WorldWideScience

Sample records for change strategy results

  1. Scaling Factor Estimation Using Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 2: Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Aenlle, Manuel López; Garcia, Luis M. Villa;

    2007-01-01

    The mass change method is used to estimate the scaling factors, the uncertainty is reduced when, for each mode, the frequency shift is maximized and the changes in the mode shapes are minimized, which in turn, depends on the mass change strategy chosen to modify the dynamic behavior of the struct...... factors of a steel cantilever beam. The effect of the mass change strategy was experimentally studied by performing several modal tests in which the magnitude, the location and the number of the attached masses were changed....... of the structure. On the other hand, the aforementioned objectives are difficult to achieve for all modes simultaneously. Thus, a study of the number, magnitude and location of the masses must be performed previously to the modal tests. In this paper, the mass change method was applied to estimate the scaling...

  2. Management strategies in anticipation of climatic change and the resulting impact on wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two significant impacts of climate change could affect waterfowl. Climate changes that induce dryness and reduce surface water would have a detrimental effect on waterfowl production capabilities. Global warming could also increase sea levels and flood critical waterfowl overwintering habitat. Strategies undertaken by Ducks Unlimited, a waterfowl conservation organization, to respond to the threat posed by global warming to waterfowl are reviewed. Ducks Unlimited will continue to assist with wetland restoration and preservation throughout the Great Plains. Strategies to enhance retention include converting marginally arable land to permanent forage, forage backflooding, and encouragement of zero and minimum tillage operations. Improved efficiency of irrigation projects is important to foster water conservation. Widespread surface water drainage should be discouraged, by combinations of legislation and economic incentives. Ducks Unlimited is refocusing its activites on parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba that are likely to have relatively wetter conditions under climatic warming

  3. Learning to Love Math: Teaching Strategies that Change Student Attitudes and Get Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Has it ever seemed to you that some students are hardwired to dislike math? If so, then here's a book that explains how negative attitudes toward math get established in the brain and what you can do to turn those attitudes around. Math teacher and neurologist Judy Willis gives you over 50 strategies you can use right away in any grade level to:…

  4. What do model results tell us regarding Climate Intervention (Geoengineering) strategies to counter high latitude climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A number of modeling studies at various levels of complexity have taken place to explore consequences of climate intervention in countering climate change. I will review results from some of those studies, cover some new analysis, and identify areas where more study is needed, with a focus on high latitude climate.

  5. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes;

    Engineering changes (ECs) are well known for generating additional costs and decreasing de-velopment efficiency. Yet, they are a fundamental part of product and service development and they are necessary to keep up with, for example, competitors, market trends or new technolo-gies. The effective...... positive seen effects of changes on the product (e.g. product quality and functionality) suggest successful implementation of the changes with respect to their main objectives named as ‘improving deficiencies of the product’ and ‘integrating innovations, new technologies and trends’. While also the effect...... management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...

  6. Choosing strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, J P; Schlesinger, L A

    1979-01-01

    Change, though traumatic, can be good for some people, but many others, especially in their daily employment, feel threatened by any alteration in the status quo. Organizations by their very nature must change, and increasingly rapidly--and managers must implement changes and overcome resistance to them. Here are four basic reasons people resist change, various ways of dealing with that resistance, and a guide to the kinds of approaches to use with different types of opposition. PMID:10240501

  7. Innovative Urban Water Management as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: Results from the Implementation of the Project “Water Against Climate Change (WATACLIC”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pollastri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of water is damaging European groundwater and rivers: their environmental conditions are often below the “good status” that—according to Water Framework Directive 2000/60—should be reached by 2015. The already critical situation is tending to get worse because of climate change. Even in water rich countries, urban wastewater is still one of the main sources of water pollution. Currently, urban soil sealing and “conventional” rainwater management, which were planned to quickly move rainwater away from roofs and streets, are increasing the flood risk. “Green” technologies and approaches would permit a reduction in water abstraction and wastewater production while improving urban hydrological response to heavy rains. The Life+ WATACLIC project has been implemented to promote such sustainable technologies and approaches in Italy, however the results show huge difficulties: apparently water saving and sustainable urban water management have only low interest amongst the general public and even with public administrations and the relevant industrial sectors. In such a cultural and technical context, the project is bringing a new point of view to public debate. In the long term, the project will certainly have a positive impact, but most likely it will require more time than initially expected.

  8. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations. PMID:22608867

  9. Effective strategies for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H

    2012-06-01

    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  10. Market Strategies for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-01

    The issue of climate change has attracted increasing business attention in the past decade. Whereas companies initially aimed primarily at influencing the policy debate, corporate strategies increasingly include economic responses. Existing classifications for climate change strategies however still reflect the political, non-market components. Using empirical information from the largest multinational companies worldwide, this article examines current market responses, focusing on the drivers (threats and opportunities) and the actions being taken by companies to address climate change. It also develops a typology of climate strategies that addresses the market dimensions, covering both the aim (strategic intent) and the degree of cooperation (form of organisation). The aim turns out to be either innovation or compensation, while the organisational arrangements to reach this objective can be oriented at the company level (internal), at companies' own supply chain (vertical) or at cooperation with other companies (competitors or companies in other sectors - horizontal). The typology can assist managers in deciding about the strategic option(s) they want to choose regarding climate change, also based on the insights offered by the paper about the current state of activities of other companies worldwide.

  11. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    steering group has guided and steered the work and disseminated the results in their own organisations. In the strategy, the adaptation policies are divided into two groups: (1) regional and joint strategic starting points in adaptation and (2) short term (2012 - 2020) adaptation policies. The policies are defined for the following sectors and cross-sectoral issues: (1) Land use, (2) Transport and technical networks, (3) Building and climate proof local environment, (4) Water and waste management, (5) Rescue services and safety, (6) Social and health services, and (7) Cooperation in producing and disseminating information. The environmental impacts of the strategy proposal were assessed by Ramboll Finland Oy. In the study, the impacts of the measures to vegetation, fauna, biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, air quality and noise, human health, social impacts and economic impacts were assessed. In addition, a case study of flood protection costs was carried out. It is important to monitor the implementation of regional adaptation measures, and to follow the changes in the working environment and newest research information in order to prepare for the impacts of climate change effectively and to asses the efficiency of the policies in reducing vulnerability. It is also necessary to assess practices and policies from time to time if for example new climate research information or changes in legislation call for reassessment. The preparation of the strategy was part of the Julia 2030 project that was part-financed by the European Union Life+ Programme. (orig.)

  12. Urban trees and light-colored surfaces as a climate change strategy: Results from the US and potential in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the impact of two strategies in an urban environment for effecting substantial energy savings. They are the use of light colored materials on roofing and other flat surfaces, and the planting of additional trees. The lighter colored roofing materials will reflect more solar heat, resulting in lowered air conditioning costs. The additional trees will provide more shading, thereby increasing comfort, and will act as an aid in dropping the ambient temperature by means of evapotranspiration through the leaf systems. Both of these effects will reduce the direct energy inputs leading to air conditioning loads in an urban setting, and indirectly they will have an impact on urban smog though the lowered ambient temperature. The authors also discuss the applications of these ideas in developing countries, where often building energy costs can consume half of developed electrical capacity, and which tend to be in warmer climates. The density of many major urban areas in developing countries make the use of trees much harder to implement.

  13. Strategies for Change: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Hugh C.

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on notion of change as integrated into personal and library settings, this essay discusses routines versus change, redistribution of resources, effects of economic recession, technological changes in information transfer media (papyrus and clay tablets, video disks, fiber optics, microcomputers, databases), and changes in library patrons'…

  14. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    The absence of a global agreement on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions calls for adaptation to climate change. The associated paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change...... adaptation needed. Issues that must be addressed in case a strategic approach is not developed, as the building sector is continuously investing in measures to adapt to climate change as impacts emerge are described....

  15. STRATEGY OF KM-ORIENTED ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. Pryimak

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the problems of formation and realization of KM-oriented strategy organizational changes in modern business. It gives the practical recommendations concerning engineering technique of communication and technological space of knowledge management and adaptation of company's strategy to KM-oriented organizational changes.

  16. Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    . This absence of an agreement calls for adaptation to climate change. Emphasis should be put on buildings, as they play a vital economic and social role in society and are vulnerable to climate change. Therefore, the building stock deserves its own policy and implementation plans as well as tools that enable...... adequate and cost-efficient adaptation to climate change. This paper explains the need for climate change adaptation of the building stock and suggests a pattern for a strategic approach to how to reach the climate change adaptation needed. The suggested and presented need of a strategic approach is based...... on three main initiatives consisting of the need to examine the potential impacts of climate change on the building stock, the need to assess and develop a roadmap of current and future adaptation measures that can withstand the effects of climate change, and the need to engage relevant stakeholders...

  17. Innovative Nuclear Fuels: Results and Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials discovery involves exploring and identifying existing (natural) materials with desirable properties and functionality. Materials design aims at creating new (artificial) materials with predefined properties and functionality. Nuclear fuels are often developed using both methods, with a certain advantage given to discovery. To facilitate the discovery and design of innovative nuclear fuels, multi-scale models and simulations are used to predict irradiation effects on the thermal conductivity, oxygen diffusivity, and thermal expansion of oxide fuels. The scientific method used in this approach covers a large spectrum of time and space scales, from electronic structure to atomistic levels, through meso-scale and all the way to continuum phenomena. The multi-scale approach is illustrated using results on UO2/PuO2 fuels with a focus on predictions of point defect concentrations, stoichiometry, and phase stability. The high performance computer simulations include coupled heat transport, diffusion, and thermal expansion, gas bubble formation and temperature evolution in a fuel element consisting of UO2 fuel and metallic cladding. Uncertainty evaluation reveals that ignoring the composition dependence of fuel properties in the simulations can lead to large errors (>100 k) in the calculations of the centerline temperature. The second part of the talk is dedicated to a discussion of an international strategy for developing advanced, innovative nuclear fuels. It starts with a brief review of the international status of nuclear fuels research, including results from American, European, and Japanese national laboratories and universities. In an effort to improve collaborative work, the status of thermo-chemical databases is used as an example of outstanding opportunities and exciting scientific programs that require better synchronization to advance the research and to avoid excessive redundancy. The presentation ends with a discussion of existing and emerging

  18. A New Strategy for Mitigating Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Y.; Akimoto, K./ Oda, J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy for mitigating climate change, both in short term and in long term. The basic character of the strategy is action oriented with multi-country collaboration, while the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and Kyoto protocol is numerical target oriented within United Nation Framework. The introductory part of the paper briefly describes deficits of FCCC and Kyoto protocol and the needs of a different strategy for mitigating climate change. Then the short term strategy is focused on energy conservation and its effectiveness for mitigating climate change is illustrated by estimating the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emission when intense collaboration is achieved for distributing main energy conservation measures in power generation and key industries among Asia Pacific Partnership countries. The long term strategy is developing novel types of renewables among countries. Geoheat and space solar power systems (SSPS) are candidates which may be developed among major developed countries. Necessity of international collaboration is stressed for R and D of these candidate renewables. (auth)

  19. LINKING HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO DRIVE MEASURABLE RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia‐Maria\tBORDEIANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the human resources are seen as a very valuable asset to achieve long-term performance. Today we understand that every employee is required to learn throughout life, so to acquire new knowledge, to process such knowledge and possibly disseminate expertise with other members of the organization. The theory on human resources in various organizations has changed over time; recommendations have become more numerous, but there is no consensus on the subject. In other words, the permanent change which defines the competitive environment of business remains a type of constant when analysing the efficiency of human resources within companies; inter-individual relations (formal and informal and the values to which each employee relates remains crucial for any theoretical construction in this area. Principles and strategies applied by organizations yesterday could prove their inefficiency today; human resource strategies in organizations today should include a separate subcomponent, we believe, i.e. knowledge management (KM strategy. This is because the competitive advantage obtained or maintained by the company depends today, in large proportion, on the type, quality and value of knowledge possessed by the organization. Therefore, organizational strategy and thus the strategy of acquisition, developing and rewarding of human resources (HR should take into account this reality from the global environment. Moreover, in the current knowledge-driven economy, organizations must know how to develop and implement knowledge-based strategies to drive measurable business results. The goal of this paper is to describe a potential relation between the overall company strategy, HR strategy and KM strategy.

  20. The Changing Career Strategies of Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tony; Davies, Goronwy

    1999-01-01

    Faced with reduced employment security, managers are redefining careers to include work/personal life balance. Changes in any area can cause revision of career strategies. Depending on how they define careers, managers recognize career development as an individual, not an organizational, responsibility. (SK)

  1. Strategies for Implementing Change: An Experiential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    An attitude survey and a role-playing case were used to identify the typical approaches people use to implement important changes in organizations. This typical strategy, suggested or used by over 90% of the subjects, was not successful in producing change in any of the fourteen role-playing trials. However, with ten minutes of instruction in the ”Delta Technique,” 86% of the subjects were successful in introducing change in another fourteen role-playing trials. The ”Delta Technique” consists...

  2. Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the national implementation strategy which is a part of the coordinated national response to climate change. The approach was developed from the National Climate Change process, established by the federal, provincial and territorial ministers responsible for energy and the environment, based on an examination of the impacts, costs and benefits of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the options for addressing climate change. The Strategy involves (1) taking action to reduce risks and to improve our understanding of risks associated with climate change, (2) institution of a national framework that includes individual and joint action, while recognizing jurisdictional flexibility in responding to unique circumstances, (3) adopting a phased approach, (4) progressive action in response to changing domestic and international circumstances, (5) clear understanding of the necessary relationship between international and national strategies, (6) developing an understanding of the implications of emission reduction targets and major options, including cross-cutting policy approaches such as emissions trading and allocation of responsibility for reducing emissions. The Strategy uses a risk-management approach that attempts to limit the risks of climate change while maximizing opportunities for Canada to contribute to global and national solutions. This approach incorporates improving scientific and analytical understanding and co-ordinating national and international action and a phased approach to implementation. This policy document focuses on Phase One actions which consist of five connected themes, i. e. enhancing awareness and understanding, promoting technology development and innovation, governments leading by example, investing in knowledge and building the foundation, and encouraging action. Future phases will be linked to greater international certainty based on ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, the actions of our trading partners

  3. Moving Forward with Founders: Strategies for Change in Volunteer Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Paula Rogers; Pleskac, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Founder's Syndrome can create barriers to change in Extension programs. As a result, Extension staff have experienced challenges in effecting organizational change where Founders are present. 4-H Youth Development staff in Wisconsin applied a variety of strategies to move forward with 4-H programming, despite the influence of the Founders.…

  4. Compliance to compulsory vaccination: strategies and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, G; Caramello, S; Vaudetto, S

    1995-06-01

    This report is devoted to analyze the effect that compulsory vaccination has on the compliance of the population, compared with the results obtained by massive campaigns for optional vaccinations. The implementation of a specific software for the management of individual schedules helps to reach a substantial complete coverage of the individuals for the first ones, while improving but incomplete results regard the vaccines against pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella, optional in Italy. The optimization of data management at the local health unit level improves the quality and the satisfaction of the work performed by the personnel, but has a limited effect on the already nearly complete coverage for the compulsory immunizations. The mounting percentage of children immunized with optional vaccines can be explained both by the massive campaigns of information conducted in recent years and by the better tracking of individual immunization schedules.

  5. Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Erin L; Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. Anteriorly-directed force perturbations were applied to the upper back with a padded pendulum and attempted to challenge the postural control system without eliciting a stepping response. In three separate sessions, subjects were perturbed both before and after a fatiguing protocol that induced lumbar extensor fatigue to one of three different fatigue levels. Postural strategy was quantified using center of pressure position along with joint angles and joint torques for the ankle, knee, hip, and "low back" joints. Results showed both proactive and reactive changes in postural strategy. Proactive changes involved a slight anterior lean prior to the perturbation, and reactive changes were consistent with a shift toward more of a hip strategy with fatigue. In addition, results suggested that subjects classified as moving mostly at the hip prior to fatigue were more affected by fatigue compared to subjects classified as moving roughly equal amounts at the ankle and hip prior to fatigue. Increasing fatigue level exaggerated some, but not all, of the changes in postural strategy with fatigue. These findings illustrate that neuromuscular fatigue can influence postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. PMID:16023345

  6. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s....... Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature...

  7. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  8. Developments in national climate change mitigation legislation and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubash, N.K.; Hagemann, M.; Höhne, N.; Upadhyaya, P.

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented from a survey of national legislation and strategies to mitigate climate change covering almost all United Nations member states between 2007 and 2012. This data set is distinguished from the existing literature in its breadth of coverage, its focus on national policies (ra

  9. Climate change adaptation strategies and mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The pace of climate change and the consequent warming of the Earth's surface is increasing vulnerability and decreasing adaptive capacity. Achieving a successful adaptation depends on the development of technology, institutional organization, financing availability and the exchange of information. Populations living in arid and semi-arid zones, low-lying coastal areas, land with water shortages or at risk of overflow or small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Due to increasing population density in sensitive areas, some regions have become more vulnerable to events such as storms, floods and droughts, like the river basins and coastal plains. Human activities have fragmented and increased the vulnerability of ecosystems, which limit both, their natural adaptation and the effectiveness of the measures adopted. Adaptation means to carry out the necessary modifications for society to adapt to new climatic conditions in order to reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Adaptive capacity is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) and to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities or face the consequences. Adaptation reduces the adverse impacts of climate change and enhance beneficial impacts, but will not prevent substantial cost that are produced by all damages. The performances require adaptation actions. These are defined and implemented at national, regional or local levels since many of the impacts and vulnerabilities depend on the particular economic, geographic and social circumstances of each country or region. We will present some adaptation strategies at national and local level and revise some cases of its implementation in several vulnerable areas. However, adaptation to climate change must be closely related to mitigation policies because the degree of change planned in different climatic variables is a function of the concentration levels that are achieved

  10. Modelling rainfall erosion resulting from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion leads to agricultural productivity decline and contributes to water quality decline. The current widely used models for determining soil erosion for management purposes in agriculture focus on long term (~20 years) average annual soil loss and are not well suited to determining variations that occur over short timespans and as a result of climate change. Soil loss resulting from rainfall erosion is directly dependent on the product of runoff and sediment concentration both of which are likely to be influenced by climate change. This presentation demonstrates the capacity of models like the USLE, USLE-M and WEPP to predict variations in runoff and erosion associated with rainfall events eroding bare fallow plots in the USA with a view to modelling rainfall erosion in areas subject to climate change.

  11. Semantic results for ontic and epistemic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditmarsch, Hans; Kooi, Barteld; Bonanno, G.; van der Hoek, W.; Wooldridge, M.

    2008-01-01

    Hans van Ditmarsch and Barteld Kooi (2008). Semantic results for ontic and epistemic change. In: G. Bonanno, W. van der Hoek and M. Wooldridge (editors). Logic and the Foundations of Game and Decision Theory (LOFT 7). Texts in Logic and Games 3, pp. 87-117, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

  12. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of bu

  13. Using Networks For Changing Innovation Strategy: The Case of IBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dittrich (Koen); G.M. Duysters (Geert); A-P. de Man (Ard-Pieter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLarge-scale strategic change projects in companies may be supported by using alliance networks. This paper shows that IBM’s change from an exploitation strategy towards an exploration strategy required a radically different network strategy as well. By entering into more non-equity allia

  14. Choosing change strategy for ISO/IEC 33014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Johansen, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    of how to select change strategy. The framework contains 10 different change strategies to choose from. But which ones are chosen in practice? To answer that, we have analyzed data from 134 assessments in 129 organizations that have used the framework. We give a ranking of strategies chosen, and we......The ISO/IEC 33014.2013 [1] standard on process improvement includes a core activity called ‘identify the overall change strategy’, which includes selecting a change strategy among the many available. This selection can be carried out using the ImprovAbility model [2] in which there is a framework...... analyze how they adapt the change strategy to their specific conditions. We conclude that the most often recommended organizational change strategy is optionality followed by three other strategies: specialist-driven, production-organized, and learning-driven....

  15. Innovation as a strategy for academic libraries to survive change

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Ana Cosmelli

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is a strategy that has allowed organizations to survive in a context of changes, many of them disruptive. To evaluate the current most important innovations in academic libraries and aiming to understand if the organizational culture type present in academic libraries promotes innovation, a global Delphi study was undertaken. This technique allows identifying consensus based on the judgement of well-informed individuals. The results of the study were analyzed at the light of CHRIST...

  16. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Abbas; Aroosh Khalid; Ayesha Butt; Fareeha Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, p...

  17. Adaptive strategies to climate change in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidanti-Malunga, J.

    Climate change poses a big challenge to rural livelihoods in the Shire Valley area of Southern Malawi, where communities have depended almost entirely on rain-fed agriculture for generations. The Shire Valley area comprises of low-altitude dambo areas and uplands which have been the main agricultural areas. Since early to mid 1980s, the uplands have experienced prolonged droughts and poor rainfall distribution, while the dambos have experienced recurrent seasonal floods. This study assessed some of the adaptive strategies exercised by small-scale rural farmers in response to climate change in the Shire Valley. The methodology used in collecting information includes group discussions, household surveys in the area, secondary data, and field observations. The results show that small-scale rural farmers exercise a number of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. These adaptive strategies include: increased use of water resources for small-scale irrigation or wetland farming, mostly using simple delivery techniques; increased management of residual moisture; and increased alternative sources of income such as fishing and crop diversity. It was also observed that government promoted the use of portable motorized pumps for small-scale irrigation in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. However, these external interventions were not fully adopted; instead the farmers preferred local interventions which mostly had indigenous elements.

  18. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  19. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  20. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  1. Vintages for Changing Tastes: Experiential Strategies in Interpersonal Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    The interpersonal communication courses at the University of Washington have adopted the use of experiential learning strategies in response to the changing student population and changing attitudes. A major goal of the program is to provide a solid, explicit academic foundation for the use of experiential strategies by (1) outlining the…

  2. The Result Integration Algorithm Based on Matching Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The following paper provides a new algorithm: a result integration algorithm based on matching strategy. The algorithm extracts the title and the abstract of Web pages, calculates the relevance between the query string and the Web pages, decides the Web pages accepted, rejected and sorts them out in user interfaces. The experiment results indicate obviously that the new algorithms improve the precision of meta-search engine. This technique is very useful to meta-search engine.

  3. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah

    2004-12-01

    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action. PMID:15635933

  4. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  5. Multinational enterprises and climate change strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is often perceived as the most pressing environmental problem of our time, as reflected in the large public, policy, and corporate attention it has received, and the concerns expressed about the (potential) consequences. Particularly due to temperature increases, climate change affects physical and biological systems by changing ecosystems and causing extinction of species, and is expected to have a negative social impact and adversely affect human health (IPCC, 2007). Moreover...

  6. Legitimately seeking differences: The case of climate change strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, B.; Fowler, C. [Victoria Univ. of Wellington (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    In 2002, the New Zealand Government announced its intention to introduce a carbon tax as part of its response to climate change. Following the review of New Zealand climate change policies, the proposed carbon tax was ruled out in 2005 and other measures were investigated. In October 2007, the government announced its new climate change policy package, a fundamental part of which is the domestic cap-and-trade Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). The scheme is currently being revised by the Government, with a report due August 2009. The government's climate change policy and the ETS in particular, represent significant changes in regulatory and societal expectations of the way in which businesses will account for the impact of their carbon emissions on the natural environment. The New Zealand electricity generators are among the most heavily impacted by the Government's climate change policy due to the scale of carbon emissions from electricity generation. This study utilizes institutional theory and the concept of legitimate differentiation, using a resource-based view, to examine and explain the changes in the electricity generators' carbon-strategy related environmental management and reporting practices as a result of regulatory, societal and financial pressures arising from the Government's climate change policy as it changed between 2002 and 2008. A study of organizations' reactions to climate change regulations is timely because the phenomenon of changing regulation is worldwide and far-reaching in scale. As such, the findings from a New Zealand study of electricity companies are releavant to many countries and organizations. Two generators that are among the firms with highest levels of carbon emissions in the New Zealand electricity industry (NZEI) are selected for in-depth analysis. Each company is first analyzed longitudinally (2001-2008) to discern changes in their internal environmental structures, systems and strategies to account

  7. Insights into the process of changing sourcing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    FAES, Wouter; Matthyssens, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Structured abstract Purpose: To identify the motivations driving the process of changing sourcing strategy from single sourcing to multiple sourcing or vice versa. Methodology/approach: Ten cases of sourcing strategy change were investigated. A qualitative research method is used to uncover the richness of these change processes. Findings: Most of the advantages and disadvantages stated in the literature were confirmed. Identical objectives (cost cutting and quality improvement) we...

  8. Beyond Brainstorming: Exploring Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Gregg; Jacobs, Katharine; Buizer, James

    2008-06-01

    Climate Change Adaptation for Water Managers; Oracle, Arizona, 4-5 February 2008; The most visible manifestation of climate change in the American Southwest is its effects on water resources. Since 1999, the region's water supplies and major rivers have been tested by burgeoning population growth and drought. Model projections suggest increasing drought severity and duration due to rising temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and enhanced atmospheric circulation from the tropics (Hadley circulation).

  9. Change blindness: eradication of gestalt strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Steve; Goddard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of eight, texture-defined rectangles were used as stimuli in a one-shot change blindness (CB) task where there was a 50% chance that one rectangle would change orientation between two successive presentations separated by an interval. CB was eliminated by cueing the target rectangle in the first stimulus, reduced by cueing in the interval and unaffected by cueing in the second presentation. This supports the idea that a representation was formed that persisted through the interval befo...

  10. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600–700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial. (letters)

  11. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  12. GEF climate change operational strategy: Whither UNDP?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosier, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses aspects of the implementation of the program for climatic change which has been come about as part of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Initial effort has focused on providing strategic information and help to countries, on achieving offsets in greenhouse gas emissions by energy conservation or carbon sinking, and an emphasis on development of renewable energy supplies. The U.N. Development Agency has limited funding to help support startup on projects submitted. Specific examples are discussed in the areas of energy conservation and energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy sources, and reducing the long-term costs of low greenhouse gas-emitting energy technologies.

  13. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  14. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.;

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...... to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating...... the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms...

  15. Response Strategies for Curriculum Change in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Hadgraft, Roger G.; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2016-01-01

    During the last 25 years, there have been many calls for new engineering competencies and a corresponding gradual change in both curriculum and pedagogy in engineering education. This has been a global trend, in the US, Europe, Australia and now emerging in the rest of the world. Basically, there have been two main types of societal challenges…

  16. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use Oliver and Holzinger?s (2008) conceptual framework on the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercializa...

  17. Exploring Psychotherapy Clients' Independent Strategies for Change While in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Psychotherapy research usually describes how client change is caused by therapist interventions. This article describes how clients change by continuing to use and revising the strategies for change that they bring with them when they first enter therapy. This article presents data from a qualitative diary study of psychotherapy. Three cases…

  18. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; D.L. Levy

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  19. Adapting to Change in Andean Ecosystems: Climate and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Fernández-Baca, Edith

    2008-01-01

    The presentation summarizes the research activities conducted by SANREM CRSP LTRA4 Adapting to Change in the Andes in the Altiplano region. The objectives were to present the project, emphasizing the research activities revolving around climate, strategies and advocacy coalitions. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  20. Merger Failures & Corporate Strategy: Change Management to Solve the Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Abbas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Mergers are the key for both big and small business corporations. This research paper determines the factors resulting into merger failures and considering “Strategic Change Management” as a solution to the query by doing comparison of corporate strategy and cultures of mergers between Europe and USA through statistics. Factors that lead to merger failures are misgauging strategic fit, cultural clash, communication gap, weak leadership and economic crisis by providing clear vision, putting together leadership team, focused management on success and winning the people’s commitment we can solve this query. The research has proved that cross-border mergers are highly influenced by cultural differences. The strategic change management led by new CEO can help in saving a new merger from a failure.

  1. National strategy for climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  2. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built using both available materials and traditional and academic construction technologies. This paper thoroughly investigates the extant urban conglomerate in Cádiz and analyses, in a qualitative and quantitative manner, which bioclimatic design strategies were applied and the city’s adaptation for future climate scenarios. The results indicate that historic housing in Cádiz is creatively adapted to the local natural conditions by means of a combination of climate responsive strategies, and there is significant scope for improvement in the ongoing response to global warming.

  3. Adaptive Capacity as antecedent to Climate Change Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hillmann, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade research on climate change strategies and adaptive capacity emerged as the debate about climate change was intensified with the publishing of the Third Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2001. That companies are facing risks and opportunities is not new and the awareness to address these issues is growing. However, there is still need for research in the field of corporate strategic response to climate change. Recently, research focuse...

  4. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  5. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  6. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients.

  7. Instructional change in academic departments: An analysis from the persepctive of two environment-focused change strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Kathleen M.

    leadership theory indicated that more collaboration among individuals was needed. Often the missed leadership opportunities had been used effectively by one of the other departments. In addition to providing researchers and change agents with clear articulation of two ways of thinking about the change process, the results of this project identify four common problems that arose in the case studies and propose solutions from the perspective of each change strategy.

  8. Culprits, climate change and coping strategies in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In sub-Saharan Africa, populations are predominantly rural, dependent on rain-fed agriculture for subsistence and livelihoods. Poor families are ill -equipped to respond to changing patterns and the shorter growing season caused by warmer days and nights. Key climate change scenarios in the region are presented like shifting rainfall regimes, droughts, etc with the attendant impact on agricultural output. Coping strategies have been presented which can be replicated in other parts of the world with similar challenges. Keywords: climate change, Nigeria, Africa, rainfall, coping strategies

  9. Ecosystem Stewardship: Sustainability Strategies for a Rapidly Changing Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, William C.; Chapin, F Stuart; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Folke, Carl; Abel, Nick; Olsson, Per; Smith, D. Mark Stafford; Walker, Brian; Young, Oran R.; Berkes, Fikret; Biggs, Reinette; Grove, J. Morgan; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Pinkerton, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social-ecological traps. All so...

  10. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  11. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P

    2001-05-01

    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  12. Designing decision strategies for purchasing. Results from an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de Luitzen; Lamming, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is concerned with deciding on how and when to make purchasing decisions. Such a strategy for decision making, (in short: a decision strategy), is often only made unconsciously and/or lacks sufficient differentiation. In other words: purchasers take many decisions as they come, rely strict

  13. Didactic Strategy Discussion Based on Artificial Neural Networks Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andina, D.; Bermúdez-Valbuena, R.

    2009-04-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a mathematical model of the main known characteristics of biological brian dynamics. ANNs inspired in biological reality have been useful to design machines that show some human-like behaviours. Based on them, many experimentes have been succesfully developed emulating several biologial neurons characteristics, as learning how to solve a given problem. Sometimes, experimentes on ANNs feedback to biology and allow advances in understanding the biological brian behaviour, allowing the proposal of new therapies for medical problems involving neurons performing. Following this line, the author present results on artificial learning on ANN, and interpret them aiming to reinforce one of this two didactic estrategies to learn how to solve a given difficult task: a) To train with clear, simple, representative examples and feel confidence in brian generalization capabilities to achieve succes in more complicated cases. b) To teach with a set of difficult cases of the problem feeling confidence that the brian will efficiently solve the rest of cases if it is able to solve the difficult ones. Results may contribute in the discussion of how to orientate the design innovative succesful teaching strategies in the education field.

  14. Employee participation and learning, a strategy for changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, L.B.; Jensen, Lars Peter; Rosenørn, T.U.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show and discuss possibilities and problems cencerning changes using a participatory strategy and with a good working environment in focus. The processing industry is chosen as example. The case study shows that organizational changes can be rather problematic....... The beginning of the change process where all actors are assumed to use all their potentials in developing their future organization is described. The different employee groups need to learn to participate. An important point is to use the change process to establish a learning culture. Experiments based...

  15. Exploring differences between average and critical engineering changes: Survey results from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Stefan; Maier, Anja; Wilberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    . 2004]. Whilst differing in terms of focus and research design what all studies have in common is differentiating between engineering changes for better understanding of patterns of change, ultimately better to manage engineering changes. In this paper, we aim to continue this line of investigation......, such as characterisations of changes, causes, initiators, objectives, effects, and potential strategies, and software support to anticipate and handle changes. Studying characterisations of changes, some investigate late engineering changes (e.g. [Coughlan 1992]), others describe strategies to detect avoidable and to cope...... and - examine differences between average and critical changes according to results from a survey with industry participants, and thereby - explore as to what makes changes critical. In this paper, we focus our description on results from an industry survey. With this in mind, the remainder of the paper...

  16. Different hunting strategies of generalist predators result in functional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalko, Radek; Pekár, Stano

    2016-08-01

    The morphological, physiological, and behavioural traits of organisms are often used as surrogates for actual ecological functions. However, differences in these traits do not necessarily lead to functional differences and/or can be context-dependent. Therefore, it is necessary to explicitly test whether the surrogates have general ecological relevance. To investigate the relationship between the hunting strategies of predators (i.e., how, where, and when they hunt) and their function, we used euryphagous spiders as a model group. We used published data on the diet composition of 76 spider species based on natural prey and laboratory prey acceptance experiments. We computed differences in the position and width of trophic niches among pairs of sympatrically occurring species. Pairs were made at different classification levels, ranked according to the dissimilarity in their hunting strategies: congeners, confamiliars (as phylogenetic proxies for similarity in hunting strategy), species from the same main class of hunting strategy, from the same supra-class, and from different supra-classes. As for niche position computed from the natural prey analyses, species from the same class differed less than species from different classes. A similar pattern was obtained from the laboratory studies, but the congeners differed less than the species from the same classes. Niche widths were most similar among congeners and dissimilar among species from different supra-classes. Functional differences among euryphagous spiders increased continuously with increasing difference in their hunting strategy. The relative frequency of hunting strategies within spider assemblages can, therefore, influence the food webs through hunting strategy-specific predator-prey interactions. PMID:27098662

  17. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  18. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  19. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hove, S. van den [MEDIAN, Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, M. [University Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bettignies, H.C. de [INSEAD, Fontainebleau (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  20. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  1. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur;

    2013-01-01

    of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  2. Identification of recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals in Ontario, Canada: results from expert panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Michel D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demand for rehabilitation services is expected to increase due to factors such as an aging population, workforce pressures, rise in chronic and complex multi-system disorders, advances in technology, and changes in interprofessional health service delivery models. However, health human resource (HHR strategies for Canadian rehabilitation professionals are lagging behind other professional groups such as physicians and nurses. The objectives of this study were: 1 to identify recruitment and retention strategies of rehabilitation professionals including occupational therapists, physical therapists and speech language pathologists from the literature; and 2 to investigate both the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies using expert panels amongst HHR and education experts. Methods A review of the literature was conducted to identify recruitment and retention strategies for rehabilitation professionals. Two expert panels, one on Recruitment and Retention and the other on Education were convened to determine the importance and feasibility of the identified strategies. A modified-delphi process was used to gain consensus and to rate the identified strategies along these two dimensions. Results A total of 34 strategies were identified by the Recruitment and Retention and Education expert panels as being important and feasible for the development of a HHR plan for recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals. Seven were categorized under the Quality of Worklife and Work Environment theme, another seven in Financial Incentives and Marketing, two in Workload and Skill Mix, thirteen in Professional Development and five in Education and Training. Conclusion Based on the results from the expert panels, the three major areas of focus for HHR planning in the rehabilitation sector should include strategies addressing Quality of Worklife and Work Environment, Financial Incentives and Marketing and Professional

  3. Mental health providers confronting organizational change: process, problems, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, S; Oster, G D

    1998-01-01

    Under the influence of managed care and diminished funding, the mental health field is undergoing a major transformation. Existing mental health programs, departments, and agencies are downsizing and restructuring to develop new types of service delivery systems. Organizations must change to survive; yet necessary and adaptive change may be resisted in numerous ways by providers whose reactions and behaviors may reduce the viability of their own programs and agencies. This paper explores various characteristics and reactions of mental health care professionals as they face great stress, professional devaluation, and necessary organizational change and restructuring. Adaptive and maladaptive patterns in response to potential organizational change are explored. The role of the leader in guiding and implementing programmatic changes and in dealing with denial and resistance is highlighted. Strategies to enhance the prospects for adaptive organizational change are offered. PMID:9919625

  4. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  5. Changes of action strategies in metallurgical enterprises in time of economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Gajdzik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is the change in action strategy of metallurgical enterprises in time of economic slowdown. The first part of article presents results of literature analyses, opinions of scientists concerning changes in behaviours of enterprises in time of bad conjuncture. In next part of the article the author concentrates on verification of argument concerning the changes in action strategies of enterprises in Polish metallurgical sector. Shown examples of changes are confronted with literature studies presented in the first part of the article.

  6. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  7. Actual Energetic Dependencies - Result of Economic Global Strategies -

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea UDRESCU; Sorin BULAGEA

    2014-01-01

    The situation on the energy market has suddenly entered a period of turbulence. Prices are at reach of energy suppliers which means an increased vulnerability of countries depending on partners with problems with no alternative. But for those who do have an alternative, the lack of clear strategy equals deepening dependence. Global interests have made the price of gas to no longer comply with the general principles of the market, but to follow the strategic policies of strengthening globaliza...

  8. Vaccination strategies for SEIR models using feedback linearization. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    A linearization-based feedback-control strategy for a SEIR epidemic model is discussed. The vaccination objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero. The disease controlpolicy is designed based on a feedback linearization technique which provides a general method to generate families of vaccination policies with sound technical background.

  9. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  10. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  11. The Need for Knowledge Management Strategy for Organisations Facing Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeianu Otilia-Mari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect the importance of a knowledge management strategy for organisations facing organisational change, as response to crisis. As resource for development, for sure knowledge becomes an inexhaustible power. It is also one of the most important forms of capital - the foundation for innovation and also the drivers that lead to growth and expansion. An organization cannot compete with others in this ever-changing environment without proper knowledge and lack of capacity for renewal. Many managers would like to have a strategic approach in preparing the organisation to avoid crisis. There is a lack of strategic information management and the effect is the degradation of information resources and failure in strengthening employee’s potential. It is vital for the companies to develop a dynamic knowledge management strategy to be integrated into the organization, enhancing the performance of the system and processes. However, organizations need to see knowledge management as a strategy, because knowledge is the key to making the right decisions in guiding the organization. One of the key benefits of approaching knowledge management strategy within organisations is its positive impact on organisational performance, ensuring not only the survival during crisis but even providing a competitive advantage.

  12. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments.

  13. Some vaccination strategies for the SEIR epidemic model. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-by-immunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically tend to zero.

  14. Structural Changes of Japanese Firms: Strategy, organization, and behavior (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Morikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the characteristics of Japanese firms based on an original survey. Specifically, we analyze the changes in management strategy, corporate governance, internal organization, and business behavior of Japanese firms by comparing a survey conducted in the 1990s with a recent one using the same questionnaires. These surveys cover both listed and unlisted firms, which is an important advantage of this study. There are many stable characteristics: the longer ...

  15. Change communication : the impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Melanie; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Communication is fundamental to the Facilities Management (FM) role within organisations; especially when the FM department is implementing changes to the workplace. An evaluation of an instance is presented. A self- administered online questionnaire was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The research focused on responses to satisfaction with the communication methods rather than reviewing the merits of alternative workplace strategies. Findings included the impact of...

  16. Adaptation Strategies and Resilience to Climate Change of Historic Dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rubio-Bellido; Jesus A. Pulido-Arcas; Jose M. Cabeza-Lainez

    2015-01-01

    Historic city centres have a large amount of dwellings in Europe, which were built to provide a comfortable shelter with the absence of mechanical means. The knowledge of climate responsive design strategies can play a significant role in reducing the energy demand of extant buildings, paving the way for its sustainable development in the face of the rising threat to its occupants of climate change. The residential architecture, developed, in most cases, in dense urban centres, was built usin...

  17. Cognitive debiasing 2: impediments to and strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat; Singhal, Geeta; Mamede, Sílvia

    2013-10-01

    In a companion paper, we proposed that cognitive debiasing is a skill essential in developing sound clinical reasoning to mitigate the incidence of diagnostic failure. We reviewed the origins of cognitive biases and some proposed mechanisms for how debiasing processes might work. In this paper, we first outline a general schema of how cognitive change occurs and the constraints that may apply. We review a variety of individual factors, many of them biases themselves, which may be impediments to change. We then examine the major strategies that have been developed in the social sciences and in medicine to achieve cognitive and affective debiasing, including the important concept of forcing functions. The abundance and rich variety of approaches that exist in the literature and in individual clinical domains illustrate the difficulties inherent in achieving cognitive change, and also the need for such interventions. Ongoing cognitive debiasing is arguably the most important feature of the critical thinker and the well-calibrated mind. We outline three groups of suggested interventions going forward: educational strategies, workplace strategies and forcing functions. We stress the importance of ambient and contextual influences on the quality of individual decision making and the need to address factors known to impair calibration of the decision maker. We also emphasise the importance of introducing these concepts and corollary development of training in critical thinking in the undergraduate level in medical education. PMID:23996094

  18. Environmental strategies and their motives and results in Slovenian business practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Čater

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a survey on 153 Slovenian manufacturing companies show that companies implement environmental strategies primarily as a refl ection of the commitment of their top management, followed by public concern, regulatory forces and expected competitive advantage. They report a relatively high level of implementation of the corporate environmental strategy while, among functional strategies, environmental issues are most commonly included in the production and marketing strategies, followed by purchasing and personnel strategies. Large companies develop and execute environmental strategies to a greater extent than small companies. The results also reveal a positive but very weak relationship between environmental strategies and company performance.

  19. Chernobyl tenth anniversary: strategy for response, organisation, examples and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each anniversary of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986, is accompanied by considerable activity on the part of the press and the anti-nuclear industry. In the course of such activity, many distortions of the true situation in the area are promulgated. It was clear to the nuclear industry that the tenth anniversary would be especially difficult. Hence the international nuclear community, under the leadership of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, constituted a Task Force to consider responses to the anniversary. This paper describes the essential steps in setting up the Task Force; discusses the main elements of the strategy which emerged, including the Chernobyl Fact Sheets, the identification of credible third parties who could explain key issues with the media, and the secondment of a British press officer to the plant to coordinate international visits; and evaluate press response to the anniversary in comparison with previous anniversaries. (author)

  20. Strategies for organizational change: the role of the inside change agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, P L

    1982-01-01

    An awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of internal positioning becomes the foundation on which the internal change agent builds an effective action plan for change--a plan that matches the specifics of the organizational situation being confronted. Basic principles have been described here to help define the specific type of role that the integral change agent should take, and to increase the chances for a successful change. As a change agent, you also need to develop specific change strategies that fit your unique characteristics and circumstances. Then, through the ways you communicate and the ways in which you see human resources, interpersonal strategies for influencing others can increase your personal control over situations. PMID:10256972

  1. Terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change: A research strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere.

  2. How does a change in the control room design affect diagnostic strategies in nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, main control rooms have been considerably changed by modern computer techniques. Some of the features that distinguish digital control rooms from conventional, analog rooms in nuclear power plants include advanced alarm systems, graphic information display systems, computerized procedure systems, and soft control. These features can bring changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks or creating new tasks for operators. It is especially expected that these features may bring out changes in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in a digital control room as compared with an analog control room. This study investigates the differences in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in analog and digital control rooms. This study also attempts to evaluate how new systems in a digital control room affect diagnostic strategies. Three different approaches, which are complementary, are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room and in the analog control room: (1) observation in the simulator, (2) interview with operators, and (3) a literature review. The results show that the digital control room introduces new diagnosis strategies compared with the analog control room while also changing the characteristics of the strategies, mostly by gaining more support from the computerized system. (author)

  3. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human-animal-environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants. PMID:26333722

  4. EARLINET instrument intercomparison campaigns: overview on strategy and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandinger, Ulla; Freudenthaler, Volker; Baars, Holger; Amodeo, Aldo; Engelmann, Ronny; Mattis, Ina; Groß, Silke; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Giunta, Aldo; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Osipenko, Fiodor; Slesar, Alexander; Nicolae, Doina; Belegante, Livio; Talianu, Camelia; Serikov, Ilya; Linné, Holger; Jansen, Friedhelm; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; de Graaf, Martin; Trickl, Thomas; Giehl, Helmut; Adam, Mariana; Comerón, Adolfo; Muñoz-Porcar, Constantino; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sicard, Michaël; Tomás, Sergio; Lange, Diego; Kumar, Dhiraj; Pujadas, Manuel; Molero, Francisco; Fernández, Alfonso J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; José Granados-Muñoz, María; Preißler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Gausa, Michael; Grigorov, Ivan; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenco; Spinelli, Nicola; Boselli, Antonella; Wang, Xuan; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Perrone, Maria Rita; De Tomasi, Ferdinando; Burlizzi, Pasquale

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces the recent European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) quality-assurance efforts at instrument level. Within two dedicated campaigns and five single-site intercomparison activities, 21 EARLINET systems from 18 EARLINET stations were intercompared between 2009 and 2013. A comprehensive strategy for campaign setup and data evaluation has been established. Eleven systems from nine EARLINET stations participated in the EARLINET Lidar Intercomparison 2009 (EARLI09). In this campaign, three reference systems were qualified which served as traveling standards thereafter. EARLINET systems from nine other stations have been compared against these reference systems since 2009. We present and discuss comparisons at signal and at product level from all campaigns for more than 100 individual measurement channels at the wavelengths of 355, 387, 532, and 607 nm. It is shown that in most cases, a very good agreement of the compared systems with the respective reference is obtained. Mean signal deviations in predefined height ranges are typically below ±2 %. Particle backscatter and extinction coefficients agree within ±2 × 10-4 km-1 sr-1 and ± 0.01 km-1, respectively, in most cases. For systems or channels that showed larger discrepancies, an in-depth analysis of deficiencies was performed and technical solutions and upgrades were proposed and realized. The intercomparisons have reinforced confidence in the EARLINET data quality and allowed us to draw conclusions on necessary system improvements for some instruments and to identify major challenges that need to be tackled in the future.

  5. A change in strategy: Static emotion recognition in Malaysian Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystalle B.Y. Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that while East Asians focused on the center of the face to recognize identities, participants adapted their strategy by focusing more on the eyes to identify emotions, suggesting that the eyes may contain salient information pertaining to emotional state in Eastern cultures. However, Western Caucasians employ the same strategy by moving between the eyes and mouth to identify both identities and emotions. Malaysian Chinese have been shown to focus on the eyes and nose more than the mouth during face recognition task, which represents an intermediate between Eastern and Western looking strategies. The current study examined whether Malaysian Chinese continue to employ an intermediate strategy or shift towards an Eastern or Western pattern (by fixating more on the eyes or mouth respectively during an emotion recognition task. Participants focused more on the eyes, followed by the nose then mouth. Directing attention towards the eye region resulted in better recognition of certain own- than other-race emotions. Although the fixation patterns appear similar for both tasks, further analyses showed that fixations on the eyes were reduced whereas fixations on the nose and mouth were increased during emotion recognition, indicating that participants adapt looking strategies based on their aims.

  6. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  7. Sustaining change: the imperative for patient access strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Peter A R

    2006-01-01

    The paper by Trypuc, MacLeod and Hudson provides a timely and important overview of methods to sustain provincial wait time strategies. The emphasis on accountability for patient access to timely care throughout the healthcare system comes through strongly--as it should. These accountabilities are made "real" through purchase service agreements. Physician-hospital relationships are a fundamental aspect of this accountability. This commentary suggests the inclusion of two additional supporting tools in addition to those cited by the authors of the lead paper--quality monitoring and the use of industrial engineering techniques for queue management and patient flow analysis. Strong and persistent leadership of patient access strategies will ensure sustainable change.

  8. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-01-01

    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  9. Cycles of strategies and changes of distribution in public goods game: An experimental investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, a simple mechanism in the optional public goods game is experimentally investigated using two experimental settings; and first time, the cyclic strategy pattern in full state space is demonstrated by means of velocity. It is, furthermore, elaborated that the strategies of cooperation, defection and nonparticipant form a Rock-Paper-Scissors type cycle, and the cycle of three strategies are persistent over 200 rounds. This cycle is very similar to the cycle given by evolutionary dynamics e.g. replicator dynamics. The mechanism that nonparticipant can sustain cooperation is driven by the Rock-Paper-Scissors type of cyclic dominance in the three strategies. That is, if the cycle is existent, the cooperation will always sustain. Meanwhile, the distribution of social states changes in the state space and from cooperation as the most frequent strategy to defection and, from defection to nonparticipant, forms a clear rotation path in a long run. These results seem to implicate that the evolutio...

  10. Strategies to Position Behavior Analysis as the Contemporary Science of What Works in Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie M

    2016-05-01

    The negative perception of behavior analysis by the public, and conveyed in mass media, is well-recognized by the professional community of behavior analysts. Several strategies for correcting this perception have been deployed in the field by organizational behavior management practitioners, in particular, with encouraging results. These strategies include (a) reframing behaviorism in a more resonant format, (b) pushing direct outcome comparisons between behavior analysis and its rivals, and (c) playing up the "warm and fuzzy" side of behavior analysis (see Freedman 2015, in this issue, for a thorough description of these strategies). This article outlines three additional strategies that the author believes will position behavior analysis as a "contemporary science of what works in behavior change." These new strategies are (a) creating a cohesive, easily understandable framework; (b) personally communicating a more contemporary, sophisticated message; and PMID:27606183

  11. Bay State announces growth strategies to cope with changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A top executive for New England's biggest independent gas distributor says deregulation of the utility industry offers unprecedented opportunities for growth, but getting there will radically change the way it does business. To achieve dramatic growth, Bay State Gas Co. needs to base their strategies on anticipating the changes in the industry and aggressively positioning themselves to capture the new opportunities that the new business environment is creating. This includes: accelerating the unbundling of transportation service all the way to the residential customer level; forging strategic relationships with retail energy product and service companies as a means of increasing throughput on Bay State's system; implementing performance-based rates that provide financial incentives for lowering costs and improving customer service; accelerating the implementation of sophisticated information systems to streamline key business processes; and aggressively expanding Bay State's nonregulated Energy Products and Services business. These steps are discussed

  12. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di

  13. Prevention in the Military: Early Results of an Environmental Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Joel B.; Ames, Genevieve M.; Spera, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The workplace offers advantages as a setting for interventions that result in primary prevention of alcohol abuse. Such programs have the potential to reach broad audiences and populations that would otherwise not receive prevention programs and, thereby, benefit both the employee and employer. Researchers have implemented and evaluated a variety of workplace alcohol problem prevention efforts in recent years, including programs focused on health promotion, social health promotion, brief inte...

  14. Characterizing researchers by strategies used for retaining minority participants: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James; Quinn, Sandra C; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Thomas, Stephen B

    2013-09-01

    Limited attention has been given to the optimal strategies for retaining racial and ethnic minorities within studies and during the follow-up period. High attrition limits the interpretation of results and reduces the ability to translate findings into successful interventions. This study examined the retention strategies used by researchers when retaining minorities in research studies. From May to August 2010, we conducted an online survey with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) and examined their use of seven commonly used retention strategies. The number and type of retention strategies used, how these strategies differ by researcher type, and other characteristics (e.g., funding) were explored. We identified three clusters of researchers: comprehensive retention strategy researchers - utilized the greatest number of retention strategies; moderate retention strategy researchers - utilized an average number of retention strategies; and limited retention strategy researchers - utilized the least number of retention strategies. The comprehensive and moderate retention strategy researchers were more likely than the limited retention strategy researchers to conduct health outcomes research, work with a community advisory board, hire minority staff, use steps at a higher rate to overcome retention barriers, develop new partnerships with the minority community, modify study materials for the minority population, and allow staff to work flexible schedules. This study is a novel effort to characterize researchers, without implying a value judgment, according to their use of specific retention strategies. It provides critical information for conducting future research to determine the effectiveness of using a combination of retention strategies.

  15. Future Search in School District Change: Connection, Community, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitz, Rita; Martens, Kim; Aronson, Nancy; Weisbord, Marvin; Janoff, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This book contains sixteen compelling case studies that illustrate the power of future search to create lasting, whole system change. Future Search in School District Change: Connection, Community, and Results chronicles ways in which educational institutions have used broad-based stakeholder involvement to improve education. These experiences, by…

  16. Promoting Institutional Change: CIDA's framework for assessing gender equality results

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Bazinet; Tamara Sequeira; Julie Delahanty

    2006-01-01

    There is much debate within the international development community on the effectiveness of mainstreaming as a strategy for promoting gender equality. Although much has been learned about what is required for mainstreaming to be effective, our understanding of how to achieve it, explain it and measure it is still evolving. Gender mainstreaming, therefore, remains an unfinished project. The framework described has been designed to help enable CIDA to achieve development results for gender equa...

  17. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

  18. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  19. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10105044

  20. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Successful workforce planning : aligning recruitment strategies with changing demographics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, B. [Duke Energy Gas Transmission, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described how demographic trends are changing the energy industry. Duke Energy acquired Westcoast Energy in March 2002 and must attract and retain a skilled workforce to maintain its newly acquired and very large infrastructure. Duke Energy has committed $1.88 million over 3 years to northern opportunities through partnerships with educators, community organizations, government agencies and industry. This paper emphasizes the need for a new focus on workforce planning to ensure that staffing needs are met. It described how to use demographics to identify recruitment needs within a company, and what to look for in data. It also described how to make sure that a recruitment strategy is tailored to various demographic groups. Energy companies are attracting young workers through apprenticeship programs, training and development programs, and other incentives. figs.

  2. Global inter-annual gravity changes from GRACE: Early results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    storage. The Global Land Data Assimilation System model has a spatial correlation coefficient with GRACE observations of 0.65 over the northern hemisphere. This demonstrates that the observed gravity field changes on these scales are largely related to changes in continental water storage.......Fifteen monthly gravity field solutions from the GRACE twin satellites launched more than two years ago have been studied to estimate gravity field changes between 2002 and 2003. The results demonstrate that GRACE is capable of capturing the changes in ground water on inter-annual scales...... with an accuracy of 0.4 muGal corresponding to 9 mm water thickness on spatial scales longer than 1300 km. Four of the most widely used global hydrological models have been investigated for their spatial comparison with GRACE observations of inter-annual gravity field variations due to changes in continental water...

  3. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Duli Zhao; Yang-Rui Li

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems ...

  4. China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, China has made great efforts in energy saving and carbon emission reduction by pushing forward domestic sustainable development along with global climate change mitigation. The efforts have paid off with a dramatic decrease in carbon intensity. Nevertheless, China is still confronted with tough challenges in emission control due to the fast pace of industrialization, large total historical emission and high growth rate of emissions. Therefore, China should give priority to energy saving by improving energy efficiency and sectoral structure adjustment and upgrade, and develop sustainable and renewable energy to optimize energy mix and its carbon content. China should continue to regard significant reduction of energy intensity and carbon intensity as the main objective in the near future, strive to achieve peak emissions around 2030, and realize a relatively sharp emissions reduction by 2050 in order to address climate change to meet the goal of making the warming less than 2°. During the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP), China will further strengthen measures to control the amount of energy consumption, establish a statistics, accounting and evaluation system of carbon emissions, and promote a market-based carbon emissions trading mechanism to facilitate the low-carbon transformation of China's economy. - Highlights: ► This paper studies China's strategy for energy development and climate change mitigation. ► We suggest that China should focus on reducing the energy intensity and carbon intensity of GDP, and optimization of energy mix in the near term. ► In the long term, China should achieve the peak emission around 2030, and realize a relative sharp emission reduction by 2050. ► The paper also concludes some important measures which China should take during the 12th Five-Year-Plan (2011–2015).

  5. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hasen Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effects of climate change and to identify factors that affect the choice of climate change adaptation strategies in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. To address this objective, Multivariate Probit model was used. The results of the model indicated that the likelihood of households to adapt improved varieties of crops, adjust planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 58.73%, 57.72%, 35.61% and 41.15%, respectively. The Simulated Maximum Likelihood estimation of the Multivariate Probit model results suggested that there was positive and significant interdependence between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and using improved varieties of crops; and between adjusting planting date and using improved varieties of crops. The results also showed that there was a negative and significant relationship between household decisions to adapt crop diversification and soil conservation practices. The paper also recommended household, socioeconomic, institutional and plot characteristics that facilitate and impede the probability of choosing those adaptation strategies.

  6. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  7. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy.

  8. Developing consensus in response to regulatory change: a survival strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years now, the nuclear industry has implemented basic regulatory guides and pursued evolving incremental changes by de facto execution of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission codes or in anticipation of them. The purpose of this paper is to describe a consensus-building process recently employed by industry representatives to respond to changes to 10CFR55, Operator's Licenses and Conforming Amendment. This process resulted from the necessity for industry stakeholders to evaluate the impact of pending regulatory change. It also highlighted the need for more dialogue in the industry and the potential of expanding links with academic representatives. In addition, the paper reports participants; documentation of unnecessary regulatory constraint and vagueness of new terminology and requirements

  9. International experiences on the formulation and implementation of transboundary climate change adaptation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Ly, T.; Nguyen Huong Thuy, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Mekong River Commission’s (MRC) Climate Change and Adaptation Initiative (CCAI) aims at formulating the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Lower Mekong Basin. An important first step in developing this strategy is to review international experiences of existing strategies, to learn from

  10. Strategies for Change: A Field Guide to Social Marketing for School Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    Strategies for Change outlines how to use social marketing strategies to influence change in the health programs in a building, district or community. Authors describe how to develop a strategy to influence district administrators, school board members, colleagues and parents. This step-by-step guide leads through the process for developing,…

  11. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  12. Terrestrial Ecosystem Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecosystems Working Group,

    1998-09-23

    Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale ecosystem experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific ecosystems to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of ecosystem responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental ecosystem manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing ecosystems for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on ecosystem properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic ecosystem models, a two-tiered design of ecosystem experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated ecosystem models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water

  13. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joezy-Shekalgorabi, S.; Shadparvar, A. A.; Vries, A. de; Gay, K. D.

    2014-06-01

    A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC). Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC), continuous use of sexed semen only (SS), utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2), and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1). Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd. (Author)

  14. The extent of increase in first calving age as a result of implementing various sexed semen breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahereh Joezy-Shekalgorabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic simulation was conducted to assess the effects of sexed semen utilization strategies on age at first calving (AFC. Four different strategies were implemented on dairy heifers: continuous use of conventional semen only (CC, continuous use of sexed semen only (SS, utilization of sexed semen for both the first and second services with conventional semen afterwards (S2, and utilization of sexed semen for the first service with conventional semen afterwards (S1. Results indicated that continuous utilization of sexed semen led to the greatest AFC; however at high conception rates, strategies displayed negligible differences on AFC. Increases in estrus detection rate had the greatest effects on decreasing AFC of the SS scenarios. Negative effect of sexed semen on AFC increased when the effect of low estrus detection rate was combined with low conception rate of sexed semen. Results indicated that in the case of access to sexed semen conception rate, prediction of AFC is possible by quadratic polynomial or exponential equations, depending to the applied breeding strategy. Simultaneous utilization of sexed and conventional semen in a herd did not make a substantial change in AFC when a low percentage of sexed semen was employed. Increasing the contribution of different sexed semen strategies led to higher AFC variation, especially for the SS strategy. AFC of strategies that utilize sexed semen is highly dependent on the conception rate, estrus detection rate and the contribution of sex sorted semen in the total number of inseminations of the heifer herd.

  15. Arresting Strategy Based on Dynamic Criminal Networks Changing over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a sequence of dynamic criminal networks on a time series based on the dynamic network analysis (DNA. According to the change of networks’ structure, networks’ variation trend is analyzed to forecast its future structure. Finally, an optimal arresting time and priority list are designed based on our analysis. Better results can be expected than that based on social network analysis (SNA.

  16. Porter's generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance: a longitudinal study of changing strategies in the hospital industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, B T; Marlin, D; Hoffman, J J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Changes in generic strategies in response to discontinuous environments have been relatively ignored in the management literature. This study reports an examination of the relationships between Porter's (1980) generic strategies, discontinuous environments, and performance. DATA SOURCES. Archival data for 1984 and 1988 were collected for 172 acute care hospitals in Florida in order to test these relationships. STUDY DESIGN. To examine fully the performance impact of changes in stra...

  17. Strategies of coping with stress and the sport results of alpine skiers and tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Knittel Michał; Guszkowska Monika

    2016-01-01

    Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between strategies of coping with stress caused by participating in sport competitions and the results of those competitions, as well as to differentiate the applied coping strategies according to the practiced sport discipline (tennis and alpine skiing).

  18. Roles of State Strategy of Adaptation to Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Can; Huang Shanfeng; Zhang Mengheng

    2007-01-01

    For the adverse impacts of climate change,China government should place the problem of adaptation to climate change on the agenda.It is time to institute and implement a State adaptive strategy to reduce the adverse impacts on economy,community and people's health and life by international cooperation and our own endeavor.A state strategyofadaptationto cfimate change should be closely linked with other current interrelated national strategies,and they should be supplemented and improved by each other.This paper discusses the roles of the state strategy of adaptation to climate change in the State climate change integrative strategy,the environmental protection strategy,and the sustainable development strategy in China.Furthermore,it proposes the main aims of the State adaptive strategy of China.

  19. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin; Wolfgang Bokelmann; Jason Scott Entsminger

    2014-01-01

    Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1) the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies) as a result of changes in climate; (2) ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3) identification the socio-ec...

  20. Reliability and Validity Test of Questionnaire on the Adaptation Strategy of Cryosphere Changes in Arid Inland River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to test the reliability and validity of questionnaire on the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin. [Method] A questionnaire on "the adaptation strategy of cryosphere changes in arid inland river basin" was carried out in Urumchi River basin and Aksu River basin, and its reliability and validity were tested by means of statistical method, so as to investigate the stability and accuracy of questionnaire. [Result] Reliability analysis of questionnaire sho...

  1. 77 FR 76034 - National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... mission, the National Water Program will need to adapt to already observed and projected climatic changes... AGENCY National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental Protection... publishing the final ``National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change'' (2012...

  2. Mathematical Rigor vs. Conceptual Change: Some Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. R.

    2003-05-01

    Results from two different pedagogical approaches to teaching introductory astronomy at the college level will be presented. The first of these approaches is a descriptive, conceptually based approach that emphasizes conceptual change. This descriptive class is typically an elective for non-science majors. The other approach is a mathematically rigorous treatment that emphasizes problem solving and is designed to prepare students for further study in astronomy. The mathematically rigorous class is typically taken by science majors. It also fulfills an elective science requirement for these science majors. The Astronomy Diagnostic Test version 2 (ADT 2.0) was used as an assessment instrument since the validity and reliability have been investigated by previous researchers. The ADT 2.0 was administered as both a pre-test and post-test to both groups. Initial results show no significant difference between the two groups in the post-test. However, there is a slightly greater improvement for the descriptive class between the pre and post testing compared to the mathematically rigorous course. There was great care to account for variables. These variables included: selection of text, class format as well as instructor differences. Results indicate that the mathematically rigorous model, doesn't improve conceptual understanding any better than the conceptual change model. Additional results indicate that there is a similar gender bias in favor of males that has been measured by previous investigators. This research has been funded by the College of Science and Mathematics at James Madison University.

  3. Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the

  4. Pharyngeal airway changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery - preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Neda Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dentofacial deformity, a deviation from normal facial proportions and dental relationships, is corrected by jaw repositioning in all three spatial planes, which changes the position and tension of the surrounding tissues, bones and muscles. These changes may also affect the dimensions of the pharyngeal airways (PA. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare three-dimensional PA changes in patients treated by a combination mandibular set-back/maxillary advancement versus patients that had bimaxillary advancement with genioplasty. Methods. The sample consisted of 7 patients treated by combined mandibular set-back/maxillary advancement and 7 patients treated with bimaxillary advancement surgery. Nasopharyngeal (NP volume, oropharyngeal (OP volume and the area of maximum constriction (AMC in the OP were measured on CBCT scans (2 mA/120 kV/12’’ FOV taken before (T1 and 3 months after surgery (T2. Paired samples t-test was used for analyzing statistical significance of changes (p≤0.05. Results. OP volume and AMC increase after bimaxillary advancement was statistically significant, while for the mandibular set-back group the increase was non-significant. NP volume was not reduced in any of the two groups. No significant differences in PA dimensions were found between groups at neither T1 nor T2 time points. Conclusion. Results suggest that the combination of mandibular set-back/maxillary advancement did not reduce airway dimensions, while bimaxillary advancement surgery led to a statistically significant increase in the OP dimensions.

  5. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26956654

  7. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosisof peritoneal metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases(PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was linkwith "terminal status/despair". The current multimodaltreatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery(CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, butseems to be the best treatment option for PM patients.As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasizesome milestones and also, controversies in the historyof proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outlinethe philosophy of this approach, which seems to be anunusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear,but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of humanand material resources (multi-center and -institutionalresearch), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPECfound their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodaltreatment, by launching research pathways. In selectedpatients, with requires training, it demonstrated asignificant survival results (similar to the HepaticMetastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs.The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatmentwere based on the oncologists' perspective and the smallnumber of randomized clinical trials. It is important tostatement the PM patient has the right to be informedof the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatmentresource, the decision being made by multidisciplinaryteams.

  8. Public health strategies for dietary change: schools and workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2005-04-01

    Environmental intervention represents an effective strategy to promote the purchase and consumption of healthful foods in community-based settings. Three such studies promoted the consumption of healthier snacks and lower-fat foods at worksites and at schools. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower-fat snacks in vending machines in 12 worksites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower-fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, as compared to usual-price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on the consumption of fresh fruit and baby carrots in 2 secondary school cafeterias. In the third study, 20 secondary schools were randomly assigned to either an environmental intervention or a control group for a 2-y period. The intervention increased the availability of lower-fat foods and implemented student-based promotions. School-based environmental interventions to increase availability and promotion of lower-fat foods and healthier snacks can increase purchase of these foods among adolescents. PMID:15795458

  9. Multimodality treatment strategies have changed prognosis of peritoneal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungoci, Corneliu; Mironiuc, Aurel Ion; Muntean, Valentin; Oniu, Traian; Leebmann, Hubert; Mayr, Max; Piso, Pompiliu

    2016-01-15

    For a long time, treatment of peritoneal metastases (PM) was mostly palliative and thus, this status was link with "terminal status/despair". The current multimodal treatment strategy, consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), has been strenuously achieved over time, but seems to be the best treatment option for PM patients. As we reviewed the literature data, we could emphasize some milestones and also, controversies in the history of proposed multimodal treatment and thus, outline the philosophy of this approach, which seems to be an unusual one indeed. Initially marked by nihilism and fear, but benefiting from a remarkable joint effort of human and material resources (multi-center and -institutional research), over a period of 30 years, CRS and HIPEC found their place in the treatment of PM. The next 4 years were dedicated to the refinement of the multimodal treatment, by launching research pathways. In selected patients, with requires training, it demonstrated a significant survival results (similar to the Hepatic Metastases treatment), with acceptable risks and costs. The main debates regarding CRS and HIPEC treatment were based on the oncologists' perspective and the small number of randomized clinical trials. It is important to statement the PM patient has the right to be informed of the existence of CRS and HIPEC, as a real treatment resource, the decision being made by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26798438

  10. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  11. 32 questions concerning climate change (results of a questionnaire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, I.; Boehm, R. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Steinacker, R. [Vienna Univ. (Austria).Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    The intention of the inquiry was to investigate the opinion within the scientific community about climate change questions that are believed to be already well solved in the public opinion. 32 questions were formulated that deal with 12 main assumptions about the existence, the predictability and the impacts of climate changes due to an artificially enhanced greenhouse effect. The possibilities to answer reached from `sure yes`, over `guess yes`, `not answerable or no opinion` to `guess no` and `sure no`. There were additional questions about the way the answers were gained: `by own research`, `by studying scientific literature or discussion with colleagues` and `by mass media consumption`. In the following some of the key assumptions about climate change topics will be discussed as the predictability of future evolution of climate by climate models and the detectability of an artificially enhanced greenhouse effect in climate time series. The other assumptions can be shown here only in the form of a comprehensive overview. In a very comprehensive form the results of the inquiry could be described in the following: A weak majority of climatologists believe today`s climate models to be able to describe a greenhouse gas induced climate change in global scale - much less in regional scale and not in local scale. A majority of climatologists believe an anthropogenic greenhouse gas forced climate and its impacts to be developing in the future but not already at present. The shape of the opinion spectra is in most cases far from that of a scientifically solved problem - a lot of work still has to be done

  12. USGS global change science strategy: A framework for understanding and responding to climate and land-use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Kirtland, David A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; O'Malley, Robin; Thompson, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Global Change Science Strategy expands on the Climate Variability and Change science component of the USGS 2007 Science Strategy, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: USGS Science in the Coming Decade' (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007). Here we embrace the broad definition of global change provided in the U.S. Global Change Research Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-606, 104 Stat. 3096-3104)-'Changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of Earth to sustain life'-with a focus on climate and land-use change. Global change science is a well-defined research field with strong linkages to the ecosystem, water, energy and minerals, natural hazards, and environmental health components of the USGS Science Strategy (2007). When science strategies that cover these other components are developed, coordinated implementation will be necessary to achieve Bureau-level synergies and optimize capabilities and expertise. In October 2010, USGS realigned its management and budget structure to implement its 2007 Science Strategy. The new organizational structure, in which 'Global Change' is one of seven key mission areas, lends itself to the advancement of the established six strategic goals. USGS global change science is formally represented by the 'Climate and Land-Use Change' Mission Area in the FY 2012 budge (USGS, 2011). This plan was developed by the USGS Global Change Science Strategy Planning Team (SSPT) appointed by the USGS Director on March 4, 2010 and charged with developing a Global Change Science Strategy for the coming decade (McNutt, 2010). USGS managers and science staff are the main audience for this science strategy. This document is also intended to serve as the foundation for consistent USGS collaboration and ccations with partners and stakeholders.

  13. Environmental change and household livelihood strategies: preliminary observations from field work in different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Preston

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework and objectives of a study of environmental change and evolving household livelihood strategies, which will include field work in Central Java, are outlined. Preliminary results of previous, related field work in Luzon (Philippines and highland Ecuador (South America are reported. Two changes that seem of importance in both areas so far studied are the increasing importance of commercial farming in central locations (near to village centres and the decreasing intensity of use of land on the periphery of rural communities. Preliminary observations in Central Java suggest that household livelihood strategies are more diversified than in either case study area in Luzon or Ecuador and that such diversification has increased through time. The relative importance of farming and the use of natural resources does not seem to have diminished.

  14. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level. PMID:27390633

  15. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  16. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-Yan; LIU Cai-Hong; LI Yan-Chun; FANG Jian-Gang; LI Lin; LI Hong-Mei; ZHENG Guang-Fen; DENG Zhen-Yong; DONG An-Xiang; GUO Jun-Qin; ZHANG Cun-Jie; SUN Lan-Dong; ZHANG Xu-Dong; LIN Jing-Jing; WANG You-Heng; FANG Feng; MA Peng-Li

    2014-01-01

    Climate change resulted in changes in crop growth duration and planting structure, northward movement of planting region, and more severe plant diseases and insect pests in Northwest China. It caused earlier seeding for spring crop, later seeding for autumn crop, accelerated crop growth, and reduced mortality for winter crop. To adapt to climate change, measures such as optimization of agricultural arrangement, adjustment of planting structure, expansion of thermophilic crops, and development of water-saving agriculture have been taken. Damaging consequences of imbalance between grassland and livestock were enhanced. The deterioration trend of grassland was intensified; both grass quantity and quality declined. With overgrazing, proportions of inferior grass, weeds and poisonous weeds increased in plateau pastoral areas. Returning farmland to grazing, returning grazing to grassland, fence enclosure and artificial grassland construction have been implemented to restore the grassland vegetation, to increase the grassland coverage, to reasonably control the livestock carrying capacity, to prevent overgrazing, to keep balance between grassland and livestock, and to develop the ecological animal husbandry. In Northwest China, because the amount of regional water resources had an overall decreasing trend, there was a continuous expansion in the regional land desertification, and soil erosion was very serious. A series of measures, such as development of artificial precipitation (snow), water resources control, regional water diversion, water storage project and so on, were used effectively to respond to water deficit. It had played a certain role in controlling soil erosion by natural forest protection and returning farmland to forest and grassland. In the early 21st century, noticeable achievements had been made in prevention and control of desertification in Northwest China. The regional ecological environment has been improved obviously, and the desertification trend

  17. Constitutive versus responsive gene expression strategies for growth in changing environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Geisel

    Full Text Available Microbes respond to changing environments by adjusting gene expression levels to the demand for the corresponding proteins. Adjusting protein levels is slow, consequently cells may reach the optimal protein level only by a time when the demand changed again. It is therefore not a priori clear whether expression "on demand" is always the optimal strategy. Indeed, many genes are constitutively expressed at intermediate levels, which represents a permanent cost but provides an immediate benefit when the protein is needed. Which are the conditions that select for a responsive or a constitutive expression strategy, what determines the optimal constitutive expression level in a changing environment, and how is the fitness of the two strategies affected by gene expression noise? Based on an established model of the lac- and gal-operon expression dynamics, we study the fitness of a constitutive and a responsive expression strategy in time-varying environments. We find that the optimal constitutive expression level differs from the average demand for the gene product and from the average optimal expression level; depending on the shape of the growth rate function, the optimal expression level either provides intermediate fitness in all environments, or maximizes fitness in only one of them. We find that constitutive expression can provide higher fitness than responsive expression even when regulatory machinery comes at no cost, and we determine the minimal response rate necessary for "expression on demand" to confer a benefit. Environmental and inter-cellular noise favor the responsive strategy while reducing fitness of the constitutive one. Our results show the interplay between the demand-frequency for a gene product, the genetic response rate, and the fitness, and address important questions on the evolution of gene regulation. Some of our predictions agree with recent yeast high throughput data, for others we propose the experiments that are needed

  18. Residual strain change resulting from stress corrosion in Carrara marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Leith, Kerry; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    greater relaxation of extensional strains during the preparatory test, leading to a subsequent increase in compression when the samples were returned to the neutral position prior to our measurement. Thin sections of the notch area help confirm these observations, as a narrow but continuous fracture following grain boundaries is evident in M4 and M2. M5 shows a buildup of extensional strains in the notch tip area due to low loading, though no cracking is evident. These results provide exceptional insight into the physics of fracture propagation under typical real-world conditions. We observe notably different mechanical inter- and intragranular responses to long-term static low loading under either wet or dry conditions, a result which contributes significantly to our ability to evaluate the potential impact of changes in (for example) rainfall distribution, chemistry, and meltwater production on tensile fracture propagation and alpine rock slope stability.

  19. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  20. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Mohammed; Bokelmann, Wolfgang; Entsminger, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1) the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies) as a result of changes in climate

  1. Simulation of goat and sheep grazing dynamics and climate change adaptation strategies in West Inner Monglia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, X.; Xiong, Z.; Kramer, K.; Jia, G.; Zhao, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focus on climate change adaptation, land use management and grazing strategies in Alxa League, Inner Mongolia, China by use of social survey, statistical analysis and numerical modeling. Results suggest that the climate change adaptation must keep a balance between sustainable development

  2. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie Nick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organisational culture is an anthropological metaphor used to inform research and consultancy and to explain organisational environments. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the need to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. However, the precise function of organisational culture in healthcare policy often remains underspecified and the desirability and feasibility of strategies to be adopted have been called into question. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance. Methods We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Business and Management, EThOS, Index to Theses, Intute, HMIC, SIGLE, and Scopus until October 2009. The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE was searched for related reviews. We also searched the reference lists of all papers and relevant reviews identified, and we contacted experts in the field for advice on further potential studies. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs or well designed quasi-experimental studies (controlled clinical trials (CCTs, controlled before and after studies (CBAs, and interrupted time series (ITS analyses. Studies could be set in any type of healthcare organisation in which strategies to change organisational culture in order to improve healthcare performance were applied. Our main outcomes were objective measures of professional performance and patient outcome. Results The search strategy yielded 4,239 records. After the full text assessment, two CBA studies were included in the review. They both assessed the impact of interventions aimed at changing organisational culture, but one evaluated the impact on work-related and personal outcomes while the other

  3. Suprapubic catheter change resulting in terminal ileal perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Peng Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Suprapubic cystostomy is commonly performed in patients with neurogenic bladder or bladder outlet obstruction. The most serious complication is bowel injury, which usually occurs during catheter insertion. Bowel perforation during suprapubic catheter exchange is rare. We herein report an extremely rare case of terminal ileal perforation resulting from a change of suprapubic catheter. After insertion of the suprapubic catheter, a feculent material was noted in the terminal ileum. A cystography revealed that the contrast medium passed directly into the terminal ileum and colon. A computed tomographic scan confirmed the presence of a balloon tip in the terminal ileum. Terminal ileum perforation was diagnosed. Emergent laparotomy and loop ileostomy were performed. The patient's recovery was uneventful.

  4. Mediterranean Cyclones in a changing climate. First statistical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous, M.; Genoves, A.; Campins, J.; Picornell, M. A.; Jansa, A.; Mizuta, R.

    2009-09-01

    (1.5 degrees lat-lon) outputs of the JMA-GSM climate general circulation model. Preliminary results are here presented. Two different periods have been analysed. The first period, covering 1979-2002 has been compared with the previously computed ERA-40 climatology of cyclones. Results agree reasonably well with those obtained from ERA-40, providing confidence to the current climate simulation of JMA-GSM. Once validated the model from the perspective of cyclonic climatology under current climate conditions, the same procedure is applied to a scenario period (2075-2099) to investigate possible changes in cyclonic activity linked to climate change.

  5. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    -operation. Aiming to give a strong message on the changing nature of the CIO job, the Scanfin 'UberCIO' fired Olaf during a meeting and demanded quick and relevant changes from the remaining CIOs. The Finnish IT team, headed by Markku, carries out the technical changes in collaboration with the IT functions from...

  6. Integrated energy planning: Strategies to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The framework convention on climate change, signed by more than 150 governments worldwide in June 1992, calls on parties to the convention undertaken inventories of national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and to develop plans for responding to climate change. The energy sector is comprised of the major energy demand sectors (industry, residential and commercial, transport and agriculture), and the energy supply sector, which consists of resource extraction, conversion, and delivery of energy products. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions occur at various points in the sector, from resource extraction to end use application, and accordingly, options for mitigation exist at various points. In most countries, will be a major focus of GHG mitigation analysis. The primary focus of this paper is on the identification of strategies that can mitigate climate changes on the basis of integrated energy planing analysis. The overall approach follows a methodology developed by the U.S. Country Studies Program under the framework of the Convention's commitments. It involves the development of scenarios based on energy uses and evaluation of specific technologies that can satisfy demands for energy services. One can compare technologies based on their relative cost to achieve a unit of GHG reduction and other features of interest. This approach gives equal weight to both energy supply and energy demand options. A variety of screening criteria including indicators of cost-effectiveness as well as non-economic analysis concerns, can be used to identify and assess promising options, which can then be combined to create one or more scenarios. Mitigation scenarios are evaluated against the backdrop of a baseline scenario, which simulates assumed to take place in the absence of mitigation efforts. Mitigation scenarios can be designed to meet specific emission reduction targets or to simulate the effect of specific policy inventions. The paper ends with an application using a

  7. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Green, Alan; Hanna, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in middle level schools face overwhelming demands and challenges in their classrooms. They are expected to know content and pedagogy, develop engaging lessons that meet the needs of diverse learners, and use a variety of instructional strategies that will boost student achievement while they simultaneously develop positive relationships…

  8. Relationship between Community Drug Administration Strategy and Changes in Trachoma Prevalence, 2007 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bette Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the only high income country with persisting endemic trachoma. A national control program involving mass drug administration with oral azithromycin, in place since 2006, has some characteristics which differ from programs in low income settings, particularly in regard to the use of a wider range of treatment strategies, and more regular assessments of community prevalence. We aimed to examine the association between treatment strategies and trachoma prevalence.Through the national surveillance program, annual data from 2007-2013 were collected on trachoma prevalence and treatment with oral azithromycin in children aged 5-9 years from three Australian regions with endemic trachoma. Communities were classified for each year according to one of four trachoma treatment strategies implemented (no treatment, active cases only, household and community-wide. We estimated the change in trachoma prevalence between sequential pairs of years and across multiple years according to treatment strategy using random-effects meta-analyses.Over the study period, 182 unique remote Aboriginal communities had 881 annual records of both trachoma prevalence and treatment. From the analysis of pairs of years, the greatest annual fall in trachoma prevalence was in communities implementing community-wide strategies, with yearly absolute reductions ranging from -8% (95%CI -17% to 1% to -31% (-26% to -37%; these communities also had the highest baseline trachoma prevalence (15.4%-43.9%. Restricting analyses to communities with moderate trachoma prevalence (5-19% at initial measurement, and comparing community trachoma prevalence from the first to the last year of available data for the community, both community-wide and more targeted treatment strategies were associated with similar absolute reductions (-11% [-8% to -13%] and -7% [-5% to -10%] respectively. Results were similar stratified by region.Consistent with previous research, community

  9. Farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ajao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate is changing and global mean temperatures have increased this is expected to have profound effects on food security. Long-term changes in climate will disproportionately affect tropical regions, meaning poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa will likely bear the brunt of adverse impacts. Adaptation plays an important role in reducing vulnerability to climate change and is therefore critical and of concern in developing countries, particularly in Africa where vulnerability is high because ability to adapt is low. This study examined farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change in Ogbomoso agricultural zone of Oyo State of Nigeria. One hundred and fifty farmers were interviewed to obtain information from using a multistage sampling procedure. The results of the study showed that the types of climate change identified in the study area were delayed on-set of rainfall (38.0 percent, higher temperature (20.0 percent and less rain (17.3 percent. The outcome of climate change were food shortage (41.3percent, decline in livestock yield (30.7 percent, decline in crop yield (28.7 percent and death of livestock (16.0 percent. The identified actions taken to address climate change are growing a new crop (57.4 percent, adoption of drought tolerant/ resistance crop varieties (50.0 percent, diversification from crops to livestock production (40.7 percent and using of new land management practices. The long-term improvement investments commonly adapted in the study area were tree planting/agroforestry, mulching/surface cover, improved fallowing and fallowing.The study concluded that household size, extension visits and non-farm income significantly impact on the various strategies used in adaptation to climate change.

  10. Evaluating farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change: A case study of Kaou local government area, Tahoua State, Niger Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moussa Tabbo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses local farmers’ strategies of coping with and building resilience against the negative impact of climate change. Information for the discussion was from data collected using a set of structured questionnaires from interviews scheduled with 128 farmers. The questionnaire was based on previous literature and direct reconnaissance interview with farmers, which culminated in 13 strategies used for the study being reported. For each question, respondents were asked to choose their best and worst strategies. Thus, the difference between the best and worst strategies consistent with random utility theory has been used for the modelling. Results show that semi-transhumance, various handicrafts making, rural migration, small-scale vegetable production and small-scale river exploitation were the most important strategies identified, whilst water transport and vending, shifting cultivation, gypsum mining, gathering and trading of wild fruits and edible plants as well as cattle and sheep fattening were the least appreciated strategies identified amongst the farmers facing climate change. These findings are therefore imperative for planning farmers’ capacity-building and resilience against climate change projects to ensure sustainability in the study area.Keywords: Farmers’ adaptation strategies; Climate change resilience; Kaou

  11. Diverging business strategies towards climate change. A USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, K.F.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E. [Institue for Environmental Studies, Vrije Univ. IVM/VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management WIMM, Amsterdam University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D.L. [University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in successful efforts to address climate change, due to both their role as major emitters of greenhouse gases and to their capacity to invest in mitigation technologies. However, relatively little is known about the triggers for change in corporate behaviour, which are at the basis of corporate decisions to support or oppose policy initiatives. In the title project it has been investigated what strategies - and why and how - specific industrial sectors develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The objective was to provide information of relevance to the sixth Convention of Parties (CoP6) that is to be held in The Hague, Netherlands, November 2000. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the banking and insurance sector. Together, these sectors are the most important players in the climate policy debate. Special attention has been paid to the questions whether strategies of European Union (EU)- based corporations differ systematically from US-based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks. European corporations generally tend to have more advanced policies than their US counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. Corporate strategies appear to be highly determined by a combination of market situation in their home country and of access to alternative technologies. In the automobile industry, the USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible. 100 refs.

  12. Climate Change and Energy Sustainability. Which Innovations in European Strategies and Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effects of climate change on urban areas have pushed more and more policy-makers and urban planners to deal with the management of territorial transformations in a systemic and multi-sector perspective, due to the complexity of the issue. In order to enhance the urban governance of climate change and cope with environmental sustainability, the concept of resilience can be used. In this perspective, the present work has a double purpose: on the one hand to reflect on he need to adopt a new comprehension/interpretive approach to the study of the city, which embraces the concept of resilience, and on the other hand to perform a reading of European strategies and plans oriented to mitigate the effects of climate change and to achieve the goals of energy and environmental sustainability. This paper describes some of the results of the knowledge framework of the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. The paper is divided into three parts: the first is oriented to the definition of the new comprehension/interpretive approach; the second illustrates a series of recent innovations in planning tools of some European States due to the adoption of the concept of resilience; the third, finally, describes and compares the most innovative energy and environmental strategies aimed at contrasting and/or mitigate the effects of climate change, promoted in some European and Italian cities.

  13. Introduction to the Payloads and the Initial Observation Results of Chang'E-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Huixian; CHEN Xiaomin; OUYANG Ziyuan; ZOU Yongliao; WU Ji; DAI Shuwu; ZHAO Baochang; SHU Rong; CHANG Jin; WANG Huanyu; ZHANG Xiaohui; REN Qiongying

    2008-01-01

    Chang'E-1, the orbiter circling the moon 200km above the moon surface, is the first Chinese Lunar exploration satellite. The satellite was successfully launched on 24th October 2007.There are 8 kinds of scientific payloads onboard, including the stereo camera, the laser altimeter, the Sagnac-based interferometer image spectrometer, the Gamma ray spectrometer, the X-ray spectrometer, the microwave radiometer, the high energy particle detector, the solar wind plasma detector and a supporting payload data management system. Chang'E-1 opened her eyes to look at the moon and took the first batch of lunar pictures after her stereo camera was switched on in 20th November 2007.Henceforth all the instruments are successfully switched on one by one. After a period of parameter adjustment and initial check out, all scientific instruments are now in their normal operating phase.In this paper, the payloads and the initial observation results are introduced.

  14. Effective Strategies for Talking about Climate Change in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.; Osborne, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about climate science presents some unique challenges. Unlike many other science topics, mitigation and adaptation to climate change will require students to take action. This article outlines five major challenges to communicating about climate change in the classroom, drawing on research in environmental psychology: scepticism,…

  15. Climate Change and Poverty : An Integrated Strategy for Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Cord, Louise; Hull, Catherine; Hennet, Christel; Van der Vink, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries are most exposed to the impact of climate change and within these countries, the poor face the brunt of the burden. Climate change is not a discrete problem that can be dealt with through isolated reforms: impacting economic growth, health, and institutional capacity, it represents a full-frontal challenge to development. This note traces the multi-dimensional impacts ...

  16. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  17. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In this paper specific hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational culture and certain change strategies are formulated. Types of organizational culture are differentiated according to Handy’s and Trompenaars’ classifications. Organizational change strategies have been differentiated according to previous work of Chin & Benne but one more strategy has been added. Classifications of both the organizational cultures and of the organizational change strategies are based on the same criteria of differentiation: distribution of power in an organization and orientation toward relationships or tasks. For this reason it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational cultures and certain types of organizational change strategies. Thus, eight hypotheses are formulated in this paper, relating particular change strategies with particular types of organizational culture.

  18. Strategy changing penalty promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many classical studies suggest that punishment is a useful way to promote cooperation in the well-mixed public goods game, whereas relative evidence in the research of spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is absent. To address this issue, we introduce a mechanism of strategy changing penalty, combining memory and penalty during the update process, into spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that increasing penalty rate or memory length is able to promote the evolution of cooperation monotonously. Compared with traditional version, recorded penalty could facilitate cooperation better. Moreover, through examining the process of evolution, we provide an interpretation for this promotion phenomenon, namely, the effect of promotion can be warranted by an evolution resonance of standard deviation of fitness coefficient. Finally, we validate our results by studying the impact of uncertainty within strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in the society.

  19. Energy in a changing environment: Do ``big dog`` strategies always work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.S.K.

    1997-11-01

    There have been a number of innovative retail wheeling pilot programs offered by investor-owned utilities and their local regulators. These programs are providing retail consumers with energy options heretofore unavailable. These offerings are just the beginning. The business environment in the energy business is rapidly changing with new entrants vying for their share of the new business. The question is what should be the strategies used by these new entrants and how should they be applied. The answer can be found by examining the lessons learned from recent pilot projects, applying one of three generic strategies offered by Michael Porter, and looking for the resultant opportunities. Each part of the answer is described below. In addition, advice for the energy engineer is provided and recommendations for the buyer are offered.

  20. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  1. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  2. Universal precautions: employee resistance and strategies for planned organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Hogg, M

    1988-01-01

    Health care organizations have been strongly encouraged to design and implement procedures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. The procedures will have a dramatic impact on the work habits of health care workers and may even challenge some dominant health care values. Therefore, precautionary procedures are likely to meet with mixed reactions and, perhaps, outright resistance from health care workers. This article identifies some plausible causes for employee resistance to precautionary procedures. After describing the dilemma in terms of competing values and conflicting objectives, some practical managerial strategies for reconciling differences and securing broad-based commitment to preventive policies and procedures are proposed. PMID:10290102

  3. Incorporating climate change into corporate business strategies. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the papers presented at the International Climate Change Conference and Technologies Exhibition June 12-13, 1997. Topics include energy supply and electricity generation; forestry and agriculture; and the chemical, energy, and manufacturing industries.

  4. One Health - a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of c...

  5. [Animals' clever adaptation strategy for seasonal changes in environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone.

  6. Physic Nut: A Proactive Climate Change Risk Management Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, M. A.; Orire, I. O.

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the regional variability in the causes and effects of Climate Change, it poses a major threat to both global human and ecological survival. Therefore, adapting and mitigating its consequences require an integrated approach which is not mutually exclusive of any specialization as enshrined in the Kyoto protocol. This paper reviews the concept, cause, impacts of climate change vis-a-vis the cultivation and viability of Jatropha curcas plant as a pro-active adaptation and mitigatio...

  7. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of...

  8. Adapting to climate change in forest based land use systems: A guide to strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrett, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The prospect of climate change and sea level rise as a result of greenhouse gas emissions presents a serious challenge to decision-makers concerned with ensuring sustainable development. This report provides a guide to means of reducing the potential impact of the global warming problem on the forest sector whilst ensuring that more immediate development priorities are met. The most effective response strategy will be one that simultaneously brings both immediate development and longer-term adaptive benefits. This report outlines ways of constructing an adaptive response strategy that can help achieve these ends. The approach is referred to as sustainable adaptation. A prototype methodological framework of the sustainable adaptation approach has been provided with the summary. The first priority of sustainable adaption is to base climate change responses on actions that meet basic ecological and social needs now and in the future. Solutions should necessarily include relieving current development pressures in the tropical forest sector. The key is to couple adaptive responses to climate change with sustainable development solutions to present-day forest use problems. Implementing adaptive land-use policies and management practices which are likely to minimise the adverse impacts of anticipated climate change should meet current sustainable management goals. Implementing sustainable land-use and forestry management practices should meet adaptation goals. This report presents a discussion of the fundamental issues underlying the development of a sustainable adaptation strategy and a prototype methodological framework. The findings are based on case studies conducted in Central America (Costa Rica and Nicaragua); SADCC countries in Africa (Zimbabwe, Botswana, Tanzania); and Asia (Vietnam). 450 refs

  9. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  10. The extremely resorbed mandible : A comparative prospective study of 2-year results with 3 treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingsma, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results of 3 modes of implant treatment in combination with an overdenture in patients with extremely resorbed mandibles. The 3 treatment strategies used were a transmandibular implant, augmentation of t

  11. Urban Planning and Climate Change: Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvia Pinto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a current phenomenon: the temperatures rise, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers melt and the average global sea level is rising. It is expected that these changes will continue and that the extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, will become more frequent and intense. The impact and vulnerability factors for nature, for the economy and for our health are different, depending on the territorial, social and economic aspects. The current scientific debate is focused on the need to formulate effective policies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change. The city plays an important role in this issue: it emits the most greenhouse gas emissions (more than 60% of the world population currently lives in urban areas and the city is more exposed and vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Urban planning and territorial governance play a crucial role in this context: the international debate on the sustainability of urban areas is increasing. It’s necessary to adapt the tools of building regulations to increase the quality of energy - environment of the cities.

  12. Conceptual change strategies and cooperative group work in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Patricia A.; Sanford, Julie P.

    This study conducted at a suburban community college tested a method of conceptual change in which treatment students worked in small cooperative groups on tasks aimed at eliciting their misconceptions so that they could then be discussed in contrast to the scientific conceptions that had been taught in direct instruction. Categorizations of student understanding of the target concepts of the laws of conservation of matter and energy and aspects of the particulate nature of gases, liquids, and solids were ascertained by pre- and posttesting. Audiotapes of student verbal interaction in the small groups provided quantitative and qualitative data concerning student engagement in behaviors suggestive of the conditions posited to be part of the conceptual change process (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982). Chi-square analysis of posttests indicated that students in treatment groups had significantly lower (p < 0.05) proportion of misconceptions than control students on four of the five target concepts. Students who exhibited no change in concept state had a higher frequency of verbal behaviors suggestive of impeding conceptual change when compared to students who did change. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis of group interaction that appeared to influence learning: (a) many students had flawed understanding of concepts that supported the target concepts; (b) student views towards learning science affected their engagement in assigned tasks, (c) good and poor group leaders had a strong influence on group success.

  13. Comparing the Resulted Strategies from the SWOT and the SPACE (Electricity Company as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Sherafat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare the implementation of two models in terms of strategic planning. In order to this, firstly, several field studies have been done in terms of the SWOT and the SPACE analysis. In the next step, a team of the meddle and senior managers that have studied in terms of SWOT analysis seek to identify the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and then develop their related strategies. They also develop and indicate the SPACE questionnaire. Based on the results of this questionnaire and determining the organization’s strategic position, they strive to develop the appropriate strategies. Finally, the strategies that have been derived from these models were compared to each other and their strengths and weaknesses were analyzed.

  14. Climate Change: The Physical Basis and Latest Results

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes: "Warming in the climate system is unequivocal." Without the contribution of Physics to climate science over many decades, such a statement would not have been possible. Experimental physics enables us to read climate archives such as polar ice cores and so provides the context for the current changes. For example, today the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, the second most important greenhouse gas, is 28% higher than any time during the last 800,000 years. Classical fluid mechanics and numerical mathematics are the basis of climate models from which estimates of future climate change are obtained. But major instabilities and surprises in the Earth System are still unknown. These are also to be considered when the climatic consequences of proposals for geo-engineering are estimated. Only Physics will permit us to further improve our understanding in order to provide the foundation for policy decisions facing the...

  15. Date and Acquaintance Rape: Perceptions and Attitude Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patrick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the dimensions of university students' (n=96) attitudes toward date and acquaintance rape. Examined the effects of a program designed to change those attitudes. Found college men had substantially greater tendencies to blame the victim for date and acquaintance rape than did women. (Author/ABL)

  16. Business responses to climate change : identifying emergent strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk; J. Pinkse

    2005-01-01

    In the absence of sufficient support for the Kyoto Protocol, the international policy arena on climate change is far removed from being a 'level playing field'. Companies thus face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the Protocol and (upcoming) regulatory measures. This means that the

  17. Adjustment Strategies Revisited: Agricultural Change in the Welsh Marches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, much attention was paid by British agricultural geographers to the restructuring of the farm sector under pressures of national, European and global change. The need to adopt a perspective capable of looking beyond the farm gate inspired the introduction of modified political economy approaches into agricultural…

  18. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  19. Implementing Change: Insights and Strategies for the Supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that organizational changes depend heavily on the supervisor for successful implementation. Points out that a supervisory climate of trust should be nurtured, and tact should be employed if uncertainty and resistance within the organization's staff are to be kept at tolerable levels. (Author/LLL)

  20. Changing gears during succession: shifting functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Dylan; Hall, Jefferson S; Berlyn, Graeme P; Ashton, Mark S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations to resource availability strongly shape patterns of community composition along successional gradients in environmental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent to which variation in functional composition explains shifts in trait-based functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests during the most dynamic stage of succession (0-20 years). Functional composition of two size classes in 51 secondary forest plots was determined using community-weighted means of seven functional traits, which were intensively measured on 55 woody plant species (n = 875-1,761 individuals). Along the successional gradient in forest structure, there was a significant and consistent shift in functional strategies from resource acquisition to resource conservation. Leaf toughness and adult plant size increased significantly, while net photosynthetic capacity (A(mass)) decreased significantly during succession. Shifts in functional strategies within size classes for A(mass) and wood density also support the hypothesis that changes in functional composition are shaped by environmental conditions along successional gradients. In general, 'hard' functional traits, e.g., A(mass) and leaf toughness, linked to different facets of plant performance exhibited greater sensitivity to successional changes in forest structure than 'soft' traits, such as leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content. Our results also suggested that stochastic processes related to previous land-use history, dispersal limitation, and abiotic factors explained variation in functional composition beyond that attributed to deterministic shifts in functional strategies. Further data on seed dispersal vectors and distance and landscape configuration are needed to improve current mechanistic models of succession in tropical secondary forests.

  1. Changing gears during succession: shifting functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Dylan; Hall, Jefferson S; Berlyn, Graeme P; Ashton, Mark S; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    Adaptations to resource availability strongly shape patterns of community composition along successional gradients in environmental conditions. In the present study, we examined the extent to which variation in functional composition explains shifts in trait-based functional strategies in young tropical secondary forests during the most dynamic stage of succession (0-20 years). Functional composition of two size classes in 51 secondary forest plots was determined using community-weighted means of seven functional traits, which were intensively measured on 55 woody plant species (n = 875-1,761 individuals). Along the successional gradient in forest structure, there was a significant and consistent shift in functional strategies from resource acquisition to resource conservation. Leaf toughness and adult plant size increased significantly, while net photosynthetic capacity (A(mass)) decreased significantly during succession. Shifts in functional strategies within size classes for A(mass) and wood density also support the hypothesis that changes in functional composition are shaped by environmental conditions along successional gradients. In general, 'hard' functional traits, e.g., A(mass) and leaf toughness, linked to different facets of plant performance exhibited greater sensitivity to successional changes in forest structure than 'soft' traits, such as leaf mass area and leaf dry matter content. Our results also suggested that stochastic processes related to previous land-use history, dispersal limitation, and abiotic factors explained variation in functional composition beyond that attributed to deterministic shifts in functional strategies. Further data on seed dispersal vectors and distance and landscape configuration are needed to improve current mechanistic models of succession in tropical secondary forests. PMID:25990298

  2. Once and for all--how people change strategy to ignore irrelevant information in visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Marewski, Julian N; Frensch, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Ignoring irrelevant visual information aids efficient interaction with task environments. We studied how people, after practice, start to ignore the irrelevant aspects of stimuli. For this we focused on how information reduction transfers to rarely practised and novel stimuli. In Experiment 1, we compared competing mathematical models on how people cease to fixate on irrelevant parts of stimuli. Information reduction occurred at the same rate for frequent, infrequent, and novel stimuli. Once acquired with some stimuli, it was applied to all. In Experiment 2, simplification of task processing also occurred in a once-for-all manner when spatial regularities were ruled out so that people could not rely on learning which screen position is irrelevant. Apparently, changes in eye movements were an effect of a once-for-all strategy change rather than a cause of it. Overall, the results suggest that participants incidentally acquired knowledge about regularities in the task material and then decided to voluntarily apply it for efficient task processing. Such decisions should be incorporated into accounts of information reduction and other theories of strategy change in skill acquisition. PMID:25203902

  3. Changes in Pedagogy: A Qualitative Result of Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; McDermott, Peter; Martin, Glen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of eliminating tracking and instead teaching heterogeneous classes using cooperative learning. Observations of high school classes, interviews with students and teachers, and specimen data found several changes in pedagogy and attitudes, including more student-centered, interactive classes; greater higher-order questioning and…

  4. Planning Marketing Strategies in Non-Profit Organizations - Presentation of the Direct Research Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Wioletta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the issues connected with planning marketing strategies by non-profit organizations. The paper presents selected results of direct research conducted in 2009. The servey covered private non-profit organizations (non-government organizations) in three provinces : Malopolska, Podkarpacie and Silesia. The presented results of the research concern the mission and goals of organizations, planning their activities (including marketing activities) and foundations ...

  5. Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Organic Agriculture (OA) as an adaptation strategy (AS) to Climate Change (CC) is a concrete and promising option for adaptation in rural communities. OA has additional potential as a mitigation strategy (MS). This text is a short review note on this topic. Adaptation and mitigation based on OA can build on well-established practice as OA is a sustainable livelihood strategy with decades of experience in several climate zones and under a wide range of specific local conditions. Given the larg...

  6. Monitoring of travertine changes resulting from thermal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kompaníková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Travertines, despite of their unique noble appearance change their properties when affected by ageing like any other building and decorative stone. Some of the most noticeable changes are influenced by temperature fluctuations. From this point of view, the main purpose of presented research was to determine the influence of multiple temperature cycles for travertine from Spišské Podhradie and Ludrová in temperature range of 25°C to 60°C corresponding to summer period temperature regimes. The weakening of the rock material by heating was determined by non-destructive techniques before and after thermal load. By ultrasound apparatus was observed by means of ultrasonic velocities change, when higher values of ultrasonic velocities were determined parallel to the bedding while the perpendicular direction had slower velocities. The change of colour was specified by spectrophotometer and no distinct visual colour change was determined with increasing temperature. By non-contact profilometer surface roughness data of samples profiles primarily indicate a decrease of roughness during heating. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion acquired by thermodilatometer varied from 4.6.10-3 to 7.8.10-3 mm.m-1.°C-1 for travertine from Spišské Podhradie and 5.3.10-3 to 7.3.10-3 mm.m-1.°C-1 for travertine from Ludrová. This parameter characterizes the materials response to heating or cooling. The techniques mentioned above are non-destructive and some of them are innovative in laboratory testing.

  7. Combating the effects of climatic change on forests by mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests occur across diverse biomes, each of which shows a specific composition of plant communities associated with the particular climate regimes. Predicted future climate change will have impacts on the vulnerability and productivity of forests; in some regions higher temperatures will extend the growing season and thus improve forest productivity, while changed annual precipitation patterns may show disadvantageous effects in areas, where water availability is restricted. While adaptation of forests to predicted future climate scenarios has been intensively studied, less attention was paid to mitigation strategies such as the introduction of tree species well adapted to changing environmental conditions. Results We simulated the development of managed forest ecosystems in Germany for the time period between 2000 and 2100 under different forest management regimes and climate change scenarios. The management regimes reflect different rotation periods, harvesting intensities and species selection for reforestations. The climate change scenarios were taken from the IPCC's Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. We used the scenarios A1B (rapid and successful economic development and B1 (high level of environmental and social consciousness combined with a globally coherent approach to a more sustainable development. Our results indicate that the effects of different climate change scenarios on the future productivity and species composition of German forests are minor compared to the effects of forest management. Conclusions The inherent natural adaptive capacity of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions is limited by the long life time of trees. Planting of adapted species and forest management will reduce the impact of predicted future climate change on forests.

  8. Role of competition in vegetation change: evolutionarily stable strategy analysis as a means for predicting change in vegetation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrior, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the clearest differences among major vegetation types is allocation to woody biomass. Whether and to what extent plants invest in this long-lived tissue has a major impact on carbon storage and can have important feedbacks to the rising CO2 in the atmosphere. Wood is a multifaceted structure. It can allow plants to escape from ground fires, the pressure of herbivores, and perhaps most importantly competition with other plants for light. Understanding the result of this final pressure requires an incorporation of individual-based interactions among plants. This can be a particularly difficult because of both high computational demands and errors in implementation and understanding of such complex models. We have made progress on both difficulties for understanding allocation to woody biomass among trees in forests. Across gradients in resource availability within forests, we find a significant influence of individual-based competition on dominant plant allocation to woody biomass. In model predictions and observed differences among forests globally major tradeoffs occur in allocation to woody biomass versus allocation to fine roots. This is driven by shifting importance of individual-based competition for light versus shared resources belowground, in particular water and nitrogen. Moving beyond forests to biome boundaries, transitions between grassland, savanna, and forest we see again that competition can play an important role. In these zones of rapid change however, population dynamics is not as simple as a steady-state closed-canopy forest. Disturbance dynamics including response to fire and drought stress are also important pressures on dominant plant strategies. Here I show progress in incorporating disturbance dynamics with individual based competition to predict and understand dominant plant strategies including allocation to woody biomass. Results indicate that the influence of competition varies with disturbance regime. With stochastic disturbance

  9. Strategic management system in a healthcare setting--moving from strategy to results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Rob; Klassen, Wolf; Martalog, Julian

    2005-01-01

    One of the historical challenges in the healthcare system has been the identification and collection of meaningful data to measure an organization's progress towards the achievement of its strategic goals and the concurrent alignment of internal operating practices with this strategy. Over the last 18 months the Toronto East General Hospital (TEGH) has adopted a strategic management system and organizing framework that has led to a metric-based strategic plan. It has allowed for formal and measurable linkages across a full range of internal business processes, from the annual operating plan to resource allocation decisions, to the balanced scorecard and individual performance evaluations. The Strategic Management System (SMS) aligns organizational planning and performance measurement, facilitates an appropriate balance between organizational priorities and resolving "local" problems, and encourages behaviours that are consistent with the values upon which the organization is built. The TEGH Accountability Framework serves as the foundation for the entire system. A key tool of the system is the rolling three-year strategic plan for the organization that sets out specific annual improvement targets on a number of key strategic measures. Individual program/department plans with corresponding measures ensure that the entire organization is moving forward strategically. Each year, all plans are reviewed, with course adjustments made to reflect changes in the hospital's environment and with re-calibration of performance targets for the next three years to ensure continued improvement and organizational progress. This system has been used through one annual business cycle. Results from the past year show measurable success. The hospital has improved on 12 of the 15 strategic plan metrics, including achieving the targeted 1% operating surplus while operating in an environment of tremendous change and uncertainty. This article describes the strategic management system used

  10. Projected wetland densities under climate change: Habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen; Skagen, Susan; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Rashford, Benjamin S.; Reese, Gordon; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Noon, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species’ vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. We evaluate the potential for a trade-off in the value of conservation investments under current and future climatic conditions and consider the joint effects of climate and land use. We use an integrated set of hydrological and climatological projections that provide physically based measures of water balance under historical and projected future climatic conditions. In addition, we use historical projections derived from ten general circulation models (GCMs) as a baseline from which to assess climate change impacts, rather than historical climate data. This method isolates the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and ensures that modeling errors are incorporated into the baseline rather than attributed to climate change. Our work shows that, on average, densities of wetlands (here defined as wetland basins holding water) are projected to decline across the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region, but that GCMs differ in both the magnitude and the direction of projected impacts. However, we found little evidence for a shift in the locations expected to provide the highest wetland densities under current vs. projected climatic conditions. This result was robust to the inclusion of projected changes in land use under climate change. We suggest that targeting conservation towards wetland

  11. 77 FR 19661 - Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change AGENCY: Environmental... Protection Agency is publishing for public comment a draft long-range strategy that describes how the agency...-2011-0943 in the subject line of the message. Mail: Send your comments to: Water Docket,...

  12. Climate change, markets and livelihood strategies for adaptation in vulnerable Altiplano Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Jiménez, Elizabeth; Seth, Anji

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discusses a framework of scales and interactions, Altiplano climate trends and change, markets, livelihood strategies and perceptions of risks across the Altiplano ecosystem, uncertainty, and participatory research in adaptive capacities. LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  13. Luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz as a result of annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Mejdahl, V.;

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz extracted from (for example) bricks needs to account for strong OSL sensitivity changes that are known to occur depending on the previous thermal treatment of the sample. Non-heated quartz exhibits OSL orders...... of magnitude less per unit radiation than that for heated material. The reason these temperature-induced sensitivity changes occur in quartz is presently not well understood. This phenomenon is also seen in the related area of luminescence dating in which sedimentary quartz and quartz from heated...... archaeological samples show very different OSL sensitivities. In this paper we report on studies of the effect of high temperature annealing on the OSL and phototransferred TL (PTTL) signals from sedimentary and synthetic quartz. A dramatic enhancement of both OSL and PTTL sensitivity was found especially...

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand in Rheraya Watershed (Morocco, with Potential Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheraya watershed already suffers from the impacts of climate variability and will be further affected by climate change. Severe water shortages and extremely fragile ecological conditions necessitate careful attention to water resources management. The aim of this study is to analyze Rheraya’s future water situation under different scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change until 2100. The Water Evaluation and Planning System model (WEAP has been applied to estimate the current water demands and the increased water demands resulting from climate change. WEAP was calibrated using meteorological and demand observations, then, updated with present-day and future climatic conditions using the Statistical Down-scaling Model with two projections (A2, B2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Those projections show an increase in temperature of about 2–3 °C and a reduction in precipitation of 40–60% with respect to baseline. The results show that the pressure on Rheraya’s water resources will increase, leading to greater competition for surface water, and that domestic, tourist, livestock and agricultural demands will not be met by the year 2100. The Results also demonstrate that the assessments of adaptation strategies proposed by decision makers are effective but not sustainable for the watershed.

  15. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  16. Frequent change of procedure during coronary artery bypass surgery suggests insufficient preoperative diagnostic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Thayssen, Per;

    2007-01-01

    We sought to evaluate how often and in what way surgeons change peroperatively their preoperative coronary artery bypass grafting strategy and to what degree these changes affect postoperative graft patency. A series of 109 patients with stable angina pectoris and at least one occluded coronary...... artery participated. The surgeon filled in a questionnaire pertaining to the planned localization and number of grafts. These estimates were compared to procedures actually performed and with the angiographic outcome six months after bypass surgery. Planned and actually inserted grafts disclosed...... a discrepancy in 22% of the patients, resulting in a lower or higher number of grafts than pre-operatively estimated. The difference in shift rates between the three sites, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery, was significant (P=0.014). Patency rates were highest when only...

  17. One Strategy for Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Change Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romm, J.

    2011-12-01

    Future impacts of climate change are invariably presented with a very wide range of impacts reflecting two different sets of uncertainties. The first concerns our uncertainty about precisely how much greenhouse gas emissions humanity will emit into the atmosphere. The second concerns our uncertainty about precisely what impact those emissions will have on the climate. By failing to distinguish between these two types of uncertainties, climate scientists have not clearly explained to the public and policymakers what the scientific literature suggests is likely to happen if we don't substantially alter our current emissions path. Indeed, much of climate communications has been built around describing the range of impacts from emissions paths that are increasingly implausible given political and technological constraints, such as a stabilization at 450 or 550 parts per million atmospheric of carbon dioxide. For the past decade, human emissions of greenhouse gases have trended near the worst-case scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, emissions paths that reach 800 ppm or even 1000 ppm. The current policies of the two biggest emitters, the United States and China, coupled with the ongoing failure of international negotiations to come to an agreement on restricting emissions, suggests that recent trends will continue for the foreseeable future. This in turn suggests that greater clarity in climate change communications could be achieved by more clearly explaining to the public what the scientific literature suggests the range of impacts are for our current high emissions path. This also suggests that more focus should be given in the scientific literature to better constraining the range of impacts from the high emissions scenarios.

  18. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management.

  19. Smart energy strategies. Meeting the climate change challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book published by the Energy Science Center (ESC) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich presents a wide selection of reports on how the challenge of dealing with climate change can be met. The 69 reports included cover a wide range of topics ranging from traffic modelling, biofuels and electrification of power trains, through demand-side management, electricity production and distribution and life cycle assessment, to the integration of wind power and renewable energy technologies. Also, climate policy matters are dealt with as are nano-technology applications in the energy area and the integration of energy conversion and production processes and waste management

  20. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY IN CHANGING MARKET ENVIRONMENT : Case: Belgian Brewery Van Honsebrouck in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Louckx, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The efficient distribution strategy formulation becomes vital to the success and survival of any organization, especially when it is involved in international trade. Today’s world is particularly challenging due to rapidly changing market conditions. Therefore, in order to able to compete, satisfy customers, and meet the needs of other stakeholders profitably, it is crucial for any company to make profound market environment analyses, react to changes in the market and adjust strategies accor...

  1. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Phillipo; Magreth Bushesha; Zebedayo S. K. Mvena

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of...

  2. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    OpenAIRE

    Hala M Al-Shamlan; Abdullah S Al-Mudimigh

    2011-01-01

    Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been pr...

  3. Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China%Impact of Climatic Change on Agricultural Production and Response Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yansui; Liu Yu; Guo Liying

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies indicate that global climate warming has been increasing, especially in recent decades. Climate warming greatly affects global agro-production and food security-- becoming a hotspot of global environmental change. This paper proposes a structural and orientational framework for scientifically addressing climatic change impact on agroroduction. Through literature reviews and comparative studies, the paper systematically summarizes influencing mechanisms and impact of climate warming on such agro-production factors as light, temperature, soil quality and water environment. The impact of climate warm- ing on cultivation regions, cropping systems, crop pests, agro- production capacity, agro-economy and farm management is analyzed. Then, suitable climate-adapting agro-development strategies are put forward for different regions in China. The strategies are carefully selected from a repository of international tested climatic change countermeasures in agriculture at national or district level.

  4. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  5. USING ORACLE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE TO ANALYZE COMPANY RESULTS AND CREATE STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dragos-Paul Pop; Alexe Cristina-Loredana

    2013-01-01

    Business Intelligence can be defined as the ability of an organization to collect, manage and organize data. This process brings in a large amount of data that can help develop new business opportunities. Identifying these opportunities and implementing efficient strategies can bring a competitive advantage on the market on the long term. In this article we will be analyzing the financial results over a 3 year period for a corporation that has 3 companies under its wing and the management str...

  6. The Chang Management Strategies and Processes for Successful ERP Implementation-A Case Study of MADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M Al-Shamlan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Top management usually faces an unexpected attitude from potential users during implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP system. For one reason or another, they resist the implementation process and may cause the failure of ERP system. Therefore, top management should be deal with this problem using effective change management strategies and processes. In this paper, we discuss the successful change management strategies and processes in literature. A case study of MADAR has been presented to discover the strategies and processes used for the successful enterprise system.

  7. Multiple and changing cycles of active stars II. Results

    CERN Document Server

    Oláh, K; Granzer, T; Strassmeier, K G; Lanza, A F; Järvinen, S; Korhonen, H; Baliunas, S L; Soon, W; Messina, S; Cutispoto, G

    2009-01-01

    We study the time variations of the cycles of 20 active stars based on decades-long photometric or spectroscopic observations. A method of time-frequency analysis, as discussed in a companion paper, is applied to the data. Fifteen stars definitely show multiple cycles; the records of the rest are too short to verify a timescale for a second cycle. The cycles typically show systematic changes. For three stars, we found two cycles in each of them that are not harmonics, and which vary in parallel, indicating that a common physical mechanism arising from a dynamo construct. The positive relation between the rotational and cycle periods is confirmed for the inhomogeneous set of active stars. Stellar activity cycles are generally multiple and variable.

  8. Resilience, human agency and climate change adaptation strategies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Frank

    2009-01-01

      In the Arctic, indigenous peoples, researchers and governments are working to develop climate change adaptation strategies due to the rapid changes in sea ice extent, weather conditions and in the ecosystem as such. These strategies are often based on specific perceptions of vulnerability...... and work with a number of barriers for resilience. The objective of the article is first to address the position of institutional barriers in the studies and strategies. Second the article analyses the role human agency is ascribed in proposed strategies and projects in Nunavut and Greenland. With a focus...... on institutions and human agency the question is not only ‘how do people manage to adapt?' but moreover ‘what constrains people in pursuing a given adaptation strategy?' The article introduces the concept of double agency which stresses two different aspects of human agency that can be used to understand...

  9. The influence of learning strategy resolution based toward environmental health learning result observed by students’ concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Syarif Sumantri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the effect of learning strategy and self-concept toward the environmental learning result about recyclable Garbage in a public elementary school, SDN 1 Tugu Selatan, North Jakarta. This research applied true experimental design with posttest-only control design. Population of the research covered all sixth grade-students of 2012/2013 whereas samples included students of class VIB as experimental (PBL and of class VIA as control (Expository. Learning outcome of environmental health education test and self-concept scale questionnaire was employed as instruments of the research. Quantitative data consisting of score knowledge about waste recycling and self-concept scale questionnaire was collected on February until April 2012. Data was analyzed by linear variant statistical analysis (ANOVA, continued with Tukey test. Result of the research indicates that PBL does exist in the knowledge about waste recycling. Students with PBL have higher value of knowledge than those with expository of strategy. Based on this research, the researcher suggests that teachers be able to implement this strategy in education living environment learning.

  10. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...... generated by a mathematical model of the competitive growth of multiple strains of Escherichia coli.Results: Simulation studies showed that sequential use of tetracycline and ampicillin reduced the level of double resistance, when compared to the combination treatment. The effect of the cycling frequency...... frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes....

  11. Optimized Control Strategy for a Medium-Voltage DVR-Theoretical Investigations and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Christoph; De Doncker, Rik W.; Li, Yun Wei;

    2008-01-01

    , a system wide integration of DVRs is hampered because of their high cost, in particular, due to the expensive DC-link energy storage devices. The cost of these DC-link capacitors remains high because the DVR requires a minimum DC-link voltage to be able to operate and to compensate a sag. As a result, only...... a small fraction of the energy stored in the DC-link capacitor is used, which makes it impractical for DVRs to compensate relatively long voltage sags. Present control strategies are only able to minimize the distortions at the load or to allow a better utilization of the storage system by minimizing...... the needed voltage amplitude. To avoid this drawback, an optimized control strategy is presented in this paper, which is able to reduce the needed injection voltage of the DVR and concurrently to mitigate the transient distortions at the load side. In the following paper, a brief introduction of the basic...

  12. The Empowerment Strategy for The Food Crop Farmers in Anticipating The Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efriyani Sumastuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the climate change and the global warming like changes in the pattern and distribution of the rainfall give impacts on agricultural production at large, especially in the food crops. These also cause droughts, floods, landslides, forest fires, rising temperatures in urban areas, and rising sea levels. The above impacts are felt by the farmers because those can lead to a decrease in production even the crop failure. This research aims to develop an empowerment strategy of the food crop farmers in anticipating the climate change in Central Java. The data used is the primary data obtained through in-depth interviews with key-person and the Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP is conducted to determine the program priorities and strate gies. The result of research shows that anticipating the climate change should be synergistically conducted in four aspects: human resources, technology, institutional and production, by involving various groups in the society. Various groups can be grouped into academics, businessmen / private sectors, government and community of food crop farmers / society.

  13. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Overview of Climate Change Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2012-04-01

    NARCCAP is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using six different regional climate models (RCMs ) and multiple global model responses to a future emission scenario, by nesting the RCMs within four atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within NCEP reanalyses. The spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes RCMs that participated in the European PRUDENCE program (HadRM3 and RegCM), the Canadian regional climate model (CRCM) as well as the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM), the NCAR/PSU MM5, and NCAR WRF. AOGCMs include the Hadley Centre HadCM3, NCAR CCSM, the Canadian CGCM3 and the GFDL model. Insufficient funding was available to simulate all 24 combinations of RCMs and AOGCMs. Thus, we used a balanced fractional factorial statistical design to reduce the number of combinations of RCM-AOGCM pairs to twelve. High resolution (50 km) global time-slice experiments based on the GFDL atmospheric model and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3) have also been produced and will be compared with the simulations of the regional models. The geographic domain was regionalized into 29 subregions based on common climatological features, and summary climate change statistics for each of the subregions have been produced. In this overview talk, results from the RCM climate change simulations for select subregions of North America will be presented.

  14. Influence Strategies of Principals: Ordinary Times Compared with Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether principals utilized flexible influence strategies under changing circumstances, based on perceptions of 450 Israeli elementary teachers. Principals acted mainly through an informal, less directive orientation of influence both in ordinary times and in times of change. Principals' leaned toward participatory influence approaches.…

  15. Geography Teachers and Climate Change: Emotions about Consequences, Coping Strategies, and Views on Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Mikaela

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that teachers' emotions about climate change and their views on mitigation influence their instruction and students' engagement in mitigation actions. The aim of the study is to explore Finnish secondary geography teachers' emotions about the consequences of climate change, their strategies for coping with these emotions, and…

  16. Strategies for Developing Positive Behaviour Management. Teacher Behaviour Outcomes and Attitudes to the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Hindle, Sarah; Withington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an extended action research project run in a large secondary school over an 18-month period. The work was part of a wider strategy for change within the school. The data presented here describes some of the features of the change process and reflections on its impact. A key aim was to challenge and enable teachers to modify…

  17. National strategy for climate change adaptation; Strategie nationale d'adaptation au changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This book expresses the French State's view on the way to deal with the issue of climate change adaptation. After having recalled the ineluctability of some observed changes, the actors involved in this adaptation, and some guideline principles to implement adaptation, a first chapter describes the context: international mobilization, climate data evolution, definition of new criteria and critical thresholds, relationship between adaptation, alleviation and sustainable development, tensions between long and short terms. It discusses the objectives: public security and health, alleviation of inequalities with respect to risks, cost reduction, natural heritage preservation. Nine strategic axes are then identified: to develop knowledge, to strengthen the survey system, to inform, to educate and to make all actors aware, to promote a territory-based approach, to finance adaptation actions, to use regulatory and law instruments, to support voluntary approaches and the dialogue with private actors, to take the overseas peculiarity into account, and to contribute to international exchanges. The next chapters are respectively dealing with transverse approaches (water, risk prevention, health, and biodiversity), sector-based insights (agriculture, energy and industry, transports, building and housing, tourism, banks and insurance companies), medium-based approach (cities, littoral and seas, mountain, forest). The last part deals with the implementation issue

  18. Changes in competitive strategies due to deregulation and privatization in the petroleum industry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is part of a series of four dedicated to the study of the global oil competition game through the analytical framework proposed by Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard. By means of a questionnaire answered by top executives in ten oil companies, the authors investigate the changes in the competitive strategy of these companies in the downstream side of the oil business due to deregulation and privatization. The paper starts by establishing the relationship between Porter's generic competitive strategies and specific competitive methods. Then, it describes how companies have changes their competitive methods after privatization and major deregulation. Changes in the industry structure are also analyzed. (authors)

  19. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  20. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from Chernobyl accident. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report realizes a settlement specific approach to derive remediation strategies and generalizes the results to the whole affected area. The ultimate aim of the study is to prepare possible investment projects on remediation activities in the contaminated territories. Its current aim was to identify the areas and the remedial actions that should be primarily supported and their corresponding cost. The present report starts with an outline of the methodology of deriving remediation strategies, a description of data for 70 representative settlements and of parameters of the remedial actions considered, and a classification of the contaminated territory according to radiological criteria. After summarising aspects of the contamination situation and applications of remedial actions in the past, dose calculations and derived remediation strategies for the representative settlements are described. These are generalized to the total contaminated territory. Within the contaminated territory private produce is of main importance for the radionuclide intake. At the end of the report, radiological aspects of the produce of collective farms are described. (orig.)

  1. Inclusion of climate change strategies in municipal Integrated Development Plans: A case from seven municipalities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankolo X. Lethoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has made it clear that anthropogenic greenhouse gasses are the main cause of observed global warming that leads to climate change. Climate change is now a global reality. In the South African political set-up, local municipalities are the structures that are in direct contact with communities and they draw up Integrated Development Plans (IDPs, which are reviewed and upgraded annually. The article seeks to investigate the extent to which climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies are embedded IDPs in seven vulnerable municipalities in the Limpopo Province. The article conducted an in-depth content analysis of the IDPs of the seven municipalities and the results have revealed that these municipalities have not included adaptation and mitigation strategies adequately in their IDPs despite being the most vulnerable municipalities in the province. The article concludes that these municipalities have not as yet institutionalised climate change in their daily operations, planning and decision making. To this end, the paper recommends that local municipalities should include climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in their IDPs.Keywords: Climate change; adaptation; mitigation; Integrated Development Plan; vulnerable municipalities

  2. The uneven results of institutional changes in Central and Eastern Europe: The role of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Svetozar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely observed that the same formal rules, enacted in the parliaments in the form of written laws, give vastly different results in different social and cultural environments. This phenomenon came to be particularly pronounced in the process of transition of the formerly communist countries to market economies and politically pluralized societies. Highly similar and occasionally identical institutional changes turned out to be unequally accepted by the societies under consideration and produced widely different results in the material restructuring of the economies. It became clear that the notion of institutions had to be widened so as to encompass the informal rules: the customs, the traditions, cultural values and national myths. Informal rules define the constraints for implementing the formal ones and, on the other hand, determine the actual effects of the latter once they are implemented. Forcing the formal rules upon the transition societies cannot be successful unless preceding and/or contemporaneous changes of informal rules are provided for. The paper ends with a design of the strategy for the decisively important changes in values and other components of informal rules.

  3. Host life history strategy, species diversity, and habitat influence Trypanosoma cruzi vector infection in Changing landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gottdenker

    . cruzi, potentially by changing host community structure to favor hosts that are short-lived with high reproductive rates. Study results apply to potential environmental management strategies for Chagas disease.

  4. Changes in science classrooms resulting from collaborative action research initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptive Strategies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-li; Shu Geng

    2013-01-01

    China is the world’s most populous country and a major emitter of greenhouse gases. Consequently, China’s role in climate change has received a great deal of attention, whereas the impact of climate change on China has been largely ignored. Studies on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategies are increasingly becoming major areas of scientific concern. However, the clear warming that has been sounded in China in recent decades has not been matched with a clear assessment of the impact of climate change on China’s water resources and agriculture. In the present study, we review observations on climate change, hydrology, and agriculture in China and relate these observations to likely future changes. We also analyse the adaptive strategies in China’s agriculture.

  6. Simulation and experimental results of hybrid electric machine with a novel flux control strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paplicki Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected simulation and experimental results of a hybrid ECPMS-machine (Electric Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine. This permanent magnets (PMs excited machine offers an extended magnetic field control capability which makes it suitable for battery electric vehicle (BEV drives. Rotor, stator and the additional direct current control coil of the machine are analyzed in detail. The control system and strategy, the diagram of power supply system and an equivalent circuit model of the ECPMS-machine are presented. Influence of the additional excitation on the performance parameters of the machine, such as: torque, efficiency, speed limits and back-EMF have also been discussed.

  7. Economic analysis of climate change adaptation strategies in selected coastal areas in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, M.L.; Sajise, A.J.U.; Ramirez, P.J.B.; Arias, J.K.B.; Purnomo, A.H.; Dipasupil, S.R.; Regoniel, P.A.; Nguyen, K.A.T.; Zamora, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards. Their situation is further compli...

  8. Implications of land ecosystem-atmosphere interactions for strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to predicting climate change, assessing its impacts and planning mitigation strategies tends to be compartmentalized, leading to inadequate or incomplete advice for climate policy. Climate models used for future global warming predictions and attribution of past changes generally consider only global climate drivers, ignoring local drivers, such as land use change and urban effects. Impacts studies are generally carried out in isolation from each other and hence ignore i...

  9. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In ...

  10. Visualizing Changes in Strategy Use across Attempts via State Diagrams: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game log data have great potential to provide actionable information about the in-game behavior of players. However, these low-level behavioral data are notoriously difficult to analyze due to the challenges associated with extracting meaning from sparse data stored at such a small grain size. This paper describes a three-step solution that uses cluster analysis to determine which strategies players use to solve levels in the game, sequence mining to identify changes in strategy across multiple attempts at the same level, and state transition diagrams to visualize the strategy sequences identified by the sequence mining. In the educational video game used in this case study, cluster analysis successfully identified 15 different in-game strategies. The sequence mining found an average of 40 different sequences of strategy use per level, which the state transition diagrams successfully displayed in an interpretable way.

  11. Towards a rational screening strategy for albuminuria: results from the unreferred renal insufficiency trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan van der Tol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There remains debate about the screening strategies for albuminuria. This study evaluated whether a screening strategy in an apparently healthy population based on basic clinical and biochemical parameters could be more effective than a strategy where screening for albuminuria is performed unselectively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Unreferred Renal Insufficiency (URI Study is a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of metabolic risk factors in Belgian workers, volunteering to be screened during a routine yearly occupational check-up. Subjects (n = 295 with treated hypertension, known diabetes, treated dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular and renal disease were excluded. Among 1,191 apparently healthy subjects, 23% had unknown hypertension, 13% had impaired glucose tolerance, 15.4% had normoalbuminuria, 4.2% had microalbuminuria and 0.4% had macroalbuminuria. Subjects with resting heart rate ≥85 bpm, plasma glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L and blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg were associated with albuminuria of any degree. A strategy where only subjects with at least one of these risk factors (n = 431 were screened for albuminuria, would identify all subjects with macroalbuminuria (5/5, 64% of those with microalbuminuria (32/50, and less than half of those with normoalbuminuria (81/183. An alternative strategy whereby subjects were first screened for presence of albuminuria, and additional cardiovascular risk factors were only measured in subjects positive for albuminuria (n = 238, would identify only 27% (118/431 of the subjects with additional and potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. On the other hand, half of the subjects in this study with albuminuria (120/238, of which 102 had normoalbuminuria, had no additional cardiovascular risk factor at all. CONCLUSIONS: Screening an apparently healthy population directly for albuminuria will result in a high percentage of false positives, mostly measured in the normal

  12. A Lakatosian Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy Based on Student Ability To Build Models with Varying Degrees of Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a study that constructs a Lakatosian teaching strategy that can facilitate conceptual change in students' understanding of chemical equilibrium. Results indicate that the experimental group performed better on tests. Contains 81 references. (DDR)

  13. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, Rhona; Benfield, Greg; Francis, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curri...

  14. Climate change adaptation strategies of maize producers of the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Musa Hasen

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of climate change are considered to be strong in countries located in tropical Africa that depend on agriculture for their food, income and livelihood. Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of adaptation strategies is essential to develop appropriate measures that will mitigate adverse consequences. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the most commonly used adaptation strategies that farm households practice among a set of options to withstand the effec...

  15. Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McCusker, Brent

    2008-11-01

    As climate change has emerged as a significant threat, there is much concern about how vulnerable agricultural communities will adapt, particularly as global population continues to rise. Much of the current lack of productivity and economic marginalization of African agriculture arises from global trade regimes that give a competitive advantage to Western farmers, from low use of agricultural inputs, and from a dearth of infrastructure and services for the agriculture sector. For centuries, African farmers have used a wide variety of risk-reducing livelihood strategies, including diversifying income sources, switching crops, and investing in marketing. However, improving their productivity to ``modern'' levels has remained a distant dream, resulting in a continual reduction in investment in the sector over the past five decades.

  16. Evaluation of co-benefits from combined climate change and air pollution reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Joana; Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-05-01

    The connection of climate change and air pollution is becoming more relevant in the process of policy making and implementation of emission control strategies because of resulting co-benefits and trade-offs. Some sectors, such as fossil fuel combustion, are sources of both pollutants (NOx and PM) as well as greenhouse gas (CO2). Additionally, the use of wood burning as biofuel to reduce climate impact may in fact deteriorate air quality. Furthermore, several air pollutants are important radiative forcers and regulating their emissions impacts on climate. It is evident that both problems need to be undertaken with a common strategy and the existence of cross-policy with co-benefits may encourage their implementation. The LIMITS FP7 project (http://www.feem-project.net/limits/index.html) was designed with the main goal of assessing strategies for reduction of GHG emissions so that the 2°C target can be achieved. The work developed focus on the evaluation of the implementation of strategies analysing several aspects of different scenarios, namely: the feasibility of low carbon scenarios in terms of available technologies and infrastructure, the required financial mechanisms, and also the co-benefits regarding energy security, economic development and air pollution. For the latter, five integrated assessment models (IAMs) provided greenhouse gases and pollutant emission values for several scenarios. These were based on air pollution scenarios defined according to stringency and implementation of future global legislation. They which were also combined with 2 climate policy scenarios (no climate policy and 2.8 W/m2 target). The former are mostly focused on non-climate policies and technical control measures for emissions of air pollutants, such as PM2.5, NOx and SO2, with their emission factors harmonized between the IAMs. With the global air quality source-receptor model TM5-FASST the impact of the resulting emissions was analysed and the co-benefits of combined

  17. The wanted change against climate change: assessing the role of organic farming as an adaptation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Sherief, Aliyaru Kunju

    2010-01-01

    Conventional input intensive agriculture practised over the last century has been a major contributor to climate change, second only to energy sector. The communities engaged in pesticide and synthetic input rich agriculture is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Many emerging economies including India have had the opportunity to develop National Adaptation Plans of Action in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change but implementation of those pro...

  18. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management.

  19. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  20. Taking a climate chance: a procedural critique of Vietnam's climate change strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, François

    2010-01-01

    This article asks through what processes and for which interests the emerging Vietnamese climate change strategy is being designed, and if, ultimately, it is likely or not to be effective in the face of the looming threat. Through a review of an emerging body of literature and field observations, the paper finds the strategy partial and problematic in several ways. Its technocratic process prevents a pluralist representation of interests, obfuscating and perpetuating sectorial ones, at the expense of a more transparent and democratic resource allocation. The strategy therefore reflects and reinforces existing power relations in both politics and production. It feeds into a business-as-usual complacency, protecting national and international interests vested in unchallenged continuity, even when considering post-carbon technological fixes, which largely serve to expand capital accumulation opportunities. The article concludes that the national climate change strategy provides an illusion of intervention and security, but largely fails to identify and mitigate the underlying causes of climate change, or to lay the ground for a robust mid- and long-term adaptation strategy that can cope with yet unknown levels of climatic and other structural changes. PMID:21132943

  1. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies : An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very

  2. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  3. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  4. Strategy implementation and organizational change in healthcare organizations - a distributed change leadership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    This paper examines some theoretical underpinnings of distributed leadership and its ability to serve as change leadership during the process of major organizational changes in healthcare organizations. The study was initiated as part of a larger research project on distributed leadership (DL......) in the healthcare sector, financed by a research grant addressing both empirical and theoretical questions. The paper clarifies the relationship between distributed leadership and change leadership, and more specifically, the characteristics of distributed leadership in the change leadership process. We also...... propose a distributed change leadership (DCL) model that permits further development of research design and empirical studies of DCL. On a more general side, with this paper we shed more light on some aspects of leadership patterns in healthcare, where there is a distinct gap....

  5. Effectiveness of a Conceptual Change-Oriented Teaching Strategy to Improve Students' Understanding of Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Uce, Musa; Saricayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

    2006-01-01

    The results of previous educational research raise some questions about the efficacy of conventional teaching strategies and point to a need for using teaching strategies that explicitly take into account misconceptions students bring to the classes or acquire during the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, this article presents efforts to…

  6. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  7. Which Implementation Technique Should a Transport Company Incorporate to Best Succeed With Their Strategies and Objectives : How can implementation affect the result of the strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Sofi Klavacs

    2012-01-01

    When the market, competitors or other environmental circumstances change, a business need to adjust to the new conditions. The business strategies give the company guidance and should give the needed direction to help prepare for future market conditions. Extensive change in an organization requires adjustments in not only attitudes but also behaviours of the employees and managers. Many companies are struggling to make this happen one reason for not succeeding is vague and unclear direction ...

  8. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  9. Applying change management metaphors to a national e-Health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Chad; Scott, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Recent attempts at a collective understanding of how to develop an e-Health strategy have addressed the individual organisation, collection of organisations, and national levels. At the national level the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit serves as an exemplar that consolidates knowledge in this area, guides practical implementations, and identifies areas for future research. A key implication of this toolkit is the considerable number of organisational changes required to successfully apply their ideas in practice. This study looks critically at the confluence of change management and e-Health strategy using metaphors that underpin established models of change management. Several of Morgan's organisational metaphors are presented (highlighting varied beliefs and assumptions regarding how change is enacted, who is responsible for the change, and guiding principles for that change), and used to provide a framework. Attention is then directed to several prominent models of change management that exemplify one or more of these metaphors, and these theoretical insights are applied to evaluate the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit. The paper presents areas for consideration when using the WHO/ITU toolkit, and suggestions on how to improve its use in practice. The goal is to seek insight regarding the optimal sequence of steps needed to ensure successful implementation and integration of e-health into health systems using change management models. No single model, toolkit, or guideline will offer all the needed answers, but clarity around the underlying metaphors informing the change management models being used provides valuable insight so potentially challenging areas can be avoided or mitigated.

  10. Global climate change: An introduction and results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Anji

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives summary of the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WG1) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4): The physical science basis for climate change. It begins with a history of the theory of global climate change, followed by the important concepts surrounding global climate change: the greenhouse effect and carbon cycle and how the climate has changed throughout the earth's history. It then discusses the IPCC's assessment reports, focusi...

  11. Facilitating Change in Undergraduate STEM: Initial Results from an Interdisciplinary Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Beach, Andrea; Finkelstein, Noah; Larson, R. Sam

    2008-10-01

    Although decades of research have identified effective instructional practices for improving Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, these practices are not widely implemented. Scholars in three fields are interested in promoting these practices and have engaged in research on pedagogical change: Disciplinary-based STEM Education Researchers, Faculty Development Researchers, and Higher Education Researchers. There is little interaction between the fields and efforts in all areas have met with only modest success. In this paper we present an initial examination of 130 randomly chosen articles from a set of 295 we identified as addressing efforts to promote change in the instructional practices of STEM faculty. We identify four core change strategies and note that change strategies differ by fields. Articles in all fields frequently do not provide enough evidence to convincingly argue for the success of the change strategy studied and have few connections to theoretical or empirical literature related to change. This literature review and related efforts sit within broader efforts to promote interdisciplinary directed at facilitating lasting change.

  12. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  13. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy—theoretic premises and practical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient’s everyday speech. The SLP’s plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit...... are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3...... change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy...

  14. Formation of Marketing Strategies and Programs in the Context of Global Change

    OpenAIRE

    Vedernikova Olga A.; Babenko Nataliya V.; Rybas Yana N.

    2012-01-01

    This article gived an analysis of modern trends in globalization processes and their connection with the formation of a global business strategy. It was substantiated the topicality of forming a new conceptual approach to strategy development in a «stable instability». It was proposed a model of development strategy, which involves the formation of interconnected network of alternative strategies, and allows flexible to adapt to changing conditions.В статье выполнен анализ современных тенденц...

  15. Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer. Results of the Danish National Single Center Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerberg, L; Høgdall, C; Loft, A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present and evaluate an unselected national single center strategy with fertility preserving trachelectomy in cervical cancer. In 2003 nationwide single-center referral of women for trachelectomies was agreed upon between all Danish departments performing cervical cancer surgery...... with the purpose of increasing volume, to increase surgical safety and facilitate follow-up. METHODS: Prospective data were recorded in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database of all Vaginal Radical Trachelectomies (VRT) performed in Denmark between 2002 and 2013. Oncologic, fertility and obstetrical outcomes...... of 120 unselected consecutive VRTs were assessed. To obtain complete follow-up about fertility treatment, pregnancy and obstetric outcome the women filled out an electronic questionnaire. Median follow-up: 55.7 months. RESULTS: 85.8% of the patients had stage IB1 disease, 68.3% squamous cell carcinomas...

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6 READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese proficiency test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the authors personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  17. FACTORS AFFECTING RESULT IN CHINESE PROFICIENCY TEST (HSK LEVEL 6: READING SECTION AND PREPARATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  18. Establishment of an indicator concept for the German strategy on adaptation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von; Wulfert, Katrin [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Luthardt, Vera; Kreinsen, Beatrice; Schultz-Sternberg, R.; Hommel, Robert [Hochschule fuer Nachhaltige Entwicklung Eberswalde (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Even if we succeed in achieving the EU target of reducing global warming to 2 C, it will be absolutely essential to adapt to changing climatic conditions. The greenhouse gases currently present in the atmosphere will influence the climate in coming decades. The day on which it is quite clear which climatic scenario prevails, so that it is possible to model all relevant processes down to regional level, will be the day on which it is too late to adapt to the actual scenario. Our endeavours to adapt to climate change do not mean, however, that we can neglect to take measures in order to reduce the output of greenhouse gases. It is important to remember that on their own, neither adaptation nor mitigation can prevent the grave impacts resulting from climate change. In fact, they complement each other meaningfully thus helping to alleviate the risks of climate change. On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the DAS (German Strategy for the Adaptation to Climate Change), (Bundesregierung 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and fore-most, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide a guideline for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in this process. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and advance the DAS. An integral part of this will be the Special Information System 'Adaptation' (FISKA) and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far

  19. International Strategy For Climate Change And The Countries Commitment For Developing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovska-Stefanova, Aneta; Vckova, Nadica

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is not only a modern term that is constantly used in international politics to show awareness about this significant issue in the world media, or as a subject that states have to consider as important in the future when the world will be politically and economically more stabile. Climate change has become a global political and environmental challenge for humanity over the last decades. Therefore, coordinate approach of the countries and international strategy for disaster risk...

  20. Adapting to change in the Andes: Practices and strategies for vulnerable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings of the SANREM CRSP research project "Practices and strategies for vulnerable agro-ecosystems", with specific regard to the impact of climate change. Research highlights focus on the importance of developing multiple types of capital to make farmers and farming systems more resilient in the face of climate change. The presentation also discusses the significance of pest and disease forecasting technologies in assisting producers. LTRA-4 (Practices a...

  1. Identity work during strategic change: Coping strategies, dynamics and complexities. Case Aalto Univeristy School of Business

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of the study was to contribute to a better understanding of the intra-organizational identity work during strategic change. Based on earlier research strategic change is known to cause disruption to the members ongoing identity work in an organization. The aim of this study was to find out how the new strategy and organizational identity were interpreted among the members of the organization, and what kind of disruptions did the new identity-challenging...

  2. Farmers´ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette;

    2009-01-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver...... of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind...... in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain...

  3. IMPROVEMENT OF COMPANY MARKETING STRATEGY BASED ON ANALYSIS OF GOOGLE SEARCH RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ďurica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet plays a major role in people's lives. It is usually used for entertainment, as a source of information, and also for electronic commerce. Electronic commerce (e-commerce is gradually replacing traditional shopping, especially in the past years. It is a quick and easy form of marketing, which provides convenience for the customers, and, therefore, more and more users are using this form of shopping on the Internet. E-commerce also provides new opportunities for companies, which force them to begin dealing with the Internet. Many customers who are shopping on the Internet look for the best product or service close to their home. Most of the space in the search results in Google is occupied by local results. If a company offers some goods or services and they do not show up on the local search results, the company may be losing a lot of profits from these potential customers. That is why companies have to focus on best ranking in the local search results. In this article, we try to experimentally determine which factors affect ranking in Google search. Of course, it is necessary to quantify the impact of these factors. To select these factors and to determine their impact, we use exact methods of mathematical statistics, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression analysis. Confirmation and quantification of the impact of some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the company can be used to formulate recommendations for improving corporate strategy in acquiring new customers.

  4. The impacts of influence strategies on organizational subgroup members' evaluations of management accounting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates how different influence strategies affect business unit managers’ and controllers’ evaluations of the success of a management accounting change (MAC). Using survey data on paired observations from managers and controllers in 68 business units, I find that influence

  5. Implementing an Open Source Learning Management System: A Critical Analysis of Change Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the change and innovation strategies that Charles Sturt University (CSU) used from 2007 to 2009 during the implementation and mainstreaming of an open source learning management system (LMS), Sakai, named locally as "CSU Interact". CSU was in January 2008 the first Australian University to implement an open source learning…

  6. A Bridge between Worlds: Understanding Network Structure to Understand Change Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Finnigan, Kara S.

    2010-01-01

    A number of scholars are exploring district and site relations in organizational change efforts in the larger policy context of No Child Left Behind. These studies suggest the importance of the central office as a support to the work of reform and offer strategies for building relations between district offices and sites in order to implement and…

  7. Organizational Strategies for Promoting Instructional Change: Implementation Dynamics in Schools Working with Comprehensive School Reform Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Brian; Miller, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for studying how three comprehensive school reform (CSR) programs organized schools for instructional change and how the distinctive strategies they pursued affected implementation outcomes. The conceptual model views the Accelerated Schools Project as using a system of cultural control to produce…

  8. Economic Legal and Political Framework of the EU Strategy on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODEA Al.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study are presented essential legislative asepects of the strategy regarding the European Uniongrowing problem of climate change There are briefly outlined the most important documents adopted at European levelin the last decade in order to reduce the extent that this phenomenon reached, from Kyoto Protocol, to the most recentEU legislation in this area.

  9. Evaluating Ranking Strategies in Assessing Change when the Measures Differ across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Kim, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a ranking strategy was evaluated for comparing subgroups' change using identical, equated, and nonidentical measures. Four empirical data sets were evaluated, each of which contained examinees' scores on two occasions, where the two occasions' scores were obtained on a single identical measure, on two equated tests, and on two…

  10. Beyond Change Management How to Achieve Breakthrough Results Through Conscious Change Leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    "With this extensively upgraded second edition, Dean Anderson and Linda Ackerman Anderson solidify their status as the leading authorities on change leadership and organizational transformation. This is without question the most comprehensive approach for leaders who are serious about making change a strategic discipline.". — Jim Kouzes , Author, The Leadership Challenge and The Truth About Leadership. A comprehensive look at what it really takes to lead transformation successfully, written by two of the "masters of the craft." The author's best-selling first edition has be

  11. Future Arctic temperature change resulting from a range of aerosol emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobus, Cameron; Flanner, Mark; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    The Arctic temperature response to emissions of aerosols -- specifically black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate -- depends on both the sector and the region where these emissions originate. Thus, the net Arctic temperature response to global aerosol emissions reductions will depend strongly on the blend of emissions sources being targeted. We use recently published equilibrium Arctic temperature response factors for BC, OC, and sulfate to estimate the range of present-day and future Arctic temperature changes from seven different aerosol emissions scenarios. Globally, Arctic temperature changes calculated from all of these emissions scenarios indicate that present-day emissions from the domestic and transportation sectors generate the majority of present-day Arctic warming from BC. However, in all of these scenarios, this warming is more than offset by cooling resulting from SO2 emissions from the energy sector. Thus, long-term climate mitigation strategies that are focused on reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector could generate short-term, aerosol-induced Arctic warming. A properly phased approach that targets BC-rich emissions from the transportation sector as well as the domestic sectors in key regions -- while simultaneously working toward longer-term goals of CO2 mitigation -- could potentially avoid some amount of short-term Arctic warming.

  12. Energetic optimisation of foraging honeybees: flexible change of strategies in response to environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Heterothermic insects like honeybees, foraging in a variable environment, face the challenge of keeping their body temperature high to enable immediate flight and to promote fast exploitation of resources. Because of their small size they have to cope with an enormous heat loss and, therefore, high costs of thermoregulation. This calls for energetic optimisation which may be achieved by different strategies. An 'economizing' strategy would be to reduce energetic investment whenever possible, for example by using external heat from the sun for thermoregulation. An 'investment-guided' strategy, by contrast, would be to invest additional heat production or external heat gain to optimize physiological parameters like body temperature which promise increased energetic returns. Here we show how honeybees balance these strategies in response to changes of their local microclimate. In a novel approach of simultaneous measurement of respiration and body temperature foragers displayed a flexible strategy of thermoregulatory and energetic management. While foraging in shade on an artificial flower they did not save energy with increasing ambient temperature as expected but acted according to an 'investment-guided' strategy, keeping the energy turnover at a high level (∼56-69 mW). This increased thorax temperature and speeded up foraging as ambient temperature increased. Solar heat was invested to increase thorax temperature at low ambient temperature ('investment-guided' strategy) but to save energy at high temperature ('economizing' strategy), leading to energy savings per stay of ∼18-76% in sunshine. This flexible economic strategy minimized costs of foraging, and optimized energetic efficiency in response to broad variation of environmental conditions.

  13. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  14. Identifying how the strategies used to evaluate flood damages can affect the results of the evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério, Julian; Rozan, Anne; Mosé, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The evaluation of flood damages is a complex interdisciplinary task which demands great efforts on assessment and modelling processes. Several methods and models can be used in practice to evaluate flood damages. On the one hand, hydrological and hydrodynamic aspects of floods shall be modelled in order to forecast different characteristics of floods, e.g. return period, flood extent, water depth, duration of submersion and flow speed. Different hydrological assumptions can take place when determining return periods of extreme events. Several hydrodynamic models can be used to simulate floods. These models have different levels of complexity and different acquisition, implementation and maintenance costs. On the other hand, geographic, engineering, social and economic aspects of the system exposed to floods shall be assessed, e.g. assets location, vulnerability characteristics, susceptibility to suffer damages. Once again, several methods and datasets with different liability and different levels of feasibility can be used to assess these characteristics. Uncertainty exists all over the evaluation process. When reducing uncertainty on the evaluation results by improving the strategies used, we could generate the elevation of the costs of the evaluation and compromise its feasibility. To deal with feasibility of the evaluation process and with uncertainty on the evaluation results is a big scientific and operational challenge. The aim of this paper is to develop a research framework to analyze the impact of different strategies used to evaluate flood damages on the feasibility of the evaluation and on the liability of its results. The two main parts of the evaluation process are discussed: (1) the hydrodynamic simulation of flood events and its hydrological components and (2) the assessment of assets vulnerability to floods. The framework compares two aspects of the evaluation: uncertainty - variability of the evaluation results according to the choice of models and

  15. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1 the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies as a result of changes in climate; (2 ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3 identification the socio-economic factors associated with adoption of coping strategies, and (4 ranking potential constraints to adoption of coping strategies based on farmers’ reporting on the degree to which they face these constraints. As a preliminary matter, this paper also reports on the perceptions of farmers in the study about their experiences with climatic change. The research area is comprised of three villages in the coastal region (Sathkhira district, a geographic region which climate change literature has highlighted as prone to accelerated degradation. One-hundred (100 farmers participated in the project’s survey, from which the data was used to calculate weighted indexes for rankings and to perform logistic regression. The rankings, model results, and descriptive statistics, are reported here. Results showed that a majority of the farmers self-identified as having engaged in adaptive behavior. Out of 14 adaptation strategies, irrigation ranked first among farm adaptive measures, while crop insurance has ranked as least utilized. The logit model explained that out of eight factors surveyed, age, education, family size, farm size, family income, and involvement in cooperatives were significantly related to self-reported adaptation. Despite different support and technological interventions being available, lack of available water, shortage of cultivable land, and unpredictable weather ranked highest as the respondent group’s constraints to coping with environmental

  16. The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries -methodological and empirical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a methodological and empirical discussion of the costs associated with implementing greenhouse gas reduction strategies in developing countries. It presents a methodological framework for national costing studies and evaluates a number of associated valuation methods. The methodological framework has been applied in several developing countries as part of a UNEP project in which the author has participated, and reference is made to the results of these country studies. Some of the theoretical issues associated with the determination of the costs of emission reductions are discussed with reference to a number of World Bank and UN guidelines for project analysis in developing countries. The use of several accounting prices is recommended for mitigation projects, with a distinction being made between internationally and domestically traded goods. The consequences of using different accounting prices are discussed with respect to the methodology applied in the UNEP country studies. In conclusion the thesis reviews the results of some of the most important international studies of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. The review, which encompasses a total of 27 country studies, was undertaken by the author for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the IPCC. Its conclusion is that the UNEP methodological framework and associated country study results are consistent with the recommendations and conclusions of the IPCC. (EG) 23 refs

  17. The economics of climate change mitigation in developing countries - methodological and empirical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis presents a methodological and empirical discussion of the costs associated with implementing greenhouse gas reduction strategies in developing countries. It presents a methodological framework for national costing studies and evaluates a number of associated valuation methods. The methodological framework has been applied in several developing countries as part of a UNEP project in which the author has participated, and reference is made to the results of these country studies. Some of the theoretical issues associated with the determination of the costs of emission reductions are discussed with reference to a number of World Bank and UN guidelines for project analysis in developing countries. The use of several accounting prices is recommended for mitigation projects, with a distinction being made between internationally and domestically traded goods. The consequences of using different accounting prices are discussed with respect to the methodology applied in the UNEP country studies. In conclusion the thesis reviews the results of some of the most important international studies of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. The review, which encompasses a total of 27 country studies, was undertaken by the author for the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, the IPCC. Its conclusion is that the UNEP methodological framework and associated country study results are consistent with the recommendations and conclusions of the IPCC. (EG) 23 refs.

  18. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  19. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  20. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa

    2009-05-01

    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  1. Climate Change Predictions and Adaption Strategies for Coastal NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change could significantly impact the personal and operations of federal coastal laboratories. The Goddard Institute for Space Studies has made downscaled climate projections for Hampton Roads, Virginia a coastal region which includes NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). These projections are being used to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce climate change impacts at the center. Sea level rise and hurricanes will have significant impacts on LaRC and strategies such as surge modeling and tide gauge measurements and now underway. A proposed windbreak will reduce the impact of hurricane winds on center infrastructure. Disease vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks are being monitored and studied for their response to climate change. LaRC has significant forest and ecosystems which will be impacted by climate change and these impacts are being quantified. Mitigation strategies are being proposed such as the design of a 3 MW solar photovoltaic array to protect the center from brownouts and loss of power to critical missions. These and other programs will be discussed to reduce climate change impacts and allow LaRC to accomplish its mission into the next century.

  2. Adaptation strategies to climate variability and change and its limitations to smallholder farmers. A literature search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Phillipo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability and change are scattered and fragmented due to lack of standpoints adaptation framework. This paper intends to analyse differences in adaptation strategies across agro-ecological zones, and finding out factors dictating adaptation to climate variability and change to smallholder farmers. The paper is based on documentary review methodology in which journals and books on adaptation were used as the main sources of information. The collected information were analysed by using content analysis. This paper found that smallholder farmers use a variety of practices to adapt to climate variability and change. These practices include: crop management, livestock management, diversification of livelihood strategies and land use management. Availability of extension services, climate change information and membership to social networks were among the factors identified dictating smallholder farmers adaptation to climate variability and change. The paper recommends to the Government of sub-Saharan Africa and development partners to come up with adaptation framework that takes into consideration differences in geographical location. They are needed also to provide enabling conditions to smallholder farmers through strengthening farmers’ supportive services to enhance their adaptive capacities.

  3. The robustness of flood insurance regimes given changing risk resulting from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Lamond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing risk of flooding associated with climate change presents different challenges for the different flood insurance market models in use around the world, which vary in respect of consumer structure and their risk transfer mechanism. A review of international models has been undertaken against three broad criteria for the functioning and sustainability of a flood insurance scheme: knowing the nature of the insurable risk; the availability of an insurable population; and the presence of a solvent insurer. The solvency of insurance markets appears strong, partly because insurers and reinsurers can choose to exclude markets which would give rise to insolvency or can diversify their portfolios to include offsetting perils. Changing risk may threaten solvency if increasing risk is not recognised and adjusted for but insurability of flood risk may be facilitated by the use of market based and hybrid schemes offering greater diversification and more flexibility. While encouragement of mitigation is in theory boosted by risk based pricing, availability and affordability of insurance may be negatively impacted. This threatens the sustainability of an insurable population, therefore the inclusion of the state in partnership is beneficial in ensuring continuity of cover, addressing equity issues and incentivising mitigation.

  4. Application of quality improvement strategies in 389 European hospitals: results of the MARQuIS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M.H. Lombarts; I. Rupp; P. Vallejo; R. Suñol; N.S. Klazinga

    2009-01-01

    Context: This study was part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project investigating the impact of quality improvement strategies on hospital care in various countries of the European Union (EU), in relation to specific needs of cross-border pa

  5. The Impact of changed organizational structures- on middle managers' perception of strategy and people management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    people. An important condition for this is, however, that middle managers also perceive such responsibilities as important. This paper is based on a survey of Managers in Danish organizations. Findings with different but related angels are highlighted here. First, only a small percentage of participating...... changes in their perception of people management. Implications for research and practice are addressed in the discussion.......Much research on organizational change and middle management has emphasized the idea of flatter more performance- and customer focused organizations, in which middle managers’ main responsibilities concern elements of organizational change and development such as strategy involvement, and managing...

  6. Changes in parenting strategies after a young person’s self-harm: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrey, AE; Hughes, ND; Simkin, S; Locock, L; Stewart, A; Kapur, N; Gunnell, D; Hawton, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background When faced with the discovery of their child’s self-harm, mothers and fathers may re-evaluate their parenting strategies. This can include changes to the amount of support they provide their child and changes to the degree to which they control and monitor their child. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study with 37 parents of young people who had self-harmed in which we explored how and why their parenting changed after the discovery of self-harm. Re...

  7. Processing of metals and dielectric materials with ps-laserpulses: results, strategies, limitations and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Beat; Bucher, Guido F.; Nussbaum, Christian; Joss, Benjamin; Muralt, Martin; Hunziker, Urs W.; Schuetz, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Ultra short (ps, fs) laser pulses are used, when high requirements concerning accuracy, surface roughness, heat affected zone etc. are demanded for surface structuring. Ps-laser systems that are suited to be operated in industrial environments are of great interest for many practical applications. Here results in the field of 3-d structuring (metals and transparent materials), induced processes and structuring of flexible solar cells will be presented. Beside the pulse duration, which is given by the laser system, the user has a wide variety of optimization parameters such as fluence, repetition rate and wavelength. Based on a simple model it will be shown, that there exist optimum laser parameters to achieve maximum volume ablation rates at a given average power. To take benefit of these optimum parameters and to prevent harmful effects like plasma shielding and surface melting, adapted structuring strategies, depending on the requirements, have to be used. Today's ultra short pulsed systems have average powers from a few W up to a few 10W at high repetition rates. The actual available beam guiding systems are limited and can often not fulfill the requirements needed for high throughput structuring with optimized parameters. Based on the achieved results, the needs for future beam guiding systems will be discussed.

  8. Hierarchical decision processes that operate over distinct timescales underlie choice and changes in strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Braden A; Kiani, Roozbeh

    2016-08-01

    Decision-making in a natural environment depends on a hierarchy of interacting decision processes. A high-level strategy guides ongoing choices, and the outcomes of those choices determine whether or not the strategy should change. When the right decision strategy is uncertain, as in most natural settings, feedback becomes ambiguous because negative outcomes may be due to limited information or bad strategy. Disambiguating the cause of feedback requires active inference and is key to updating the strategy. We hypothesize that the expected accuracy of a choice plays a crucial rule in this inference, and setting the strategy depends on integration of outcome and expectations across choices. We test this hypothesis with a task in which subjects report the net direction of random dot kinematograms with varying difficulty while the correct stimulus-response association undergoes invisible and unpredictable switches every few trials. We show that subjects treat negative feedback as evidence for a switch but weigh it with their expected accuracy. Subjects accumulate switch evidence (in units of log-likelihood ratio) across trials and update their response strategy when accumulated evidence reaches a bound. A computational framework based on these principles quantitatively explains all aspects of the behavior, providing a plausible neural mechanism for the implementation of hierarchical multiscale decision processes. We suggest that a similar neural computation-bounded accumulation of evidence-underlies both the choice and switches in the strategy that govern the choice, and that expected accuracy of a choice represents a key link between the levels of the decision-making hierarchy.

  9. Can Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies Be Accurately Quantified if Crop Models Are Annually Re-Initialized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W; Kendall, Anthony D; Grace, Peter R; Robertson, G Philip

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts on global food production are generally based on statistical or process-based models. Process-based models can provide robust predictions of agricultural yield responses to changing climate and management. However, applications of these models often suffer from bias due to the common practice of re-initializing soil conditions to the same state for each year of the forecast period. If simulations neglect to include year-to-year changes in initial soil conditions and water content related to agronomic management, adaptation and mitigation strategies designed to maintain stable yields under climate change cannot be properly evaluated. We apply a process-based crop system model that avoids re-initialization bias to demonstrate the importance of simulating both year-to-year and cumulative changes in pre-season soil carbon, nutrient, and water availability. Results are contrasted with simulations using annual re-initialization, and differences are striking. We then demonstrate the potential for the most likely adaptation strategy to offset climate change impacts on yields using continuous simulations through the end of the 21st century. Simulations that annually re-initialize pre-season soil carbon and water contents introduce an inappropriate yield bias that obscures the potential for agricultural management to ameliorate the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and greater rainfall variability.

  10. Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change and the Role of Planning Instruments - The Example of the Dresden Region (Saxony/Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, J.; Juta, K.; Nobis, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past, identifying anthropogenic influences on climate change, scenario analyses and issues of climate change mitigation were predominant approaches in climate change research (IPCC 2007). Currently, for instance in Germany, climate impact research on regional level comes to the forefront of research and policy making. Climate change has become an important topic on the agenda of politicians, administration and planning. In order to counteract the (unavoidable) climate change and its impacts it is necessary to develop adaptation strategies. At present, such strategies and guidelines are formulated on international, supranational and national level. The initial point was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992 where the contracting states obligated themselves to develop national (and regional) programmes for adaptation. In 2007 the European Commission published its Green Paper called Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe. The paper states that adaptation efforts have to be intensified at different (spatial) levels (local, regional, national, and so forth). Furthermore, coordinating these efforts is of high importance. With the recent agreement on the German Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change (DAS 2008) in December 2008, federal government tries to accomplish this task. The German strategy mainly focuses on two elements: decreasing vulnerability and increasing adaptability. While the above mentioned strategies have presented information and policies concerning climate change and adaptation on international, supranational and national level, such documents dońt yet exist on regional level. However, because of their close link to the local level the regions are of high importance for adaptation strategies. Therefore, the Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development developed a transdisciplinary project to formulate and implement the so-called Integrated Regional Climate Adaptation Programme (IRCAP) for the Model Region

  11. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  12. Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F Stuart; Lovecraft, Amy L; Zavaleta, Erika S; Nelson, Joanna; Robards, Martin D; Kofinas, Gary P; Trainor, Sarah F; Peterson, Garry D; Huntington, Henry P; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2006-11-01

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously. PMID:17008403

  13. Understanding and Meeting the Needs of Space Scientists in EPO—Survey Results, Responses, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Schneider, N.

    2015-11-01

    As science literacy is falling in the United States, our world continues to become more complex. Everyone now requires an understanding of science, technology, and the relationship of interconnected systems in order to successfully navigate the complex issues facing us. Scientists are a critical resource, bringing to the table an understanding of the nature of science as a process, as well as up-to-the-minute scientific content. They can function in a wide range of capacities in education and public outreach (EPO) to meet some of the learning challenges of teachers, students, and the general public. Societies that work directly with scientists, such as the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) are interested in understanding how their member scientists view the act of reaching out, how they do it, and how the DPS can continue to support them as they engage with a variety of audiences in an EPO capacity. To this end, we (the NASA Science Mission Directorate Planetary Science Forum and DPS leadership) conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with a subsection of DPS members to learn more about their attitudes and needs, and to begin to pinpoint opportunities and strategies for future consideration. Presented here are our preliminary results and the ideas generated for further conversations.

  14. REGAT: The Algerian Permanent GPS Network. Strategy, configuration and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkarim; Lammali, Kamel; Bellik, Amar; Mahsas, Abdelhakim; Bacha, Wahab; Bougrine, Amina

    2013-04-01

    Northern Algeria, located along the Eurasiatic-African boundary plate is characterised by a moderate to strong seismic activity. During History, some violent earthquakes occurred mainly in the Atlas region, particularly in the Tellian area, leading sometimes to destruction of major cities of Algeria (Algiers, 1716; Oran, 1790; Blida, 1825; El Asnam, 1980; Constantine, 1985; Boumerdes, 2003…). In order to improve the knowledge of the deformation pattern of the Atlasic region, and more globally of the African (Nubia)-Eurasia plate boundary along the Algerian margin, the Research Center of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Geophysics (CRAAG) started since six year to implement a permanent GPS network. The REGAT (REseau Géodésique de l'Atlas), consists on a set of 56 continuous GPS stations deployed in the Atlas region, from the coastal area to the Sahara Platform with one station at Tamanrasset, in the southern part of the country. The deployment strategy consisted in two phases: - The first one began on 2004 with 14 stations installed - The second phase, which started in 2011concerns a set of 42 stations. We present here the procedure used to collect, store and process the GPS data from the REGAT network and present the preliminary results of the stations which observed more than three years. Keywords: Earthquake, GPS, Networks, REGAT.

  15. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Eike; Missler-Behr, Magdalena; Schmidt, Michael; Spyra, Simon P.N. (eds.) [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  16. Implementing adaptation strategies by legal, economic and planning instruments on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and effects of climate change are just as varied as the proposed solutions and approaches for dealing with the problem. Given the global character of climate change, comprehensive global cooperation is called for that leads to effective and appropriate international action in accordance with the respective responsibilities. These will inevitably differ depending on the capabilities and the social and economic situations of the respective actors. The contributions in this book present a variety of ideas, approaches and tools regarding the adaptation to climate change in specific countries and regions. In addition to examining (existing) legal instruments, they also focus on the implementation of economic instruments and planning tools, as well as their (further) development. Rather than simply discussing strategies to counteract climate change by reducing emissions, the authors also search for ways of actively adapting to climate change.

  17. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  18. Scaling Factor Estimation Using an Optimized Mass Change Strategy, Part 1: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are kno...... the dynamic behavior of the structure. In this paper, a procedure to optimize the mass change strategy is proposed, which uses the modal parameters(natural frequencies and mode shapes) of the original structure as the basic information.......In natural input modal analysis, only un-scaled mode shapes can be obtained. The mass change method is, in many cases, the simplest way to estimate the scaling factors, which involves repeated modal testing after changing the mass in different points of the structure where the mode shapes are known....... The scaling factors are determined using the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both the modified and the unmodified structure. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factor estimation depends on the modal analysis and the mass change strategy (number, magnitude and location of the masses) used to modify...

  19. Attributes of researchers and their strategies to recruit minority populations: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B

    2012-11-01

    Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship.

  20. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  1. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woerd, F.; De Wit, K.; Vellinga, P. [Institue for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kolk, A. [Institute for Environmental Management, Faculty of Economics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levy, D. [Department of Management, University of Massachusetts, Boston, VA (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible.

  2. Four Sectors of Industry in USA and Europe compared. Business Strategies and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Private companies will play a critical role in implementation of successful climate policies. However, until now little is known about triggers to develop corporate climate strategies. In a USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have investigated emerging climate strategies in the oil, automobile, chemical and bank and insurance industries. A focal question was whether strategies of EU based corporations differ systematically from USA based corporations. Results show rather sectorial specific developments. In most sectors, i.e. oil, automobile and banks, European corporations generally tend to have more advanced climate policies than their USA counterparts, but this does not apply to chemical companies. In the automobile industry, USA and Europe show convergent strategies. In the other sectors, convergence is not clearly visible

  3. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in the Food Industry—Insights from Product Carbon and Water Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity that needs to be considered in business strategy. For firms in the food industry, many of the important climate impacts are not directly related to food processing so a value chain approach to adaptation is recommended. However, there is a general lack of operational tools to support this. In this study, carbon and water footprints were conducted at a low-precision screening level in three case studies in Australia: Smith’s potato chips, OneHarvest Calypso™ mango and selected Treasury Wine Estates products. The approach was cost-effective when compared to high-definition studies intended to support environmental labels and declarations, yet provided useful identification of physical, financial, regulatory and reputational hotspots related to climate change. A combination of diagnostic footprinting, downscaled climate projection and semi-quantitative value chain analysis is proposed as a practical and relevant toolkit to inform climate adaptation strategies.

  4. Moving polewards in winter: a recent change in the migratory strategy of a pelagic seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the non-breeding period, many birds migrate to milder areas, found closer to the equator than their breeding sites. Opposite movements are very rare. In the Southern Ocean, the abundance of 13C declines markedly with more southern latitude, providing a characteristic 13C isoscape. This can be used as a tracer for the movement of seabirds between breeding and inter-breeding areas, by comparing stable isotope ratios of feathers grown at different times of the year. Results We studied seasonal movements of Thin-billed prions (Aves, Procellariiformes, breeding at the Subantarctic Falkland/Malvinas Islands, compared with those of Wilson's storm-petrels breeding in the Antarctic South Shetland Islands. The two species showed opposite migratory movements. While Wilson's storm-petrels moved to warmer waters north of the Drake Passage in winter, Thin-billed prions showed a reversed movement towards more polar waters. Carbon stable isotope ratios in recent and historical feathers indicated that poleward winter movements of Thin-billed prions were less common historically (45% in 1913-1915, and have only recently become dominant (92% in 2003-2005, apparently in response to warming sea temperatures. Conclusions This study shows that pelagic seabirds can rapidly change migration strategies within populations, including migration towards more poleward waters in winter.

  5. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  6. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Baca

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of

  7. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic suitability for coffee and other crops were predicted through niche modelling based on historical climate data and locations of coffee growing areas from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. Future climate projections were generated from 19 Global Circulation Models. Focus groups were used to identify nine indicators of sensitivity and eleven indicators of adaptive capacity, which were evaluated through semi-structured interviews with 558 coffee producers. Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity were then condensed into an index of vulnerability, and adaptation strategies were identified in participatory workshops. Models predict that all target countries will experience a decrease in climatic suitability for growing Arabica coffee, with highest suitability loss for El Salvador and lowest loss for Mexico. High vulnerability resulted from loss in climatic suitability for coffee production and high sensitivity through variability of yields and out-migration of the work force. This was combined with low adaptation capacity as evidenced by poor post harvest infrastructure and in some cases poor access to credit and low levels of social organization. Nevertheless, the specific contributors to vulnerability varied strongly among countries, municipalities and families making general trends difficult to identify. Flexible strategies for adaption are therefore needed. Families need the support of government and institutions specialized in impacts of climate change and

  8. Rethinking health systems strengthening: key systems thinking tools and strategies for transformational change

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, R. Chad; Cattaneo, Adriano; Bradley, Elizabeth; Chunharas, Somsak; Atun, Rifat; Abbas, Kaja M.; Katsaliaki, Korina; Mustafee, Navonil; Mason Meier, Benjamin; Best, Allan

    2012-01-01

    While reaching consensus on future plans to address current global health challenges is far from easy, there is broad agreement that reductionist approaches that suggest a limited set of targeted interventions to improve health around the world are inadequate. We argue that a comprehensive systems perspective should guide health practice, education, research and policy. We propose key ‘systems thinking’ tools and strategies that have the potential for transformational change in health systems...

  9. Indoor-Atmospheric Radon-Related Radioactivity Affected by a Change of Ventilation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halt...

  10. Indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity affected by a change of ventilation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2006-01-01

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8: 00-21 : 00 with weekend h...

  11. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we ...

  12. Coping Strategies Adopted by Public Universities in Kenya in Response to Environmental Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Francis M. Mathooko; Martin Ogutu

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish strategies adopted by public universities in Kenya in response to changes in the environment. The study design was descriptive and utilized a cross-sectional survey of all the public universities in Kenya through administration of a structured questionnaire to the top management team. Additional primary data were collected through observations and interviews. Secondary data were collected from published works and, universities and government documents in...

  13. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  14. Influence of hydrological modelling strategies on the diagnosis of the impact of climate change on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, Grégory; Roy, René; Anctil, François

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties related to the assessment of the impacts of climate change on water resources are large, from multiple sources, and lead to diagnoses sometimes difficult to interpret. Therefore, the quantification of these uncertainties is a key element to yield confidence in the analyses and to provide water managers with valuable information. This research specifically evaluates the sensitivity of future water resources projections to the choice of hydrological modelling strategies, on thirty-seven watersheds in the Province of Québec, Canada. These modelling strategies mainly focus on calibration and hydrological model choices, as well as individual versus ensemble approaches. Twenty lumped hydrological models, representing a wide range of operational options, are calibrated with three objective functions on six historical calibration periods. The hydrological models are forced with 122 climate simulations corresponding to four RCP and twenty-nine GCM from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5), provided by the Canadian consortium Ouranos. Two bias correction techniques are also evaluated and lead to future projections in the 2041-2070 period. Results show that the diagnosis of the impacts of climate change on water resources are quite sensitive to the hydrological models selection and calibration strategies. This statement is particularly true when evaluating changes in an absolute way. Multimodel approaches offer the best options in terms of calibration performance and robustness on contrasted climate conditions. Hydrological indicators, dedicated to water management, are sensitive to the calibration objective functions and period selection. Overall, these results illustrate the need to provide water managers with detailed information on relative changes analysis, but also absolute changes values, especially for hydrological indicators acting as security policy thresholds.

  15. Towards Comprehensive and Disciplined Change Management Strategy in Agile Transformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Javdani Gandomani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving to agile through a well-defined strategy and framework is essential and this socio-technical process should be studied in deep. Advantages and earned values of agile approach in software industry motivate a lot of companies to try to use agile methods in their software product lines. Transformation process to agile methods is not easy and because of its nature, takes a long time. Since agile transformation needs organizational mutation, companies are faced with many challenges during this process. While several studies have been conducted for how to use agile methods, some other studies have focused on finding obstacles in agile adoption process. However, previous studies are valuable, but each of them has focused the change process from a particular perspective. In this study we discuss the dimensions of agile transformation process from a wider perspective. We will show that focusing on agile adoption is not the only master key for success in agile transformation process and we need to define an agile change management strategy for this organizational metamorphosis. This strategy should consider all aspects of changing approach and is underpinning of achievement in agile transformation process through substantive transformation experiences.

  16. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  17. Climate Change and Variability: Farmers’ Perception, Experience and Adaptation Strategies in Makueni County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirina T. Kitinya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of climate change and variability (CCV from the farmer’s perspective is a key to prioritizing measures to address and prepare for its consequences. A survey involving 150 farmers was thus conducted in Makueni County, Kenya to document farmers’; perception, experience and adaptation strategies to CCV. About 86% of farmers perceived CCV as a major challenge with 53% indicating that significant changes in climate would manifest in 10-20 years. Significant changes in rainfall amounts and distribution had occurred over the years and were rated by 60% of farmers as the frequently experienced aspect of CCV. About 33% of farmers had heard of but not used decision support tools (DST to inform their agricultural activities. Workshops and seminars were reported by 67% of farmers as principal sources of information on CCV. Additionally, 50% of farmers relied on traditional knowledge for weather prediction. Only 20% of farmers had alternative strategies; agroforestry and growing drought tolerant crops particularly sorghum and cowpea, to minimize effects of CCV. Another 67% of farmers prioritized; terracing, ridging and water harvesting as adaptation strategies to minimize negative effects of CCV. The farmers were thus aware of CCV and through experience, backed with traditional technical knowledge, had gained prerequisite skills for addressing its negative effects. Nevertheless farmers’ agricultural practices could be improved by use of forecasted weather data and application of DST. Consequently enhancing farmers’ preparedness to tackle challenges posed by CCV.

  18. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  19. Physicians' communicative strategies in interacting with Internet-informed patients: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiata-Zufferey, Maria; Schulz, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the strategies used by physicians to interact with Internet-informed patients, alongside illustrating the motives underlying such strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 17 physicians from primary care and medical specialist practices in the Italian part of Switzerland. The sample was diversified in terms of specialty, age, and gender. Data collection and analysis were driven by grounded theory and supported by a computer-assisted qualitative analysis program. A typology of four communicative strategies has been outlined. The adoption of these strategies is shaped by physicians' general attitude toward Internet-informed patients, based on their conception of medical information for lay people through the Internet. However, this general attitude is mediated by doctors' interpretation of the specific communicative context, that is, their appraisal of three aspects: the patient's health literacy, the relevance of the online information to be discussed, and their own communicative efficacy. At the end, the process of interpretation underlying the strategies is discussed to expand on it and to identify implications for practice and research.

  20. Assessing the potential of in-field rainwater harvesting as an adaptation strategy to climate change for African agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebel, S.; Fleskens, L.; Forster, P.M.; Jackson, L.S.; Lorenz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing smallholder crop yields under changing climatic conditions in sub-Saharan Africa will require adaptation strategies focused on soil and water management. Impact studies of climate change on crop yields often ignore the potential of adaptation strategies such as rainwater harvesting (RWH)

  1. Prospective results of CHANG'E-2 X-ray spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-Xi; WANG Huan-Yu; ZHANG Cheng-Mo; CUI Xing-Zhu; CAO Xue-Lei; ZHANG Jia-Yu; LIANG Xiao-Hua; WANG Jin-Zhou; GAO Min; YANG Jia-Wei; WU Ming-Ye

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese second lunar satellite CE-2, which carries an X-ray spectrometer (XRS), will be launched at the end of 2010.In order to estimate the scientific results of XRS, we simulate the anticipated lunar X-ray spectra observed by XRS by using the expected mean solar X-ray flux in 2011.We also obtain the integration time and the spatial resolution required to achieve a certain significance level for the major lunar rock-forming elements in different solar activity conditions.It is expected that a spatial resolution of finer than 100 kilometers can be achieved for elements Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe.

  2. The role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation strategies — A Danish water management example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, J.C.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Drews, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    be used to address concerns that the IPCC approach is oversimplified. We have studied the role of uncertainty in climate change adaptation planning using examples from four Danish water related sectors. The dominating sources of uncertainty differ greatly among issues; most uncertainties on impacts......We propose a generic framework to characterize climate change adaptation uncertainty according to three dimensions: level, source and nature. Our framework is different, and in this respect more comprehensive, than the present UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) approach and could...... are epistemic (reducible) by nature but uncertainties on adaptation measures are complex, with ambiguity often being added to impact uncertainties. Strategies to deal with uncertainty in climate change adaptation should reflect the nature of the uncertainty sources and how they interact with risk level...

  3. The Mix of Accountancy Policy and Tax Strategy in Company’s Financial Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Marciniak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of legally possible accountancy methods may influence entrepreneurs real economic situation as well as their ability to perform in the future. This article presents an introduction to the problems of decision dilemmas in the area of balance law. A future result-oriented approach to the accountancy policy requires devising a method which would help choose an optimal variant among the least risky ones. Since a choice dilemma deals with future and uncertain events, it is necessary to apply statistical analysis with its rules of inference. Because of the changing environment, this issue poses a complex decision problem in conditions of uncertainty. It, therefore, means that the rules of probability theory need to be used in the inference process. With subjective probability it is then possible to calculate the value of expected profits and define the risk of the variants within the discussed accountancy policy.

  4. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  5. Strategies of petroleum companies facing climate change issues; Strategies des compagnies petrolieres face a la problematique du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, St.

    2005-05-01

    The oil industry is particularly concerned with the issue of climate change. The implementation of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction policies can be perceived as an additional environmental constraint for the management of the production chain. It is also represents a first step towards a possible decarbonization of the economy. In the long-term, the fight against global warming calls thus into question the activity level of petroleum companies. Confronted with this, still uncertain, new environmental deal, some petroleum multinationals adopt proactive behaviors, e.g. with voluntary commitments to reduce GHG emissions, or with investments in alternative technologies. First of all, we present the potential economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on oil industry. Then, we conduct a comparative analysis of the 'Kyoto risk' for the five largest multinationals of this sector according to their activities and their geographical implantations. Then, for the purpose to interpreting proactive strategies of firms such as BP and Shell, we examine various explanations including 'win-win', public image and the response to broad societal needs. This leads us to formalize the proactive behavior as an anticipatory management of carbon contestability, particularly perceptible in financial markets. Lastly, we try to justify economically investments of companies in the field of alternative energy sources and technologies through the lens of real options theory and by a management of the exhaustible fossil resources. (author)

  6. The handwriting on the wall: program transformations utilizing effective change management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Anita; Johns, Colleen; Hines, Nordia; Skov, Tracey; Kloosterman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Historically, there have been indications that we need to change the way we work and think about our health care processes. Yet, with the urgency to keep abreast of the changing needs of our patients, have we seen these signs? Moreover, how do we respond to the inevitable change processes that must occur? In 2010, St. Michael's entered into a five-year partnership with Baxter Canada. The overall goal is to improve the quality of care and life for people living with chronic kidney disease. This initiative was undertaken in response to concerns identified internally related to existing health care delivery processes within the renal program. As in any work environment, the depth and breadth of inevitable changes evoke a variety of responses that are based on the individual's attitudes regarding change. As we embarked on this journey, the nursing leadership team and staff within the program were encouraged to review their usual responses toward change utilizing the book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998). It is imperative to identify the attitudes of those people involved in change processes. This awareness facilitates the use of specific strategies to enhance the effectiveness of their engagement in the process and the outcome of the initiative. Reading the writing on the wall prepares people to participate in and embrace changes that promise to benefit those for whom we provide professional care.

  7. Ethical implications of co-benefits rationale within climate change mitigation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vasconcellos Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation effort is being translated into several actions and discourses that make collateral benefits and their rationale increasingly relevant for sustainability, in such a way that they are now a constant part of the political agenda. Taking a border and consensual perspective, co-benefits are considered here to be emerging advantages of the implementation of measures regarding the lowering of greenhouse gases.Departing from the analysis of policy documents referring to two European urban transportation strategies, the emergent co-benefits are problematized and discussed to better understand their moral aspect. Further ethical reflection is conducted after an analysis of some unintended consequences of co-benefits rationale coming from the mentioned examples. The focus is primarily on the challenges of an integrative moral justification for co-benefits and also for their role in the climate change mitigation effort. We also discuss the limitations of the current normative models that frame co-benefits rationale, from a moral viewpoint and in relation to the overall climate change mitigation strategy.In this article, we propose the concepts of well-being and freedom, as portrayed by Capabilities Approach, as possible guiding notions for the moral and social evaluation of goodness of these emergent benefits and their rationale too. Additionally, some preliminary conclusions are drawn regarding the potential of the presented concepts to favour the climate change mitigation action. Finally, a scenario is drawn where Capabilities Approach is the moral guideline for co-benefits rationale showing this way its potential in terms of enhancing climate change mitigation strategy.

  8. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity.

  9. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Farm-level Efficiency in Food Crop Production in Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otitoju, MA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food crop yields depend largely on prevailing climate conditions, especially in Africa, where rain-fed agriculture predominate. The extent to which climate impacts are felt depends principally on the adaptation measures used by farmers. This study focused on the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on farm-level technical efficiency. The study used primary data collected from 360 randomly selected farmers in Southwest Nigeria. Cobb-Douglass stochastic frontier production model was used to analyse the data. Multiple cropping, land fragmentation, multiple planting dates, mulching and cover cropping were the major climate change adaptation strategies employed by the farmers. While land fragmentation and multiple planting dates had significant positive relationships, years of climate change awareness and social capital had significant inverse relationships, with technical inefficiency. This may be because while land fragmentation may hinder farm mechanization, multiple planting dates may increase the monotonousness and drudgery of farming. On the other hand, social capital and climate change awareness could help ameliorate the effects of, particularly, land fragmentation through resource pooling. It is therefore recommended that the farmers be encouraged to form cooperative societies so as to leverage their resource status through collective efforts.

  10. Facilitating behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy--theoretic premises and practical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    A typical goal of voice therapy is a behavioral change in the patient's everyday speech. The SLP's plan for voice therapy should therefore optimally include strategies for automatization. The aim of the present study was to identify and describe factors that promote behavioral learning and habit change in voice behavior and have the potential to affect patient compliance and thus therapy outcome. Research literature from the areas of motor and behavioral learning, habit formation, and habit change was consulted. Also, specific elements from personal experience of clinical voice therapy are described and discussed from a learning theory perspective. Nine factors that seem to be relevant to facilitate behavioral learning and habit change in voice therapy are presented, together with related practical strategies and theoretical underpinnings. These are: 1) Cue-altering; 2) Attention exercises; 3) Repetition; 4) Cognitive activation; 5) Negative practice; 6) Inhibition through interruption; 7) Decomposing complex behavior; 8) The 'each time-every time' principle; and 9) Successive implementation of automaticity. PMID:25054888

  11. Precise orbit determination for quad-constellation satellites at Wuhan University: strategy, result validation, and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-02-01

    This contribution summarizes the strategy used by Wuhan University (WHU) to determine precise orbit and clock products for Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). In particular, the satellite attitude, phase center corrections, solar radiation pressure model developed and used for BDS satellites are addressed. In addition, this contribution analyzes the orbit and clock quality of the quad-constellation products from MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) for a common time period of 1 year (2014). With IGS final GPS and GLONASS products as the reference, Multi-GNSS products of WHU (indicated by WUM) show the best agreement among these products from all MGEX ACs in both accuracy and stability. 3D Day Boundary Discontinuities (DBDs) range from 8 to 27 cm for Galileo-IOV satellites among all ACs' products, whereas WUM ones are the largest (about 26.2 cm). Among three types of BDS satellites, MEOs show the smallest DBDs from 10 to 27 cm, whereas the DBDs for all ACs products are at decimeter to meter level for GEOs and one to three decimeter for IGSOs, respectively. As to the satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation for Galileo-IOV satellites, the accuracy evaluated by SLR residuals is at the one decimeter level with the well-known systematic bias of about -5 cm for all ACs. For BDS satellites, the accuracy could reach decimeter level, one decimeter level, and centimeter level for GEOs, IGSOs, and MEOs, respectively. However, there is a noticeable bias in GEO SLR residuals. In addition, systematic errors dependent on orbit angle related to mismodeled solar radiation pressure (SRP) are present for BDS GEOs and IGSOs. The results of Multi-GNSS combined kinematic PPP demonstrate that the best accuracy of position and fastest convergence speed have been achieved using WUM products, particularly in the Up direction. Furthermore, the accuracy of static BDS only PPP degrades when the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites switches to orbit-normal orientation

  12. A Review of Assessment and Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change Impacts on the Coastal Areas in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; CHENG Xu-Hua; WANG Xian-Wei; AI Hui; DUAN Hai-Lai; HE Jian; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment of climate change impacts on economy, society and ecological environment in the coastal areas of South China based on published literatures;it also proposes suitable adaptation strategies and counter-measures. Review shows that climate change has resulted in sea level rise in the coastal areas of South China, increasing the occurrence and intensity of storm surges, aggravating the influence of saltwater intrusion, coastal erosion, urban drainage and flood control, threatening the coastal facility and infrastructures, inundating lowland areas, offsetting mudflat silting, and degrading mangroves and coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change and to support the sustainable development in the coastal areas of South China, it is critical to improve the monitoring and early warning system, enhance prevention criteria, fortify coastal protection engineering, strengthen salt tide prevention, and reinforce the ecological restoration and protection.

  13. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Ruscio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants.

  14. One Health – a strategy for resilience in a changing arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Bruce A.; Brubaker, Michael; Glasser, Joshua; Hueston, Will; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    The circumpolar north is uniquely vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change. While international Arctic collaboration on health has enhanced partnerships and advanced the health of inhabitants, significant challenges lie ahead. One Health is an approach that considers the connections between the environment, plant, animal and human health. Understanding this is increasingly critical in assessing the impact of global climate change on the health of Arctic inhabitants. The effects of climate change are complex and difficult to predict with certainty. Health risks include changes in the distribution of infectious disease, expansion of zoonotic diseases and vectors, changing migration patterns, impacts on food security and changes in water availability and quality, among others. A regional network of diverse stakeholder and transdisciplinary specialists from circumpolar nations and Indigenous groups can advance the understanding of complex climate-driven health risks and provide community-based strategies for early identification, prevention and adaption of health risks in human, animals and environment. We propose a regional One Health approach for assessing interactions at the Arctic human–animal–environment interface to enhance the understanding of, and response to, the complexities of climate change on the health of the Arctic inhabitants. PMID:26333722

  15. Implementing a university e-learning strategy: levers for change within academic schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Sharpe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an e-learning strategy at a single higher education institution in terms of the levers used to promote effective uptake and ensure sustainable embedding. The focus of this work was at the level of the academic school using a range of change practices including the appointment of school-based learning technologists and e-learning champions, supporting schools to write their own strategies, a pedagogical framework of engaging with e-learning, and curriculum development and evaluation of school-supported projects. It is clear that the implementation of the e-learning strategy has led to a large and increasing proportion of our students experiencing blended learning. In addition, there are initial indications that this has enhanced some learning and teaching processes. Where there has been sustainable embedding of effective e-learning, the following levers were identified as particularly important: flexibility in practices that allow schools to contextualise their plans for change, the facilitation of communities of key staff and creating opportunities for staff to voice and challenge their beliefs about e-learning.

  16. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  17. Preliminary Results On The Use Of Clay To Control Pyrodinium Bloom - A Mitigation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Padilla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequent and expanded occurrence of Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum blooms in thePhilippines since 1983 has prompted the need to find mechanisms to control the harmful effects of thesetoxic dinoflagellates. A promising method now being explored is the use of powdered clay mineralswhich when added to the growth media is capable of flocculating with the algal cells. In this study, theefficiency of ball clay, brown bentonite, and Malampaya Sound sediments to remove Pyrodinium cellsin seawater was tested. The addition of 1 g/L of suspended ball clay to 50 mL of cultured Pyrodiniumcells (~1.037 x106 cells/L removed 99.56% of the algal cells after 2.5 hours. Prolonging the exposuretime to 5 and 24 hours showed no significant increase in flocculation. Brown bentonite and MalampayaSound sediments showed low to moderate removal efficiency not exceeding 70% and 50%, respectively.The effect of ball clay addition on seawater chemistry showed no change in ammonia concentration butnitrate decreased after 5 and 24 hours of clay addition. Results for nitrite and phosphate were howevermore variable.

  18. New strategies to improve results of mesh surgeries for vaginal prolapses repair – an update

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Goulart Fernandes Dias; Paulo Henrique Goulart Fernandes Dias; Alessandro Prudente; Cassio Riccetto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of meshes has become the first option for the treatment of soft tissue disorders as hernias and stress urinary incontinence and widely used in vaginal prolapse's treatment. However, complications related to mesh issues cannot be neglected. Various strategies have been used to improve tissue integration of prosthetic meshes and reduce related complications. The aim of this review is to present the state of art of mesh innovations, presenting the whole arsenal which has been st...

  19. Ecological design as a result of innovative mindset: design strategies, potentialities and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Poltavska, Lada

    2016-01-01

    The present project contains two components: theoretical and practical. The central theme of this paper is design and it is mainly oriented toward the analysis of sustainable strategies within ecological design. It includes questions, concerning social responsibility, ethical trade initiatives and brand development processes. In order to research these problems, the project has brief discussions about what ecological design is; what kind of criteria are used to delineate notions; if there is ...

  20. Research strategies that result in optimal data collection from the patient medical record

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Katherine E.; Radovinsky, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Data obtained from the patient medical record are often a component of clinical research led by nurse investigators. The rigor of the data collection methods correlates to the reliability of the data and, ultimately, the analytical outcome of the study. Research strategies for reliable data collection from the patient medical record include the development of a precise data collection tool, the use of a coding manual, and ongoing communication with research staff.

  1. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  2. Climate change information supporting adaptation in forestry and agriculture - results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálos, Borbála; Czimber, Kornél; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Bidló, András; Csáki, Péter; Kalicz, Péter; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela; Mátyás, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent droughts of the last decades have led to severe impacts in forestry and agriculture in the sensitive and vulnerable low-elevation regions of Southeast Europe. Observed impacts are very likely to occur with increasing probability under projected climate conditions throughout the 21st century. In order to suggest options for adaptation and mitigation, a GIS-based Decision Support System is under development in the frame of the joint EU-national research project "Agroclimate". Impact assessments and adaptation support services are based on the simulation results of 12 regional climate models (www.ensembles-eu.org) using the A1B emission scenario until 2100. The development of the Decision Support System requires the balancing of available climatic information and required data for research and economically relevant projection needs of the end users. Here, concrete examples of the development process will be shown for the stepwise analysis and comparison of the followings: 1. Provided climate services: • projected tendencies of temperature and precipitation means and extremes until the end of the 21st century, spread of the simulation results. 2. Required information for climate impact research: • types and characteristics of climate input data, • methods and functions for deriving possible climate change impacts in forestry and agriculture (e.g. on species distribution, growth, production, yield, soil water retention, ground water table, runoff, erosion, evapotranspiration and other ecosystem services and soil properties). 3. Required climate information from the end users' side for developing adaption strategies in the affected sectors: • types of climate indicators, • possible range of the expected impacts (in magnitude and probability). 4. Gaps between climate services and the needs of impact researchers and end users (e.g. spatial and temporal scales, interpretation techniques). Experiences of supporting climate change adaptation in forestry

  3. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  4. Climate change, adaptation strategies and mobility: evidence from four settlements in Senegal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sall, Mohamadou [Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal); Tall, Serigne Mansour [ONU-Habitat (UN); Tandian, Aly [Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal); Samb, Al Assane

    2011-11-15

    This research investigates the impact of climate change on the mobility of people in four settlements in Senegal: Ngueye Ngueye, Gandiole, the Senegal River delta and Ourossogui. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups was used to determine how daily life in these communities is being affected by environmental change. Some migrants spend long periods as far afield as Mauritania, the Gambia or Spain, while others stay closer to home, going to places like Saint-Louis, Dakar and Mbour for short periods. Mobility is an opportunity for migrants to generate funds and send money home. It is a key factor in adaptation to climate change, as a strategy for survival and for diversifying incomes. The problems encountered in the ecological study zones are not entirely due to climate change, for migration is also triggered by factors such as the opening of the breach in Saint-Louis or lack of support for rural development. However, climate change is certainly accelerating disruptions and transformations in the study sites. Moreover, while migrants' financial transfers help improve daily life for some families, they also increase socio-economic inequalities between households that include migrants and those that do not. People are moving away from (but not necessarily abandoning) purely agricultural livelihoods and seeking to diversify their sources of income. This may come from migration, or from artisanal activities undertaken in the locality - such as metalwork, woodwork, sewing or hairdressing. Another option that many women have taken is using micro-credit facilities to start processing local produce, crushing groundnuts and preparing cereals to sell at the weekly markets. Other adaptation strategies are developed and adopted through technical innovations or awareness-raising and educational activities. These activities often require institutional support from the State or from NGOs involved in implementing projects and helping

  5. Characteristics of Distance Learners: Research on Relationships of Learning Motivation, Learning Strategy, Self-Efficacy, Attribution and Learning Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Peng, Huamao; Huang, Ronghuai; Hou, Yanhua; Wang, Jingjing

    2008-01-01

    This research uses adapted self-assessment questionnaires to examine the relationships between the learning motivation, learning strategies, self-efficacy, attribution and learning results of 135 distance learners. The aim is to model the relationship between psychological characteristics and learning results of distance learners. The outcomes of…

  6. Characterization of nano recorded marks at different writing strategies on phase-change recording layer of optical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih Kai; Lin, I. Chun; Tsai, Din Ping

    2006-05-01

    Conductive-atomic force microscopy has been successfully used for characterizing recorded marks on commercial digital versatile disk and Blu-ray disk. Nano recorded marks beyond diffraction limit are imaged with high spatial resolution and excellent contrast of conductivity. The smallest mark size resolved is around 23.5 nm which is limited by background spots around 18.5 nm. The results of different optical power and writing strategy on the size, shape, and close packed writing process of recorded marks clearly show the opto-thermal response of phase-change recording layer.

  7. EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON DAIRY PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA AND ITS SUITABLE MITIGATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. MOREKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of climate change on dairy production in Botswana and mitigation strategies are suggested. Dairy farming has not experienced growth over time rendering the country heavily dependent on milk imports. National dairy herd is estimated to be approximately 5000 and per capita consumption of milk about 32.5 litres per person per year. Currently, Botswana is experiencing average high temperatures and low rainfall, frequent droughts and scarcity of both ground and surface water, which all contribute to low livestock and crop productivity. Changes in rainfall patterns, frequent droughts, high incidences of animal diseases (e.g., mastitis and FMD and parasites, and high environmental temperatures cause significant decrease in livestock productivity. For dairy animals, there is a decline in milk yield and reduced animal weight gain due mainly to high temperatures and inadequate feeds. Mitigation strategies comprise using smaller dairy breeds such as Jersey and Brown Swiss and local Tswana breed, growing fodder crops and utilization of crop residues and constructing cow sheds. Thus, the effects of climate change on dairy cattle production are real and require immediate attention if they are to be minimized or managed properly to attain higher milk production.

  8. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks. PMID:19042291

  9. Success through innovation and change – consultancy report on strategy for E.ON UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Maciuk, Aneta; Paramashivaiah, Roshan; Seal, Devakalpa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to formulate the future strategy for E.ON UK in the face of fast changing environment. The main objective is to identify the strategically attractive opportunities that could reinforce E.ON strategic position. This paper provides in–depth analysis of internal and external environments of E.ON in order to answer the research question about future strategic choices. Based on the models used and concepts applied we were able to get an overview of the UK Utili...

  10. A Strategy and Model of Change for SMEs in the Hong Kong Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K; F; Chu

    2002-01-01

    The re-establishment of the Hong Kong manufacturin g industry as a local pillar of economy is vital in the restructuring of the e conomy in Hong Kong. The SMEs should play a key role in such a process. It requi res major changes to take place in the operation of the enterprises in order to enhance their competitiveness and therefore the chance of success in the restruc turing process. It is suggested that the strategy of going for high value-added products and related services together with the practic...

  11. New strategies to improve results of mesh surgeries for vaginal prolapses repair – an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Goulart Fernandes Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of meshes has become the first option for the treatment of soft tissue disorders as hernias and stress urinary incontinence and widely used in vaginal prolapse's treatment. However, complications related to mesh issues cannot be neglected. Various strategies have been used to improve tissue integration of prosthetic meshes and reduce related complications. The aim of this review is to present the state of art of mesh innovations, presenting the whole arsenal which has been studied worldwide since composite meshes, coated meshes, collagen's derived meshes and tissue engineered prostheses, with focus on its biocompatibility and technical innovations, especially for vaginal prolapse surgery.

  12. New strategies to improve results of mesh surgeries for vaginal prolapses repair--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Goulart Fernandes; Dias, Paulo Henrique Goulart Fernandes; Prudente, Alessandro; Riccetto, Cassio

    2015-01-01

    The use of meshes has become the first option for the treatment of soft tissue disorders as hernias and stress urinary incontinence and widely used in vaginal prolapse's treatment. However, complications related to mesh issues cannot be neglected. Various strategies have been used to improve tissue integration of prosthetic meshes and reduce related complications. The aim of this review is to present the state of art of mesh innovations, presenting the whole arsenal which has been studied worldwide since composite meshes, coated meshes, collagen's derived meshes and tissue engineered prostheses, with focus on its biocompatibility and technical innovations, especially for vaginal prolapse surgery. PMID:26401853

  13. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs a comprehensive method to evaluate the human health and environmental effects of alternative agricultural pest management strategies. This project explored the utility of Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA) techniques for meeting this need. The project objectives were to produce models for environmental impact analysis, improve communications, identify research needs and data requirements, and demonstrate a process for resolving conflicts. The project was structured around the construction (in an initial 2 1/2-day workshop) and examination (in a second 2 1/2-day workshop) of a simulation model of a corn agroecosystem.

  14. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    Since many centuries, low lying areas at the German North Sea coast are intensively managed by water boards and dike boards. Sophisticated water management systems have been developed in order to keep the water out of the low lying areas in wet periods, while in some regions additional water is needed in dry periods for agricultural and ecological purposes. For example in the Wesermarsch region, a water management system has been developed in historical times, draining the landscape in winter time by means of channels, ditches, gates, sluices and pumping stations. In contrast, in summer time water is conducted from Weser River into the Wesermarsch region to serve watering of animals, fencing grazing areas and ensuring a continuous flow in the marsh watercourses. Doing so, maintaining soil fertility is guaranteed for agriculture as well as protection against floods, sustaining river ecology and traditional livestock farming. Due to climate variability and river engineering, the water management of the Wesermarsch already runs into problems because watering in summer cannot be assured any longer in sufficient water quality. During high tides, salt water from the North Sea is flowing upstream into the Weser estuary, generating brackish conditions in the lower Weser River. In addition, soil subsidence and soil mineralization of marsh and peat soils as well as the sea level rise increase the necessary pumping frequency and the emerging energy costs. The expected future climate change will further aggravate those problems and require an adaptation of the current management system. This presentation introduces the concept behind and preliminary results of an integrative and participatory project, aiming at the development of a new water management strategy adapted to the regional climate change likely to occur until year 2050. In close cooperation with a number of regional stakeholders and based on the priorities with respect to the future development of the region

  15. Obstacle Avoidance Behaviour during Locomotion: Strategy Changes as a Result of Visual Field Limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.E.M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to walk through structured surroundings without colliding with any obstacles or parts of that environment, humans rely for the most part on the visual system. Therefore, impairment in the acquisition of visual information poses a threat to efficient and save locomotion through structured en

  16. Reporting pesticide assessment results to farmworker families: development, implementation, and evaluation of a risk communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Doran, Alicia M; Rao, Pamela; Hoppin, Jane A; Snively, Beverly M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2004-04-01

    The collection of environmental samples presents a responsibility to return information to the affected participants. Explaining complex and often ambiguous scientific information to a lay audience is a challenge. As shown by environmental justice research, this audience frequently has limited formal education, increasing the challenge for researchers to explain the data collected, the risk indicated by the findings, and action the affected community should take. In this study we describe the development and implementation of a risk communication strategy for environmental pesticide samples collected in the homes of Latino/a migrant and seasonal farmworkers in a community-based participatory research project. The communication strategy was developed with community input and was based on face-to-face meetings with members of participating households. Using visual displays of data effectively conveyed information about individual household contamination and placed it in the context of community findings. The lack of national reference data and definitive standards for action necessitated a simplified risk message. We review the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach and suggest areas for future research in risk communication to communities affected by environmental health risks.

  17. The CFEPS Kuiper Belt Survey: Strategy and Pre-survey Results

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, R L; Petit, J M; Rousselot, P; Moussis, O; Kavelaars, J J; Bagatin, A C; Bernabeu, G; Benavenidez, P; Parker, J; Nicholson, P; Holman, M; Doressoundiram, A; Veillet, C; Scholl, H; Mars, G

    2005-01-01

    We present the data acquisition strategy and characterization procedures for the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS), a sub-component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. The survey began in early 2003 and as of summer 2005 has covered 430 square degrees of sky within a few degrees of the ecliptic. Moving objects beyond the orbit of Uranus are detected to a magnitude limit of $m_R$=23 -- 24 (depending on the image quality). To track as large a sample as possible and avoid introducing followup bias, we have developed a multi-epoch observing strategy that is spread over several years. We present the evolution of the uncertainties in ephemeris position and orbital elements as the objects progress through the epochs. We then present a small 10-object sample that was tracked in this manner as part of a preliminary survey starting a year before the main CFEPS project. We describe the CFEPS survey simulator, to be released in 2006, which allows theoretical models of the Kuiper Belt to be comp...

  18. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration.

  19. Changes in the chemical and physicochemical properties of the solid fraction of cattle slurry during composting using different aeration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Flotats, Xavier; Marfà, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Replacement of peat as a growing medium by a renewable material, such as an organic waste, is an issue of concern since harvesting of peat has a considerable environmental impact and, actually, it is a non-renewable resource. Cattle manure is a readily available organic waste, which means that once it goes through the composting process, it can be used as an alternative to peat, specifically, the solid fraction obtained from mechanical liquid-solid separation of cattle slurry (SF). Studies have shown it to be suitable for such uses. The purpose of this study was to detect possible changes in the physicochemical and chemical properties of SF when it is composted using different aeration strategies, with an emphasis on the changes that would make it feasible for use as a substrate. With this aim in mind, an experiment was designed with three aeration strategies that would be used during composting. The first consisted of applying air through a static method (forced ventilation). The second involved improving aeration by adding a bulking agent and a dynamic turning method. In the third strategy, aeration was carried out by turning (control). The results show that the different aeration strategies had a clear effect on the evolution of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate-N, ammonia-N and bicarbonate content. Nitrification was favored under good aeration conditions using the static composting method, probably due to the greater availability of ammonia-N that was transformed into nitrate-N. In general, the low buffering capacity allowed for a reduction of the pH during the curing stage of composting (in conjunction with low temperatures during this period), a characteristic that favors the use of this compost as a growing medium. We also conclude that measuring bicarbonate levels during composting could be used as an indicator of the possible acidification of the material and as a way of evaluating the level of material aeration. PMID:16146687

  20. Contextualising change through a common strategy: Lecturers' perceptions and key role in supporting academic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindelan, Paz; Martin, Ana

    2014-05-01

    European universities are currently going through a process of change in order to meet the common goals set for higher education by the European Commission. They are revising their educational models to adjust them to the guidelines of the "Bologna Process" and are devising an institutional strategy for its implementation. In practical terms, this means aligning former national degrees and diplomas to standard European Bachelor and Masters degrees and PhD doctorates, by creating acknowledged professional qualification benchmarks that also include adjusted course lengths and contents. This process, in the end, mostly affects academic staff members who have a fundamental role to play in carrying out the pedagogical reforms on the teaching front. Besides presenting a commentary on the institutional approach of one particular technical university in Spain, the purpose of this paper is to propose, from the authors' point of view as lecturers, a strategy which has the potential to create a favourable atmosphere for carrying out such a reform. The article's main objective is to highlight a series of action points which may serve to reinforce and advance the main institutional strategy by relying on the powerful influence of its academic staff members.

  1. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E. J. M. M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van, J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depends on local conditions. Therefore, hotspot regions are defined, where specific issues related to agriculture will be assessed. Mitigation strategies in East Africa in general and Ethiopia in partic...

  2. Children's behavioral health system transformation: one state's context and strategies for sustained change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburger, Deborah S; Stephan, Sharon H; Kaye, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the State of Maryland as a case study of sustained change efforts in the service delivery system for children with significant behavioral health needs and their families. A punctuated equilibrium paradigm is introduced to describe Maryland's behavioral health system transformation over the course of three decades. The context and specific strategies that characterized Maryland's execution of its recent Mental Health Transformation State Incentive Grant are highlighted. There is a discussion of one of the pinnacle achievements of Maryland's transformation efforts, the recent statewide establishment of care management entities for children with behavioral health challenges, and its implications for behavioral health in the context of health care reform changes. This case study illustrates how a state can systematically and incrementally develop systems of care for children and families that are values-based, sustainable, and flexible. PMID:23657753

  3. Combating climate change : A case study of Statoil′s climate strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Josefin; Eklöf, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Level:                           Master thesis in Business administration with concentration towards Ecological economics   Title:             Combating climate change – a case study of Statoil’s climate strategy   Problem:       The world is facing an environmental situation where we no longer can ignore problems like climate change, losses of species and an overall environmental degradation. Many actors have to take their responsibility and do as much as they can for a sustainable developme...

  4. Assessing natural disaster preparedness and climate change mitigation strategies in the coastal areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur

    2013-01-01

    Global climate is changing continuously as a result of industrial revolution and rapid urbanisation in many countries of the world which has significant impacts on environment, socio-economic condition, physical and biological issues. Increase of global temperature, rainfall changes, sea level rise, occurrences of extreme weather events such as floods, cyclones, typhoons, droughts etc. are the major and direct consequences of climate change in the world (Pulhin et al., 2010, & Shaw et al., 20...

  5. Climate change in semi-arid Malawi: Perceptions, adaptation strategies and water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam K. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability are a threat to sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid areas of Malawi. Overdependence on subsistence rain-fed agriculture in these areas calls for the identification of sustainable adaptation strategies. A study was therefore conducted in Chikwawa, a semi-arid district in southern Malawi, to: (1 assess community’s perception of a changing climate against empirical evidence, (2 determine their local adaptive measures, (3 evaluate the potential of irrigated agriculture as an adaptive measure in household food security and (4 challenges over access to available water resources. The study employed focus group discussions and key informant interviews to assess people’s perceptions of climate change and variability and their desired interventions. To validate the people’s perceptions, rainfall and temperature data for the period 1960–2010 were analysed. A participatory complete randomised experimental design in both rain-fed and dry season–irrigated conditions was conducted to assess a maize cropping system that would improve adaptation. The study established persistent declining yields from rain-fed production in part because of perennial rainfall failure. In response, the community has shifted its focus to irrigation as an adaptation strategy, which has in turn triggered water conflicts in the community over the control of the resource. Water legislation however fails to adequately provide for rules governing sharing of water resources between various stakeholders. This article therefore recommends development of an appropriate institutional framework that forms a strong basis for equitable distribution of water for irrigation in areas most vulnerable to extreme climate events – including droughts and floods.Keywords: Food Security; Climate Change and Variability; Rainfall Variability; Irrigation; Water Resources; Governance Crisis

  6. Developmental changes in children's awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, J L; Ruble, D N

    1989-12-01

    Children at 3 age levels (5-6 1/2, 7 1/2-9, and 10-12 years) were interviewed to determine their spontaneous suggestions of coping strategies designed to manage frustration caused by waiting for a desired object (positive valence) and fear caused by waiting for an unpleasant event (negative valence) in uncontrollable situations. Subjects' responses were grouped into categories based on coping techniques discussed in the adult coping literature on a continuum from approach to avoidance techniques. The avoidance tactics, the main focus of interest, were further divided into 4 distinct forms. In contrast to investigations of children's coping in more controllable situations, approach strategies were very infrequently mentioned. An age increase was found in the proportion of cognitive distraction strategies suggested, but behavioral distraction strategies were most frequently suggested by children at all age levels and did not differ significantly across age. The developmental differences were particularly evident for the negative valence scenarios and, within the negative valence scenarios, for the story likely to be the most stressful to young children--getting a shot. The results are discussed in terms of possible reasons for age differences in cognitive but not behavioral distraction and their implications for children's ability to cope with uncontrollable stress. PMID:2612245

  7. The evolution of competitive settlement strategies in Fijian prehistory : results of excavations and radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of excavations were completed between June 2001 and March 2002 in the Fiji Islands. The goal of this research was to investigate the evolution of competitive settlement strategies in Fijian prehistory from an archaeological and evolutionary ecological perspective. Twelve sites were excavated and mapped in the Sigatoka Valley, located in the southwestern corner of the main island of Viti Levu. Excavations were focused on determining the chronology of fortifications in the region, and the collected samples were compared to expectations based on GIS-based analyses of land productivity and historical documents pertaining to late-period warfare. Over four hundred archaeological sites have been identified in the Sigatoka Valley, and of these roughly one-third are purely defensive in configuration, with no immediate access to water or arable land. The Waikato Archaeological Dating Fund provided four radiometric dates for three defensive sites, and one site associated with a production area. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  8. Presentations of scientific research results as a strategy to increase the interest of students in physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for strategies to arouse the interest of undergraduate students in science, it was proposed the project "Colloquiums in Physiology" in order to disseminate and discuss scientific discoveries and improve the students’ interest in Physiology. This work aimed to verify the perception of participants about the impact of this activity. The activity included lectures throughout the semester and at the end of each lecture, a questionnaire was applied to listeners. Among the 171 students who answered the questionnaire, 81% (n=139 considers that this proposal increased their interest in physiology, 96% (n=164 believes that it is an important activity and achieved its goal of promote science disclosure, and 83% (n=142 stated that the project promotes interaction between research, teaching and outreach activities. Thus, it highlights the importance of this type of event for the academic formation.

  9. Climate change in East Africa : towards a methodological framework on adaptation and mitigration strategies of natural resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Verhagen, J.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Ludwig, F.; Schils, R.L.M.; Geene, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate change, due to their strong economic dependency on rain-fed agriculture. Land-use policies can offer a less vulnerable future by design and application of relevant mitigation and/or adaptation strategies. Effectiveness of such strategies depen

  10. Do organic foodservice intervention strategies lead to changes in the availability of healthy options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children and young people is increasing in most countries in Europe and as a result schools are increasingly taking a role in both food provision, in promoting healthy eating, and nutrition education of young people by implementing healthy policies. At the same time...... schools are implementing environmental friendly polices i.e. organic procurement strategies (Mu, 2008). It is therefore relevant to investigate the relationship between the different components of such interventions. This study carried out a survey in primary schools in Denmark and Norway through a Web...... Based Questionnaire. The results indicate that there is an association between organic food strategies and the availability of healthy meal options. But further studies are needed in order to understand the nature of this association....

  11. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD.

  12. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in cervical lesions: 12-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Eloisa Andrade; Tay, Lidia Yileng; Kose, Carlos; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month clinical performance of four adhesion strategies from the same manufacturer (Kerr) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two evaluation criteria. Thirty-five patients, with at least four NCCLs each, participated in this study. After samplesize calculation, 180 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: OFL (Optibond FL), OSP (Optibond Solo Plus), XTR (Optibond XTR), and AIO (Optibond All-In-One). The composite resin Filtek Supreme Ultra (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months, using both the FDI and the USPHS-modified criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures, ANOVA by rank, and the McNemar test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). Six restorations (2 for OFL, 1 for OSP, 2 for XTR, and 1 for AIO) were lost at 12 months (P>0.05 for both evaluation criteria). Marginal staining was observed in seven restorations using the FDI criteria (P>0.05) and three restorations using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). Eight restorations (2 for OSP, 3 for XTR, and 3 for AIO) were classified as Bravo for marginal adaptation using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). However, 62 restorations (14 for OFL, 12 for OSP, 15 for XTR, and 21 for AIO) were classified as Bravo using the FDI criteria (P>0.05). The four adhesion strategies showed similar clinical retention at 6 and 12 months. The FDI evaluation criteria tend to be more sensitive than the USPHS-modified criteria. PMID:25625130

  13. Livelihood Strategy Change and Land Use Change——Case of Danzam Village in Upper Dadu River Watershed, Tibetan Plateau of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jianzhong; ZHANG Yili; ZHANG Liping; WU Yingying

    2009-01-01

    Land use change in rural China since the 1980s, induced by institution reforms, urbanization, industrializa-tion and population increase, has received more attention. However, case studies on how institution reforms affect farmers' livelihood strategies and drive land use change are scarce. By means of cropland plots investigations and in-terviews with farmers, this study examines livelihood strategy change and land use change in Danzam Village of Jinchuan County in the upper Dadu River watershed, eastern Tibetan Plateau, China. The results show that, during the collective system period, as surplus labor forces could not be transferred to the secondary and tertiary industries, they had to choose agricultural involution as their livelihood strategy, then the farmers had to produce more grains by land reclamation, increasing multiple cropping index, improving input of labor, fertilizer, pesticide and adopting advanced agricultural techniques. During the household responsibility system period, as labors being transferred to the secondary and tertiary industries, farmers chose livelihood diversification strategy. Therefore, labor input to grain planting was greatly reduced, which drove the transformation of grain to horticulture, vegetable or wasteland and decrease of multi-ple cropping index. This study provides a new insight into understanding linkages among institution reforms, liveli-hood strategy of smallholders and land use change in rural China.

  14. Changing academic medicine: strategies used by academic leaders of integrative medicine-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Holmberg, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change. PMID:23093984

  15. Changing Academic Medicine: Strategies Used by Academic Leaders of Integrative Medicine—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Witt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western countries, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is more and more provided by practitioners and family doctors. To base this reality of health care provision on an evidence-base, academic medicine needs to be included in the development. In the study we aimed to gain information on a structured approach to include CAM in academic health centers. We conducted a semistructured interview study with leading experts of integrative medicine to analyze strategies of existing academic institutions of integrative medicine. The study sample consisted of a purposive sample of ten leaders that have successfully integrated CAM into medical schools in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany and the Director of the National Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Analysis was based on content analysis. The prerequisite to foster change in academic medicine was a strong educational and professional background in academic medicine and research methodologies. With such a skill set, the interviewees identified a series of strategies to align themselves with colleagues from conventional medicine, such as creating common goals, networking, and establishing well-functioning research teams. In addition, there must be a vision of what should be needed to be at the center of all efforts in order to implement successful change.

  16. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... chinensis), giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), redspotted... Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 44229 (July 28... of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR 16436 (Apr. 1, 2010). On April 19 and June...

  17. Strong artificial selection in the wild results in predicted small evolutionary change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, E.; Visser, J.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of genetic variation and selection allow for quantitative predictions of evolutionary change, at least in controlled laboratory experiments. Natural populations are, however, different in many ways, and natural selection on heritable traits does not always result in phenotypic change. To t

  18. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  19. Values under seige in Mexico: strategies for sheltering traditional values from change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, L J

    1993-01-01

    The adverse economic conditions of inflation and falling oil prices over the late 1970s and 1980s in Mexico forced many middle-class married women out of the home and into the workplace in order to help the family maintain its socioeconomic standing. Although this phenomenon ran directly against the traditional Mexican cultural construction of gender and family, many Uruapan middle-class couples had no alternative and rationalized the change by concealing, reinterpreting, or not directly challenging traditional values. Sections discuss the dilemma of middle-class families, Mexican middle-class adaptation to wives' employment, strategies for existing change in values, and the open acceptance of changed values. The author's comments and conclusions are based largely upon interviews with 16 married women of the period. It is concluded that even though the middle class resists them, changes have taken place over the past 20 years in the acceptance of married women in the workplace, the sharing of domestic work, fertility control, and equality between spouses in family decision making. It remains to be seen, however, whether these women will stop working and return to their formerly exclusive roles of wives and mothers if and when economic conditions improve in Mexico. PMID:12345240

  20. Climate change and eHealth: a promising strategy for health sector mitigation and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Holmner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of today's most pressing global issues. Policies to guide mitigation and adaptation are needed to avoid the devastating impacts of climate change. The health sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries, and its climate impact in low-income countries is growing steadily. This paper reviews and discusses the literature regarding health sector mitigation potential, known and hypothetical co-benefits, and the potential of health information technology, such as eHealth, in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The promising role of eHealth as an adaptation strategy to reduce societal vulnerability to climate change, and the link's between mitigation and adaptation, are also discussed. The topic of environmental eHealth has gained little attention to date, despite its potential to contribute to more sustainable and green health care. A growing number of local and global initiatives on ‘green information and communication technology (ICT’ are now mentioning eHealth as a promising technology with the potential to reduce emission rates from ICT use. However, the embracing of eHealth is slow because of limitations in technological infrastructure, capacity and political will. Further research on potential emissions reductions and co-benefits with green ICT, in terms of health outcomes and economic effectiveness, would be valuable to guide development and implementation of eHealth in health sector mitigation and adaptation policies.

  1. Use of an Innovative Personality-Mindset Profiling Tool to Guide Culture-Change Strategies among Different Healthcare Worker Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lindsay Grayson

    Full Text Available Important culture-change initiatives (e.g. improving hand hygiene compliance are frequently associated with variable uptake among different healthcare worker (HCW categories. Inherent personality differences between these groups may explain change uptake and help improve future intervention design.We used an innovative personality-profiling tool (ColourGrid® to assess personality differences among standard HCW categories at five large Australian hospitals using two data sources (HCW participant surveys [PS] and generic institution-wide human resource [HR] data to: a compare the relative accuracy of these two sources; b identify differences between HCW groups and c use the observed profiles to guide design strategies to improve uptake of three clinically-important initiatives (improved hand hygiene, antimicrobial stewardship and isolation procedure adherence.Results from 34,243 HCWs (HR data and 1045 survey participants (PS data suggest that HCWs were different from the general population, displaying more individualism, lower power distance, less uncertainty avoidance and greater cynicism about advertising messages. HR and PS data were highly concordant in identifying differences between the three key HCW categories (doctors, nursing/allied-health, support services and predicting appropriate implementation strategies. Among doctors, the data suggest that key messaging should differ between full-time vs part-time (visiting senior medical officers (SMO, VMO and junior hospital medical officers (HMO, with SMO messaging focused on evidence-based compliance, VMO initiatives emphasising structured mandatory controls and prestige loss for non-adherence, and for HMOs focusing on leadership opportunity and future career risk for non-adherence.Compared to current standardised approaches, targeted interventions based on personality differences between HCW categories should result in improved infection control-related culture-change uptake. Personality

  2. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes.

  3. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes. PMID:24200162

  4. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH50, i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is -1. Pressure differences in Finnish low-rise residential houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h-1, the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100 % in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h-1. This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. (authors)

  5. UAHuntsville and NASA-MSFC Heliophysics REU: Year One Strategy and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, S.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA Marshall Space Fight Center (MSFC) received a 3-year National Science Foundation (NSF) award to create a unique Heliophysics Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU). For 10 weeks, 10 undergraduate students engaged in cutting edge heliophysics research with NASA or UAHuntsville astrophysicists specializing in research from the solar interior to the heliopause. Research projects included theory, modeling, computer simulations, data analysis and instrument design. The primary objectives of this REU are to 1.) increase minority participation in science, technology and mathematics (STEM) fields in general, and heliophysics in particular, and 2.) decrease the STEM attrition rate in first and second year students. This REU is unique because of our focus on recruiting talented students that may not have otherwise participated in an REU. In addition to the usual criteria of most REUs, consideration of need was also given to those students who were sophomores, students with little or no previous research experience, those from small or non-PhD granting institutions, students with less than average GPA, minorities, women, etc. In this poster, we review the effectiveness of the first year strategy. We evaluate the recruitment and application process, mentor placement, living and working arrangements, introductory tutorials, and merit of final research projects. We present modifications for next year's effort, and make suggestions to similar REU programs.

  6. Delivering step change improvements to UK low level waste strategy - 16188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Nuclear Industry continues to produce significant quantities of Low Level Waste (LLW) as decommissioning projects generating waste become more prevalent. Current infrastructure and projected increasing waste volumes will deliver a volumetric shortfall of storage capacity in the near future. Recently established as a standalone site licence company, the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) near Drigg, in West Cumbria (formerly operated and owned by British Nuclear Group) is tasked with managing the safe treatment and disposal of LLW in the UK, on behalf of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The problem is complex involving many stakeholders with potentially different priorities. Previously, most nuclear waste generators operated independently with limited integration with other similar organisations. However, the current financial, programme and technical pressures require collaborative working to facilitate a step-change improvement in LLW management. Achieving this quickly is as much of a challenge as delivering robust cost effective technical solutions. NDA is working in partnership with LLWR to develop a LLW Strategy for the Nuclear Industry and has in parallel commissioned a number of studies by the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), looking at opportunities to share best practice. A National Strategy Group has been established to develop a working partnership between the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, LLW Repository Ltd, Regulators, Stakeholders and LLW Consignors, promoting innovation, value for money, and robust implementation of the waste hierarchy (avoid-reduce-re-use-recycle). Additionally the LLWR supported by the NNL have undertaken a comprehensive strategic review of the UK's LLW management activities. Initial collaborative work has provided for the first time a detailed picture of the existing strategic baseline and identified significant national benefits from improving the way LLW is forecasted, characterised, segregated, and

  7. Temporal and spatial changes of water quality and management strategies of Dianchi Lake in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Zeng, W. H.; Wang, S. R.; Ni, Z. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in Southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annual concentrations of these variables ranged from 0.19-1.46, 6.11-16.79, 0.06-0.14 mg L-1, respectively. In addition, the annual concentrations of TP, TN and Chl a in Waihai Lake ranged between 0.13-0.20, 1.82-3.01, 0.04-0.09 mg L-1, respectively. Cluster Analysis (CA) classified the 10 monitoring sites into two groups (group A and group B) based on similarities of water quality characteristics. Our data revealed that the current status of water quality within Caohai Lake was much worse than that of Waihai Lake. Water quality was seriously degraded during the economic boom near the period of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" (2005-2010), and gradually improved from 2010 to 2012 because of the "standard emission directive to industry". The main factors that influenced the spatial and temporal changes to water quality were natural factors including lake evolution and regional characteristic as well as human factors such as pollution load into the lake and management strategies that were already adopted. Some activities and regulations were implemented to enhance the lake environment by controlling wastewater emissions and establishing regulations to protect the lakes in the Yunnan Province. However, problems with institutional fragmentation (horizontal and vertical), simple treatment methods, low-intensity investment in pollution control, and lack of meaningful endogenous pollution control strategies were still present in the lake management strategy. To solve these problems, suitable control measures are needed, especially considering the current old-age status of Dianchi Lake. The fundamental improvement of the water quality within Caohai Lake was dependent on the

  8. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health and Adaptation Strategies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; WANG Xian-Wei; YANG Xiao-Feng; MA Wen-Jun; AI Hui; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the impacts of climate change on human health and presents corresponding adaptation strategies in South China. The daily mean surface air temperatures above or below 26.4◦C increase the death risk for the people in Guangzhou, especially the elderly are vulnerable to variations in temperature. Heat waves can cause insomnia, fatigue, clinical exacerbation, or death from heatstroke etc., while cold spells show increases in patients with fractures. During a cold spell period, the rates of both on-site emergency rescues and non-implementable rescues increase, and the risk of non-accidental deaths and respiratory disease deaths significantly rise as well. Both time series of hazy days and ozone concentrations have significant positive correlations with the number of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Both malaria and dengue fever reach higher altitudes and mountainous areas due to climate warming. Climate change is likely to bring stronger heat waves in the future, thereby increasing heat wave-related illnesses and deaths, particularly in the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta. The projected increase of continuous cold days in Guangdong province and parts of northern Guangxi province will affect residents’ health in the future. The rising temperature exaggerates ozone pollution, but it is not clear whether climate change is aggravating or mitigating haze pollution. The transmission potential of malaria in South China will increase by 39%-140% and the transmission season will extend by 1-2 months with an air temperature increase of 1-2◦C. By 2050, most areas in Hainan province are projected to convert from non-endemic dengue into endemic dengue areas. The aging population will cause more vulnerable people. To mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, sound and scientific adaptation strategies must be adopted in advance, such as strengthening the surveillance of epidemic diseases in potential transmission areas

  10. Pricing strategy for aesthetic surgery: economic analysis of a resident clinic's change in fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-02-01

    The laws of microeconomics explain how prices affect consumer purchasing decisions and thus overall revenues and profits. These principles can easily be applied to the behavior aesthetic plastic surgery patients. The UCLA Division of Plastic Surgery resident aesthetics clinic recently offered a radical price change for its services. The effects of this change on demand for services and revenue were tracked. Economic analysis was applied to see if this price change resulted in the maximization of total revenues, or if additional price changes could further optimize them. Economic analysis of pricing involves several steps. The first step is to assess demand. The number of procedures performed by a given practice at different price levels can be plotted to create a demand curve. From this curve, price sensitivities of consumers can be calculated (price elasticity of demand). This information can then be used to determine the pricing level that creates demand for the exact number of procedures that yield optimal revenues. In economic parlance, revenues are maximized by pricing services such that elasticity is equal to 1 (the point of unit elasticity). At the UCLA resident clinic, average total fees per procedure were reduced by 40 percent. This resulted in a 250-percent increase in procedures performed for representative 4-month periods before and after the price change. Net revenues increased by 52 percent. Economic analysis showed that the price elasticity of demand before the price change was 6.2. After the price change it was 1. We conclude that the magnitude of the price change resulted in a fee schedule that yielded the highest possible revenues from the resident clinic. These results show that changes in price do affect total revenue and that the nature of these effects can be understood, predicted, and maximized using the tools of microeconomics. PMID:9950562

  11. Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to climate-change-enhanced coastal hazards: Sarasota, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tim G.; Wood, Nathan; Yarnal, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable land-use planning requires decision makers to balance community growth with resilience to natural hazards. This balance is especially difficult in many coastal communities where planners must grapple with significant growth projections, the persistent threat of extreme events (e.g., hurricanes), and climate-change-driven sea level rise that not only presents a chronic hazard but also alters the spatial extent of sudden-onset hazards such as hurricanes. We examine these stressors on coastal, long-term land-use planning by reporting the results of a one-day community workshop held in Sarasota County, Florida that included focus groups and participatory mapping exercises. Workshop participants reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning. Through a series of alternating domain-specific focus groups and interactive plenary sessions, participants compared the county 2050 comprehensive land-use plan to maps of contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazard zones and projected storm-surge hazard zones enlarged by sea level rise scenarios. This interactive, collaborative approach provided each group of domain experts the opportunity to combine geographically-specific, scientific knowledge on natural hazards and climate change with local viewpoints and concerns. Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.

  12. More Water Resources but Less for Irrigation: Adaptation Strategy of the Yellow River in a Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Yellow River is the primary source of freshwater to the northern China. Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the river basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Development of adaptation strategies would have significant implications for water and food security of this region. In this study, the outputs of multiple hydrological models forced with the bias-corrected climatic variables from multiple global climate models were used to assess the change in renewable water resources of the river basin in the 21st century. The outputs of multiple crop models were used to assess the change in agricultural water demand. The domestic and industrial water demands were estimated based on the future socio-economic conditions under the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Besides basic ecosystem needs for water which must be met, the water use in domestic and industrial sectors is considered to have a higher priority than the agricultural water use when water is insufficient. The results show that the renewable water resources of the basin would increase as global mean temperature increases while the water demand would grow much more rapidly, largely due to water demand increase in domestic and industrial sectors. In most of the sub-basins of the Yellow River basin, the available water resources can not sustain all the water use sectors starting from the next a few decades. As more water resources would be appropriated by domestic and industrial sectors, a part of irrigated area had to be converted to rainfed agriculture which led to a large reduction in food production. This study highlights the linked water and food security in a changing environment and suggests that the trade-off should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  13. Major factors for facilitating change in behavioral strategies to reduce obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle Grave R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave,1 Elena Centis,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Marwan El Ghoch,1 Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda VR, 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum University, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: It is very unlikely that our obesity-promoting environment will change in the near future. It is therefore mandatory to improve our knowledge of the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors. This may help design more powerful procedures and strategies to facilitate the adoption of healthy lifestyles in a "toxic" environment favoring the development of a positive energy balance. The aim of this review is to describe the main factors associated with successful adoption of obesity-reducing behaviors and to describe the most recent development, limits, and outcomes of lifestyle modification programs. The evidence regarding predictors of weight loss and weight loss maintenance remains largely incomplete. It is necessary to develop strategies matching treatments to patients' needs to improve successful weight loss and its maintenance. How to detect and how to address these needs is a continuous, challenging, research problem.Keywords: weight loss, physical activity, food intake, motivational interviewing, behavioral therapy

  14. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  15. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  16. A Markov Chain Model for Changes in Users' Assessment of Search Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Maayan; Bar-Ilan, Judit; Levene, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that users tend to change their assessment of search results over time. This is a first study that investigates the factors and reasons for these changes, and describes a stochastic model of user behaviour that may explain these changes. In particular, we hypothesise that most of the changes are local, i.e. between results with similar or close relevance to the query, and thus belong to the same"coarse" relevance category. According to the theory of coarse beliefs and categorical thinking, humans tend to divide the range of values under consideration into coarse categories, and are thus able to distinguish only between cross-category values but not within them. To test this hypothesis we conducted five experiments with about 120 subjects divided into 3 groups. Each student in every group was asked to rank and assign relevance scores to the same set of search results over two or three rounds, with a period of three to nine weeks between each round. The subjects of the last three-round experiment were then exposed to the differences in their judgements and were asked to explain them. We make use of a Markov chain model to measure change in users' judgments between the different rounds. The Markov chain demonstrates that the changes converge, and that a majority of the changes are local to a neighbouring relevance category. We found that most of the subjects were satisfied with their changes, and did not perceive them as mistakes but rather as a legitimate phenomenon, since they believe that time has influenced their relevance assessment. Both our quantitative analysis and user comments support the hypothesis of the existence of coarse relevance categories resulting from categorical thinking in the context of user evaluation of search results.

  17. A Markov Chain Model for Changes in Users’ Assessment of Search Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Maayan; Bar-Ilan, Judit; Levene, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that users tend to change their assessment of search results over time. This is a first study that investigates the factors and reasons for these changes, and describes a stochastic model of user behaviour that may explain these changes. In particular, we hypothesise that most of the changes are local, i.e. between results with similar or close relevance to the query, and thus belong to the same”coarse” relevance category. According to the theory of coarse beliefs and categorical thinking, humans tend to divide the range of values under consideration into coarse categories, and are thus able to distinguish only between cross-category values but not within them. To test this hypothesis we conducted five experiments with about 120 subjects divided into 3 groups. Each student in every group was asked to rank and assign relevance scores to the same set of search results over two or three rounds, with a period of three to nine weeks between each round. The subjects of the last three-round experiment were then exposed to the differences in their judgements and were asked to explain them. We make use of a Markov chain model to measure change in users’ judgments between the different rounds. The Markov chain demonstrates that the changes converge, and that a majority of the changes are local to a neighbouring relevance category. We found that most of the subjects were satisfied with their changes, and did not perceive them as mistakes but rather as a legitimate phenomenon, since they believe that time has influenced their relevance assessment. Both our quantitative analysis and user comments support the hypothesis of the existence of coarse relevance categories resulting from categorical thinking in the context of user evaluation of search results. PMID:27171426

  18. A Markov Chain Model for Changes in Users' Assessment of Search Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Zhitomirsky-Geffet

    Full Text Available Previous research shows that users tend to change their assessment of search results over time. This is a first study that investigates the factors and reasons for these changes, and describes a stochastic model of user behaviour that may explain these changes. In particular, we hypothesise that most of the changes are local, i.e. between results with similar or close relevance to the query, and thus belong to the same"coarse" relevance category. According to the theory of coarse beliefs and categorical thinking, humans tend to divide the range of values under consideration into coarse categories, and are thus able to distinguish only between cross-category values but not within them. To test this hypothesis we conducted five experiments with about 120 subjects divided into 3 groups. Each student in every group was asked to rank and assign relevance scores to the same set of search results over two or three rounds, with a period of three to nine weeks between each round. The subjects of the last three-round experiment were then exposed to the differences in their judgements and were asked to explain them. We make use of a Markov chain model to measure change in users' judgments between the different rounds. The Markov chain demonstrates that the changes converge, and that a majority of the changes are local to a neighbouring relevance category. We found that most of the subjects were satisfied with their changes, and did not perceive them as mistakes but rather as a legitimate phenomenon, since they believe that time has influenced their relevance assessment. Both our quantitative analysis and user comments support the hypothesis of the existence of coarse relevance categories resulting from categorical thinking in the context of user evaluation of search results.

  19. Can investments in health systems strategies lead to changes in immunization coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan

    2014-04-01

    National immunization programs in developing countries have made major strides to immunize the world's children, increasing full coverage to 83% of children. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 22 million children less than five years of age are left unvaccinated, and coverage levels have been plateauing for nearly a decade. This paper describes the evidence on factors contributing to low vaccination uptake, and describes the connection between these factors and the documented strategies and interventions that can lead to changes in immunization outcomes. The author suggests that investments in these areas may contribute more effectively to immunization coverage and also have positive spill-over benefits for health systems. The paper concludes that while some good quality evidence exists of what works and may contribute to immunization outcomes, the quality of evidence needs to improve and major gaps need to be addressed.

  20. Preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures for Jakarta slum dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pooroe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is a city with unpredictable yet annual water shortages, both during the dry and wet season, which disproportionately affect the urban poor. One possible solution is to redevelop the existing water supply system which is now working in one of the largest slum area in Penjaringan, North Jakarta. This system is equipped with a large meter, the Master Meter, to record the communal water consumption and individual meters to record household consumptions. The Community Based Organization uses, operates, and maintains the system based on agreement with water users. Improvement of the Master Meter is achieved by harvesting uncollected rain water during the wet season with its high rainfall intensity, modifying the water storage system and improving the influent water quality. This paper aims to provide a preventive strategy in response to climate change and infrastructural failures based on a case study of community-based water supply project in Penjaringan, Jakarta.

  1. Exploring Short-Term Responses to Changes in the Control Strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clarke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  2. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  3. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials. PMID:25869407

  4. Renewable energy to develop adaptation strategies to the climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Pieranna; Bergonzoli, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Changes in land use and combustion of fossil fuels have been largest human impact on the global carbon cycle and without a complete accounting of net greenhouse-gas (GHG) fluxes, developing and evaluating adaptation strategies are not possible. The major source of GHG fluxes associated with crop production are soil N2O emissions, soil CO2 and methane (CH4) fluxes, and CO2 emission associated with agricultural inputs and farm equipment operation. This study points out the main principles which are at the base of solar energy use for sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Field tests were carried out in order to compare crop yield and solar pump plant performance, for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, connected to drip irrigation and sprinkler system plants during the irrigation season. The system mainly consists of the parts listed here: set of flat photovoltaic panels consisting of 150 panels for a total of 3000 W peak value once installed, connected in serial-parallel to obtain a 120 Vdc operating voltage rating. The panels utilize 36 serially connected single-crystal silicon cells providing a 12 V voltage rating. The serial connection of 10 panels generates the system's operating voltage rating (120 Vdc). The total 3000 W peak value power is obtained by connecting in parallel 15 serial-strings. When the circuit is open, the voltage at the ends of the panels can reach 210 Volts. The photovoltaic system supplies, through an inverter, a three-phase 1.6 kW canned pump located in the artesian well. The relevant hydraulic line connects this pump to the various utilities. The hydraulic capacity of the helium pump has been used during the irrigation season in order to meet the water needs of a corn crop. Therefore, along with the solar pump was used a dispersing wing type drip irrigation system with double chamber hosing (70 kPa operating pressure), with external holes spaced 0.3 m apart, 0.75 m distance between the wings, wing length 120 m and placed

  5. Local Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Local Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Tang, Ya; Luo, Han; Di, Baofeng; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-10-01

    Climate change affects the productivity of agricultural ecosystems. Farmers cope with climate change based on their perceptions of changing climate patterns. Using a case study from the Middle Yarlung Zangbo River Valley, we present a new research framework that uses questionnaire and interview methods to compare local farmers' perceptions of climate change with the adaptive farming strategies they adopt. Most farmers in the valley believed that temperatures had increased in the last 30 years but did not note any changes in precipitation. Most farmers also reported sowing and harvesting hulless barley 10-15 days earlier than they were 20 years ago. In addition, farmers observed that plants were flowering and river ice was melting earlier in the season, but they did not perceive changes in plant germination, herbaceous vegetation growth, or other spring seasonal events. Most farmers noticed an extended fall season signified by delays in the freezing of rivers and an extended growing season for grassland vegetation. The study results showed that agricultural practices in the study area are still traditional; that is, local farmers' perceptions of climate change and their strategies to mitigate its impacts were based on indigenous knowledge and their own experiences. Adaptive strategies included adjusting planting and harvesting dates, changing crop species, and improving irrigation infrastructure. However, the farmers' decisions could not be fully attributed to their concerns about climate change. Local farming systems exhibit high adaptability to climate variability. Additionally, off-farm income has reduced the dependence of the farmers on agriculture, and an agricultural subsidy from the Chinese Central Government has mitigated the farmers' vulnerability. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for local farmers to build a system of adaptive climate change strategies that combines traditional experience and indigenous knowledge with scientific research and government

  6. New perception of childhood as a result of changing gender roles

    OpenAIRE

    Modic, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Gender roles are a result and reflection of social change. Owing to gender equality, women are rising to prominence in the area of work, which is one of the significant factors influencing the formation of gender roles. We can observe men slowly entering the private sphere where they are involved in activities limited to taking care of their children. Nevertheless, the asymmetry between the genders persists in both public and private life; the situation has not changed dramatically. However, ...

  7. Preliminary Scientific Results of Chang'E-1 Lunar Orbiter: Based on Payloads Detection Data in the First Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ziyuan; YANG Jianfeng; ZHANG Wenxi; WANG Jianyu; MOU Lingli; CHANG Jin; ZHANG Liyan; WANG Huanyu; LI Yongquan; ZHANG Xiaohui; ZHENG Yongchun; JIANG Jingshan; WANG Shijin; BIAN Wei; LI Chunlai; SUN Huixian; ZOU Yongliao; LIU Jianzhong; LIU Jianjun; ZHAO Baochang; REN Xin

    2008-01-01

    Chang'E-1 lunar Orbiter was launched by Long March 3A rocket from Xichang Satellite Launch Center at 18:05 BT (Beijing Time) Oct. 24, 2007. It is the first step of its ambitious three-stage moon program, a new milestone in the Chinese space exploration history. The primary science objectives of Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter are to obtain three-Dimension (3D) stereo images of the lunar surface, to analyze the distribution and abundance of elements on the surface, to investigate the thickness of lunar soil, evaluate helium-3 resources and other characteristics, and to detect the space environment around the moon. To achieve the above four mission objectives, eight sets of scientific instruments are chosen as the payloads of the lunar orbiter, including a CCD stereo camera (CCD), a Sagnac-based interferometer spectrometer (IIM), a Laser Altimeter (LAM), a Microwave Radiometer (MRM), a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS), an X-ray spectrometer (XRS), a High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD), and two Solar Wind Ion Detectors (SWID). The detected data of the payloads show that all payloads work well. This paper introduces the status of payloads in the first phase and preliminary scientific results.

  8. Colorectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver Metastases: Influence of Surgical Strategy on Treatment Results and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnik, O. O.; Burlaka, A. A.; Lukashenko, A. V.; Priymak, V. V.; Volk, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research was to improve immediate and long-term results of treatment in patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancers (smCRC) developing surgical treatment program with application of simultaneous and staged methods for resection of primary tumor and liver metastases.   Materials and methods. The study was based upon reviewing treatment results for 125 patients with smCRC (рТ1-4N0-2M1 in colon cancer and рТ1-3N0-2M1 in rectal cancer) who underwent either simulta...

  9. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  10. Proactive Encouragement of Interdisciplinary Research Teams in a Business School Environment: Strategy and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susan M.; Carter, Nathan C.; Hadlock, Charles R.; Haughton, Dominique M.; Sirbu, George

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes efforts to promote collaborative research across traditional boundaries in a business-oriented university as part of an institutional transformation. We model this activity within the framework of social network analysis and use quantitative tools from that field to characterize resulting impacts. (Contains 4 tables and 2…

  11. Monteggia-like lesions – treatment strategies and one-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Reinhold; Wild, Michael; Brosius, Lars; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The eponym “Monteggia fracture” includes various patterns of complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius, which are not well defined yet. They are frequently described as Monteggia-like lesions or Monteggia equivalent injuries. Until today, these injury patterns have been reported rarely. The objective of this retrospective study was to better define patterns of injury and to document the short-term results of treatment with current fixation techniques. Methods: Ten patients with a Monteggia-like lesion were included in this study and clinical and radiological follow-up examinations at an average of 12.3 months after the trauma were performed. For clinical follow-up the Mayo Modified Wrist Score, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the functional rating index of Broberg and Morrey, and the DASH score were utilized. Results: Osteosynthesis of the ulna was performed using a proximally contoured or precontoured LCP (locking compression plate) in all patients. All patients had a fracture of the radial head. All patients with a Mason type III radial head fracture received a cemented bipolar radial head prosthesis. All Mason type II fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using mini screws. In all Mason type I fractures the treatment of the radial head dislocation was by closed reduction. Associated coronoid fractures were stabilized with lag screws through the ulnar plate or with independent lag screws after reduction of the fracture. According to the aforementioned scoring systems good to excellent results could be achieved. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that good or excellent short-term results can be obtained if the injury is classified correctly and a standardized surgical treatment of all components of the injury is achieved. Further studies with larger patient populations and longer follow up periods are needed to evaluate long-term effectiveness of this treatment concept. PMID:26734535

  12. Monteggia-like lesions – treatment strategies and one-year results

    OpenAIRE

    Laun, Reinhold; Wild, Michael; Brosius, Lars; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The eponym “Monteggia fracture” includes various patterns of complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius, which are not well defined yet. They are frequently described as Monteggia-like lesions or Monteggia equivalent injuries. Until today, these injury patterns have been reported rarely. The objective of this retrospective study was to better define patterns of injury and to document the short-term results of treatment with current fixation techniques. Methods...

  13. Monteggia-like lesions - treatment strategies and one-year results

    OpenAIRE

    Laun, R; Wild, M.; Brosius, L; M Hakimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The eponym "Monteggia fracture" includes various patterns of complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius, which are not well defined yet. They are frequently described as Monteggia-like lesions or Monteggia equivalent injuries. Until today, these injury patterns have been reported rarely. The objective of this retrospective study was to better define patterns of injury and to document the short-term results of treatment with current fixation techniques.Methods...

  14. Monteggia-like lesions – treatment strategies and one-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laun, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The eponym “Monteggia fracture” includes various patterns of complex fracture-dislocations of the proximal ulna and radius, which are not well defined yet. They are frequently described as Monteggia-like lesions or Monteggia equivalent injuries. Until today, these injury patterns have been reported rarely. The objective of this retrospective study was to better define patterns of injury and to document the short-term results of treatment with current fixation techniques.Methods: Ten patients with a Monteggia-like lesion were included in this study and clinical and radiological follow-up examinations at an average of 12.3 months after the trauma were performed. For clinical follow-up the Mayo Modified Wrist Score, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score, the functional rating index of Broberg and Morrey, and the DASH score were utilized.Results: Osteosynthesis of the ulna was performed using a proximally contoured or precontoured LCP (locking compression plate in all patients. All patients had a fracture of the radial head. All patients with a Mason type III radial head fracture received a cemented bipolar radial head prosthesis. All Mason type II fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using mini screws. In all Mason type I fractures the treatment of the radial head dislocation was by closed reduction. Associated coronoid fractures were stabilized with lag screws through the ulnar plate or with independent lag screws after reduction of the fracture. According to the aforementioned scoring systems good to excellent results could be achieved.Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that good or excellent short-term results can be obtained if the injury is classified correctly and a standardized surgical treatment of all components of the injury is achieved. Further studies with larger patient populations and longer follow up periods are needed to evaluate long-term effectiveness of this treatment concept.

  15. Making Strategy Work : Sense and Sensibility of Results-Oriented Pay Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hulkko-Nyman, Kiisa

    2016-01-01

    Incentive systems are here to stay. They are meant to motivate employees and boost their performance - but often their impact is not quite what was expected. It is thus essential to study how their outcomes are generated and under what conditions systems work best. This dissertation sheds light on these topics. A model is built and tested to find out how results-oriented pay (ROP) systems influence satisfaction with the ROP system, performance and co-operation as perceived by the employees. T...

  16. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends. PMID:24601653

  17. Management strategies to effect change in intensive care units: lessons from the world of business. Part III. Effectively effecting and sustaining change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kocher, Robert; Factor, Phillip

    2014-03-01

    Reaping the optimal rewards from any quality improvement project mandates sustainability after the initial implementation. In Part III of this three-part ATS Seminars series, we discuss strategies to create a culture for change, improve cooperation and interaction between multidisciplinary teams of clinicians, and position the intensive care unit (ICU) optimally within the hospital environment. Coaches are used throughout other industries to help professionals assess and continually improve upon their practice; use of this strategy is as of yet infrequent in health care, but would be easily transferable and potentially beneficial to ICU managers and clinicians alike. Similarly, activities focused on improving teamwork are commonplace outside of health care. Simulation training and classroom education about key components of successful team functioning are known to result in improvements. In addition to creating an ICU environment in which individuals and teams of clinicians perform well, ICU managers must position the ICU to function well within the hospital system. It is important to move away from the notion of a standalone ("siloed") ICU to one that is well integrated into the rest of the institution. Creating a "pull-system" (in which participants are active in searching out needed resources and admitting patients) can help ICU managers both provide better care for the critically ill and strengthen relationships with non-ICU staff. Although not necessary, there is potential upside to creating a unified critical care service to assist with achieving these ends.

  18. Efficient local behavioral change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yilei; Mills, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic; for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her l...

  19. Videogame training strategy-induced change in brain function during a complex visuomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Boot, Walter R; Vo, Loan T K; Basak, Chandramallika; Vanpatter, Matt; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica; Kramer, Arthur F

    2012-07-01

    Although changes in brain function induced by cognitive training have been examined, functional plasticity associated with specific training strategies is still relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined changes in brain function during a complex visuomotor task following training using the Space Fortress video game. To assess brain function, participants completed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after 30 h of training with one of two training regimens: Hybrid Variable-Priority Training (HVT), with a focus on improving specific skills and managing task priority, or Full Emphasis Training (FET), in which participants simply practiced the game to obtain the highest overall score. Control participants received only 6 h of FET. Compared to FET, HVT learners reached higher performance on the game and showed less brain activation in areas related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed movement after training. Compared to the control group, HVT exhibited less brain activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), coupled with greater performance improvement. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that the reduction in brain activation was correlated with improved performance on the task. This study sheds light on the neurobiological mechanisms of improved learning from directed training (HVT) over non-directed training (FET), which is related to visuo-spatial attention and goal-directed motor planning, while separating the practice-based benefit, which is related to executive control and rule management. PMID:22504276

  20. Community-wide changes in intertaxonomic temporal co-occurrence resulting from phenological shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yang; Giam, Xingli; Lee, Tien Ming; Luo, Hao; Wu, Jia; Liang, Qiaoyi; Zhao, Jian; Long, Xiaoyan; Pang, Hong; Wang, Biao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Gao, Xuejie; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is known to affect the assembly of ecological communities by altering species' spatial distribution patterns, but little is known about how climate change may affect community assembly by changing species' temporal co-occurrence patterns, which is highly likely given the widely observed phenological shifts associated with climate change. Here, we analyzed a 29-year phenological data set comprising community-level information on the timing and span of temporal occurrence in 11 seasonally occurring animal taxon groups from 329 local meteorological observatories across China. We show that widespread shifts in phenology have resulted in community-wide changes in the temporal overlap between taxa that are dominated by extensions, and that these changes are largely due to taxa's altered span of temporal occurrence rather than the degree of synchrony in phenological shifts. Importantly, our findings also suggest that climate change may have led to less phenological mismatch than generally presumed, and that the context under which to discuss the ecological consequences of phenological shifts should be expanded beyond asynchronous shifts. PMID:26680152

  1. Change in the immunophenotype of a somatotroph adenoma resulting in gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh P Thawani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examining the pathologic progression of a pituitary adenoma from the point of a prepubescent child to an adult with gigantism affords us an opportunity to consider why patients may develop secretory or functioning tumors and raises questions about whether therapeutic interventions and surveillance strategies could be made to avoid irreversible phenotypic changes. Case Description: A patient underwent a sublabial transsphenoidal resection for a clinically non-functioning macroadenoma in 1999. He underwent radiation treatment and was transiently given growth hormone (GH supplementation as an adolescent. His growth rapidly traversed several percentiles and he was found to have elevated GH levels. The patient became symptomatic and was taken for a second neurosurgical procedure. Pathology and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of somatotroph cells and dense granularity; he was diagnosed with a functional somatotroph adenoma. Conclusions: While it is likely that the described observations reflect the manifestations of a functional somatotroph adenoma in development, it is possible that pubertal growth, GH supplementation, its removal, or radiation therapy contributed to the described endocrine and pathologic changes.

  2. An integrated framework for assessing vulnerability to climate change and developing adaptation strategies for coffee growing families in Mesoamerica

    OpenAIRE

    Baca, María; Läderach, Peter; Haggar, Jeremy; Schroth, Götz; Ovalle, Oreana

    2014-01-01

    The Mesoamerican region is considered to be one of the areas in the world most vulnerable to climate change. We developed a framework for quantifying the vulnerability of the livelihoods of coffee growers in Mesoamerica at regional and local levels and identify adaptation strategies. Following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concepts, vulnerability was defined as the combination of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. To quantify exposure, changes in the climatic ...

  3. A realist review of interventions and strategies to promote evidence-informed healthcare: a focus on change agency

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, Brendan; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; DeCorby, Kara; Hutchinson, Alison M; Bucknall, Tracey; Kent, Bridie; Schultz, Alyce; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Stetler, Cheyl; Titler, Marita; Wallin, Lars; Wilson, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Change agency in its various forms is one intervention aimed at improving the effectiveness of the uptake of evidence. Facilitators, knowledge brokers and opinion leaders are examples of change agency strategies used to promote knowledge utilization. This review adopts a realist approach and addresses the following question: What change agency characteristics work, for whom do they work, in what circumstances and why? Methods The literature reviewed spanned the period 1997-2007. Ch...

  4. Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate chang...

  5. Vulnerability of hydropower generation to climate change in China: Results based on Grey forecasting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the long-term relationships between hydropower generation and climate factors (precipitation), hydropower generation capacity (installed capacity of hydropower station) to quantify the vulnerability of renewable energy production in China for the case of hydropower generation. Furthermore, this study applies Grey forecasting model to forecast precipitation in different provinces, and then sets up different scenarios for precipitation based on the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios and results from PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate projections for Impacts Studies) model. The most important result found in this research is the increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions and the main hydropower generation provinces of China to climate change. Other main empirical results reveal that the impacts of climate change on the supply of hydropower generation in China will be noteworthy for the society. Different scenarios have different effects on hydropower generation, of which A2 scenario (pessimistic, high emission) has the largest. Meanwhile, the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation of every province are distinctly different, of which the Southwest part has the higher vulnerability than the average level while the central part lower. - Highlights: • The hydropower vulnerability will be enlarged with the rapid increase of hydropower capacity. • Modeling the vulnerability of hydropower in different scenarios and different provinces. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions to climate change. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the main hydropower generation provinces. • Rainfall pattern caused by climate change would be the reason for the increasing vulnerability

  6. INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGY OF BRAZILIAN HEAVY CONSTRUCTION: REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Luciane Scherer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that internationalization is a booming phenomenon, the paper aims to describe the process of internationalization of Brazilian companies in the heavy construction sector which have internationalized their activities through the execution of foreign direct investment (FDI. The focus is to understand the trajectories adopted in understanding the choices made, and the identification of the results obtained by these companies, experienced in international markets. Performing empirical research in business segment of heavy construction felt the need to broaden the scope of studies related to the internationalization of service firms. About the internationalization path adopted, the analysis of four cases showed similarities. To minimize the ignorance concerning market conditions, companies work normally with local partners. Concerning strategic choices and outcomes arising, the cases showed that the maintenance of external activity followed other criteria in addition to profitability. Maintaining external operations also been explained in terms of the need for constant updating. Different stages of internationalization were identified in the companies studied.

  7. Newborn calf vitality: risk factors, characteristics, assessment, resulting outcomes and strategies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine F; Leslie, Ken E

    2013-11-01

    Dystocia is a stressful and traumatic event for both the cow and calf. As the prevalence of dystocia has increased over time, attention has been focused on maintaining the health and longevity of the cow. Lack of vitality in the newborn calf may go unnoticed and result in short or long-term implications for calf health and performance. A prolonged or assisted delivery may increase birth stress in calves causing a variety of effects including injury, inflammation, hypoxia, acidosis, pain and an inability to maintain homeostasis. Each of these effects can further contribute to a reduced state of vitality in the newborn calf. Newborn vitality is essential to the health, survival and welfare of the calf. If the calf is not vital at birth, it may be unwilling or unable to get up and suckle colostrum in a timely manner. Early colostrum intake improves passive transfer of immunoglobulins, energy uptake and thermoregulation. Intervention may be required to assist these calves such as respiratory and thermal support, manual feeding of colostrum or the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to aid health and long-term survival. However, more research is needed to determine ways in which newborn calf vitality can be assessed and improved in order to reduce the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and long-term effects on performance.

  8. Ancient cellular structures and modern humans: change of survival strategies before prolonged low solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Mariya; Rudenchik, Evgeniy; Gromozova, Elena; Voychuk, Sergei; Kachur, Tatiana

    The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather carries the information about the rhythms and features of adaptation of early biological systems to the outer space influence. The influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet waves and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes. These phenomena could be experimentally studied on present-day biological objects. Particularly inorganic polyphosphates, so-called "fossil molecules", attracts special attention as the most ancient molecules which arose in inanimate nature and have been accompanying biological objects at all stages of evolution. Polyphosphates-containing graves of yeast's cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y-517, , from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms was studied by daily measurements during 2000-2013 years. The IZMIRAN daily data base of physiological parameters dynamics during 2000-2013 years were analyzed simultaneously (25 people). The analysis showed significant simultaneous changes of the statistical parameters of the studied biological systems in 2004 -2006. The similarity of simultaneous changes of adaptation strategies of human organism and the cell structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the 23-24 cycles of solar activity are discussed. This phenomenon could be due to a replacement of bio-effective parameters of space weather during the change from 23rd to 24th solar activity cycle and nonstandard geophysical peculiarities of the 24th solar activity cycle. It could be suggested that the observed similarity arose as the optimization of evolution selection of the living systems in expectation of probable prolonged period of low solar activity (4-6 cycles of solar activity).

  9. The Changing Patterns of Advertising Strategy by Japanese Business Firms in the U.S. Market: Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiko Suzuki

    1980-01-01

    This article analyzes the changing pattern of advertisement strategy by Japanese business firms in the U.S. market. Taking the advertisement activities of four major industrial sectors that appeared in both Business Week and Newsweek during the 1965–1977 period as samples, this article has found that the Japanese advertisement strategy in the U.S. market has passed sequentially through the following four stages: (1) Nationality-Supportive, (2) Product-Attributes, (3) Challenge and Responses, ...

  10. Adaptive strategy changes as a function of task demands : a study of car drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, F; Meijman, T; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    When drivers perform additional tasks while driving, research shows conflicting results: primary driving performance may deteriorate but adaptive changes such as reducing driving speed have also been noted. We hypothesized that the nature of the secondary task may be important: drivers may give more

  11. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under the influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. One of the most important barriers for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored...... through the application and discussion of three different theoretical decision support strategies: the precautionary principle, the minimax strategy and Bayesian decision support. The reviewed decision support strategies all proved valuable for addressing the identified uncertainties, at best applied...

  12. Strategies for the enhancement of automobile shredder residues (ASRs) recycling: results and cost assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    With reference to the European regulation about the management of End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs), Directive 2000/53/EC imposes the achievement of a recycling target of 85%, and 95% of total recovery by 2015. Over the last few years many efforts have been made to find solutions to properly manage the waste coming from ELVs with the aim of complying with the targets fixed by the Directive. This paper focuses on the economical evaluation of a treatment process, that includes physical (size and density), magnetic and electrical separations, performed on the light fraction of the automobile shredder residue (ASR) with the aim of reducing the amount of waste to dispose of in a landfill and enhancing the recovery of valuable fractions as stated by the EU Directive. The afore mentioned process is able to enhance the recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous metals of an amount equal to about 1% b.w. (by weight) of the ELV weight, and to separate a high energetic-content product suitable for thermal valorization for an amount close to (but not higher than) 10% b.w. of the ELV weight. The results of the economical assessment led to annual operating costs of the treatment ranging from 300,000 €/y to 350,000 €/y. Since the considered plant treats about 13,500 metrictons of ASR per year, this would correspond to an operating cost of approximately 20-25 €/t. Taking into account the amount and the selling price of the scrap iron and of the non magnetic metal recovered by the process, thus leading to a gain of about 30 €/t per ton of light ASR treated, the cost of the recovery process is balanced by the profit from the selling of the recovered metals. On the other hand, the proposed treatment is able to achieve the fulfillment of the targets stated by Directive 2000/53/EC concerning thermal valorization and reduce the amount of waste generated from ELV shredding to landfill.

  13. Changing value chain strategies of Danish clothing and fashion companies, 1970-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Jensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four decades, the clothing industry has seen one of the most radical, global transformations of any industry, and Western European clothing companies have been put under strain. To the surprise of industry observers and academics, however, Denmark continues to hold expansive and profitable companies within this industry. Both the trade itself and industry observers see the present success of Danish fashion as the result of Danish pioneering in international outsourcing. The article challenges the commonly told story, arguing that the present success should be seen as the result of new companies entering the sector rather than the transformation of old ones. The article demonstrates that value chain strategies are constantly in the making and successful ones rarely remain competitive for long.

  14. 78 FR 66898 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ..., and Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 78 FR 52905 (August 27, 2013) (Preliminary... uranium. Low- enriched uranium is enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) with a U\\235\\ product assay of... outside the scope of the order. Specifically, the order does not cover enriched uranium hexafluoride...

  15. Value System Changes Resulting from a Media Ethics Course: A Postmodern Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Larry Z.

    This pre- and post-test study examined value system changes resulting from a media ethics course. Over three semesters, 74 students participated in the study. They were given M. Rokeach's lists of terminal and instrumental values on the first day and again on the last day of class and asked to rank each value on the lists in terms of its…

  16. 77 FR 54900 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ..., including, but not limited to, window frames, door frames, solar panels, curtain walls, or furniture. Such... glass pane and backing material, and solar panels. The scope also excludes finished goods containing... Extrusions from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 77...

  17. 76 FR 27634 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... and Amended Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination: Certain Pasta From Italy, 61 FR 38544...: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances Review and Intent To Revoke, In Part, 75 FR... Revocation of Order, in Part, 75 FR 56992 (September 17, 2010). \\6\\ Id. 75 FR at 56993-94. \\7\\ See...

  18. Clinical utility of in-socket residual limb volume change measurement: Case study results

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Allyn, KJ; Myers, TR

    2009-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure conductive tissue, extracellular fluid volume changes in the residual limbs of four unilateral trans-tibial amputee subjects during standing and walking conditions. Results were useful towards clinical assessment, patient education, and decision-making about treatment.

  19. 77 FR 39683 - Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation of High and New Technology Industrial Development Zone of Zhaoqing... Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...-interest to Zhaoqing New Zhongya Aluminum Co., Ltd. (``New Zhongya''). We have preliminarily...

  20. 75 FR 4044 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Duty Orders: Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, 65 FR 33807 (May 25... Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 18348 (April 22, 2009). FET has... Changed Circumstances Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan, 67 FR...

  1. 75 FR 39208 - Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Final Results of Changed-Circumstances Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 4044 (January 26, 2010). We did not receive any comments from... Review, 74 FR 18348 (April 22, 2009). Notification This notice serves as a reminder to parties subject to... International Trade Administration Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Final Results of Changed-...

  2. 75 FR 7566 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    .... There are four primary chemical compositions of saccharin: (1) Sodium saccharin (American Chemical Society Chemical Abstract Service (``CAS'') Registry 128-44-9); (2) calcium saccharin (CAS Registry 6485... from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 74 FR...

  3. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121, Bonn (Germany); Benjamin, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin at Whitewater, 800 West Main St., Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); English, Jayanne [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Johnson, Megan [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Greenbank, WV 24944 (United States); Li, Jiang-Tao [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Porter, Troy A. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Rand, Richard J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Saikia, D. J. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Strong, A. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Walterbos, Rene, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: mkrause@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for

  4. Impact of climate change on Estonian coastal and inland wetlands. A summary with new results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kont, A.; Lode, E.; Ratas, U.; Rivis, R.; Tonisson, H. (Institute of Ecology, Tallinn University (EE)); Jaagus, J. (Institute of Geography, University of Tartu (EE)); Suursaar, U. (Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu (EE)); Orviku, K. (Merin Ltd, Tallinn (EE)); Endjaerv, E. (Estonian Environment Information Centre, Tallinn (EE))

    2007-07-01

    The natural environment of Estonia is sensitive to climate change due to its location in a transitional zone between areas with different bioclimatic conditions. We studied the NAO index and data on temperature, moisture, wind, and sea level regimes in Estonia and the Baltic Sea region. We also looked at the relationships between meteorological forcing time series and changes in wetlands. The effects of changing climatic conditions are clearly reflected in the data from the station at Tooma mire, where we identified shorter snow-cover duration, decreased soil-frost depth and changed groundwater levels in the bog. In comparing various types of Estonian wetlands under such changing climatic conditions, we also identified greater instability in the character of coastal wetlands compared to that of the inland bogs. We found that the most marked coastal changes in Estonia result from a combination of strong storms, high sea levels induced by storm surge, ice free seas and unfrozen sediments. Finally, we also found that a significant trend in the development of seashore grasslands is the replacement of former meadows by reed beds, shrubberies or woodland. (orig.)

  5. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation. (letter)

  6. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel G; Agrawal, Arun; Sass, Daniel A; Wang, Jun; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-01-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation.

  7. Responses to climate and economic risks and opportunities across national and ecological boundaries: changing household strategies on the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel G.; Agrawal, Arun; Sass, Daniel A.; Wang, Jun; Hua, Jin; Xie, Yichun

    2013-12-01

    Climate changes on the Mongolian Plateau are creating new challenges for the households and communities of the region. Much of the existing research on household choices in response to climate variability and change focuses on environmental risks and stresses. In contrast, our analysis highlights the importance of taking into account environmental and economic opportunities in explaining household adaptation choices. We surveyed over 750 households arrayed along an ecological gradient and matched across the national border in Mongolia and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, asking what changes in livelihoods strategies households made over the last ten years, and analyzed these choices in two broad categories of options: diversification and livestock management. We combined these data with remotely sensed information about vegetation growth and self-reported exposure to price fluctuations. Our statistical results showed that households experiencing lower ecological and economic variability, higher average levels of vegetation growth, and with greater levels of material wealth, were often those that undertook more actions to improve their conditions in the face of variability. The findings have implications both for how interventions aimed at supporting ongoing choices might be targeted and for theory construction related to social adaptation.

  8. Dryland feedbacks to climatic change: Results from a climate manipulation experiment on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Belnap, J.; Ferrenberg, S.; Wertin, T. M.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth's terrestrial surface and make up ~35% of the U.S., yet we know surprisingly little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many dryland regions, the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern U.S. is predicted to experience climate change as elevated temperature and altered timing and amount of annual precipitation. We are using a long-term (>10 yr) factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to explore how predicted changes in climate will affect vascular plant and biological soil crust community composition, biogeochemical cycling, and energy balance (biocrusts are a surface soil community of moss, lichen, and cyanobacteria that can make up as much as 70% of the living cover in drylands). While some of the responses we have observed were expected, many of the results are surprising. For example, we documented biocrust community composition shifts in response to altered climate that were significantly faster and more dramatic than considered likely for these soil communities that typically change over decadal and centennial timescales. Further, while we continue to observe important climate change effects on carbon cycling - including reduced net photosynthesis in vascular plants, increased CO2 losses from biocrust soils during some seasons, and changes to the interactions between water and carbon cycles - we have also found marked treatment effects on the albedo and spectral signatures of dryland soils. In addition to demonstrating the effects of these treatments, the strong relationships we observed in our experiments between biota and climate provide a quantitative framework for improving our representation of dryland responses to climate change. In this talk we will cover a range of datasets that, taken together, show: (1) large climate-driven changes to dryland biogeochemical cycling may be the result of both effects on existing communities, as well

  9. A Matter of Perspective - E and P Strategy in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation states that the exploration and production industry sees many new opportunities, as a result of political changes and its own expanding capabilities. There is increasing competition for scarce resources - people, tools, technology, capital and public support. The industry must meet pressing challenges, including low oil prices and changing societal expectations. Investors seek predictable terms that are appropriate for both global and local conditions. They have to assess the risks, value the opportunities, consider whether they have the necessary resources, and satisfy themselves they can maintain standards. Their choices are constrained by economic conditions and commercial realities

  10. Malaria surveillance-response strategies in different transmission zones of the People's Republic of China: preparing for climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sound understanding of malaria transmission patterns in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China is crucial for designing effective surveillance-response strategies that can guide the national malaria elimination programme (NMEP. Using an established biology-driven model, it is expected that one may design and refine appropriate surveillance-response strategies for different transmission zones, which, in turn, assist the NMEP in the ongoing implementation period (2010–2020 and, potentially, in the post-elimination stage (2020–2050. Methods Environmental data obtained from 676 locations across P.R. China, such as monthly temperature and yearly relative humidity (YRH, for the period 1961–2000 were prepared. Smoothed surface maps of the number of months suitable for parasite survival derived from monthly mean temperature and YRH were generated. For each decade, the final malaria prediction map was overlaid by two masked maps, one showing the number of months suitable for parasite survival and the other the length of YRH map in excess of 60%. Results Considering multiple environmental factors simultaneously, the environmental variables suitable for malaria transmission were found to have shifted northwards, which was especially pronounced in northern P.R. China. The unstable suitable regions (transmission periods between five and six months showed increased transmission intensity due to prolonged suitable periods, especially in the central part of the country. Conclusion Adequate and effective surveillance-response strategies for NMEP should be designed to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in P.R. China by 2020, especially in the zones predicted to be the most vulnerable for climate change.

  11. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  12. Reactivity change measurements on plutonium-uranium fuel elements in hector experimental techniques and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques used in making reactivity change measurements on HECTOR are described and discussed. Pile period measurements were used in the majority of oases, though the pile oscillator technique was used occasionally. These two methods are compared. Flux determinations were made in the vicinity of the fuel element samples using manganese foils, and the techniques used are described and an error assessment made. Results of both reactivity change and flux measurements on 1.2 in. diameter uranium and plutonium-uranium alloy fuel elements are presented, these measurements being carried out in a variety of graphite moderated lattices at temperatures up to 450 deg. C. (author)

  13. Win-stay lose-shift strategy in formation changes in football

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Managerial decision making is likely to be a dominant determinant of performance of teams in team sports. Here we use Japanese and German football data to investigate correlates between temporal patterns of formation changes across matches and match results. We found that individual teams and managers both showed win-stay lose-shift behavior, a type of reinforcement learning. In other words, they tended to stick to the current formation after a win and switch to a different formation after a loss. In addition, formation changes did not affect the results of succeeding matches in most cases. The results indicate that a swift implementation of a new formation in the win-stay lose-shift manner may not be a successful managerial rule of thumb.

  14. Cisplatin resistance: a cellular self-defense mechanism resulting from multiple epigenetic and genetic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ding-Wu; Pouliot, Lynn M; Hall, Matthew D; Gottesman, Michael M

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anticancer drugs. Its effectiveness seems to be due to the unique properties of cisplatin, which enters cells via multiple pathways and forms multiple different DNA-platinum adducts while initiating a cellular self-defense system by activating or silencing a variety of different genes, resulting in dramatic epigenetic and/or genetic alternations. As a result, the development of cisplatin resistance in human cancer cells in vivo and in vitro by necessity stems from bewilderingly complex genetic and epigenetic changes in gene expression and alterations in protein localization. Extensive published evidence has demonstrated that pleiotropic alterations are frequently detected during development of resistance to this toxic metal compound. Changes occur in almost every mechanism supporting cell survival, including cell growth-promoting pathways, apoptosis, developmental pathways, DNA damage repair, and endocytosis. In general, dozens of genes are affected in cisplatin-resistant cells, including pathways involved in copper metabolism as well as transcription pathways that alter the cytoskeleton, change cell surface presentation of proteins, and regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Decreased accumulation is one of the most common features resulting in cisplatin resistance. This seems to be a consequence of numerous epigenetic and genetic changes leading to the loss of cell-surface binding sites and/or transporters for cisplatin, and decreased fluid phase endocytosis. PMID:22659329

  15. Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

  16. Nursing entrepreneurship: motivators, strategies and possibilities for professional advancement and health system change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    In Canada, as well as internationally, efficiency-focused organizational restructuring in healthcare has resulted in stressful job change for nurses, although nurses continue to work in a system that values technology-based, physician-provided services. Employed nurses have had to participate in organizational activities that undermine their professional values and goals. Nursing entrepreneurship presents an opportunity to explore nursing's professional potential in nursing practice that is uniquely independent. In this study, a focused ethnographic approach was used to explore the experiences of self-employed nurses, who see themselves as leaders in advancing the profession of nursing and its contribution to healthcare. Key themes in the findings include the responses of self-employed nurses to health system change, expanded roles for nurses, the consequences of this non-traditional approach to nursing work and the possibilities for change that arise from nursing entrepreneurship. This research has implications for healthcare policy, professional advocacy and nursing education.

  17. Nursing entrepreneurship: motivators, strategies and possibilities for professional advancement and health system change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    In Canada, as well as internationally, efficiency-focused organizational restructuring in healthcare has resulted in stressful job change for nurses, although nurses continue to work in a system that values technology-based, physician-provided services. Employed nurses have had to participate in organizational activities that undermine their professional values and goals. Nursing entrepreneurship presents an opportunity to explore nursing's professional potential in nursing practice that is uniquely independent. In this study, a focused ethnographic approach was used to explore the experiences of self-employed nurses, who see themselves as leaders in advancing the profession of nursing and its contribution to healthcare. Key themes in the findings include the responses of self-employed nurses to health system change, expanded roles for nurses, the consequences of this non-traditional approach to nursing work and the possibilities for change that arise from nursing entrepreneurship. This research has implications for healthcare policy, professional advocacy and nursing education. PMID:23809640

  18. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  19. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction.

  20. Climate and vegetation changes around the Atlantic Ocean resulting from changes in the meridional overturning circulation during deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handiani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bølling-Allerød (BA, starting ~ 14.5 ka BP is one of the most pronounced abrupt warming periods recorded in ice and pollen proxies. The leading explanation of the cause of this warming is a sudden increase in the rate of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic Ocean and the resulting effect on the heat transport by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. In this study, we used the University of Victoria (UVic Earth System-Climate Model (ESCM to run simulations, in which a freshwater perturbation initiated a BA-like warming period. We found that under present climate conditions, the AMOC intensified when freshwater was added to the Southern Ocean. However, under Heinrich event 1 (HE1, ~ 16 ka BP climate conditions, the AMOC only intensified when freshwater was extracted from the North Atlantic Ocean, possibly corresponding to an increase in evaporation or a decrease in precipitation in this region. The intensified AMOC led to a warming in the North Atlantic Ocean and a cooling in the South Atlantic Ocean, resembling the bipolar seesaw pattern typical of the last glacial period.

    In addition to the physical response, we also studied the simulated vegetation response around the Atlantic Ocean region. Corresponding with the bipolar seesaw hypothesis, the rainbelt associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ shifted northward and affected the vegetation pattern in the tropics. The most sensitive vegetation area was found in tropical Africa, where grass cover increased and tree cover decreased under dry climate conditions. An equal but opposite response to the collapse and recovery of the AMOC implied that the change in vegetation cover was transient and robust to an abrupt climate change such as during the BA period, which is also supported by paleovegetation data. The results are in agreement with paleovegetation records from Western tropical Africa, which also show a reduction in forest cover during this

  1. Model results for the ionospheric E region: solar and seasonal changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Titheridge

    Full Text Available A new, empirical model for NO densities is developed, to include physically reasonable variations with local time, season, latitude and solar cycle. Model calculations making full allowance for secondary production, and ionising radiations at wavelengths down to 25 Å, then give values for the peak density NmE that are only 6% below the empirical IRI values for summer conditions at solar minimum. At solar maximum the difference increases to 16%. Solar-cycle changes in the EUVAC radiation model seem insufficient to explain the observed changes in NmE, with any reasonable modifications to current atmospheric constants. Hinteregger radiations give the correct change, with results that are just 2% below the IRI values throughout the solar cycle, but give too little ionisation in the E-F valley region. To match the observed solar increase in NmE, the high-flux reference spectrum in the EUVAC model needs an overall increase of about 20% (or 33% if the change is confined to the less well defined radiations at λ < 150 Å. Observed values of NmE show a seasonal anomaly, at mid-latitudes, with densities about 10% higher in winter than in summer (for a constant solar zenith angle. Composition changes in the MSIS86 atmospheric model produce a summer-to-winter change in NmE of about –2% in the northern hemisphere, and +3% in the southern hemisphere. Seasonal changes in NO produce an additional increase of about 5% in winter, near solar minimum, to give an overall seasonal anomaly of 8% in the southern hemisphere. Near solar maximum, reported NO densities suggest a much smaller seasonal change that is insufficient to produce any winter increase in NmE. Other mechanisms, such as the effects of winds or electric fields, seem inadequate to explain the observed change in NmE. It therefore seems possible that current satellite

  2. The scope and impact of obesity in Vermont - Strategies for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Harry L

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a complex, multi-faceted condition amplified by a confluence of socio-economic and environmental forces. Even in Vermont, a state long ranked as one of the healthiest, 25% of adults are obese, a rate better than 44 other states, but more than double that in 1990. Obesity puts people at greater risk for a number of serious health conditions, and may soon overtake tobacco as the #1 real killer if the current trend is not reversed. Beyond the cost to an individual's health, the projected financial impacts of an increasingly obese population are great. Nationally, the estimated direct and indirect costs of obesity add up to more than $190 billion each year. In public health terms, the challenge we are facing with obesity can well be compared to our experience with tobacco. We can easily track advances in policy, counter-marketing and other changes that together have created an environment in which smoking is no longer the norm. The Vermont Department of Health is beginning to apply strategies similar to those used to successfully cut smoking rates. This commentary describes Vermont's efforts to increase physical activity, decrease caloric intake, and enlist partners to help make healthy choices easier and more accessible for everyone. PMID:25818233

  3. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  4. Transformation by design: nursing workforce innovation and reduction strategies in turbulent times of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Mary O

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of care delivery from an acute care and inpatient standard to the outpatient setting and health promotion model is generating the need for innovative workforce and infrastructure adjustments to meet the new paradigm of population health management. Successful transformation of the nursing workforce necessitates a positive style of thinking that addresses rational concerns during times of difficult transition. Nurse leaders are called to recognize and appreciate the strengths of the nursing workforce by involving them in the course of change through collaboration, planning, and discussion. One unique way to plan and develop new care delivery models is to adopt the framework used in health facility planning and design for new services, units, or hospitals. This framework is flexible and can be adjusted easily to meet the objectives of a small nursing workforce innovation project or expanded to encompass the needs of a large-scale hospital transformation. Structured questioning further helps the team to identify barriers to care and allows for the development of new concepts that are objective and in accord with evidence-based practice and data. This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of implementing innovative workforce redesign and workforce reduction strategies.

  5. Strategies for changing negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xie Shumin,1 Stephanie Mu-Lian Woo,2 Zhang Lei3 1Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China; 2Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China Abstract: In recent decades, the demand for organ transplantation has risen rapidly worldwide, due to an increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the scarcity of organs appropriate for transplantation has led to an organ shortage crisis. This article retrospectively reviews strategies to change negative public attitudes toward organ donation in the People's Republic of China. We strongly believe that efforts to publicize knowledge of organ donation, promote family discussions, train medical staff and students, establish incentive systems, and implement regulatory oversight may combat unfavorable Chinese public opinion toward organ donation and transplantation, thus potentially increasing the organ donation rate in the People's Republic of China. Keywords: influencing factors, attitudes, organ transplantation, organ failure

  6. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies -- an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) -- II: First Results on NGC 4631

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Judith; Benjamin, R A; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E J; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A; Rand, Richard J; Saikia, D J; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A W; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results from the CHANG-ES survey, a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk as well as extra-planar radio continuum emission. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). In this paper (Paper II), we outline the observations and data reduction steps required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization, based on C-array test observations of NGC 4631. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data) we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, ...

  7. Medicaid Expansion Did Not Result In Significant Employment Changes Or Job Reductions In 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooptu, Angshuman; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali I; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Medicaid expansion undertaken through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is already producing major changes in insurance coverage and access to care, but its potential impacts on the labor market are also important policy considerations. Economic theory suggests that receipt of Medicaid might benefit workers who would no longer be tied to specific jobs to receive health insurance (known as job lock), giving them more flexibility in their choice of employment, or might encourage low-income workers to reduce their hours or stop working if they no longer need employment-based insurance. Evidence on labor changes after previous Medicaid expansions is mixed. To view the impact of the ACA on current labor market participation, we analyzed labor-market participation among adults with incomes below 138 percent of the federal poverty level, comparing Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states and Medicaid-eligible and -ineligible groups, for the pre-ACA period (2005-13) and the first fifteen months of the expansion (January 2014-March 2015). Medicaid expansion did not result in significant changes in employment, job switching, or full- versus part-time status. While we cannot exclude the possibility of small changes in these outcomes, our findings rule out the large change found in one influential pre-ACA study; furthermore, they suggest that the Medicaid expansion has had limited impact on labor-market outcomes thus far. PMID:26733708

  8. Acquisition and Cataloguing Processes: Changes as a Result of Customer Value Discovery Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue McKnight

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ This study seeks to highlight the profound effect of Customer Value Discovery research on the internal business processes of two university libraries in the areas of cataloguing and acquisitions.Methods ‐ In this project, “Customer Discovery Workshops” with academic staff, students, and university stakeholders provided library managers and staff with information on what services and resources were of value to customers. The workshops also aimed to discover what features of existing library services and resources irritated the students, staff, and faculty. A student satisfaction survey assessed longer‐term impact of library changes to students in one university.Results ‐ The findings resulted in significant changes to collection development, acquisitions, and cataloguing processes. A number of value added services were introduced for the customer. The project also resulted in greater speed and efficiency in dealing with collection development, acquisitions, and cataloguing by the introduction of more technology‐enhanced services. Overall customer satisfaction was improved during the project period.Conclusion ‐ The changes to services introduced as a result of customer feedback also improved relationships between librarians and their university community, through the introduction of a more proactive and supportive service.

  9. Changes in Ecosystem Services and related Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesvari, Z.; Renaud, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    The Mekong Delta (Vietnam) is highly vulnerable to the many impacts of global environmental change as well as to the accelerating anthropogenic changes in the catchment and in the delta itself. Today the delta is an agricultural landscape controlled by engineering structures such as channels, dykes, embankments, and sluice gates. These structures have been constructed gradually over the last 200 years mainly for irrigation and flood control in the upper part of the delta and to control saline intrusion in the coastal areas. Recent changes in the hydrology mainly driven by upstream hydropower development on the mainstream and the tributaries of the Mekong will likely have far reaching impacts on the delta´s social-ecological systems through changes in e.g. sedimentation processes, nutrient transport as well as the health of aquatic ecosystems. Further threats to the delta include sea level rise and an increase in seasonal rainfall variability leading to an increase in flood variability. These changes affect the lives of millions of low-income inhabitants who depend on the ecosystem services provided by the Mekong for their livelihoods and sustenance. Since the changes in ecosystem service provision are occurring relatively fast while the resource dependency of the delta population is very high, adaptation becomes a challenge. An assessment of livelihood dependencies on ecosystem services requires an understanding of ecosystem services affected by different drivers of change, as well as of the types of livelihoods likely to be jeopardized as a result of these changes. We will present main ecosystem services supporting specific livelihoods, discuss how they are threatened, and analyse the merits of potential solutions. Options based solely on grey infrastructure might be problematic on the long term while an integration of ecosystem based solution such as a (re)adaptation of agricultural production systems to floods in the upper delta might be a more sustainable

  10. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  11. Strategy and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    in different periods and how these strategies can be related to the general conditions of the corporation. The strategic uncertainty of the corporation is investigated as a main determining factor for changes in space strategy based on theories of the relations between strategy and place. These theories...... include that corporations follows one of the three generic space strategies: Incrementalism, standardization, and value-based strategy. Among the conclusion are, that the space strategies mostly changes between incremental and value-based strategies, but one period of standardization was identified......The article is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation over time. The focus is to identify, how different space strategies have been implemented...

  12. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotype fitness and various control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    P.N. Thompson; Heesterbeek, J A P; van Arendonk,

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated very slowly from a population, a small selective disadvantage of the heterozygote results in a large increase in the rate of elimination. With selective advantage of the heterozygote through linkage...

  13. Changes in disease gene frequency over time with differential genotypic fitness and various control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    P.N. Thompson; Heesterbeek, J A P; Van Arendonk, J. A. M.

    2006-01-01

    A spreadsheet model was constructed to describe the change in allelic frequency over time for a lethal recessive mutation in an animal population. The model allowed relative fitness to differ between genotypes, between sexes, and over time. Whereas a lethal recessive allele is naturally eliminated very slowly from a population, a small selective disadvantage of the heterozygote results in a large increase in the rate of elimination. With selective advantage of the heterozygote through linkage...

  14. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia;

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find the...... most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser...... and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed....

  15. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area......The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  16. Effects of changes in electricity price on electricity demand and resulting effects on manufacturing output

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Sanguk; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Roberts, Roland Keith; Kim, Taeyoung; Yu, T. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are interested in reducing electricity consumption in connection with that the electricity demand has been increasing in recent years. Price control is often used as a method of controlling electricity demand in the short-term. However, even if price control causes to decrease in electricity use, the decrease in electricity demand results in a decrease in economic activity as electricity use plays a role in one of input factors. In this respect, this research analyze how change...

  17. Decision strategies for handling the uncertainty of future extreme rainfall under influence of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    are characterized by long technical lifetimes and high, unrecoverable construction costs. The most important barrier for the initiation and implementation of the adaptation strategies is therefore the uncertainty when predicting the magnitude of the extreme rainfall in the future. This challenge is explored through...... the application and discussion of three different theoretical decision support strategies: The precautionary principle, the minimax strategy and Bayesian decision support. The reviewed decision support strategies all proved valuable for addressing the identified uncertainties, at best applied together as they all...

  18. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total

  19. [Living the aging in Senegal Perceptions/representations and coping strategies of persons of age three: results of investigations retrospective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kâ, Ousseynou; Faye, Atoumane; Mbaye, El Hadji; Tall, Alioune Badara; Gaye, Awa; Sow, Papa Gallo; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane

    2016-03-01

    In Senegal, due to the young age of the population (60%) the concerns of the old tend to be put in the background. And yet, problems related to old age are a reality. These problems come up not in terms of demography (the old represent only 4.7% of the population), but in terms of the breaking-up of the social fabric, urbanization and the dismantling of the solidarity and poverty networks. This work is based on a collection of qualitative data from three studies conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the elderly to assess their real- life experiences, their perception of aging, their challenges and coping strategies. The results showed a transformation in the role and status of the old; this transformation being caused by social and society-related mutations. As a result, the inter-generation solidarity links have much loosened in the urban areas making the old people more vulnerable (in economic, social, health terms), especially those in charge of a family. The situation has been made worse by the unemployment affecting their offspring. In addition, the old people, who are often suffering from chronic diseases, find it hard to take charge of their medical expenses, despite the institution of the National Sesame Health Plan for the old or free health care policy. This has made them even more vulnerable. Yet before this precarious situation, the elderly develop strategies to cope with difficulties. Some recommendations have been made with a view to improving their lives and socioeconomic condition. PMID:26852947

  20. The Northeastern United States Energy-Water Nexus: Climate Change Impacts and Alternative Water Management Strategies for the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeastern United States (NE) relies heavily on thermoelectric power plants (90% of total capacity) to provide electricity to more than 70 million people. This region's power plants require consistent, large volumes of water at sufficiently cold temperatures to generate electricity efficiently, and withdraw approximately 10.5 trillion gallons of water annually. Previous findings indicate that assessments of future electricity pathways must account for water availability, water temperature and the changing climate, as changes in these conditions may limit operational efficiency in the future. To account for such electric system vulnerabilities, we have created a link between an electricity system capacity expansion model (ReEDS) and a hydrologic model that is coupled to a power plant simulation model (FrAMES-TP2M) that allows for a new approach to analyze electricity system development, performance, and environmental impacts. Together, these coupled tools allow us to estimate electricity development and operations in the context of a changing climate and impacts on the seasonal spatial and temporal variability of water resources, downstream thermal effluents that cause plant-to-plant interferences and harm aquatic habitat, economic costs of water conservation methods and associated carbon emissions. In this study, we test and compare a business-as-usual strategy with three alternative water management scenarios that include changes in cooling technologies and water sources utilized for the years 2014-2050. Results of these experiments can provide useful insight into the feasibility of the electricity expansion scenarios in terms of associated water use and thermal impacts, carbon emissions, the cost of generating electricity, and also highlight the importance of accounting for water resources in future power sector planning and performance assessments.