale climatic factors and population dynamics. In addition the CLIMPOP group has carried out a major methodological paper reviewing statistical models and procedures to study the influence of climate on vital rates based on the analysis of individual monitoring data, to identify potential pitfalls in the utilization of these models and procedures, to review published papers in which the influence of climatic variation on survival probability in vertebrate populations has been addressed, to evaluate whether the results from these studies are relevant and to draw practical recommendations to efficiently address effects of climate effects on vital rates in natural vertebrate populations. This evaluation raised six potential methodological issues and indicates that so far most of the studies found in the ecological literature can be considered as being useful for the purpose of generating hypothesis rather than for that of obtaining solid evidence for the impact of climatic factors on vital rates. (author)

  4. Countries in transition and the developing countries in the negotiation on the climatic change. Stakes of the Kyoto conference; Les pays en transition et les pays en developpement dans la negociation sur le changement climatique. Les enjeux de la conference de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.; Cavard, D.; Faudry, D.; Girod, J.; Menanteau, P.; Viguier, L

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the positions of the countries in transition and the developing countries in the phase of the negotiations on the climatic change between 1994 and 1997, then takes stock on the pilot phase of the actions of the associated implementation. The negotiations stakes and the frame of the discussions are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  5. La comptabilité des émissions de gaz à effet de serre par enjeu : un outil d'analyse des impacts du changement climatique sur les activités d'une banque de financement et d'investissement

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The PhD thesis is a contribution to the definition of a new banking risk related to the economic impacts of climate change. The climate change will impact the clients of a corporate and investment bank and will have consequences on its strategy and the composition of its business portfolio. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain on the economic impacts of climate change and create a new risk for the banks: the carbon risk. The quantification of “GreenHouse Gases (GHG) emissions induced” by the bu...

  6. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  7. Local collectivities and climatic change. Are you ready? A guide for the adaptation devoted to the local collectivities; Collectivites locales et changement climatique. Etes-vous pret? Un guide pour l'adaptation a l'attention des collectivites locales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Facing the climatic change effects, it is necessary to develop a national but also regional adaptation policy to the global warming. This guide aims to give, to the local managers, information on the global warming and bring possible adaptation measures. The sectors of planning, buildings, transports, public health, environment and public information are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  8. Link between large scale atmospheric circulation and heat waves for seasonal forecasting and climate change impact studies; Le lien entre circulation atmospherique de grande echelle et canicules pour la prevision a longue echeance et l'impact du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, J.; Cassou, Ch.; Terray, L. [CERFACS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Parey, S.; Dubus, L. [EDF/R and D/MFEE, 78 - Chatou (France)

    2010-07-01

    Climate models are designed to reproduce the average behaviour of the climatic parameters over quite large geographical areas, and the large scale atmospheric circulation. Large scale atmospheric circulation shows some stable and recurrent patterns, called weather regimes, whose succession can explain the local observed meteorological conditions. These structures are then identified for the summer season and their link with hot and dry days in France are studied. From the 4 identified summer regimes, 2 are associated with an increased occurrence of hot and dry conditions over France. Although this link does not explain the total summer variability, it can help to anticipate hot and dry conditions and it is used here for seasonal forecast perspectives and to analyse the impact of climate change on the occurrence of heat waves. Regarding seasonal forecast, an influence of anomalous tropical conditions (a northern shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone) has been identified as susceptible to increase the occurrence frequency of the 2 regimes linked to hot and dry conditions in France in summer. Thus, if this link can be confirmed and if climate models are able to re-produce it correctly, then it could lead to an interesting anticipation of the possible occurrence of an heat wave in the next summer. As far as climate change is concerned, the study shows that in the future, one of the 2 hot and dry regimes could be more frequent, while the most cold and wet one becomes less frequent. Thus, globally, hot and dry days should occur more frequently. There are however still many uncertainties, as on the one hand, models show different results concerning the future occurrence of the regimes, and on the other hand, the other local mechanisms linked to the heat wave occurrence, like soil moisture content and evolution, are sometimes poorly represented. (authors)

  9. Hydrological simulation in the Mediterranean region with SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU. Improvement of the physics of the model and evaluation of the risk within the framework of climate change; Simulation hydrologique en region mediterraneenne avec SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU. Amelioration de la physique et evaluation des risques dans le cadre du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, Quintana Segui

    2008-12-15

    The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU model is assessed and its physics are improved. The SAFRAN meteorological analysis is first validated in detail. The surface model ISBA is then modified to better describe the hydraulic conductivity in the soil. A strategy of calibration is defined and applied at the scale of France. The improved model is then used to assess the impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean region. A regional climate model is down-scaled by two different methods. The study shows that the uncertainties related to the down-scaling are important. Uncertainty related to the impact model is smaller, but must be taken into account for the extremes. In this region, the extremes of river flows, and sometimes the means, will increase during the first half of the twenty-first century. At the end of the century, the scenario indicates a decline of the average of river flows and the extremes will remain stable, leading to increased variability. (author)

  10. The importance of decision-making aids in the energy area: from planning to the management of disorder and climate change; Importance de l'aide a la decision dans le champ energetique: de la planification a la gestion du desordre et du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N. [DEN/DANS/I.TESE, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gf sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to situate decision-making aids in the energy area in France and show how the tools have changed over time as a function of the changing economic and political context. The challenges faced, already important in the post-war era due to reconstruction, are now huge due to supply constraints and global warming. While it is the State's responsibility to address these issues, as the players in the energy area currently are mainly in the private sphere, we look at decisions taken both by the State and by companies. Schematically, we compare two major periods: that of post-war planning through the eighties, and that of risk management, which has been current practice since market deregulation. From the methodological standpoint, we show that decision-making aids borrow tools from varied disciplines ranging from economics through management to futurology and long range planning. (author)

  11. A new prospect on global environmental problems in the case of climate change: the impacts of strategic complementarity between countries; Une nouvelle mise en perspective des problemes environnementaux globaux dans le cas du changement climatique: les impacts de la complementarite strategique entre pays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heugues, M.

    2009-06-15

    Among global environmental problems, climate change is one of the most serious. According to nearly all scientists, the roots of the problem is related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and linked with human activities. The global character of this problem turns it into a big challenge. Within a framework of international trade liberalization, the analysis emphasizes the consequences of the inter-dependencies between economic agents, i.e. States, and of their strategic behaviours - when implementing national environmental policy - on natural environment. Starting with a deliberately conventional model and considering that countries' strategy can be complementary when emitting GHG, we bring new results in many respects and with regard to the existing ones. The thesis includes four chapters. The study highlights the impacts of the nature of the inter-dependencies between countries i) on the existence and the properties of equilibrium solutions - first, when no country cooperates and then from a globally optimal point of view -, ii) on the sequence of decisions, i.e. the circumstances under which a leader endogenously emerges when initiating its national environmental policy, iii) on profitability and stability of an international environmental agreement (IEA), iv) on the level of participation to an IEA and on the environmental impact of such a cooperation. A distinct feature of this research is to rely on the theorems of super-modular game theory. (author)

  12. The cold monsters facing the climatic change. Trans-national states and actors in the political process bond to the climatic changes; Les monstres froids a l'epreuve du rechauffement de la planete. Etats et acteurs transnationaux dans le processus politique lie aux changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, B. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The author discusses the evolution of the importance and the strategies of the different actors during the different phases of the political process and the learning of the state part in the international relations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Final report of the project GICC-MedWater (march 2003/february 2006). Impacts of the climatic change on the hydrological cycle of the mediterranean basin; Rapport final du projet GICC-MedWater (mars 2003/fevrier 2006). Impacts du changement climatique sur le cycle hydrologique du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L

    2006-03-15

    In the framework of the climatic change, the management of the impacts needs a precise knowledge of the change characteristics at the regional scale. The hydrological cycle is an important component of the mediterranean regional climate. The GICC-MedWater project is placed in the scope of climatic scenari regionalization and studies the characteristics of the climatic warming for the mediterranean basin. The main objective is to propose scenari of the climate evolution, for the mediterranean basin region and the impacts on the general circulation and the biology of Mediterranean Sea. It also includes a validation of the models in order to verify the the quality of the obtained scenari. (A.L.B.)

  14. Oscillation : bioadéquation et bien-être sont-ils l'avenir d'un progrès durable pour nos enfants ?

    OpenAIRE

    Raffegeau, Franck; Tromeur, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Dans les décennies à venir, l'adaptation au changement climatique est une question vitale pour la perpétuation des espèces végétales et animales, dont l’espèce humaine. Alors vers quel type d'adaptation souhaitons-nous aller ? L’usage du mot « adaptation » est aujourd'hui confus. Les notions « d’adaptation », de dynamiques de développement des espèces, dont celle de l’humain et de leurs « relations de dépendances » semblent mal comprises par les leaders d’opinion, les décideurs publics et les...

  15. Mark Lynas, 2007, Six Degrees. Our future on a hotter planet, Fourth Estate (Harper Collins).

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Semal

    2008-01-01

    À quoi ressemblerait une application du catastrophisme éclairé de Jean-Pierre Dupuy au sujet du changement climatique ? Bien qu’il n’y fasse pas référence, Six degrees en est un très bon exemple. Certes, il existait déjà des livres décrivant le futur apocalyptique que nous promet une planète beaucoup plus chaude, et l’ouvrage de Mark Lynas s’inscrit pleinement dans ce registre : de ce point de vue, il n’est pas particulièrement original, si ce n’est par l’ampleur des données scientifiques qui...

  16. Cadre général de la migration internationale sénégalaise : historicité, actualité et prospective.

    OpenAIRE

    TALL, Serigne Mansour; TANDIAN, Aly

    2011-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Le Sénégal est à la fois un pays d’émigration et un pays d’immigration. Pays d’accueil, historiquement, le Sénégal est devenu un pays de départ vers l’Afrique et la France au début des années 1970, en raison des conséquences du changement climatique et de la crise pétrolière. Par la suite, le mouvement d’émigration s’est intensifié malgré la fermeture des frontières en Europe et les difficulté...

  17. Les sols dans la gestion des aménagements urbains

    OpenAIRE

    Vanoudheusden, Emilie; Blanc, Céline

    2014-01-01

    La lutte contre l'étalement urbain constitue un sujet d'actualité tant au niveau européen que français. Freiner la consommation d'espaces ruraux, limiter l'imperméabilisation et l'érosion des sols, et plus largement mettre en oeuvre une démarche globale de protection et de préservation des sols et de leurs fonctions s'inscrivent dans la régulation du changement climatique, la préservation de la biodiversité et la préservation de la qualité de l'eau. Cette volonté d'infléchir la politique de t...

  18. Mark Lynas, 2007, Six Degrees. Our future on a hotter planet, Fourth Estate (Harper Collins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Semal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available À quoi ressemblerait une application du catastrophisme éclairé de Jean-Pierre Dupuy au sujet du changement climatique ? Bien qu’il n’y fasse pas référence, Six degrees en est un très bon exemple. Certes, il existait déjà des livres décrivant le futur apocalyptique que nous promet une planète beaucoup plus chaude, et l’ouvrage de Mark Lynas s’inscrit pleinement dans ce registre : de ce point de vue, il n’est pas particulièrement original, si ce n’est par l’ampleur des données scientifiques qui...

  19. Habiter la planète numérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le changement climatique est annoncé, les conséquences probables de l’élévation de la teneur de l’atmosphère en gaz à effet de serre ont été établies par des modèles qui simulent les interactions entre les grandeurs physiques du globe. Les conclusions tirées des expériences effectuées sur cette « planète numérique » des climatologues ont amené les institutions internationales et les états à se mobiliser pour réduire les émissions de gaz carbonique selon les normes décidées au sommet de Copenh...

  20. Notices bibliographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Liste des notices bibliographiques obtenues en interrogeant la Bibliographie Géographique Internationale (BGI – bgi-prodig.inist.fr qui correspond au domaine Géographie de la base FRANCIS (INIST-CNRS, http://www.inist.fr. Pour cette rubrique l'interrogation a été faite depuis 2000 avec les requêtes « érosion », « risque », « changement climatique », « adaptation », « protection de la nature », « fréquentation » croisées avec « littoral ».

  1. La forêt sur le devant de la scène. Une ressource naturelle témoin de notre temps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ContexteLa RGA prépare un numéro spécial consacré à la forêt, une ressource territoriale ancienne qui revient au premier plan ; cette forêt aux intérêts multiples et croissants a été « mise en scène » dans des travaux récents. Il y a toujours eu un attachement fort du grand public à la forêt ainsi que des intérêts économiques associés à cette ressource. Aujourd’hui les enjeux liés aux besoins énergétiques futurs, l’impact du changement climatique et la conservation de la biodiversité remetten...

  2. L’invention du biome Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertin, Catherine; pinton, florence

    2014-01-01

    L’enjeu de cet article est de comprendre comment le Cerrado, espace d’abord ignoré, puis voué à l’agriculture intensive, a été au début des années 2000 requalifié en biome, sujet de préoccupations environnementales. Sa propulsion sur la scène internationale lors de la conférence Climat de Copenhague en 2009 a par la suite contribué à transformer cet espace mal défini en un enjeu international du changement climatique et de la lutte contre la déforestation avec l’affirmation de deux mouvements...

  3. Effets de Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) sur la santé de l’abeille domestique Apis mellifera L. : changements physiologiques et comportementaux

    OpenAIRE

    Dussaubat, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Nosema ceranae est un parasite émergeant d’Apis mellifera décrit dans certaines régions comme la cause majeure de la mortalité des abeilles. Dans d’autres cas, il est soupçonné d’affaiblir les colonies par l’interaction avec d’autres facteurs de pression de l’environnement. Dans le cadre du phénomène global de la mortalité des abeilles, nous avons orienté nos recherches vers l’étude des effets N. ceranae, en faisant l’hypothèse que ce parasite est capable d’induire des changements comportemen...

  4. Les défis de la réconciliation des objectifs de développement dans le contexte du changement démographique 

    OpenAIRE

    John Provo; Mel Jones

    2011-01-01

    Cet article cherche à déterminer si l’initiative de développement basé sur les ressources (ABDI, Asset-Based Development Initiative) de la Commission régionale des Appalaches (ARC, Appalachian Regional Commission) aux États-Unis réconcilie les objectifs de développement économique dans les communautés qui présentent un changement démographique. À travers des études de cas reposant sur des entretiens informatifs clés menés dans les communautés de la Virginie Occidentale et un examen de projets...

  5. Risques mineurs, changements majeurs

    OpenAIRE

    Gardère, Élizabeth; D’Almeida, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de ce numéro est d’analyser comment s’opère, sous l’effet des dispositifs d’information et de communication, le couplage entre une culture généralisée du risque et une réorganisation du social, des pratiques et des modes de vie tant individuels que collectifs. À la différence de bon nombre de publications consacrées aux crises et risques dits majeurs, nous avons souhaité nous inscrire dans un horizon qui n’est ni celui de la catastrophe, ni celui de l’apocalypse, mais dans la persp...

  6. Flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt Tonjes, Marguerite; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    The study of flow can provide information on the initial state dynamics and the degree of equilibration attained in heavy-ion collisions. This contribution presents results for both elliptic and directed flow as determined from data recorded by the PHOBOS experiment in Au+Au runs at RHIC at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. The PHOBOS detector provides a unique coverage in pseudorapidity for measuring flow at RHIC. The systematic dependence of flow on pseudorapidity, transverse momentum, centrality and energy is discussed.

  7. BIOGÉOGRAPHIE DU SILURE GLANE (SILURUS GLANIS : CAUSES HYDROGRAPHIQUES, CLIMATIQUES ET ANTHROPIQUES. BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SHEATFISH (SILURUS GLANIS : HYDROGRAPHICAL, CLIMATIC AND ANTHROPIC CAUSES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHLUMBERGER O.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La répartition actuelle du silure glane (Silurus glanis en France et en Europe résulte de la combinaison de facteurs à la fois hydrographiques, climatiques et anthropiques. Des données paléontologiques montrent que l'espèce faisait partie de l'ichtyofaune française (bassin du Rhône avant d'être éliminée par les glaciations. Le réchauffement climatique qui a suivi (10 000 av. JC et l'existence d'interconnexions entre, d'une part, des tributaires de la mer Noire et de la mer Caspienne et d'autre part ceux de la mer Baltique et de la mer du Nord lui ont permis de rapidement coloniser le Nord de l'Europe occidentale. Deux périodes de transplantations-introductions de l'espèce, à but économique, sont identifiées. Une première vague d'introductions hors du bassin danubien semble avoir eu lieu dès le Moyen-Age (lacs de Suisse, suivie par une deuxième période débutant vers 1800, et se poursuivant actuellement. Les effets combinés de ces introductions et des dégradations du milieu d'origine anthropique ont induit un décalage de l'aire de distribution vers le Sud et le Sud-Est de l'Europe (Italie, Espagne, tandis que ne subsistent en Suède, Carélie, Russie et Estonie que des populations relictuelles. Les résultats présentés ici, pourraient aussi concerner d'autres espèces de poissons (Percidés, Cyprinidés, qui, après avoir bénéficié pendant les glaciations des refuges constitués par les bassins de la mer Noire et de la mer Caspienne, ont pu (re- colonisé l'Europe continentale, de manière « naturelle » et avec l'aide de l'Homme. The biogeography of the sheatfish (Silurus glanis results from the combined impacts of hydrogeography, climate and man. Paleontological evidences prove that the species was present in France (Rhône river before the glaciations. The improvement of the climatic conditions (from 10 000 JC and hydrographical interconnexions between tributaries of the Black and Caspian Sea basins, and between

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Au-Island Ripening on Au(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kleiner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiscale modeling hierarchy for the particular case of Au-island ripening on Au(100. Starting at the microscopic scale, density functional theory was used to investigate a limited number of self-diffusion processes on perfect and imperfect Au(100 surfaces. The obtained structural and energetic information served as basis for optimizing a reactive forcefield (here ReaxFF, which afterwards was used to address the mesoscopic scale. Reactive force field simulations were performed to investigate more diffusion possibilities at a lower computational cost but with similar accuracy. Finally, we reached the macroscale by means of kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC simulations. The reaction rates for the reaction process database used in the kMC simulations were generated using the reactive force field. Using this strategy, we simulated nucleation, aggregation, and fluctuation processes for monoatomic high islands on Au(100 and modeled their equilibrium shape structures. Finally, by calculating the step line tension at different temperatures, we were able to make a direct comparison with available experimental data.

  9. Relative Distribution of Au48+ ~ Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-Yan; ZHU Zheng-He; JIANG Gang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  10. AU Political Solution in Libya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    May 3,2011 The African Union(AU),through its High-Level ad hoc Committee on the Situation in Libya and the Commission, is driven by the conviction that, ultimately,only a political solution will make it possible to promote,in a sustainable way,the legitimate aspira-

  11. Global polarization measurement in Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; La Pointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yue, Q; Yurevich, V I; Zawisza, M; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2007-01-01

    The system created in non-central relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions possesses large orbital angular momentum. Due to spin-orbit coupling, particles produced in such a system could become globally polarized along the direction of the system angular momentum. We present the results of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperon global polarization measurements in Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=62.4 GeV and 200 GeV performed with the STAR detector at RHIC. The observed global polarization of Lambda and anti-Lambda hyperons in the STAR acceptance is consistent with zero within the precision of the measurements. The obtained upper limit, |P_{Lambda,anti-Lambda}| <= 0.02, is compared to the theoretical values discussed recently in the literature.

  12. Onset of nuclear matter expansion in Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Crochet, Philippe; Gobbi, A; Donà, R; Coffin, J P; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kühn, C E; Roy, C; De Schauenburg, B; Tizniti, L; Wagner, P; Alard, J P; Amouroux, V; Andronic, A; Basrak, Z; Bastid, N; Belyaev, I; Best, D; Biegansky, J; Butà, A; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Dupieux, P; Dzelalija, M; Fan, Z G; Fodor, Z; Fraysse, L; Freifelder, R P; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Hong, B H; Jeong, S C; Kecskeméti, J; Kirejczyk, M; Koncz, P; Korolija, M; Kotte, R; Lebedev, A; Leifels, Y; Man'ko, V I; Moisa, D; Mösner, J; Neubert, W; Pelte, D; Petrovici, M; Pinkenburg, C H; Pras, P; Ramillien, V; Reisdorf, W; Ritman, J L; Sadchikov, A G; Schüll, D; Seres, Z; Sikora, B; Simion, V; Siwek-Wilczynska, K; Sodan, U; Teh, K M; Trzaska, M; Vasilev, M A; Wang, G S; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wisniewski, K; Wohlfarth, D; Zhilin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Using the FOPI detector at GSI Darmstadt, excitation functions of collective flow components were measured for the Au+Au system, in the reaction plane and out of this plane, at seven incident energies ranging from 100AMeV to 800AMeV. The threshold energies, corresponding to the onset of sideward-flow (balance energy) and squeeze-out effect (transition energy), are extracted from extrapolations of these excitation functions toward lower beam energies for charged products with Z>2. The transition energy is found to be larger than the balance energy. The impact parameter dependence of both balance and transition energies, when extrapolated to central collisions, suggests comparable although slightly higher values than the threshold energy for the radial flow. The relevant parameter seems to be the energy deposited into the system in order to overcome the attractive nuclear forces.

  13. Charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Xu(蔡勖); ZHOU; Daimei(周代梅); SA; Benhao(萨本豪)

    2003-01-01

    A hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, together with the corresponding Monte Carlo eventgenerator, has been employed in this paper to investigate further the charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at√Snn= 130 GeV. The default JPCIAE calculations are in good agreement with PHENIX and STAR data. Wefound that the thermal predictions for the π gas, the resonance π gas and quark matter deviate, respectively,from the corresponding dynamical simulations from the JPCIAE model. The discrepancies were also foundbetween the π charge fluctuations and the charge fluctuations of all species of hadrons. However the chargefluctuations for "π from ρ and ω decay" and for all the hadrons from resonance decay are close to each other,indicating the correlation between positively and negatively charged hadrons is not sensitive to the species ofhadrons. This work shows further that it is questionable to use the charge fluctuations as a signature of QGP.

  14. Nuclear Modification of Jet Fragmentation in Au+Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Zachary; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of energy in the quark gluon plasma is facilitated by measurements of modifications to the observed jet fragmentation. A favorable channel of study relies on direct photons created in the initial parton interactions of heavy ion collisions. Such a photon traverses the created medium unscathed and grants us a proxy for the transverse momentum of an away side jet. PHENIX Au+Au data recorded at √{sNN} = 200 GeV during RHIC run 14 benefit from the background rejection capability of the silicon vertex detector, enabling the extraction of a higher purity hadron signal. This advantage, combined with a larger integrated luminosity, allows previous PHENIX measurements of fragmentation functions to be extended to greater jet energies. In this talk, the status of the analysis of direct photon hadron correlations with the new data set will be discussed.

  15. Étude diachronique des changements du couvert végétal dans un écosystème montagneux par télédétection spatiale : cas des monts du Tessala (Algérie occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine Bachir Bouiadjra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Une meilleure compréhension de l'évolution des modes d'utilisation des sols et du couvert végétal est une préoccupation majeure pour les pays dont les écosystèmes subissent des dégradations sévères. En effet, les dynamiques d'occupation des sols ont des implications directes sur la disponibilité des ressources naturelles. Notre étude menée sur les monts du Tessala en Algérie occidentale, en utilisant l'indice de végétation par différence normalisée (NDVI, met en évidence l'ampleur des changements du couvert végétal entre 1987 à 2007. Une évolution régressive prononcée du couvert végétal est constatée au sud-est et au nord-ouest des monts du Tessala, tout particulièrement dans la "forêt de Tessala", sur les communes d'Aïn-Thrid, Tessala et Sehala. Les principaux facteurs contribuant à la régression du couvert végétal sont : la déforestation (plus de 26 délits de coupe par an, le surpâturage (420 délits de pâturage illicite par an, les incendies de forêts (plus de 20 incendies par an et l'érosion hydrique qui en résulte (environ 72 % des superficies sont concernées.A better understanding of the changing patterns of land use and land cover, is a major concern for countries where ecosystems are being severely degraded. Indeed, the dynamic feature of land use has important implications on natural resources. Our study conducted on the Tessala mountains, by using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, put in evidence the importance of changes in vegetation cover between 1987 and 2007. A pronounced regressive evolution is observed in south-east and north-west of the Tessala mountains, especially in the "forest of Tessala", in the communes of Aïn-Thrid, Tessala and Sehala. The main factors of environmental degradation, are : deforestation (over 26 offenses cut every year, overgrazing (420 crimes of illegal grazing every year, forest fires (more than 20 fires every year and resultant erosion (more

  16. What is the future of the ecosystem services of the Alpine forest against a backdrop of climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Courbaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forests produce a large number of ecosystem services that are going to be affected by climate change. We are expecting an increase in high altitude species that could result in the decrease in resinous and subalpine species. These changes in species could adversely affect biodiversity and timber production. However, we also observe an increase in productivity that favours the production of energy wood and, at least temporarily, timber, as well as carbon storage. Given the possible rise in extreme climatic events, changes in vegetation could be marked by periods of decline, which will be very detrimental to the economic system, protection against natural hazards and biodiversity. Climate change will also have an indirect effect on the forest by increasing the demand for renewable energy and carbon storage. There is a lot of uncertainty about vegetation change predictions and this makes it difficult to define forest management adaptation strategies. Effective crisis management, monitoring of natural transformations of the forest based on the interaction between research and management (adaptive management and the explicit factoring in of the concept of uncertainty appear to be essential to the maintenance of the ecosystem services provided by the forest.La forêt de montagne produit de nombreux services écosystémiques qui vont être affectés par les changements climatiques. On attend une remontée des essences en altitude qui pourrait conduire à une diminution des résineux et des espèces du subalpin. Ces changements d’essences pourraient avoir un impact négatif sur la biodiversité et sur la production de bois d’œuvre. On observe cependant également une augmentation de la productivité favorable à la production de bois énergie et au moins temporairement de bois d’œuvre, ainsi qu’au stockage de carbone. Face à une augmentation possible des évènements climatiques extrêmes, les changements de végétation pourront

  17. Introduction d’un changement d’environnement virtuel de travail dans un cours de second cycle : contribution à l’étude des dispositifs hybrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peraya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available [Français] Cette contribution s’inscrit dans la continuation de recherches sur les dispositifs de formation hybride, c’est-à-dire caractérisés par la mise à distance de certaines activités d’apprentissage. Elle étudie les effets sur les représentations des étudiants de l’introduction, à la faveur d’un changement d’environnement virtuel de travail (EVT, d’un wiki pour réaliser l’une des tâches de production. Cette étude, menée par questionnaires auprès des étudiants d’un cours de second cycle universitaire pendant trois années consécutives, se concentre sur la perception de l’impact du changement d’une des dimensions du dispositif de formation (l’environnement technopédagogique et, en particulier, le dispositif de médiation de la fonction de production sur la perception que se forgent les apprenants de certaines caractéristiques du dispositif et du processus d’enseignement/apprentissage qui s’y déroule. Les résultats montrent un net effet de l’introduction du wiki et indiquent également que, dans un dispositif de formation hybride à forte composante présentielle, l’EVT peut jouer un rôle différent selon que l’on considère le fonctionnement du groupe-classe ou celui du sous-groupe de travail. [English] This text is a contribution to previous studies of hybrid learning situations. These are characterized by the alternating of face-to-face and remote phases in the learning process. This study investigates the effects on students’ representations of the introduction of a wiki as production tool, due to a change in platform. Questionnaires were used to collect data from university-level students for three consecutive school years. The purpose was to highlight the students’ perception of the impact of the change in the technopedagogical environment (especially its production function, with a special focus on the students’ perception of the learning device and learning process. Results

  18. Decay spectroscopy of $^{178}$Au

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B

    In this thesis, the neutron-deficient nucleus $^{178}$Au is investigated through decay spectroscopy. Si and HPGe detectors were used to analyse the decay radiation of $^{178}$Au and its daughter nuclei. Previous studies have been unable to distinguish decay radiation from different isomeric states of this nucleus. This thesis represents the first time such isomeric discrimination has been achieved, and presents tentative spin assignments of both the ground state and an isomer. The neutron-deficient gold isotopes are an area of interest for the study of shape coexistence. This is the phenomenon exhibited by nuclei able to exist at a number of close lying energy minima, each reflecting a distinct type of deformation. It is hoped that studies such as this can help identify the evolution of nuclear deformation in this region of the nuclear chart.

  19. Introduction au filtre de Kalman

    OpenAIRE

    Alazard, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Ce document est une introduction au filtre optimal de Kalman appliquée aux systèmes linéaires. On suppose connues la théorie des asservissements linéaires et du filtrage fréquentiel (continu et discret) ainsi que les notions d'états pour représenter les systèmes dynamiques linéaires.

  20. L’apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    En 1961, sur la base du constat que l’évolution du marché du travail nécessitait un besoin croissant de personnel qualifié, le 1er accord entre la République et canton de Genève et le CERN fut signé. Cet accord avait notamment pour objet la formation professionnelle de jeunes électroniciens et techniciens de laboratoires en physique. Le CERN, acteur local économique d’importance, soulignait par cet accord sa volonté de participer au développement économique et social local. Le 1er apprenti arriva au CERN en 1965. En 1971, le centre d’apprentissage fut créé ; il accueille aujourd’hui plus d’une vingtaine d’apprentis au total, à raison d’environ six nouveaux apprentis chaque année. Cet apprentissage est dédié aux jeunes âgés e...

  1. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  2. Proposition of law. Fight against the greenhouse effect and risks prevention bounded to the global warming and founding of a national observatory on the global warming effects; Proposition de Loi. Lutte contre l'effet de serre et prevention des risques lies au rechauffement climatique et portant creation d'un observatoire national sur les effets du rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verges, P. [SENAT, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the selling points of the senator P. Verges, concerning a law proposition in favour of the greenhouse effects fight. This talk presented the 12 january 2000, recalls the risks bounded to the global warming and details the environmental policy of the french government concerning the fight against the greenhouse effects. P. Verges presents also the founding of a national observatory which will study the knowledge of the global warming risks. (A.L.B.)

  3. L’événement climatique extrême tropical (ECET) du 21 novembre 2006 : analyse hydro‑géomorphologique et gestion intégrée des bassins versants hydrographiques tropicaux

    OpenAIRE

    Olmo, Fernando Diaz del; Salomon, Jean‑Noël; Batle, José Ramón Martinez; Artigas, Rafael Cámara

    2012-01-01

    Depuis plus de deux décennies l’attention a été attirée sur les Caraïbes et l’Amérique centrale en raison des cyclones qui affectent cette région de la planète. Cependant, il existe aussi d’autres mécanismes climatiques qui conduisent à la genèse d’évènements extrêmes, très dévastateurs. Cet article se propose d’étudier l’un de ces derniers, survenu sur le bassin versant du Río Borda (Panama), et d’en tirer les multiples enseignements qui pourraient conduire à élaborer à l’avenir une politiqu...

  4. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in Au+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Schenke, Bjoern; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-01-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu+Au), gold-gold (Au+Au), and uranium-uranium (U+U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for cen...

  5. L’innovation au pluriel des cré-acteurs alpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Finger-Stich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations écologique, politique, sociale et culturelle, qui engagent les acteurs du territoire. Ce changement affecte tant l’objet territoire que le sujet acteur du territoire. C’est pourquoi, innover dans les Alpes revient aussi à innover les Alpes et les acteurs alpins(Cosalp, 2008. Sur la base d’une recherche sur la participation des populations locales dans la gestion de forêts communales alpines, l’article relève l’importance des interactions locales impliquant les acteurs d’occupations, genres, âges et origines divers1.The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective - thus organisational - dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to

  6. Impacts environnementaux sur l’érosion des sols au Pléistocène supérieur et à L’holocène dans le cratère de maar du lac du Bouchet (Massif central, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Pastre, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Une nouvelle utilisation des données palynologiques, sédimentologiques et chronostratigraphiques issues de la séquence sédimentaire intracratérique du maar du Lac du Bouchet (Massif central, France) permet d’étudier les relations entre les changements environnementaux et l’érosion des sols au Pléistocène supérieur et à l’Holocène dans le cratère de cet appareil volcanique. Une méthode de calcul du volume et de la masse des couches de sédiments déposés à l’intérieur du cratère a été élaborée a...

  7. Search for the Higgs Boson and for Anomalous Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings in the WW Channel with Dielectron Events with the D0 Experiment at the Tevatron; Recherche du boson de Higgs et de couplages de jauge quartiques anormaux dans le canal WW en électrons dans l'expérience D0 au Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapon, Emilien [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)

    2013-01-01

    Le paysage de la physique des particules a subi des changements majeurs entre le début de cette thèse, en septembre 2010, et sa n en juin 2013. On peut notamment qualier l'année 2012 de date-clé dans l'histoire de la physique des particules. En 2012, une nouvelle particule a été découverte au LHC [1, 2], dont la majeure partie de la communauté s'accorde aujourd'hui à dire qu'il s'agit très probablement du boson de Higgs. Cet événement est intervenu peu après une sorte de passage de relais entre le Tevatron, arrêté le 30 septembre 2011, et le LHC, dont les toutes premières collisions sont intervenues le 23 novembre 2009.

  8. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  9. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  10. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  11. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  12. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  13. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  14. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  15. A Study of Parton Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC using Transport Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, Y.; Vance, S. E.; Csizmadia, P.

    2001-01-01

    Parton energy loss in Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies is studied by numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation for the partons including $2 \\leftrightarrow 2$ and $2 \\to 2 + final state radiation$ collision processes. Final particle spectra are obtained using two hadronization models; the Lund string fragmentation and independent fragmentation models. Recent, preliminary $\\pi^0$ transverse momentum distributions from central Au+Au collisions at RHIC are reproduced using gluon-g...

  16. Bright, NIR-emitting Au23 from Au25: characterization and applications including biolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Pal, Samir Kumar; Kumar, R C Arun; Paul, Soumya; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai Vyomakesannair; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2009-10-01

    A novel interfacial route has been developed for the synthesis of a bright-red-emitting new subnanocluster, Au(23), by the core etching of a widely explored and more stable cluster, Au(25)SG(18) (in which SG is glutathione thiolate). A slight modification of this procedure results in the formation of two other known subnanoclusters, Au(22) and Au(33). Whereas Au(22) and Au(23) are water soluble and brightly fluorescent with quantum yields of 2.5 and 1.3 %, respectively, Au(33) is organic soluble and less fluorescent, with a quantum yield of 0.1 %. Au(23) exhibits quenching of fluorescence selectively in the presence of Cu(2+) ions and it can therefore be used as a metal-ion sensor. Aqueous- to organic-phase transfer of Au(23) has been carried out with fluorescence enhancement. Solvent dependency on the fluorescence of Au(23) before and after phase transfer has been studied extensively and the quantum yield of the cluster varies with the solvent used. The temperature response of Au(23) emission has been demonstrated. The inherent fluorescence of Au(23) was used for imaging human hepatoma cells by employing the avidin-biotin interaction. PMID:19711391

  17. A water table drawdown experiment : potential response of boreal peatlands to climate change; Reponse potentielle des tourbieres boreales face au rechauffement climatique simule par l'abaissement de la nappe phreatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strack, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geography; St-Arnaud, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie

    2008-07-01

    A water table drawdown experiment was conducted at the St. Charles-de-Bellechasse fen to investigate how Sphagnum moss peatlands respond to lower water tables induced by climate change. The vegetation community, hydrology and carbon cycling at the research site has been monitored since 2001. The monitoring involved a control site with a natural water table; an experimental site where the water table was lowered in 2002; and, a drained site where the water table was lowered in 1993. All measurements were taken along the microtopographic gradient at the site which extends from dry hummocks, through intermediate lawns, to wet or flooded hollows. Lowering the water table resulted in soil subsidence. Although this maintained the peat surface moister in some areas, it also changed peat hydrologic properties and water movement. These hydrological changes resulted in ecological succession. The changing vegetation community varied among the microhabitats and required between 2 and 8 growing seasons to reach a new equilibrium. The combined hydrological and ecological shifts influenced the carbon cycling with the resulting carbon balance varying along the microtopographic gradient. Dry conditions and reduced Sphagnum cover at hummocks resulted in carbon release, while reduced inundation and colonization by mosses and vascular species enhanced carbon storage at hollows. It is expected that in the long term, these differential responses and rates of peat accumulation will change the site topography, creating ecohydrological feedbacks. It was concluded that ecology, hydrology and carbon cycling feedback must be considered along with microform types and distribution in order to better understand how boreal peatland carbon cycling responds to climate change.

  18. Initial state geometry and fluctuations in Au+Au, Cu+Au and U+U collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Schenke, Bjoern; Venugopalan, Raju

    2014-01-01

    We study within the IP-Glasma and two-component MC-Glauber models the effects of initial state geometry and fluctuations on multiplicities and eccentricities for several collision species at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). These include copper-gold (Cu+Au), gold-gold (Au+Au), and uranium-uranium (U+U) collisions. The multiplicity densities per participant pair are very similar in all systems studied. Ellipticities vary strongly between collision systems, most significantly for central collisions, while fluctuation driven odd moments vary little between systems. Event-by-event distributions of eccentricities in mid-central collisions are wider in Cu+Au relative to Au+Au and U+U systems. An anti-correlation between multiplicity and eccentricity is observed in ultra central U+U collisions which is weaker in the IP-Glasma model than the two-component MC-Glauber model. In ultra central Au+Au collisions the two models predict opposite signs for the slope of this correlation. Measurements of elliptic flo...

  19. Higher Education in England and Wales : Power struggles underlying reforms since the early Thatcher years Luttes de pouvoir et réformes depuis le début de l'ère Thatcher dans l'enseignement supérieur en Angleterre et au Pays de Galles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Deer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l’enseignement supérieur anglais et ses évolutions au cours des vingt-cinq dernières années à travers le prisme d’une compréhension qui s’organise autour de la notion de pouvoir social et la (redistribution de ses sources politiques, financières, scientifiques et idéologiques. L’article est une esquisse de la manière dont les gouvernements successifs ont pu se rendre maîtres du jeu en matière de politique d’enseignement supérieur en s’appropriant la plus grande partie des sources du pouvoir social au dépens de la profession universitaire. Ce qui ressort de l’analyse c’est que malgré l’impact traumatisant pour la communauté universitaire des changements intervenus, le tout relève moins d’une notion de mutation dans le sens où cela supposerait une discontinuité, que d’une notion d’évolution car c’est bien une impression de continuité qui prévaut. Le modèle explicatif le plus pertinent n’est pas celui du marché universitaire, ce n’est pas non plus celui de la société de marché. La structure et la structuration des échanges sociaux entre les divers groupes d’intérêts autour de l’idée d’université demeurent décentralisées et multilatérales, l’élaboration structurelle du changement restant fondamentalement inchangée.

  20. L’olivier au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouhtadi Issam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’olivier est une culture traditionnelle sur le pourtour de la Méditerranée. Il est donc naturel de trouver cet arbre au Maroc où il est présent depuis des siècles. Cultivé surtout traditionnellement jusqu’à ses dernières années, il fait l’objet maintenant d’un plan de valorisation très ambitieux pour non seulement garder le Royaume à son niveau actuel (2e producteur mondial pour l’olive de conserve et 6e pour l’huile d’olive mais pour conquérir de nouveaux marchés au niveau mondial et profiter ainsi de l’engouement que connaît cette huile reconnue pour ses bienfaits. Le plan national « Maroc Vert » permet ainsi, grâce à des subventions conséquentes, non seulement de renouveler les vergers existant avec la variété traditionnelle picholine du Maroc, mais également la plantation de nouvelles variétés en super-intensif dans le but d’industrialiser au maximum de nouveaux vergers. Il en est de même pour la transformation des olives en huile de bonne qualité avec la mise en place d’unités de trituration modernes qui doivent supplanter à terme la multitude de « maâsra » et réduire ainsi l’impact environnemental dû aux margines. L’olive ne sera plus dans l’avenir que représentée par son huile et ses formes comestibles, mais les résidus de son extraction seront valorisés soit sous forme de combustible élaboré pour le grignon, soit sous forme d’une base de chimie verte pour les sous-produits du raffinage. D’autres applications sont actuellement à l’étude, car le Maroc à compris, comme tous les autres grands pays producteurs, que l’olive était un nouveau gisement de richesses.

  1. Study of Au+Au relativistic collisions with the Fopi-Phase I detector; Etude des collisions relativistes Au+Au avec le detecteur Fopi-Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupieux, P.

    1995-01-01

    Au+Au relativistic collisions, in a 100-1000 MeV energy domain per nucleon, are described. Experiments have been carried out with the SIS accelerator at GSI/Darmstadt. Data are analysed with the FOPI-phase I detector. These data are compared with IQMD model (Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics) Predictions. (S.G). 80 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. English for au pairs the au pair's guide to learning English

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    English for Au Pairs has interlinked stories about a group of au pairs new to England. Marta, an 18-year-old from Poland arrives in the UK to work as an au pair. Throughout her year-long stay she has many different experiences - some bad, some good - but with the support of her host family she finds new friends and improves her English. English for Au Pairs offers insight into the joys and difficulties of being an au pair while at the same time reinforcing English language learning through grammar explanations and exercises.

  3. Characteristic atom occupation patterns of Au3Cu, AuCu3, AuCuⅠ and AuCuⅡ based on experimental data of disordered alloys%以无序合金的实验数据为基础的Au3Cu,AuCu3,AuCuⅠ和AuCuⅡ的特征原子占据图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佑卿; 李艳芬; 刘心笔; 李晓波; 彭红建; 聂耀庄

    2011-01-01

    根据无序Au1-xCux合金的实验生成热和晶格常数得到只考虑近邻原子组态的特征原子的势能、体积和电子结构,计算L12-Au3Cu,L12-AuCu3和L10-AuCu化合物的特征原子占据(CAO)图、电子结构、能量和体积性质.Johasson-Linde(J-L)模型的CAO图表明,AuCuⅠ-AuCuⅡ转变是一个放热且体积缩小的反应,但正好与实验现象相反.根据Guymont-Feutelais-Legendre(G-F-L)模型的CAO图,AuCuⅡ晶胞由两个周期反相(PAD)的AuCuⅠ区域和两个PAD边界区域组成;从G-F-L模型的CAO图得出的公式可用来计算PAD AuCuⅠ区域和PAD边界区域的能量性质、体积性质和有序度及AuCuⅡ相的平均性质,计算结果与实验现象相吻合.%The potential energies, volumes and electronic structures of characteristic atoms coordinated by neighboring configurations were obtained from the experimental heats of formation and lattice parameters of disordered Au1-xCux alloys. From characteristic atom occupation (CAO) patterns of L12-Au3Cu, L12-AuCu3 and L10-AuCu compounds, their electronic structures, volumetric and energetic properties were calculated. The CAO pattern of Johasson-Linde(J-L) model shows that the transition AuCuⅠ→ AuCuⅡ is an exothermic and volume contraction reaction, which is opposite from experimental phenomena. According to CAO pattern of Guymont-Feutelais-Legendre(G-F-L) model, the AuCuⅡ cell consists of two periodic antidirection (PAD) AuCuⅠ regions and two PAD boundary regions. The equations derived from CAO pattern of G-F-L model can be used to calculate energetic properties, volumetric properties and ordering degrees of the PAD AuCul region and PAD boundary region, as well as corresponding average properties of the AuCuⅡ phase. The results are consistent with experimental phenomena.

  4. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation of converge......This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  5. Le curriculum scolaire au Chili

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Cristián

    2012-01-01

    L’article examine l’usage historique du terme « curriculum » au Chili. Il aborde la configuration actuelle de la prescription curriculaire nationale : des « objectifs et contenus minimums », des « programmes d’études », et des « cartes de progrès des apprentissages ». On y décrit les institutions et les processus qui rendent compte de la genèse des définitions curriculaires en vigueur en 2010. Elles sont le résultat de deux étapes de réformes caractérisées par des processus consultatifs et pa...

  6. Portraits de femmes au Biafra

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Cette étude considère l’impact de la guerre civile nigériane sur la vie quotidienne et les relations interpersonnelles des Biafrais telle qu’elle est présentée dans Femmes en guerre et autres nouvelles d’Achebe et Blow the Fire de Leslie Ofoegbu. Ces deux écrivains, dont l’un, déjà traduit dans plusieurs langues, a été le premier à projeter le pays igbo sur la scène internationale, et dont l’autre est une Écossaise mariée à un Nigérian et qui vécut au Biafra pendant les années de guerre, offr...

  7. Strain distributions of confined Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红华; 章英; 刘晓山; 骆兴芳; 袁彩雷; 叶双莉

    2015-01-01

    The strain distributions of Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles confined in the Al2O3 matrix with different core sizes are investigated by using the finite element method, respectively. The simulation results clearly indicate that the compressive strains exerted on the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles can be induced by the Al2O3 matrix. Moreover, it can be found that the strain gradient existing in a Au/Ag nanoparticle is much larger than that in a Ag/Au nanoparticle, which could be due to the larger Young’s modulus of Au than that of Ag. With the core size increasing, the strain gradient existing in the Au/Ag nanoparticle becomes larger, while the strain gradient existing in the Ag/Au nanoparticle keeps constant. These different strain distributions may have significant infl uences on the structures and morphologies of the Au/Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles, leading to the different physical properties for potential applications.

  8. Enhanced activity for supported Au clusters: Methanol oxidation on Au/TiO2(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Samuel A.; Cagg, Brett A.; Levine, Mara S.; He, Wei; Manandhar, Kedar; Chen, Donna A.

    2012-08-01

    Gold clusters supported on TiO2(110) exhibit unusual activity for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Temperature programmed desorption studies of methanol on Au clusters show that both Au and titania sites are necessary for methanol reaction. Isotopic labeling experiments with CD3OH demonstrate that reaction occurs via Osbnd H bond scission to form a methoxy intermediate. When the TiO2 surface is oxidized with 18O2 before or after Au deposition, methanol reaction produces H218O below 300 K, indicating that oxygen from titania promotes Osbnd H bond scission and is incorporated into desorbing products. XPS experiments provide additional evidence that during methanol reaction on the Au/TiO2 surface, methanol adsorption occurs on TiO2, given that the titania support becomes slightly oxidized after exposure to methanol in the presence of Au clusters. While the role of TiO2 is to dissociate the Osbnd H bond and form the reactive methoxy intermediate, the role of the Au sites is to remove hydrogen from the surface as H2, thus preventing the recombination of methoxy and hydrogen to methanol. The decrease in formaldehyde yield with increasing Au coverage above 0.25 ML suggests that reaction occurs at Au-titania interfacial sites; scanning tunneling microscopy images of various Au coverages confirm that the number of interfacial sites at the perimeter of the Au clusters decreases as the Au coverage is increased between 0.25 and 5 ML.

  9. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinod

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  10. Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation as SERS substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Vinod; K.G.Gopchandran

    2014-01-01

    Chemically pure colloidal suspensions of gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using pulsed laser ablation. The dependence of laser fluence on the surface plasmon characteristics of the nanoparticles was investigated. Au:Ag colloidal suspensions were prepared by mixing highly monodisperse Au and Ag nanocolloids. The plasmon band of these mixtures was found to be highly sensitive to Au:Ag concentration ratio and wavelength of the laser beam used in the ablation process. The Au:Ag mixture consists of almost spherical shaped nanostructures with a tendency to join with adjacent ones. The surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of the Au, Ag and Au:Ag colloidal suspensions was tested using crystal violet as probe molecules. Enhancement in Raman signal obtained with Au:Ag substrates was found to be promising and strongly depends on its plasmon characteristics.

  11. The Protection of Women (Criminal Laws Amendment Act, 2006 in Pakistan La protection des femmes : l’amendement de la loi pénale (2006 au Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubya Mehdi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the 1979 criminal law of Pakistan dealing with rape, adultery and fornication.  In 2006, the “law for the protection of women” [amending the 1979 law] was said to invert the process known as “the islamization of penal law”; however, this legislation bears on only certain aspects of injustices and discrimination suffered by women.  A critical analysis of “the law for the protection of women” shows that numerous reforms were set aside in the compromise effected between Pakistan’s religious parties and the conservative political parties.L’article traite des lois pénales sur le viol, l’adultère et la fornication édictées en 1979 au Pakistan. Cependant, un changement a été apporté inversant le processus dit « d’islamisation de la loi pénale » par la loi dite de « protection des femmes » de 2006. Cette législation ne s’est attachée qu’à quelques aspects de l’injustice et de la discrimination subie par les femmes. Une analyse critique de « la loi de protection des femmes » montre que de nombreuses réformes furent écartées dans le compromis opéré entre les partis religieux et les partis politiques conservateurs au Pakistan.

  12. Mise en pratique du schéma 2BSvs dans le groupe industriel Sofiprotéol : étude de cas sur toute la filière (de l’agriculteur au pétrolier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizouarn Kristell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pour réduire sensiblement les émissions de CO liées aux transports routiers, l’Union européenne mise sur le développement des biocarburants, en respectant des conditions de durabilité. Afin de répondre à cette obligation et d’être en mesure de démontrer la conformité du biodiesel à ces critères, depuis l’agriculteur jusqu’au distributeur pétrolier, la filière des oléagineux a engagé la rédaction d’un schéma de vérification volontaire : 2BSvs, pour Biomasse Biocarburant Schéma volontaire sur la durabilité. Reconnu par la Commission Européenne le 19 juillet 2011, le schéma 2BSvs couvre l’ensemble de la chaîne de production des biocarburants, du producteur de biomasse à l’entrée dans un entrepôt sous douanes. À travers une étude de cas sur toute la filière, de l’agriculteur au pétrolier, cet article présente les implications pour les acteurs de la filière oléagineuse, les changements intervenus depuis avril 2013, et les défis futurs à relever.

  13. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria of Sn-Cu-Au Ternary and Ag-Sn-Cu-Au Quaternary Systems and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-Cu/Au Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Jao, Chien-Chung; Hsiao, Hsien-Ming; Lin, Chung-Yung; Lee, Chiapyng

    2007-02-01

    The phase equilibria of the Sn-Cu-Au ternary, Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary systems and interfacial reactions between Sn-Cu alloys and Au were experimentally investigated at specific temperatures in this study. The experimental results indicated that there existed three ternary intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and a complete solid solubility between AuSn and Cu6Sn5 phases in the Sn-Cu-Au ternary system at 200°C. No quaternary IMC was found in the isoplethal section of the Ag-Sn-Cu-Au quaternary system. Three IMCs, AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4, were found in all couples. The same three IMCs and (Au,Cu)Sn/(Cu,Au)6Sn5 phases were found in all Sn-Cu/Au couples. The thickness of these reaction layers increased with increasing temperature and time. The mechanism of IMC growth can be described by using the parabolic law. In addition, when the reaction time was extended and the Cu content of the alloy was increased, the AuSn4 phase disappeared gradually. The (Au, Cu)Sn and (Cu,Au)6Sn5 layers played roles as diffusion barriers against Sn in Sn-Cu/Au reaction couple systems.

  14. Les microbialites de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) : marqueurs stratigraphiques et témoins des changements environnementaux au Cambrien inférieur Stratigraphic and environmental significance of the Lower-Cambrian western Anti-Atlasic microbialites (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benssaou, Mohammed; Hamoumi, Naima

    2004-02-01

    Three microbialite forms are recognized in the Lower-Cambrian succession of Irherm area in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Stromatolites, which correspond to non-calcified shallow marine laminated microbialites, are well developed in the basal Lower-Cambrian succession. Occurrence of calcified microbial thrombolites, in the middle part of this succession, reflects an increasing sea level from the peritidal zone to the subtidal environment. In the upper part of this succession, a second increasing water depth event and the development of branching archaeocyathan reefal framework lead to dendritic microbialite emergence. To cite this article: M. Benssaou, N. Hamoumi, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  15. Propagation d'une flamme de prémélange gazeux d'une enceinte vers un tube : études des mécanismes de transmission et de coincement au changement de section

    OpenAIRE

    Henneton, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The issue of gas explosions vented through relief pipes is a matter of importance for the security of industrial plants. In the course of transmission of a flame from a vessel to a duct, a secondary explosion occurs in the tube at the vicinity of the change of section, which results in a secondary pressure rise in the chamber up to non admissible values.Experiments with a premixed propane-air flame propagating from a vented vessel into a duct have been compared with CFD simulations. For tubes...

  16. : Enregistrement sédimentaire des changements environnementaux et des interférences humaines dans une baie macrotidale au cours des derniers millénaires : la baie de Marennes-Oléron (SW France)

    OpenAIRE

    Allard, Jonathan; Chaumillon, Eric; Bertin, Xavier; Poirier, Clément; Ganthy, Florian

    2010-01-01

    – This synthesis of the morphological and stratigraphical evolutions of the Marennes-Oléron Bay (west coast of France) combines bathymetric data (1824 and 2003) and very high-resolution seismic profiling groundtruthed by vibracore samples. The Marennes-Oléron Bay is characterised by a very high sedimentation rate and appears to be an ideal place to investigate the sedimentary record of the major environmental changes that occurred since the last several millennia. The sediment budget of the M...

  17. Policy of energy demand control and resistance to change. A socio-anthropological approach; Politique de maitrise de la demande d'energie et resistances au changement. Une approche socio-anthropologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelem, Marie-Christine

    2010-03-15

    The development of energy consuming devices, the growth of electricity consumptions, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gases are as many factors that contribute to the acceleration of global warming. The control of energy demand is one of the levers to influence the energy-consuming behaviours. What are such policies made of? What instruments are used and with what efficiency? What population is targeted? Using some practical examples taken in the everyday life, the first part of this book shows how professionals and consumers are reticent to change their habits, equipments and know-how, and why they have very good reasons to do so. The second part of the book treats of incentive systems and shows that they very often have problems with finding a public. The different energy saving awareness campaigns show the importance of the preliminary building of an energy saving culture to make energy saving policies efficient and socially acceptable. The next part deals with the experience gained from the energy efficiency programs implemented in Quebec and in French Guyana. In both cases, the public information tools are adapted to the culture of the targeted populations. The last part reviews some paths to explore to durably change the behaviours. (J.S.)

  18. Evidence of different stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes of lanthanides(3); Mise en evidence d'un changement de stoechiometrie du complexe carbonate limite au sein de la serie des lanthanides(3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippini, V

    2007-12-15

    Two stoichiometries have been proposed by different laboratories to interpret measurements on the limiting carbonate complexes of An{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} cations. The study of the solubility of double carbonates (AlkLn(CO{sub 3}){sub 2},xH{sub 2}O) in concentrated carbonate solutions at room temperature and high ionic strengths has shown that on the one hand the lightest lanthanides (La and Nd) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} whereas the heaviest (Eu and Dy) form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} in the studied chemical conditions, and on the other hand, that the kinetics of precipitation of double carbonates depends on the alkali metal and the lanthanide ions. The existence of two stoichiometries for the limiting carbonate complexes was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (CE-ICP-MS), used to extend the study to the whole series of lanthanides (except Ce, Pm and Yb). Two behaviours have been put forward comparing the electrophoretic mobilities: La to Tb form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 5-} while Dy to Lu form Ln(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-}. Measurements by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) on Eu(III) indicate small variations of the geometry of Eu(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 3-} complex, specially with Cs{sup +}. Although analogies are currently used among the 4f-block trivalent elements, different aqueous speciations are evidenced in concentrated carbonate solutions across the lanthanide series. (author)

  19. Les capacités d'adaptations des oiseaux marins face aux changements environnementaux : le rôle de l'hétérogénéité au sein des populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cornet, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Population dynamics is driven by several life history traits shaped by the evolutionary history of the population. The alteration of one of these traits by environmental constraints may thus have effects on the population persistence. Individual adjustments of some phenotypic traits could then enable this population to rapidly respond to these constraints without the immediate necessity of genetic adaptations. During this PhD project, we identified variability in some of these traits in 3 sen...

  20. Perspectives de production et de commercialisation des prunes et des pruneaux au Maroc à l’horizon 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Eddine Sellika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La filière de production de prunes et pruneaux au Maroc a connu un développement important du fait de coûts de production relativement faibles comparativement à d’autres rosacées. Cet article propose une réflexion globale sur la situation actuelle de la production et commercialisation des prunes et pruneaux au niveau des exploitations agricoles, et leur possible évolution future. Il présente les principales caractéristiques actuelles de la filière, les principaux facteurs d’évolution et deux scénarios à l’horizon 2025. La filière connait déjà des tensions fortes sur les prix au champ, avec des différences importantes liées à la qualité des productions. Trois facteurs de changement ont été identifiés : 1 l’augmentation des coûts de production ; 2 l’augmentation des surfaces plantées induite par le Plan Maroc Vert ; 3 la baisse des prix de vente. Un premier scénario tendanciel prévoit une faible augmentation des superficies, mais une différenciation forte entre les exploitations en fonction de leurs capacités à maitriser les coûts de production, à produire des prunes de qualité, et à prendre des marges en aval en investissant dans la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Cette filière restera ainsi rentable pour certaines exploitations tandis que d’autres opteront pour l’arrachage. Un second scénario prévoit des actions publiques pour promouvoir l’export et améliorer la rentabilité sur le marché intérieur, par une baisse des coûts de production, une augmentation de la qualité des prunes et une organisation collective de la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Ces activités, menées dans le cadre de coopératives pour les exploitations de petite taille, permettraient à ces exploitations de maintenir voire d’améliorer la rentabilité de cette production.

  1. La 3D au service de la conservation des grottes ornées, l’exemple de Lascaux et du simulateur Lascaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lacanette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La simulation numérique en mécanique des fluides est appliquée ici à la conservation du patrimoine et plus particulièrement à la grotte de Lascaux en Dordogne. Un relevé laser 3D très précis de la grotte de plus de 150 millions de points a servi de base au simulateur Lascaux, outil numérique permettant de tester en laboratoire, sur ordinateur, les modifications à apporter éventuellement à la cavité et de vérifier la façon dont elle réagit avant des réaliser ces changements in situ. Il est en cela un outil de conservation préventive innovant.Numerical simulation in fluid mechanics is applied here to the conservation of the patrimony and more particularly to the Lascaux cave, in Dordogne, France. A very accurate 3D laser survey of the cavity of more than 150 million points was used as a base of the Lascaux simulator, a numerical tool allowing to test in laboratory, on a computer, the modifications to bring eventually to the cave, and to check the way it reacts before achieving these modifications in situ. The simulator is an innovative conserving tool for preventive conservation.

  2. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles. PMID:27385583

  3. Thermodynamic assessment of Au-La and Au-Er binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, H.Q., E-mail: hongqun.dong@aalto.fi [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland); Tao, X.M. [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, H.S. [Scientific Center of Phase Diagrams and Materials Design, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Laurila, T.; Paulastro-Kroeckel, M. [Department of Electronics, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, FIN-02601 Espoo (Finland)

    2011-03-31

    Research highlights: > It's the first time that Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were thermodynamically assessed since 1985. > Besides, in the present work, the ab initio approach has been employed to calculate the formation enthalpies of the IMCs involved in Au-Er and Au-La binary systems, and then, by combining with all of the available experimental information, these two-system were thermodynamically optimized via CALPHAD method. Therefore, a more reliable thermodynamic description has been obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Phase relationships in Au-La and Au-Er binary systems have been thermodynamically assessed by using the CALPHAD technique. The existing thermodynamic descriptions of the systems were improved by incorporating the ab initio calculated enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds, except for the Au{sub 51}La{sub 14} and Au{sub 10}Er{sub 7} phases. All the binary intermetallic compounds were treated as stoichiometric phases, while the solution phases, including liquid, fcc, bcc, and dhcp, were treated as substitutional solution phases and the excess Gibbs energies were formulated with Redlich-Kister polynomial function. As a result, two self-consist thermodynamic data sets for describing the Au-La and Au-Er binary systems were obtained.

  4. 战后法国劳资关系的变化及对我国的启示%De la relation travail-capital et son changement en France après la Deuxième Guerre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    en traitant de la relation travail-capltal et du changement de cette relation en France, l'auteur indique que les experiences et les lecons tirees de la pratique en France peuvent largement servlr a l'etablissement d'une bonne relation travail-capital en Chine.

  5. Être notable au Maghreb

    OpenAIRE

    Abouhani, Abdelghani; Amri-Salameh, Nelly; Blili, Leïla; Boubrik, Rahal; Boujarra, Hussein; Cattedra, Raffaele; CATUSSE, Myriam; Cheraï, Ahmed; Ettayeb, Mahmoud; Feneyrol, Olivier; Hénia, Abdelhamid; Jaïdi, Houcine; Kenbib, Mohammed; Khouaja, Ahmed; Lafi, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Le discours dominant dans les pays du Maghreb continue de stigmatiser les figures de notables dits traditionnels au nom de la modernité. L’usage scientifique de la notion de notable n’est pas pour autant disqualifié. Le présent ouvrage s’intéresse au système élitaire au Maghreb sur la longue durée, de l’Antiquité à nos jours. Il en étudie la dynamique en rapport avec les formes historiques du pouvoir et montre comment la notabilité a pris avec le temps des figures changeantes et des nominatio...

  6. Becoming independent through au pair migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    . This article argues that, despite this critique, au pairing does play an important formative role for young Filipinas because it opens up for experiences abroad that enable them to be recognised as independent adults in Philippine society. Rather than autonomy, however, au pairs define their independence...... in terms of their capacity to assume responsibility for others, thereby achieving a position of social respect. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark and the Philippines, this article explores how young Filipinas use the social, economic, and cultural resources they gain from their au pair stay abroad...

  7. Synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates from hexagonal-close-packed Au square sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Zhanxi

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis of ultrathin face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates is reported through the epitaxial growth of Pt on hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Au square sheets (AuSSs). The Pt-layer growth results in a hcp-to-fcc phase transformation of the AuSSs under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the obtained fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplates demonstrate a unique (101)f orientation with the same atomic arrangement extending from the Au core to the Pt shell. Importantly, this method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Pd on hcp AuSSs, resulting in the unprecedented formation of fcc Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates with (101)f orientation. Additionally, a small amount of fcc (100)f-oriented Au@Pt and Au@Pd square nanoplates are obtained with the Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates, respectively. We believe that these findings will shed new light on the synthesis of novel noble bimetallic nanostructures. Phase change: Ultrathin Au@Pt and Au@Pd core-shell nanoplates were prepared from Au square sheets. A phase transformation from hexagonal close-packed (hcp) to face-centered cubic (fcc) is observed upon coating the hcp Au square sheets with Pt or Pd under ambient conditions. The prepared fcc Au@Pt and Au@Pd rhombic nanoplates demonstrate unique (101)f orientation (picture shows a typical fcc Au@Pt rhombic nanoplate). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Et pourquoi pas au CERN ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Télétravail ou travail à distance, aménagement des horaires de travail et autres évolutions favorables à un meilleur équilibre vie privée et vie professionnelle sont adoptés par nombre d’entreprises et d’organisations !   Rendu possible grâce au développement de nouvelles technologies dont Internet, le travail à distance séduit de plus en plus de personnels, ainsi que de plus en plus de sociétés qui y trouvent des avantages en matière de gestion de l’espace, de sécurité (moins de trajets domicile-entreprise), de développement durable (moins de pollution), de motivation et de bien-être de leurs personnels. Les horaires aménagés, voire les « core-hours1 », sont également des pratiques de plus e...

  9. Longitudinal scaling of net-protons in AuAu and pp collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Flemming

    2008-10-01

    BRAHMS has studied net-protons distributions in Au+Au and p+p collisions at √sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. Net-proton distributions reflect the net-baryon yields and can be used to extract the nuclear stopping in the collisions, thus providing information on baryon number transport and energy available for particle production. The talk will present final and preliminary results from the above mentioned systems. It will be shown that in p+p and in Au+Au central collisions that net-proton distributions exhibit longitudinal scaling once the target contribution to the projectile rapidity range is corrected for. The difference between p+p and Au+Au will be discussed. Aspects of future measurements at the LHC of net-baryons at mid-rapidity will be brought forth.

  10. Studying of the photoluminescence characteristics of Au(0)@Au(I)-thiolate core–shell nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoluminescence characteristics of Au(0)@Au(I)-thiolate Core–shell nanoclusters (Au-NCs), whose size is <2 nm, are investigated. We use the time-resolved single-photon counting technique and the transient absorption technique to distinguish the mechanism of the photoluminescence of Au-NCs. The dynamic spectral data show that the photoluminescence mechanism should be composed of the fluorescence and the phosphorescence. Meanwhile, Au-NCs have the aggregation induced photoluminescence enhancement property, which is attributed to the suppression of conversion from the singlet state to triplet state when they aggregated together. In addition, the photoluminescence characteristics of aggregated Au-NCs should be further improved through infiltrating them into photonic crystals

  11. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  12. Electrical conduction through self-assembled monolayers in molecular junctions: Au/molecules/Au versus Au/molecule/PEDOT:PSS/Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated and characterized a large number of octanedithiol (denoted as DC8) molecular devices as vertical metal-molecule-metal structure with or without using an intermediate conducting polymer layer of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) stabilized with poly(4-styenesulfonic acid) (called as PEDOT:PSS). The electronic transport properties of DC8 molecular devices with and without PEDOT:PSS layer were statistically compared in terms of current density and device yield. The yields of the working molecular devices were found to be ∼ 1.75% (84 out of 4800 devices) for Au/DC8/Au junctions and ∼ 58% (74 out of 128 devices) for Au-DC8/PEDOT:PSS/Au junctions. The tunneling decay constants were obtained with the Simmons tunneling model and a multibarrier tunneling model for two kinds of molecular devices with and without PEDOT:PSS layer.

  13. Proton channeling in Au at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz; Jose Esteves-Villanueva; Rania Soudy; Kamaljit Kaur; Sanela Martic-Milne

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto t...

  15. Unravelling Thiol’s Role in Directing Asymmetric Growth of Au Nanorod–Au Nanoparticle Dimers

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-15

    Asymmetric nanocrystals have practical significance in nanotechnologies but present fundamental synthetic challenges. Thiol ligands have proven effective in breaking the symmetric growth of metallic nanocrystals but their exact roles in the synthesis remain elusive. Here, we synthesized an unprecedented Au nanorod-Au nanoparticle (AuNR-AuNP) dimer structure with the assistance of a thiol ligand. On the basis of our experimental observations, we unraveled for the first time that the thiol could cause an inhomogeneous distribution of surface strains on the seed crystals as well as a modulated reduction rate of metal precursors, which jointly induced the asymmetric growth of monometallic dimers. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  16. Apprentissages techniques : L'apprentissage au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    APPRENTISSAGES TECHNIQUES GESTION ET DEVELOPPEMENT DU PERSONNEL HR/PMD L'APPRENTISSAGE AU CERN pour les professions d'électronicien(ne) et de laborantin(e) en physique L'apprentissage au CERN est régi par les lois, règlements et contrats en vigueur dans le Canton de Genève. En cas de réussite à l'examen de fin d'apprentissage, les apprentis obtiennent le Certificat Fédéral de Capacité Suisse (CFC). 7 places au total sont ouvertes au recrutement pour les deux professions. L'apprentissage dure 4 ans. Minima requis pour faire acte de candidature : • avoir au moins 15 ans et moins de 21 ans à la date de début de l'apprentissage • avoir terminé la scolarité obligatoire, au minimum 9ème du Cycle d'orientation genevois (3ème en France) • être ressortissant d'un pays membre du CERN (Allemagne, Autriche, Belgiqu...

  17. Evidence of final-state suppression of high-p{_ T} hadrons in Au + Au collisions using d + Au measurements at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons with pT 2 GeV/c). In contrast, the d + Au nuclear modification factor exhibits no suppression of the high-pT yields. These measurements suggest a large energy loss of the high-pT particles in the highly interacting medium created in the central Au + Au collisions. The lack of suppression in d + Au collisions suggests that it is unlikely that initial state effects can explain the suppression in the central Au + Au collisions. PACS: 25.75.-q

  18. Systematic Measurements of Identified Particle Spectra in pp, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions from STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAR Coll

    2009-04-11

    Identified charged particle spectra of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, p and {bar p} at mid-rapidity (|y| < 0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR-TPC are reported for pp and d + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and for Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV, 130 GeV, and 200 GeV. Average transverse momenta, total particle production, particle yield ratios, strangeness and baryon production rates are investigated as a function of the collision system and centrality. The transverse momentum spectra are found to be flatter for heavy particles than for light particles in all collision systems; the effect is more prominent for more central collisions. The extracted average transverse momentum of each particle species follows a trend determined by the total charged particle multiplicity density. The Bjorken energy density estimate is at least several GeV/fm{sub 3} for a formation time less than 1 fm/c. A significantly larger net-baryon density and a stronger increase of the net-baryon density with centrality are found in Au + Au collisions at 62.4 GeV than at the two higher energies. Antibaryon production relative to total particle multiplicity is found to be constant over centrality, but increases with the collision energy. Strangeness production relative to total particle multiplicity is similar at the three measured RHIC energies. Relative strangeness production increases quickly with centrality in peripheral Au + Au collisions, to a value about 50% above the pp value, and remains rather constant in more central collisions. Bulk freeze-out properties are extracted from thermal equilibrium model and hydrodynamics-motivated blast-wave model fits to the data. Resonance decays are found to have little effect on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters due to the transverse momentum range of our measurements. The extracted chemical freeze-out temperature is constant, independent of collision system or centrality; its value is close to the predicted phase

  19. Suppression of ϒ production in d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of ϒ meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the ϒ yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for ϒ(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of RdAu=0.79±0.24(stat.)±0.03(syst.)±0.10(p+p syst.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of RAA=0.49±0.1(stat.)±0.02(syst.)±0.06(p+psyst.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matter. Our results are consistent with complete suppression of excited-state ϒ mesons in Au+Au collisions. The additional suppression in Au+Au is consistent with the level expected in model calculations that include the presence of a hot, deconfined Quark–Gluon Plasma. However, understanding the suppression seen in d+Au is still needed before any definitive statements about the nature of the suppression in Au+Au can be made

  20. Éducation routière, changement de comportement et formation à la conduite : constats, enjeux et transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Poplimont, Christine

    2013-01-01

    La lutte contre l’insécurité routière est l’une des priorités du gouvernement français et des pouvoirs publics depuis 2002. En effet, le risque routier constitue aujourd'hui le premier risque d'accident mortel au travail et reste la première cause de mortalité pour les moins de vingt-cinq ans. Cette lutte s’appuie sur le renforcement des sanctions et sur le développement d’une politique d’éducation et de prévention du risque routier au bénéfice de l’ensemble des usagers de la route. Mais, mal...

  1. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides.

  2. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciakiewicz, Hanna; Esteves-Villanueva, Jose; Soudy, Rania; Kaur, Kamaljit; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-). The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine) and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol) was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers) in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides. PMID:26262621

  3. Identified particles in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Wosiek, Barbara; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The yields of identified particles have been measured at RHIC for Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV using the PHOBOS spectrometer. The ratios of antiparticle to particle yields near mid-rapidity are presented. The first measurements of the invariant yields of charged pions, kaons and protons at very low transverse momenta are also shown.

  4. Strangelet search in Au+Au collisions at VsNN=200 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Benedosso, F.; Botje, M.A.J.; Grebenyuk, O.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Russcher, M.J.; Snellings, R.J.M.; van der Kolk, N.

    2007-01-01

    We have searched for strangelets in a triggered sample of 61 million central (top 4%) Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV near beam rapidities at the STAR solenoidal tracker detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We have sensitivity to metastable strangelets with lifetimes of order ⩾0.1 n

  5. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  6. EVENT STRUCTURE AT RHIC FROM P-P TO AU-AU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRAINOR,T.A.; (FOR THE STAR COLLABORATION)

    2004-03-15

    Several correlation analysis techniques are applied to p-p and Au-Au collisions at RHIC. Strong large-momentum-scale correlations are observed which can be related to local charge and momentum conservation during hadronization and to minijet (minimum-bias parton fragment) correlations.

  7. Study of Au+Au relativistic collisions with the Fopi-Phase I detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au+Au relativistic collisions, in a 100-1000 MeV energy domain per nucleon, are described. Experiments have been carried out with the SIS accelerator at GSI/Darmstadt. Data are analysed with the FOPI-phase I detector. These data are compared with IQMD model (Isospin Quantum Molecular Dynamics) Predictions. (S.G). 80 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Final report of the project. Emission of nitrogen oxides by the soils. Measures, modelization, land registry and inventory. Impact on the air quality, the climatic change and the evaluation of possibilities of these emissions reduction; Rapport final du projet. Emissions d'oxydes d'azote par les sols. Mesures, modelisation, cadastre et inventaire. Impact sur la qualite de l'air, le changement climatique, et evaluation des gisements de reduction de ces emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serca, D.; Cortinovis, J. [LA Laboratoire d' Aerologie UMR 5560, 31 - Toulouse (France); Laville, P.; Gabrielle, B. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78 - Thiverval-Grignon (France); Beekmann, M.; Ravetta, F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, SA Service d' Aeronomie, 75 - Paris (France); Henault, C. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA-LMS) UMR Microbiologie des Sols-Geosol, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2007-07-01

    This project deals with NOx biosphere-atmosphere exchanges, NOx being considered as an indirect greenhouse gases (tropospheric O{sub 3} precursor). It relies on four laboratory specialized both on the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, and on the atmospheric chemistry. Methodology used bear on a set of in situ and laboratory measurements aiming at improving existing emission parameterization, or building new ones for the agro-ecosystems encountered in France or Europe. In situ measurements allowed to study the emission phenology in relation with relevant environmental parameters (meteorological, soil characteristics, and agricultural). Laboratory measurements allowed to establish an emission algorithm related to the three main parameters, that is, soil temperature, water and ammonia content. This algorithm has been adapted and simplified to spatialize the emissions at the France level. This spatialization was performed using environmental parameters accessible through data base (ECMWF) or agricultural statistics (such as nitrogen inputs, land use, crops). Spatial and temporal extrapolation allowed reaching the main objective, that is, to build a national inventory for a reference year (2002). This inventory allowed determining the contribution of NOx emitted by soil as compared to total emitted NOx, and the proportion of NOx emitted by soil due to fertilizer use. Our study, based on 57% of the French used agricultural area, and extrapolated to the whole arable surface, shows that soils would be responsible of about 5% of the total NOx emissions. On these 5%, 20%, which finally is a rather low percentage, would be linked to fertilizer use. The impact of these emissions on the atmospheric chemistry has been evaluated using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model. We found that NOx emissions from soil would be of minor importance when compared to the industrial emissions, being a factor of ten lower in France. As a matter of consequence, the impact of the emissions on the maximum ozone concentration during summer months is relatively limited over Europe, but can reach 2 to 3 ppb for some of the rural French regions. (author)

  9. Parliamentary Office of technological and scientific choices evaluation. Document on the evaluation of climatic changes fullness, cause and foreseeable impacts on the France geography for 2025,2050 and 2100; Office parlementaire d'evaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques. Rapport sur l'evaluation de l'ampleur des changements climatiques, de leurs causes et de leur impact previsible sur la geographie de la France a l'horizon 2025, 2050 et 2100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneux, M.

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive and detailed report illustrates the importance of the climatic change and the impacts on the agricultural, energetic, industrial and the transport activities, in France. The effects on the biodiversity and the people are also studied. It is presented in four main parts: the climatology where the author details the climate and the greenhouse effect; the origins and the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases and the aerosols; a socio-economical analysis of the climatic changes facing the human liabilities; solutions and stakes of these solutions. The second volume collects the sixty seven auditions of experts interviewed on the topic. It allows the reader a possible research to trump up its own opinion. (A.L.B.)

  10. The national program of fight against climate change. 2. status and future means (November 2002). What would be a society sparing of carbon? Outline of foreign programs and realizations (Germany, Netherlands, United-Kingdom, Switzerland and Iceland); Le programme nationale de lutte contre le changement climatique. 2. bilan et voies d'avenir (Novembre 2002). Que serait une societe sobre en carbone?. Apercus de programme et realisations a l'etranger (Allemagne, Pays-Bas, Royaume-Uni, Suisse et Islande)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    This exploratory study aims at making a status of the present day situation of the foreign research works and of the long term simulations (2050) of socio-economical systems sparing of carbon (evolution scenarios from emissions abatement policies). The goal is to outline the interesting and useful elements, to shade light and contribute to the debate in France, and to give some guidelines and help and to strengthen the national decisions. Five steps have been considered in this study: the identification of the organizations involved in this research work in the different selected countries, a bibliographic survey of the works carried out by these organizations (Internet search and phone inquiries beside national experts), a collection of the pertinent documents, their analysis, and the elaboration of a synthesis per document with some conclusions. This study is the compilation of all these syntheses made for the five following countries: Germany, Netherlands, United-Kingdom, Switzerland, and Iceland. The scenarios developed by each country are indicative and describe a vision of the society in 2050 with different possible trajectories to reach this situation. They indicate: which goals can be achieved or at least prepared, what can do technologies and what should be the cost of the implementation of these technologies, how to overcome the constraints in order to reach the objectives, and what are the existing margins of freedom given to the political decision. Finally, this analysis shows how the other northern countries deal with the challenge of long term abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions and what solution they propose. (J.S.)

  11. The world Bank's support for concentrated solar power stations;L'initiative de la banque mondiale en faveur d'une montee en puissance des centrales solaires a concentration (CSP). Utilisation du Fonds des Technologies Propres en faveur d'une approche cooperative pour faire face aux defis du changement climatique et aux defis energetiques des pays du Moyen-Orient et d'Afrique du Nord (MENA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariente-David, S.; Walters, J.; Govindarajalu, Ch.; Coma Cunill, R. [Banque mondiale, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) was set up in 2008 to provide funding, especially subsidies, on an industrial scale for projects that experiment with, deploy or transfer low-carbon technology, which can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly in the long run. The CTF helps multilateral development banks providing the funds needed, and giving a boost to experiments with low-carbon techniques, while waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations conducted by the United Nations on climate change. The World Bank manages this temporary fund. The article presents the use of CTF as a catalyzer to lower costs, to create a viable market and to attract important financing for the development of concentrating solar plants in Middle East and North-Africa countries

  12. Au-delà de la perspective, cartographier le passé Beyond perspective, mapping out the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hatzfeld

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente diverses temporalités qui apparaissent dans l’étude du passé d’une usine. La première, pour l’auteur, consiste à prendre le contrôle d’une mémoire dotée d’une ancienne expérience d’usine et à construire une relation méthodique au passé. D’où l’élaboration d’un ancrage dans le présent des problématiques, à travers une revisite – participante – des ateliers. La seconde consiste à rompre l’apparente continuité entre passé et présent et à suivre les spécificités d’un traitement historien d’éléments du passé. Il s’agit, ici à partir de questions d’usine et de travail, d’agencer entre eux ces éléments de sorte à composer une représentation du passé qui ne dépende pas étroitement du regard présent. Dans cette représentation, de fait, les dynamiques de changement et de continuité varient selon les questions posées au passé. Qu’il s’agisse des conditions du travail ou d’horaires, d’emploi ou de conflictualité, ces dynamiques ont des singularités qui conduisent à penser le temps comme pluriel et plastique.This paper presents different kinds of temporality emerging from the historical study of an industrial plant. The first consists in the author’s taking over the memory of an industrial worker’s former experience, and building a methodical relation to the past. By reworking in the plant, he clearly establishes his research in the present. The paper then breaks the apparent continuity between past and present, and adopts the specific historical approach to elements of the past. Through questions concerning the job, this approach attempts to make those elements work together, in order to create a representation of the past independent from the present perspective. In this historical representation, dynamics and rhythms of change and continuity vary according to the questions asked in past tense. Whether it is about working conditions or working

  13. Jets and dijets in Au+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardtke, D.; STAR Collaboration

    2002-12-09

    Recent data from RHIC suggest novel nuclear effects in the production of high p{sub T} hadrons. We present results from the STAR detector on high p{sub T} angular correlations in Au+Au and p+p collisions at {radical}S = 200 GeV/c. These two-particle angular correlation measurements verify the presence of a partonic hard scattering and fragmentation component at high p{sub T} in both central and peripheral Au+Au collisions. When triggering on a leading hadron with p{sub T}>4 GeV, we observe a quantitative agreement between the jet cone properties in p+p and all centralities of Au+Au collisions. This quantitative agreement indicates that nearly all hadrons with p{sub T}>4 GeV/c come from jet fragmentation and that jet fragmentation properties are not substantially modified in Au+Au collisions. STAR has also measured the strength of back-to-back high p{sub T} charged hadron correlations, and observes a small suppression of the back-to-back correlation strength in peripheral collisions, and a nearly complete disappearance o f back-to-back correlations in central Au+Au events. These phenomena, together with the observed strong suppression of inclusive yields and large value of elliptic flow at high p{sub T}, are consistent with a model where high p{sub T} hadrons come from partons created near the surface of the collision region, and where partons that originate or propagate towards the center of the collision region are substantially slowed or completely absorbed.

  14. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum (p_T) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (\\pi^+/-, K^+/-, p, p^bar) produced in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to p_T=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to p_T=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate p_T region, between 2--5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon to meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions, and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The p_T dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  15. Open Heavy Flavor Production in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$= 200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X

    2006-01-01

    PHENIX results for open charm production from semi-lepton decay in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions in a wide rapidity ranges at $\\sqrt{s}$= 200$ GeV are presented. Keywords: Relativistic Heavy-ion Collision, Open Charm production, Nuclear Medium Effect PACS: 25.75.-q, 25.75 Dw, 13.20.Gd

  16. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kleinjan, D.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.

    2013-08-01

    The transverse momentum (pT) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (π±, K±, p, p¯) produced in sNN=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to pT=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to pT=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate pT region, between 2 and 5 GeV/c, a significant enhancement of baryon-to-meson ratios compared to those measured in p+p collisions is observed. This enhancement is present in both Au+Au and d+Au collisions and increases as the collisions become more central. We compare a class of peripheral Au+Au collisions with a class of central d+Au collisions which have a comparable number of participating nucleons and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. The pT-dependent particle ratios for these classes display a remarkable similarity, which is then discussed.

  17. Relative Distribution of Au48+~Au52+ in Au Plasma by Ionization Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUZhi-Yan; ZHUZheng-He; JIANGGang

    2003-01-01

    The present work proposes a theoretical method called ionization dynamics to derive the ionic charge state distribution. Using relativistic quantum mechanics to calculate the energy level lifetime and average ionic lifetime of each ion, the first-order ionization rate constant can be obtained. Based on these data, from the solution of differential equations for consecutive-irreversible ionization reactions, one will be able to derive the ionic charge state distribution.The calculated average positive charge 49.24 of Au48+ ~ Au52+ and their relative distribution are in good agreement with the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Polymerase chain reaction of Au nanoparticle-bound primers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hebai; HU Min; YANG Zhongnan; WANG Chen; ZHU Longzhang

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a useful technique for in vitro amplification of a DNA fragment. In this paper, a PCR procedure using Au nanoparticle (AuNP) -bound primers was systemically studied. The 5′-SH- (CH2)6-modified primers were covalently attached to the AuNP surface via Au-S bonds, and plasmid pBluescript SK was used as a template. The effects of the concentration of AuNP-bound primers, annealing temperature and PCR cycles were evaluated, respectively. The results indicate that PCR can proceed successfully under optimized condition, with either forward or reverse primers bound to the AuNP surface or with both the two primers bound to the AuNP surface. Development of PCR procedure based on AuNPs not only makes the isolation of PCR products very convenient, but also provides novel methods to prepare AuNP-bound ssDNA and nanostructured material.

  19. Engineering the strain in graphene layers with Au decoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannu, Compesh, E-mail: compesh@gmail.com; Singh, Udai B.; Kumar, Sunil; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D.K., E-mail: dka4444@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets decorated with Au nanodots are synthesized by deposition of Au of three different thicknesses and subsequent annealing at 400 °C. Different thicknesses of Au film for the formation of Au nanodots on graphene are measured using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and morphology is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy indicates 3–6-fold increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio depending on the content of Au deposited on graphene. The increase in disorder in Au decorated graphene layers is explained on the basis of interaction of Au atoms with Π bonds of graphene. The splitting and blueshift in G band signifies compressive strain in Au deposited graphene. X-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation source confirm compressive strain in graphene, which increases with increase of Au film thickness.

  20. Synthesis and characterization in AuCu–Si nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelo, T.E., E-mail: tenovelo@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Amézaga-Madrid, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico (Mexico); Maldonado, R.D. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados el IPN Unidad Mérida, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Km 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico); Alonzo-Medina, G.M. [Universidad Anáhuac-Mayab, Carretera Mérida-Progreso Km. 15.5 A.P. 96-Cordemex, CP. 97310 Mérida, Yucatán Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Au/Cu bilayers with different Au:Cu concentrations (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 at.%) were deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. The thicknesses of all Au/Cu bilayers were 150 nm. The alloys were prepared by thermal diffusion into a vacuum oven with argon atmosphere at 690 K during 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed different phases of AuCu and CuSi alloys in the samples after annealing process. CuSi alloys were mainly obtained for 25:75 at.% samples, meanwhile the AuCuII phase dominates for samples prepared with 50:50 at.%. Additionally, the Au:Cu alloys with 75:25 at.%, produce Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} and Au{sub 3}Cu phases. The formed alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to study the morphology and the elemental concentration of the formed alloys. - Highlights: • AuCu/Si alloy thin films were prepared by thermal diffusion. • Alloys prepared with 50 at.% of Au produce the AuCuII phase. • Alloys prepared with 75 at.% of Au produce Au{sub 3}Cu and Au{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phases. • All alloys present diffusion of Si and Cu through the CuSi alloy formation.

  1. Plasmonic Au islands on polymer nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoben, Wout; Brongersma, Sywert H; Crego-Calama, Mercedes, E-mail: wout.knoben@imec-nl.nl [Holst Centre/IMEC, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-07-22

    The refractive index sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors can be improved by placing the plasmonic metal particles on pillars instead of on a planar substrate. In this paper, a simple and versatile colloidal lithography method for the fabrication of plasmonic Au islands on top of polymer nanopillars is described. The pillar height is controlled by varying the thickness of the initial polymer film. An increased pillar height results in a blue shift of the absorption spectrum of the Au islands. This is explained by a decreased effective refractive index around the islands. For pillars higher than approximately 40 nm no further blue shift is observed, in agreement with the decay length of the electromagnetic field around the islands. Pillar-supported Au islands were also fabricated on a flexible foil, demonstrating the potential of the method described here for the fabrication of flexible plasmonic substrates. Benefits and limitations of the method and of using polymers as the pillar material are discussed.

  2. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  3. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  4. Violence et ordre politique au Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fourchard, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    International audience De nombreuses analyses ont associé le retour d'un régime civil au Nigeria en 1999 au développement d'organisations armées privées et au regain de conflits dits religieux, inter-ethniques ou communautaires. L'application controversée de la charia dans douze Etats du nord et les actions de guérilla dans la région pétrolière du delta ont ainsi largement focalisé l'attention des médias. Le retour de la " démocratie " témoignerait-t-il d'un déclin de l'Etat ? Ces violence...

  5. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  6. A velocity map imaging study of gold-rare gas complexes: Au-Ar, Au-Kr, and Au-Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Scott; Woodham, Alex P.; Plowright, Richard J.; Wright, Timothy G.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.

    2010-06-01

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the gold-rare gas atom van der Waals complexes (Au-RG, RG=Ar, Kr, and Xe) have been studied by velocity map imaging. Photofragmentation of Au-Ar and Au-Kr at several wavelengths permits extrapolation to zero of the total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra as monitored in the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p]) fragment channel, facilitating the determination of ground state dissociation energies of D0″(Au-Ar)=149±13 cm-1 and D0″(Au-Kr)=240±19 cm-1, respectively. In the same spectral region, transitions to vibrational levels of an Ω'=1/2 state of the Au-Xe complex result in predissociation to the lower Au(P21/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) fragment channel for which TKER extrapolation yields a value of D0″(Au-Xe)=636±27 cm-1. Asymmetric line shapes for transitions to the v'=14 level of this state indicate coupling to the Au(P23/2∘[5d106p])+Xe(S10[5p6]) continuum, which allows us to refine this value to D0″(Au-Xe)=607±5 cm-1. The dissociation dynamics of this vibrational level have been studied at the level of individual isotopologues by fitting the observed excitation spectra to Fano profiles. These fits reveal a remarkable variation in the predissociation dynamics for different Au-Xe isotopologues. For Au-Ar and Au-Xe, the determined ground state dissociation energies are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations; the agreement of the Au-Kr value with theory is less satisfactory.

  7. Plasmonic Fano resonance and dip of Au-SiO2-Au nanomatryoshka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chen, Huang-Chih; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    This study theoretically investigates Fano resonances and dips of an Au-SiO2-Au nanomatryoshka that is excited by a nearby electric dipole. An analytical solution of dyadic Green's functions is used to analyze the radiative and nonradiative power spectra of a radial dipole in the proximity of a nanomatryoshka. From these spectra, the plasmon modes and Fano resonances that accompany the Fano dips are identified. In addition, the scattering and absorption spectra of a nanomatryoshka that is illuminated by a plane wave are investigated to confirm these modes and Fano dips. Our results reveal that a Fano dip splits each of the dipole and quadrupole modes into bonding and anti-bonding modes. The Fano dip and resonance result from the destructive interference of the plasmon modes of the Au shell and the Au core. The Fano factors that are obtained from the nonradiative power spectra of the Au shell and the Au core of a nanomatryoshka are in accordance with those obtained from the absorption cross section spectra. Moreover, these Fano factors increase as the plasmonic coupling of the Au shell with the core increases for both dipole and quadrupole modes. PMID:24206789

  8. Ω production in p+p, Au+Au and U+U collisions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report STAR's high precision measurements on Ω production at mid-rapidity from √(s)=200 GeVp+p, central √(sNN)=200 GeVAu+Au, and central √(sNN)=193 GeVU+U collisions. With the significantly reduced uncertainty in p+p reference, we observe that the Ω enhancement factors at RHIC are in between SPS and LHC, while enhancement factors are systematically larger in central U+U collisions than in central Au+Au collisions. The ΩRAA is much larger than protons and pions for pT up to 4 GeV/c in central Au+Au collisions. The ratio of ΩRAA in central U+U to that in central Au+Au collisions is above unity for pT up to 6 GeV/c, which indicates coalescence/recombination to be the dominant production mechanism for Ω in these collisions for the measured pT range

  9. Production of omega mesons in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Bornec, Y Le; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Li, X H; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Oka, M; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M

    2011-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured omega meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that omega production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of pi^0 and eta in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, R_AA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  10. Production of ω mesons in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Jamel, A.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Chai, J.-S.; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; D'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S.-Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, K. H.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tuli, S. K.; Tydesjö, H.; Tyurin, N.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Willis, N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ω meson production via leptonic and hadronic decay channels in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. The invariant transverse momentum spectra measured in different decay modes give consistent results. Measurements in the hadronic decay channel in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions show that ω production has a suppression pattern at high transverse momentum, similar to that of π0 and η in central collisions, but no suppression is observed in peripheral collisions. The nuclear modification factors, RAA, are consistent in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at similar numbers of participant nucleons.

  11. Revisiting the S-Au(111) interaction: Static or Dynamic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Friend, C M

    2004-08-17

    The chemical inertness typically observed for Au does not imply a general inability to form stable bonds with non-metals but is rather a consequence of high reaction barriers. The Au-S interaction is probably the most intensively studied interaction of Au surfaces with non-metals as, for example, it plays an important role in Au ore formation, and controls the structure and dynamics of thiol-based self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs). In recent years a quite complex picture of the interaction of sulfur with Au(111) surfaces emerged, and a variety of S-induced surface structures was reported under different conditions. The majority of these structures were interpreted in terms of a static Au surface, where the positions of the Au atoms remain essentially unperturbed. Here we demonstrate that the Au(111) surface exhibits a very dynamic character upon interaction with adsorbed sulfur: low sulfur coverages modify the surface stress of the Au surface leading to lateral expansion of the surface layer; large-scale surface restructuring and incorporation of Au atoms into a growing two-dimensional AuS phase were observed with increasing sulfur coverage. These results provide new insight into the Au-S surface chemistry, and reveal the dynamic character of the Au(111) surface.

  12. Atlas du réchauffement climatique 1971-2010. Publié par Physio-Géo - collection Ouvrages, 2012, 122 p.En ligne sur : http://www.physio-geo.fr (onglet "Ouvrages".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Flageollet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet atlas présente le réchauffement climatique récent, de 1971 à 2010, dans les terres émergées continentales et océaniques découpées en 39 régions dont, pour certaines d'entre elles, les limites sont proches des limites des régions climatiques du globe telles que définies et tracées par exemple par KÖPPEN et GEIGER. Les températures utilisées sont les moyennes annuelles empruntées à la base de données "Gistemp" de la NASA, complétées par calcul et par station. Dans chaque région, sont représentées graphiquement l'évolution des températures annuelles, selon l'environnement des stations, rural, urbain ou intermédiaire, ainsi que la valeur du réchauffement, par périodes pluri annuelles et décennales. En outre, les stations, classées en deux catégories en comparant leurs températures de 2009 et 2010, sont localisées sur des cartes à l'échelle de chaque continent. Quatre cartes régionales du réchauffement sont produites pour les périodes 1971-2010, 1981-2010, 1991-2010 et 2001­2010. Elles permettent de distinguer les régions en réchauffement et les régions en refroidissement, ces dernières concernant principalement les deux dernières décennies.This atlas presents the recent warming, from 1971 to 2010, in the continental and oceanic earth's land surface, divided into 39 regions which, for some of them, the limits are close to the earth's climatic regions defined and delineated by KÖPPEN and GEIGER. The temperatures used are annual averages taken from the "Gistemp" data base of the NASA, supplemented by calculation and by station. In each region, graphs and diagrams represent the evolution of annual temperatures as well as pluri-annual, decadal and multi decadal periods of warming, depending on the environment of stations: rural, urban or intermediate. In addition, the stations, divided into two categories by comparing their temperatures of 2009 and 2010, are located on each continent-scale maps. Four

  13. 2010 Port-au-Prince, Haiti Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — According to official estimates, 222,570 people killed, 300,000 injured, 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses destroyed and 188,383 damaged in the Port-au-Prince...

  14. Surface structure of AU3Cu(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckstein, G.A.; Maupai, S.; Dakkouri, A.S.;

    1999-01-01

    The surface morphology, composition, and structure of Au3Cu(001) as determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and surface x-ray diffraction are presented. Atomic resolution STM images reveal distinctive geometric features. The analysis of the surface x-ray diffraction data provides clear evidence...... for the surface structure. [S0163-1829(99)04535-X]....

  15. Didaktik des außerschulischen Lernens

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerborn, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Kernprobleme schulischer Bildung sind die zunehmenden Verluste an Realitäts- und Praxisbezug sowie die einseitige Betonung der fachwissenschaftlichen Kenntnisse. In jüngster Zeit werden insbesondere moderne didaktisch-methodische Konzepte näher diskutiert und praktiziert. So finden sich etwa die Stichwörter Handlungsorientierter Unterricht und Offener Unterricht in der fachdidaktischen Diskussion wieder. Eine wesentlich aktuellere Form stellt das außerschulische Lernen dar. Ein modernes pädagogisches Verständnis sieht den Unterricht heute nicht mehr als ausschließliche Tätigkeit des Lehrers an, sondern als Aktivität der Lernenden. Außerschulisches Lernen beschreibt die originale Begegnung im Unterricht außerhalb des Klassenzimmers. An außerschulischen Lernorten findet eine unmittelbare AuseinanderSetzung des Lernenden mit seiner räumlichen Umgebung statt. Charakteristisch sind hierbei vor allem die aktive(Mit-)Gestaltung sowie die eigenständige Wahrnehmung mehrperspektivischer Bildungsinhalte d...

  16. Stability of gold cages (Au16 and Au17) at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prachi Chandrachud; Kavita Joshi; Sailaja Krishnamurty; D G Kanhere

    2009-05-01

    We have employed ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the stability of the smallest gold cages, namely Au16 and Au17, at finite temperatures. First, we obtain the ground state structure along with at least 50 distinct isomers for both the clusters. This is followed by the finite temperature simulations of these clusters. Each cluster is maintained at 12 different temperatures for a time period of at least 150 ps. Thus, the total simulation time is of the order of 2.4 ns for each cluster. We observe that the cages are stable at least up to 850 K. Although both clusters melt around the same temperature, i.e. around 900 K, Au17 shows a peak in the heat capacity curve in contrast to the broad peak seen for Au16.

  17. Dispersion and STM Characterization of Au-CdSe Nanohybrids on Au(111)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Gao; Yan-min Kuang; Yuan Liao; Zhen-chao Dong

    2012-01-01

    We report the dispersion and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) characterization of isolated Au-CdSe nanohybrids on atomically flat Au(111) through surface modifications.The top terminal groups of spacer molecules self-assembled on the surface are found critical for locking the nanohybrids into a well-separated state.The STM results indicate that both thiol and carboxylic terminals are effective in this aspect by making strong interaction with the Au portions of the nanohybrids.An argon ion sputtering technique is also proposed to clean up organic contaminants on the surface for improved STM imaging of individual Au-CdSe nanohybrids.These observations help to enrich technical approaches to dispersing individual nanostructures on the surface and provide opportunities to explore their local electroluminescent and energy transfer properties at the nanoscale.

  18. High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Au_2^- and Au_4^- by Photoelectron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    We report high resolution photoelectron spectra of Au_2^- and Au_4^- obtained with a newly-built photoelectron imaging apparatus. Gold anions are produced by laser vaporization and the desired specie is mass selected and focused into the collinear velocity-map imaging (VMI) lens assembly. The design of the imaging lens has allowed us to obtain less than 0.9% energy resolution for high kinetic energy electrons ( > 1eV) while maintaining wavenumber resolution for low kinetic energy electrons. Although gold dimer and tetramer have been studied in the past, we present spectroscopic results under high resolution. For Au_2^-, we report high resolution spectra with an accurate determination of the electron affinity together with a complete vibrational assignment, for both the anion and neutral ground states, while for Au_4^-, we are able to resolve a low frequency mode and obtain accurately the adiabatic detachment energy.

  19. Forward-backward multiplicity correlation in Au+Au collisions at RHIC with transport model PACIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yu-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Hai-Liang; Sa, Ben-Hao

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the charged particle forward-backward multiplicity correlation strength in 0-10% most central Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV by a parton and hadron cascade model, PACIAE based on PYTHIA. The real (total), statistical, and NBD (Negative Binomial Distribution) correlation strengths are calculated, respectively, with the real events, mixed events, and NBD fitting the charged particle multiplicity distribution. The corresponding STAR data are well reproduced by the real one. If the discrepancy between real and statistical correlation strengths is identified as dynamical correlation strength, the dynamical correlation strength is then just counted few percent of the total correlation strength. In addition, we also calculated the 0-5 and 5% most central Au+Au collisions and turned out that the correlation strength increases monotonously with increasing size of the centrality bin.

  20. Simulation of energy scan of pion interferometry in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry for the central Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 3, 5, 7, 11, 17, 27, 39, 62, 130 and 200 GeV/c with the help of a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Emission source-size radius parameters Rlong, Rout, Rside and the chaotic parameter λ are extracted and compared with the experimental data. Transverse momentum and azimuthal angle dependencies of the HBT radii are also discussed for central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV/c. The results show that the HBT radii in central collisions do not change much above 7 GeV/c. For central collisions at 200 GeV/c, the radii decrease with the increasing of transverse momentum pT but are not sensitive to the azimuthal angle. These results provide a theoretical reference for the energy scan program of the RHIC-STAR experiment. (authors)

  1. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  2. Baryonic Effect on XcJ Suppression in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ru; XU Xiao-Ming; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2004-01-01

    @@ We predict that xcJ mesons at low transverse momentum in the central rapidity region are almost dissociated by nucleons and antinucleons in hadronic matter produced in central Au+Au collisions at relativistic high-ion collider (RHIC) energies √SNN = 130 and 200 GeV. In the calculations the nucleon and antinucleon distributions in hadronic matter are results of evolution from their freeze-out distributions which well fit the experimental transverse momentum spectra of proton and antiproton.

  3. Flow and bose-einstein correlations in Au-Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Manly, Steven; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyinski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    Argonne flow and Bose-Einstein correlations have been measured in Au-Au collisions at S=130 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. The systematic dependencies of the flow signal on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity, and centrality of the collision, as well as the beam energy are shown. In addition, results of a 3-dimensional analysis of two-pion correlations in the 200 GeV data are presented.

  4. Results from experiment E917 for Au + Au collisions at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of baryon stopping and its resulting energy deposition on the dynamics of Au + Au collisions at 6, 8 and 10.8 GeV/nucleon are explored with recent results from the AGS experiment E917. Current analyses of stopping, collective flow signals and HBT parameters are presented. Strangeness and anti-baryon production is examined using the yields of anti-lambdas and anti-protons

  5. Net baryon density in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, S A; Srivastava, D K; Bass, Steffen A.; Müller, Berndt; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the net baryon rapidity distribution in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the framework of the Parton Cascade Model (PCM). Parton rescattering and fragmentation leads to a substantial increase in the net baryon density at mid-rapidity over the density produced by initial primary parton-parton scatterings. The PCM is able to describe the measured net baryon density at RHIC.

  6. Some thoughts on di-jet correlation in Au + Au collisions from PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, J

    2006-01-01

    PHENIX has measured the two particle azimuth correlation in Au + Au at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. Jet shape and yield at the away side are found to be strongly modified at intermediate and low $p_T$, and the modifications vary dramatically with $p_T$ and centrality. At high $p_T$, away side jet peak reappears but the yield is suppressed. We discuss the possible physics pictures leading to these complicated modifications.

  7. Anti-flow of K$^0_s$ Mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, P; Alexander, J M; Anderson, M; Best, D; Brady, F P; Case, T; Caskey, W; Cebra, D; Chance, J L; Cole, B; Crowe, K M; Das, A; Draper, J E; Gilkes, M L; Gushue, S; Heffner, M; Hirsch, A S; Hjort, E L; Huo, L; Justice, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kintner, J C; Klay, J L; Krofcheck, D; Lacey, R A; Lauret, J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Liu, Y M; McGrath, R; Milosevich, Z; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Olson, D L; Panitkin, S Y; Pinkenburg, C H; Porile, N T; Rai, G; Ritter, H G; Romero, J L; Scharenberg, R P; Schröder, L; Srivastava, B; BStone, N T; Symons, T J M; Wienold, T; Whitfield, R W J; Wood, L; Zhang Wei Ning

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the sideward flow of neutral strange ($K^0_s$) mesons in 6 AGeV Au + Au collisions. A prominent anti-flow signal is observed for an impact parameter range (b $\\lesssim 7$ fm) which spans central and mid-central events. Since the $K^0_s$ scattering cross section is relatively small in nuclear matter, this observation suggests that the in-medium kaon vector potential plays an important role in high density nuclear matter.

  8. Critical Behavior in Peripheral Au + Au Collisions at 35 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, M; Belkacem, M; Agostino, M D; Milazzo, P M; Vannini, G; Bowman, D R; Dinius, J D; Ferrero, A; Fiandri, M L; Gelbke, C K; Glasmacher, T; Gramegna, F; Handzy, D O; Horn, D; Hsi, W C; Huang, M; Iori, I; Kunde, G J; Lisa, M A; Lynch, W G; Margagliotti, G V; Montoya, C P; Moroni, A; Peaslee, G F; Rui, R; Schwarz, C; Tsang, M B; Williams, C; Latora, V; Bonasera, A

    1996-01-01

    The signals theoretically predicted for the occurrence of a critical behavior (conditional moments of charge distributions, Campi scatter plot, fluctuations of the size of the largest fragment, power law in the charge distribution, intermittency) have been found for peripheral events in the reaction Au+Au at 35 MeV/u. The same signals have been studied with a dynamical model which foresees phase transition, like the Classical Molecular Dynamics.

  9. Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Blau, D S; Boissevain, J G; Bok, J S; Borel, H; Borggren, N; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Cassano, N; Chai, J -S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J -L; Chen, C -H; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Orazio, L D; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S -Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y -S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Kral, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Lim, H; Levy, L A Linden; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ruzicka, P; Rykov, V L

    2010-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p+p, d+Au, Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(S_NN)=200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R_AA for Au+Au and Cu+Cu, and R_dA for d+Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1Au+Au collisions, the R_AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p+p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the neutral pion and the eta meson in the intermediate p_T range (2--5 GeV/c); whereas at higher p_T the phi, pi^0, and eta show similar suppression. The baryon (protons and anti-protons) excess observed in central Au+Au collisions at intermediate p_T is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar mass of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is lin...

  10. Suppression of Upsilon Production in d+Au and Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hill, K; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wimsatt, G; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of Upsilon meson production in p+p, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions using the STAR detector at RHIC. We compare the Upsilon yield to the measured cross section in p+p collisions in order to quantify any modifications of the yield in cold nuclear matter using d+Au data and in hot nuclear matter using Au+Au data separated into three centrality classes. Our p+p measurement is based on three times the statistics of our previous result. We obtain a nuclear modification factor for Upsilon(1S+2S+3S) in the rapidity range |y|<1 in d+Au collisions of R_dAu = 0.67 +/- 0.12 (stat.) +/- 0.04 (sys.) +/- 0.08 (pp sys.). A comparison with models including shadowing and initial state parton energy loss indicates the presence of additional cold-nuclear matter suppression. Similarly, in the top 10% most-central Au+Au collisions, we measure a nuclear modification factor of R_AA=0.36 +/- 0.09 (stat.) +/- 0.01 (sys.) +/- 0.04 (pp sys.), which is a larger suppression factor than that seen in cold nuclear matte...

  11. The point-defect of carbon nanotubes anchoring Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Y. A.; Cui, Y. H.; Li, X. N.;

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the interaction between Au and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is very important since Au/CNTs composites have wide applications in many fields. In this study, we investigated the dispersion of Au nanoparticles on the CNTs by transmission electron microscopy and the bonding mechanism...

  12. Bonding, Luminescence, Metallophilicity in Linear Au3 and Au2Ag Chains Stabilized by Rigid Diphosphanyl NHC Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Pengfei; Mauro, Matteo; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Carrara, Serena; De Cola, Luisa; Tobon, Yeny; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Danopoulos, Andreas A; Braunstein, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    The heterofunctional and rigid ligand N,N'-diphosphanyl-imidazol-2-ylidene (PCNHCP; P = P(t-Bu)2), through its phosphorus and two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors, stabilizes trinuclear chain complexes, with either Au3 or AgAu2 cores, and dinuclear Au2 complexes. The two oppositely situated PCNHCP (L) ligands that "sandwich" the metal chain can support linear and rigid structures, as found in the known tricationic Au(I) complex [Au3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 (OTf = CF3SO3; [Au3L2](OTf)3; Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 103-105) now also obtained by transmetalation from [Ag3(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Ag3L2](OTf)3), or in the mixed-metal tricationic [Au2Ag(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)2](OTf)3 ([Au2AgL2](OTf)3). The latter was obtained stepwise by the addition of AgOTf to the digold(I) complex [Au2(μ2-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC)2](OTf)2 ([Au2L2](OTf)2). The latter contains two dangling P donors and displays fluxional behavior in solution, and the Au···Au separation of 2.8320(6) Å in the solid state is consistent with metallophilic interactions. In the solvento complex [Au3Cl2(tht)(μ3-PCNHCP,κP,κCNHC,κP)](OTf)·MeCN ([Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN), which contains only one L and one tht ligand (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), the metal chain is bent (148.94(2)°), and the longer Au···Au separation (2.9710(4) Å) is in line with relaxation of the rigidity due to a more "open" structure. Similar features were observed in [Au3Cl2(SMe2)L](OTf)·2MeCN. A detailed study of the emission properties of [Au3L2](OTf)3, [Au3Cl2(tht)L](OTf)·MeCN, [Au2L2](OTf)2, and [Au2AgL2](OTf)3 was performed by means of steady state and time-resolved photophysical techniques. The complex [Au3L2](OTf)3 displays a bright (photoluminescence quantum yield = 80%) and narrow emission band centered at 446 nm with a relatively small Stokes' shift and long-lived excited-state lifetime on the microsecond timescale, both in solution and in the solid state. In line with the very narrow emission

  13. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Lee, J. W.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. The spectra were measured for transverse momenta pT from 0.25 to 4.5 GeV/c in a pseudorapidity range of 0.2<η<1.4. The evolution of the spectra is studied as a function of collision centrality, from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. The results are compared to data from proton-antiproton collisions and Au+Au collisions at lower RHIC energies. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing semi-peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at high pT exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  14. Enhanced strange baryon production in Au+Au collisions compared to p+p at sqrts = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y G; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D; Hollis, R; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; La Pointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, N S; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reinnarth, J; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sugarbaker, E R; Sumbera, M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yurevich, V I; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2007-01-01

    We report on the observed differences in production rates of strange and multi-strange baryons in Au+Au collisions at sqrts = 200 GeV compared to p+p interactions at the same energy. The yields in Au+Au collisions, when scaled by the number of participants, are larger than those measured in the p+p data. The magnitudes of the differences grow with the strangeness of the baryon and with increasing centrality. The enhancements of the Au+Au yields are close to those measured in sqrts = 17.3 GeV collisions. Further, when the binary scaled p+p pT spectra are compared to those of Au+Au the heavy-ion yields exceed binary scaling in the pT range 1 < pT< 4 GeV/c.

  15. Centrality dependence of direct photon production in (square root)S(NN) = 200 GeV Au + Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2005-06-17

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au + Au collisions at (square root)S(NN) = 200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au + Au collision centrality and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities. PMID:16090462

  16. Centrality Dependence of Direct Photon Production in √(SNN)=200 GeV Au+Au Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first measurement of direct photons in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV is presented. The direct photon signal is extracted as a function of the Au+Au collision centrality and compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. The direct photon yield is shown to scale with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions for all centralities

  17. La 44e élection présidentielle :un événement révélateur des mutations de la société américaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ghorra-Gobin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La 44e élection présidentielle américaine n’est pas un simple événement d’actualité mais un moment de la scène politique américaine qui condense et rend compte de manière significative des mutations de la société. C’est dans cette perspective que s’inscrit ce premier texte rédigé au moment où les deux partis politiques (au travers des délégués ont désigné leur candidat après une série d’élections qui se sont déroulé dans les Etats de la fédération. Le second texte (prévu à l’issue du 4 novembre mettra l’accent sur les convergences et les divergences entre les deux candidats sur quelques thématiques ayant retenu l’attention des électeurs (enjeux énergétiques, changement climatique et politique étrangère, couverture médicale, immigration

  18. Agriculture : comment se nourrira un monde réchauffé ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Treyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La sécurité alimentaire a été replacée très haut sur l’agenda international depuis les crises alimentaires de 2008. Les systèmes agricoles seront-ils en mesure de répondre à l’augmentation de la demande alimentaire, dans un monde aux ressources limitées soumis au changement climatique ? Cette question est au cœur de controverses très actives entre modèles techniques et politiques contrastés pour la prochaine modernisation agricole. Le pari stratégique sur la forme la plus pertinente de transformation du secteur alimentaire s’instruit de manière très spécifique dans chaque grande région du monde, et il importe de mettre en place les conditions d’un processus d’apprentissage global entre ces différentes expérimentations nationales ou régionales. Comment laisser aux Etats la capacité de décider de la trajectoire de transformation la plus adaptée, dans un contexte d’inévitable accroissement des échanges commerciaux agricoles entre grandes régions ?

  19. Les impacts humains des changements organisationnels autour des TIC Human impacts of organizational changes based on ITC Impactos humanos de los cambios organizacionales en torno a los TIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Picard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La taille des systèmes mis en place dans les grandes organisations, leur caractère exogène par rapport aux pratiques de l’entreprise (progiciels de gestion intégrés, posent des défis relativement nouveaux, difficiles à relever pour les acteurs. En effet, les métiers des informaticiens comme ceux des utilisateurs en sont le plus souvent profondément affectés.Les informaticiens doivent réviser leur mode d’action, révision qui s’accompagne d’une moindre autonomie, d’exigences de coopération plus élevées, et d’une multidisciplinarité à laquelle ils n’ont pas nécessairement été préparés.Les professionnels utilisateurs peuvent perdre des repères professionnels historiques, changement accompagné d’une révision des pratiques, de la modification des structures et de l’environnement de travail. Ils doivent parfois acquérir de nouvelles qualifications, de façon coûteuse, et certains peuvent perdre leur travail.Ces problématiques seront illustrées par deux situations concrètes très récentes, observées dans un grand groupe de service, pour chacune des populations.Many organizational changes are related to (or initiated by the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT tools.The size of the systems implemented in large organizations, their external nature vis-à-vis the company’s practices (Enterprise Resource Planning are rather new challenges, which are difficult for the actors to tackle. In fact, the jobs of data processing people as well as of professional users are often the most affected.Data processing people must revise their way of doing things, a change that is accompanied by a loss of autonomy and greater demands for cooperation and multidisciplinarity that they are not necessarily prepared for.Professional users may lose some historical guidelines, a change that is accompanied by a review of their practices, organizational changes, and changes in the work environment. They

  20. In-situ STM study of phosphate adsorption on Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu/Au(111) electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of Cu(111), Au(111) and Cu-covered Au(111) electrodes with a neutral phosphate buffer solution has been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM). Under low potential conditions, both the Cu(111) and the Au(111...

  1. Di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The STAR Collaboration presents for the first time two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with identified leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum-bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of such an enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons are discussed within the context of a quark recombination scenario. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the ridge region, is found to be significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  2. Spectra and ratios of identified particles in Au+Au and d+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.(Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, NY, U.S.A.); Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse momentum (p_T) spectra and ratios of identified charged hadrons (\\pi^+/-, K^+/-, p, p^bar) produced in sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions are reported in five different centrality classes for each collision species. The measurements of pions and protons are reported up to p_T=6 GeV/c (5 GeV/c), and the measurements of kaons are reported up to p_T=4 GeV/c (3.5 GeV/c) in Au+Au (d+Au) collisions. In the intermediate p_T region, between 2--5 GeV/c, a significant enhanceme...

  3. Di-Hadron Correlations with Identified Leading Hadrons in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au Collisions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelwahab, N M; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Page, B S; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    The STAR collaboration presents new two-dimensional di-hadron correlations with leading hadrons in 200 GeV central Au+Au and minimum bias d+Au collisions to explore hadronization mechanisms in the quark gluon plasma. The enhancement of the jet-like yield for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference and the absence of enhancement for leading non-pions (protons and kaons) are discussed within the context of quark recombination. The correlated yield at large angles, specifically in the \\emph{ridge region}, is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. The consistencies of the constituent quark scaling, azimuthal harmonic model and a mini-jet modification model description of the data are tested, providing further constraints on hadronization.

  4. "Dealloying" Phase Separation during Growth of Au on Ni(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L. Pleth; Besenbacher, Flemming; Stensgaard, I.;

    1995-01-01

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and ion-scattering studies have revealed a new "dealloying" phase transition during the growth of Au on Ni(110). The Au atoms, which initially alloy into the Ni(110) surface, phase separate into a vacancy-stabilized Au dimer-trimer chain structure at Au...... coverages larger than 0.4 monolayer. Using the effective-medium theory, we show that the resulting structure as well as the physical mechanism responsible for the phase transition are closely related to the surface stress induced by the substituted Au....

  5. First results on d+Au collisions from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Noell, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Teng, R.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-02-01

    We have measured transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in d+Au collisions at √SNN = 200 GeV, in the range 0.25 < pT < 6.0 GeV/c. With increasing collision centrality, the yield at high transverse momenta increases more rapidly than the overall particle density, leading to a strong modification of the spectral shape. This change in spectral shape is qualitatively different from observations in Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The results provide important information for discriminating between different models for the suppression of high-pT hadrons observed in Au+Au collisions.

  6. Thermal desorption of Au from W(001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Blaszczyszyn, R; Godowski, P J

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption of Au on W(001) at 450 K up to multilayer structures was investigated. Temperature programmed desorption technique was used in determination of coverage dependent desorption energy (region up to one monolayer). Results were discussed in terms of competitive interactions of Au-Au and Au-W atoms. Simple procedure for prediction of faceting behavior on the interface, basing on the desorption data, was postulated. It was deduced that the Au/W(001) interface should not show faceting tendency after thermal treatment. (author)

  7. Thermal Desorption of Au from W(001) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyszyn, R.; Chrzanowski, J.; Godowski, P. J.

    2000-12-01

    Adsorption of Au on W(001) at 450 K up to multilayer structures was investigated. Temperature programmed desorption technique was used in determination of coverage dependent desorption energy (region up to one monolayer). Results were discussed in terms of competitive interactions of Au--Au and Au--W atoms. Simple procedure for prediction of faceting behavior on the interface, basing on the desorption data, was postulated. It was deduced that the Au/W(001) interface should not show faceting tendency after thermal treatment.

  8. Conversation sur les préoccupations scientifiques et les perspectives de recherche au sein du Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Visuelle et Sonore du Monde Contemporain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Arlaud

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La présent conversation a été pensée comme l'opportunité de présenter le "Laboratoire d'Anthropologie Visuelle et Sonore du Monde Contemporain", de l'Université Paris 7 - Denis Diderot. Il a été crée en 1992 par monsieur le professeur Dr. Jean Arlaud, anthropologue et cinéaste, directeur auteur et réalisateur de plus de vingt filmes sur des sociétés de tous les continents, dans le même esprit que Jean Rouch, son directeur de doctorat. Ce laboratoire, qui regroupe actuellement 35 chercheurs statutaires et associés, développe des programmes de recherche en Asie Centrale (population Kalash, culture populaire et identité, Asie du Sud-Est ( danses masquées, musique, silat, Îles du Pacifique (Vanuatu, Etats Unis (population Cajun, Afrique (population nilotiques Nyangatom, populations Dogon et Bambara et Europe (anthropologie urbaine, anthropologie rurale, identité, migrations/changements. Ce dialogue, fruit de l'initiative du doctorant brésilien Luiz Eduardo Robinson Achutti, chercheur associé au laboratoire, présent la démarche scientifique et méthodologique du laboratoire. A travers les paroles du Dr. Jean Arlaud, du Dr.Pascal Dibie, de la Dra.Christine Louveau de la Guigneraye et Achutti, sont abordés les sujets et les préoccupations actuels de ces chercheurs, questions sur l'anthropologie de proximité, l'approche poétique, la pratique du travail avec les images et les sons, la ville comme lieu de recherche et les connections entre anthropologie et multimédia.

  9. Les « faux » mariages homosexuels de Sidi Ali au Maroc : enjeux d’un scandale médiatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bergeaud-Blackler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Les affaires de « mariages homosexuels » à Ksar el Kebir puis à Sidi Ali ont fait grand bruit dans la presse marocaine. Au-delà de l’émotion soulevée par le scandaleux amalgame entre l’institution respectée du mariage et une forme illégale de sexualité, elle a mis en évidence une transformation du traitement public de la question homosexuelle. Le changement de ton de la presse reflète-t-il celui de l’attitude de la société marocaine vis-à-vis de l’homosexualité ? Assiste-t-on à l’émergence d’une communauté homosexuelle militant pour la défense de ses droits ? Les « mariages » de Ksar el Kebir et de Sidi Ali constituent-ils des démonstrations visant à briser le tabou de l’homosexualité par l’émergence d’une « fierté » homosexuelle ? D’enquêtes menées à Sidi Ali, Fez et Casablanca, nous concluons que la médiatisation autour des affaires de mariages d’homosexuels a été un instrument d’une stratégie d’un « retour de la morale » aux relents nationalistes consécutive à la période d’establishement du roi Mohamed VI. L’article s’attache à montrer les enjeux locaux et nationaux d’une fausse chasse aux sorcières dans un pays où les conditions d’un débat sur la dépénalisation de l’homosexualité ne semblent pas encore réalisées.

  10. Changement d&8217;image et de représentation d&8217;un territoire enclavé : Mafate (La Réunion)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandron, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Le cirque de Mafate est habité par environ 750 personnes et possède la particularité d'être à l'intérieur du Parc national de La Réunion créé en 2007 et dans le site « Pitons, cirques et remparts » inscrit au patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO en 2010. Le territoire de Mafate, situé dans les hauteurs de l'île de La Réunion, est aujourd'hui emblématique d'un mode de vie proche de la nature, dans un décor naturel majestueux, apte à mobiliser une activité touristique en expansion. Son image aujourd'...

  11. Changements de phases durant l'électrolyse des systèmes Hg-Tl, Hg-Sn, Hg-Pb et Hg-Zn

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Bougarfa, L.; Bensaid, J.

    1984-01-01

    On utilise la méthode électrochimique de détection des transformations de phases dans les amalgames au cours d'électrolyse monotherme décrite dans un article précédent [2] pour l'étude des systèmes Hg-Tl, Hg-Sn, Hg-Pb et Hg-Zn. Dans les systèmes Hg-Pb et Hg-Zn la cristallisation se produit dès que la fraction molaire de saturation est atteinte mais des phases liquides métastables sont observées dans les systèmes Hg-Tl et Hg-Sn. A 25 °C, la rupture de métastabilité a lieu à des fractions molai...

  12. A. Torre et M. Filippi (coord., 2005, Proximités et changements socio-économiques dans les mondes ruraux, Inra Editions, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Beaurain

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations récentes du monde rural, pourtant nombreuses depuis quelques années, n’ont pas encore fait, à ce jour, l’objet d’une abondante littérature de portée analytique. La théorie économique abordant l’évolution des choix de localisation des activités économiques et des populations ne s’est que très marginalement intéressée au monde rural, préférant se focaliser sur les espaces urbains. Fruit d’une approche pluridisciplinaire, cet ouvrage vient très heureusement combler cette insuffisan...

  13. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svorcik, V., E-mail: vaclav.svorcik@vscht.c [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Chaloupka, A. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Rezanka, P. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Slepicka, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Chemistry, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasalkova, N.; Hubacek, T.; Siegel, J. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-15

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  15. Au-nanoparticles grafted on plasma treated PE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorčík, V.; Chaloupka, A.; Řezanka, P.; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Kasálková, N.; Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.

    2010-03-01

    Polyethylene (PE) surface was treated with Ar plasma. Activated surface was grafted from methanol solution of 1,2-ethanedithiol. Then the sample was immersed into freshly prepared colloid solution of Au-nanoparticles. Finally Au layer was sputtered on the samples. Properties of the modified PE were studied using various methods: AFM, EPR, RBS and nanoindentation. It was shown that the plasma treatment results in degradation of polymer chain (AFM) and creation of free radicals by EPR. After grafting with dithiol, the concentration of free radicals declines. The presence of Au and S in the surface layer after the coating with Au-nanoparticles was proved by RBS. Plasma treatment changes PE surface morphology and increases surface roughness, too. Another significant change in surface morphology and roughness was observed after deposition of Au-nanoparticles. Nanoindentation measurements show that the grafting with Au-nanoparticles increases adhesion of subsequently sputtered Au layer.

  16. 2D chemistry on Au(111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauls, Eva; Blankenburg, Stephan; Schmidt, Wolf Gero [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The design of functional two-dimensional molecular networks has become an area of intense research. The constraint to 2 in contrast to the availability of 3 dimensions has a large impact on many chemical reactions. Chemical reactions between surface adsorbed molecules may lead to products very different from those obtained in solutions or the gas phase. The imide formation between a diaminoterphenyl (DATP) and a PTCDA molecule is one very interesting example in this respect. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments, it has been observed that the Au surface changes both the reaction path and the reaction product compared to 3D. In order to understand these experimental observations, we have studied the chemical reactions both in solution and on the Au(111) surface by density-functional theory calculations in the generalized-gradient approximation.

  17. Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayakarao, S.; Mendoza, B.; Devine, A.; Kyaw, C.; van Dover, R. B.; Liberman, V.; Noginov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is known to have a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at ˜68 °C. Therefore, it can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial. The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au layers and is designed to undergo a temperature controlled transition from the optical hyperbolic phase to the metallic phase. VO2 films and VO2/Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection) experiments. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the reflection and transmission spectra of the metamaterials and VO2 thin films are in a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The demonstrated optical hyperbolic-to-metallic phase transition is a unique physical phenomenon with the potential to enable advanced control of light-matter interactions.

  18. De l’individu postcommuniste au citoyen

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Krasteva

    2013-01-01

    L’article analyse le paradoxe de la conception communiste du citoyen engagé : au niveau idéologique, citoyenneté et engagement sont intrinsèquement liés, au niveau politique ils sont souvent radicalement dissociés. Le citoyen communiste est plus engagé que citoyen. La citoyenneté était dépourvue de plusieurs de ses attributs : de la jouissance de la loi qui établit « l’égalité arithmétique » et minorise les maîtres ; de la citoyenneté active – civile et politique – pour ne jouir que la protec...

  19. Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-12-01

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For the particular case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31 % of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80 % of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  20. Transition probability studies in 175Au

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Tuomas; Watkins, H.; Joss, David; Page, Robert; Carroll, R. J.; Dewald, A.; Greenlees, Paul; Hackstein, M.; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Jakobsson, Ulrika; Jones, Peter; Julin, Rauno; Juutinen, Sakari; Ketelhut, Steffen; Kröll, Th

    2013-01-01

    Transition probabilities have been measured between the low-lying yrast states in 175Au by employing the recoil distance Doppler-shift method combined with the selective recoil-decay tagging technique. Reduced transition probabilities and magnitudes of transition quadrupole moments have been extracted from measured lifetimes allowing dramatic changes in nuclear structure within a low excitation-energy range to probed. The transition quadrupole moment data are discussed in terms...

  1. Jet structure of baryon excess in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two particle correlations between identified meson and baryon trigger particles with 2.5TT charged hadrons have been measured at midrapidity by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC in p+p,d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV. In noncentral Au+Au collisions, the probability of finding a hadron near in azimuthal angle to the trigger particles is almost identical for mesons and baryons and significantly higher than in p+p collisions. The associated yields for trigger baryons decrease in the most central collisions, consistent with some baryon production by thermal recombination in addition to hard scattering

  2. Mammalian sensitivity to elemental gold (Au?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing documentation of allergic contact dermatitis and other effects from gold jewelry, gold dental restorations, and gold implants. These effects were especially pronounced among females wearing body-piercing gold objects. One estimate of the prevalence of gold allergy worldwide is 13%, as judged by patch tests with monovalent organogold salts. Eczema of the head and neck was the most common response of individuals hypersensitive to gold, and sensitivity can last for at least several years. Ingestion of beverages containing flake gold can result in allergic-type reactions similar to those seen in gold-allergic individuals exposed to gold through dermal contact and other routes. Studies with small laboratory mammals and injected doses of colloidal gold showed increased body temperatures, accumulations in reticular cells, and dose enhancement in tumor therapy; gold implants were associated with tissue injuries. It is proposed that Au? toxicity to mammals is associated, in part, with formation of the more reactive Au+ and Au3+ species.

  3. Electric Field Induced Surface Modification of Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erchak, A.A.; Franklin, G.F.; Houston, J.E.; Mayer, T.M.; Michalske, T.A.

    1999-02-15

    We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the Interfacial Force Microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample. The current initially increases exponentially as the separation decreases. However, at a distance of less than {approximately} 500{angstrom} the current rises sharply as the surface begins to distort and rapidly close the gap. Retraction of the tip before contact is made reveals the formation of a mound on the surface. We propose a simple model, in which the localized high electric field under the tip assists the production of mobile Au adatoms by detachment from surface steps, and a radial field gradient causes a net flux of atoms toward the tip by surface diffusion. These processes give rise to an unstable surface deformation which, if left unchecked, results in a destructive mechanical contact. We discuss our findings with respect to earlier work using voltage pulses in the STM as a means of nanofabrication.

  4. Suppression of high transverse momentum π0 spectra in Au + Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2008-02-01

    Au + Au, s1/2 = 200 GeV measurements at RHIC, obtained with the PHENIX, STAR, PHOBOS and BRAHMS detectors, have all indicated a suppression of high p⊥ particle production, relative to an appropriately normalized NN level. For central collisions and vanishing pseudo-rapidity these experiments exhibit suppression in charged meson production, especially at medium-to-large transverse momenta. In the PHENIX experiment similar behaviour has been reported for π0 spectra. In a recent work [1] on the simpler D + Au interaction, to be considered perhaps as a tune-up for Au + Au, we reported on a pre-hadronic cascade mechanism which can explain the mixed observation of moderately reduced p⊥ suppression at higher pseudo-rapidity as well as the Cronin enhancement at mid-rapidity. Here, we present the extension of this work to the more massive ion-ion collisions. Our major thesis is that much of the suppression is generated in a late stage cascade of colourless pre-hadrons produced after an initial short-lived coloured phase. We present a pQCD argument to justify this approach and to estimate the time duration τp of this initial phase. Of essential importance is the brevity in time of the coloured phase existence relative to that of the strongly interacting pre-hadron phase, the latter essentially an interactive cascade. These distinctions in phase are of course not strict, but adequate for treating the suppression of moderate and high p⊥ mesons.

  5. Charge transport through O-deficient Au-MgO-Au junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M. M.

    2009-12-29

    Metal-oxide heterostructures have been attracting considerable attention in recent years due to various technological applications. We present results of electronic structure and transport calculations for the Au-MgO-Au (metal-insulator-metal) heterostructure based on density-functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s functions method. The dependence of the conductance of the heterostructure on the thickness of the MgO interlayer and the interface spacing is studied. In addition, we address the effects of O vacancies. We observe deviations from an exponentially suppressed conductance with growing interlayer thickness caused by Au-O chemical bonds. Electronic states tracing back to O vacancies can increase the conductance. Furthermore, this effect can be enhanced by enlarging the interface spacing as the vacancy induced Mg states are shifted toward the Fermi energy.

  6. L’instabilité organisationnelle des districts industriels. Dynamiques des transformations internes d’un village de métier au nord du Viêt Nam The Organizational Instability of Industrial Districts: Dynamic Internal Transformations of a Craft Village in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quy Nghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Le village de métier est un sujet d’étude attractif, mais rarement traité comme une forme d’agglomération industrielle ou abordé sous l’angle de la sociologie industrielle. Le développement actuel des villages de métier montre bien la présence intensive des entreprises de tailles variées et l’implication d’autres acteurs en dehors du milieu de production (par exemple les autorités locales, le milieu de l’éducation. L’introduction d’acteurs nouveaux implique le changement des relations existantes, contribuant ainsi à la mise en place d’une nouvelle configuration. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que l’organisation des villages de métier, qui est conçue comme un type de district industriel, est marquée par l’instabilité ou le changement permanent de la configuration générale, mais aussi par une transformation interne des acteurs au sein du district. À travers une étude de cas à Bát Tràng – un centre de production céramique au nord du Viêt Nam – cet article a pour objectif de montrer comment des entreprises familiales se réorganisent en structure plus formalisée, comment elles mobilisent du capital social pour régler leurs difficultés et les stratégies d’innovation qu’elles développent.Craft village is an attractive research subject, however it is rarely treated as a form of industrial agglomeration or studied from industrial sociology perspective. The current development of craft villages demonstrates the intensive presence of entreprises of all sizes and involvement of non productive actors (e.g. local authorities, education sector. The introduction of new actors therefore implies a change of existing relationships, contributing to the formulation of new configuration. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the organization of craft villages, as a type of industrial district, is marked by instability or permanent change in the overall configuration, but also by

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Dan; WU Gang; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    Aucore-Ptshell (Au@Pt) nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by reducing K2PtCl6 with hydrogen in the solution containing Au colloids and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The particles obtained were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM and XPS techniques. UV-Vis spectra show that the surface plasmon absorption feature of Au colloids is significantly reduced with increasing the amount of reduced Pt. TEM images that the metals are found always appear as spherical nanoparticles and their sizes grow apparently due to the reduction of PtCl62- ions, indicating that Pt is deposited from solution onto Au particle surface and forms a Pt-layer with uniform thickness. In the XPS spectra, the signals of Au metal decrease due to the reductive deposition of Pt on the surface of the Au colloids. UV-Vis and XPS data are consistent in showing that when the amount of Pt in the AuPt colloids is increased to reach an overall atomic ratio of Pt/Au=2, the Pt deposits form a shell covering completely the surface of Au particles, demonstrating the core-shell structure of the synthesized AuPt particles.

  8. Enrichment of the Superheavy Element Rg in Natural Au

    CERN Document Server

    Marinov, A; Kolb, D; Halicz, L; Segal, I; Tepliakov, N; Kashiv, Y; Brandt, R

    2010-01-01

    Based on the observation of the long-lived isotopes 261Rg and 265Rg (Z = 111, t(1/2) >= 10^(8) y) in natural Au, an experiment was performed to enrich Rg in 99.999% Au. 16 mg of Au were heated in vacuum for two weeks at a temperature of 1127 deg. C (63 deg. C above the melting point of Au). The content of 197Au and 261Rg in the residue was studied with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The residue of Au was 3x10^(-6) of its original quantity. The recovery of Rg was a few percent. The abundance of Rg compared to Au in the enriched solution was about 2x10^(-6), which is a three to four orders of magnitude enrichment. It is concluded that the evaporation rate of Rg from an Au matrix in vacuum at 63 deg. C above the Au melting point is lower than that of Au. This experiment reinforces our first observation of Rg in a terrestrial material. As before it is concluded that a long-lived isomeric state exists in 261Rg and that it probably belongs to a new class of iso...

  9. Strangelet search in Au+Au collisions at VsNN=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Benedosso, F.; Botje, M.A.J.; Grebenyuk, O.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.; Russcher, M.J.; Snellings, R.J.M.; van der Kolk, N.

    2007-01-01

    We have searched for strangelets in a triggered sample of 61 million central (top 4%) Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV near beam rapidities at the STAR solenoidal tracker detector at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We have sensitivity to metastable strangelets with lifetimes of order ⩾0.1 ns, in contrast to limits over ten times longer in BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) studies and longer still at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Upper limits of a few 10-6 to 10-7 ...

  10. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  11. PARTON STRUCTURE THROUGH TWO PARTICLE CORRELATIONS IN AU-AU AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LONGACRE,R.S.

    1999-10-23

    A method for determining the presence of partonic scattering through two-particle correlations is developed and applied to models which have jets and mini-jets in them. We only consider the correlation of mid-rapidity particles because they will be easily measured in large numbers at RHIC. The level of two-particle correlations will be a direct measure of how dense a system is made in Au-Au collisions at RHIC. The STAR TPC will be ideal for making these measurements in the first year of running.

  12. Elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}$=130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, K H; Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Allgower, C; Amsbaugh, J; Anderson, M; Anderssen, E; Arnesen, H; Arnold, L; Averichev, G S; Baldwin, A R; Balewski, J T; Barannikova, O Yu; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Beddo, M E; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Bennett, S; Bercovitz, J; Berger, J; Betts, W; Bichsel, H; Bieser, F; Bland, L C; Bloomer, M A; Blyth, C O; Böhm, J; Bonner, B E; Bonnet, D; Bossingham, R R; Botlo, M; Boucham, A; Bouillo, N; Bouvier, S; Bradley, K; Brady, F P; Braithwaite, E S; Braithwaite, W; Brandin, A B; Brown, R L; Brugalette, G; Byrd, C; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carr, L; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Caylor, B; Cebra, D; Chathopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, W; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Chrin, J; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Conin, L; Consiglio, C; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Danilov, V I; Dayton, D; De Mello, M; Deng, W S; Derevshchikov, A A; Dialinas, M; Díaz, H; De Young, P A; Didenko, L; Dimassimo, D; Dioguardi, J; Dominik, Wojciech; Drancourt, C; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Eggert, T; Emelyanov, V I; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Etkin, A; Fachini, P; Feliciano, C; Ferenc, D; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Flierl, D; Flores, I; Foley, Kenneth J; Fritz, D; Gagunashvili, N D; Gans, J; Gazdzicki, M; Germain, M; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Grachov, O A; Grau, M; Greiner, D E; Greiner, L; Grigoriev, V; Grosnick, D P; Gross, J; Guilloux, G; Gushin, E M; Hall, J; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harper, G; Harris, J W; He, P; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hill, D; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Howe, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Hunt, W; Hunter, J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Yu I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jacobson, S; Jared, R; Jensen, P; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kenney, V P; Khodinov, A; Klay, J L; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A A; Koehler, G; Konstantinov, A S; Kormilitsyne, V; Kotchenda, L; Kotov, I V; Kovalenko, A D; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krüger, K; Krupien, T; Kuczewski, P; Kühn, C E; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T J; Leonhardt, W; Leontiev, V M; Leszczynski, P; Le Vine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lin, J; Lindenbaum, S J; Lindenstruth, V; Lindstrom, P J; Lisa, M A; Liu, H; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Lopiano, D; Love, W A; Lutz, Jean Robert; Lynn, D; Madansky, L; Maier, R S; Majka, R; Maliszewski, A; Margetis, S; Marks, K; Marstaller, R; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; Matyushevsky, E A; McParland, C P; McShane, T S; Meier, J; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Middlekamp, P; Mikhalin, N; Miller, B; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Minor, B; Mitchell, J; Mogavero, E; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D M; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; Morse, R; De Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Ngo, T; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, T; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Noggle, T; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Nussbaum, T; Nystrand, J; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Ogilvie, C A; Olchanski, K; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Ososkov, G A; Ott, G; Padrazo, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Pentia, M; Perevozchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V; Pinganaud, W; Pirogov, S; Platner, E D; Pluta, J; Polk, I; Porile, N T; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E V; Prindle, D J; Pruneau, C A; Puskar-Pasewicz, J; Rai, G; Rasson, J E; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J; Renfordt, R E; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Riso, J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Röhrich, D; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V L; Sakrejda, I; Sánchez, R; Sandler, Z; Sandweiss, J; Sappenfield, P; Saulys, A C; Savin, I A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Scheblien, J; Scheetz, R; Schlüter, R; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schulz, M; Schüttauf, A; Sedlmeir, J; Seger, J E; Seliverstov, D M; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seymour, R; Shakaliev, E I; Shestermanov, K E; Shi, Y; Shimansky, S S; Shuman, D B; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Smykov, L P; Snellings, R; Solberg, K; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, Reinhard; Stolpovsky, A; Stone, N; Stone, R; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Symons, T J M; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarchini, A; Tarzian, J; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tonse, S R; Trainor, T; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V N; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T S; Underwood, D G; Vakula, I; Van Buren, G; Van der Molen, A; Vanyashin, A V; Vasilevskii, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Visser, G; Voloshin, S A; Vu, C; Wang, F; Ward, H; Weerasundara, D D; Weidenbach, R; Wells, R; Wenaus, T J; Westfall, G D; Whitfield, J P; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Willson, R; Wilson, K; Wirth, J; Wisdom, J; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wolf, J; Wood, L; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, J; Zhang, W M; Zhu, J; Zimmerman, D; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-01-01

    Elliptic flow from nuclear collisions is a hadronic observable sensitive to the early stages of system evolution. We report first results on elliptic flow of charged particles at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=130 GeV using the STAR TPC at RHIC. The elliptic flow signal, v_2, averaged over transverse momentum, reaches values of about 6% for relatively peripheral collisions and decreases for the more central collisions. This can be interpreted as the observation of a higher degree of thermalization than at lower collision energies. Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow are also presented.

  13. Spectator matter fragmentation in Au+Au reactions: Phase space analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vermani, Yogesh K

    2011-01-01

    Clusterization in phase space has been analyzed for peripheral Au+Au reactions at 1000 AMeV using simulated annealing clusterization algorithm (SACA). We investigate how these fragments are correlated in phase space and compare our model calculations with minimum spanning tree (MST) method. Our theoretical study highlights the importance of binding energy criterion in recognizing the fragment structure. MST method however, fails to break-up the spectator matter effectively and thus under-estimates the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  14. Energy Dependence of Particle Multiplicities in Central Au+Au Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles in Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 200 GeV. For the 6% most central collisions, we obtain dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|<1 = 650+/-35(syst). Compared to collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV, the highest energy studied previously, an increase by a factor of 1.14+/-0.05 at 90% confidence level, is found. The energy dependence of the pseudorapidity density is discussed in comparison with data from proton-induced collisions and theoretical predictions.

  15. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-01

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  16. Observation of anisotropic event shapes and transverse flow in ultrarelativistic Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event shapes for Au + Au collisions at 11.4 GeV/c per nucleon were studied over nearly the full solid angle with the E877 apparatus. The analysis was performed by Fourier expansion of azimuthal distributions of the transverse energy (ET) measured in different pseudorapidity intervals. For semicentral collisions a pronounced event anisotropy is identified with a clear forward-backward anticorrelation. In the forward pseudorapidity interval up to 9% of the ET is in a directed component. The signal decreases for peripheral and very central collisions

  17. Net charge fluctuations in Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2002-08-19

    Data from Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV, obtained with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, are used to investigate local net charge fluctuations among particles produced near midrapidity. According to recent suggestions, such fluctuations may carry information from the quark-gluon plasma. This analysis shows that the fluctuations are dominated by a stochastic distribution of particles, but are also sensitive to other effects, like global charge conservation and resonance decays. PMID:12190459

  18. Light Fragment Production and Power Law Behavior in Au + Au Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using charged-particle-exclusive measurements of Au+Au collisions in the LBL Bevalac's EOS time projection chamber, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity, and beam energy. Most features of these densities above a transverse momentum threshold are consistent with momentum-space coalescence, and, in particular, the increase in sideward flow with fragment mass is generally well described by a momentum-space power law

  19. On direct photon production in Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P

    2003-01-01

    Some aspects of the direct photon production phenomenon are discussed, mainly in the Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions on the basis of a model for production of the same particle species in PP collisions. The results have, thereafter, been converted to those for a few AB/AA interactions through an appropriate mechanism. Comparison of the theoretical results obtained on the basis of model-based calculations with measured data on the relevant observables leads to a fair agreement between them. This reflects modestly the fair achievements attained by the models that are made use of in the present work. (author)

  20. On direct photon production in Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the direct photon production phenomenon are discussed, mainly in the Pb+Pb and Au+Au collisions on the basis of a model for production of the same particle species in PP collisions. The results have, thereafter, been converted to those for a few AB/AA interactions through an appropriate mechanism. Comparison of the theoretical results obtained on the basis of model-based calculations with measured data on the relevant observables leads to a fair agreement between them. This reflects modestly the fair achievements attained by the models that are made use of in the present work. (author)