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  1. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

  2. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  3. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjing; Rao, Yuhan; Wu, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Hainan; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate) in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change. PMID:25594780

  4. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment, systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify the difference between the sensitivity of the infectious disease to climate variables for two different climate statuses (i.e., historical climate and present climate in non-exposure and exposure groups. The case study in Anhui Province, China has demonstrated the effectiveness of this Relative Sensitivity indicator. The application results indicate significant sensitivity of many epidemic infectious diseases to climate change in the form of changing climatic variables, such as temperature, precipitation and absolute humidity. As novel evidence, this research shows that absolute humidity has a critical influence on many observed infectious diseases in Anhui Province, including dysentery, hand, foot and mouth disease, hepatitis A, hemorrhagic fever, typhoid fever, malaria, meningitis, influenza and schistosomiasis. Moreover, some infectious diseases are more sensitive to climate change in rural areas than in urban areas. This insight provides guidance for future health inputs that consider spatial variability in response to climate change.

  5. Global climate change and infectious diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    EK Shuman

    1991-01-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengu...

  6. Global climate change and infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shope, R. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The effects of global climate change on infectious diseases are hypothetical until more is known about the degree of change in temperature and humidity that will occur. Diseases most likely to increase in their distribution and severity have three-factor (agent, vector, and human being) and four-factor (plus vertebrate reservoir host) ecology. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes may move northward and have more rapid metamorphosis with global warming. These mosquitoes transmit dengue virus, and Aedes aegypti transmits yellow fever virus. The faster metamorphosis and a shorter extrinsic incubation of dengue and yellow fever viruses could lead to epidemics in North America. Vibrio cholera is harbored persistently in the estuaries of the U.S. Gulf Coast. Over the past 200 years, cholera has become pandemic seven times with spread from Asia to Europe, Africa, and North America. Global warming may lead to changes in water ecology that could enhance similar spread of cholera in North America. Some other infectious diseases such as LaCrosse encephalitis and Lyme disease are caused by agents closely dependent on the integrity of their environment. These diseases may become less prominent with global warming because of anticipated modification of their habitats. Ecological studies will help as to understand more fully the possible consequences of global warming. New and more effective methods for control of vectors will be needed. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  7. A Method for Screening Climate Change-Sensitive Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yunjing Wang; Yuhan Rao; Xiaoxu Wu; Hainan Zhao; Jin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is a significant and emerging threat to human health, especially where infectious diseases are involved. Because of the complex interactions between climate variables and infectious disease components (i.e., pathogen, host and transmission environment), systematically and quantitatively screening for infectious diseases that are sensitive to climate change is still a challenge. To address this challenge, we propose a new statistical indicator, Relative Sensitivity, to identify ...

  8. Infectious disease, development, and climate change, A scenario analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, R.S.J.; Ebi, K L; Yohe, G. W.

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of development and climate change on infectious disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality and infectious disease are close related, but there are better data for the former. In an international cross-section, per capita income, literacy, and absolute poverty significantly affect infant mortality. We use scenarios of these three determinants, and of climate change to project the future incidence of malaria, assuming it to change proportionally to infant mortality. Ma...

  9. INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF MOTHER AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovsky V. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence in pregnant woman foci of latent, chronic infection of any localization is an important cause of various complications during pregnancy, childbirth, a wide range of perinatal pathology. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of mother infectious diseases on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. The authors set up an experiment on WAG rats on modeling subacute (prolonged peritonitis in females in order to study the influence of this infectiousinflammatory process in the organism of mother on the anthropometric parameters of newborns. The study found that the presence of infectious-inflammatory diseases in mother is not always leads to inflammatory changes in the placenta, but involutive- degenerative and dyscirculatory changes are taking place in all cases. In newborns from mothers with infectious pathology revealed significantly reduced anthropometric parameters in comparison with newborns from healthy mothers. Anthropometric parameters of newborns from mothers with infectious pathology depend on the infective dose (the higher the dose of agent, the less neonatal anthropometric parameters. Negative influence of infectious extragenital pathology of mother on newborn anthropometric parameters requires improving the quality of pregravidal training aimed at early detection and sanitation of foci of infection.

  10. Climate change and adaptation of the health sector: The case of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Margonari de Souza, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases form a group of health problems highly susceptible to the influences of climate. Adaptation to protect human population health from the changes in infectious disease epidemiology expected to occur as a consequence of climate change involve actions in the health systems as well as in other non-health sectors. In the health sector strategies such as enhanced and targeted epidemiological and entomological surveillance and the development of epidemic early warning systems informed by climate scenarios are needed. Measures in other sectors such as meteorology, civil defense and environmental sanitation will also contribute to a reduction in the risk of infection under climate change.

  11. Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena GALLANA, Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS, Thomas WAHLI, Helmut SEGNER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host, pathogens, and, in the case of vector-borne diseases, also vectors. The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions. Environmental change, therefore, will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and, consequently, the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of infectious diseases. Here, we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution, life cycle, and physiological status of hosts, pathogens and vectors. While a change in either host, pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease, it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks. Finally, climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to, and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases. Overall, the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms, it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation, it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions, and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors. As a consequence of this complexity, non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected. To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease, we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease, and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results, as this

  12. Climate change and infectious diseases of wildlife: Altered interactions between pathogens, vectors and hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milena GALLANA; Marie-Pierre RYSER-DEGIORGIS; Thomas WAHLI; Helmut SEGNER

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host,pathogens,and,in the case of vector-borne diseases,also vectors.The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions.Environmental change,therefore,will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and,consequently,the distribution,intensity,and dynamics of infectious diseases.Here,we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife.Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution,life cycle,and physiological status of hosts,pathogens and vectors.While a change in either host,pathogen or vector does not necessarily translate into an alteration of the disease,it is the impact of climate change on the interactions between the disease components which is particularly critical for altered disease risks.Finally,climate factors can modulate disease through modifying the ecological networks host-pathogen-vector systems are belonging to,and climate change can combine with other environmental stressors to induce cumulative effects on infectious diseases.Overall,the influence of climate change on infectious diseases involves different mechanisms,it can be modulated by phenotypic acclimation and/or genotypic adaptation,it depends on the ecological context of the host-pathogen-vector interactions,and it can be modulated by impacts of other stressors.As a consequence of this complexity,non-linear responses of disease systems under climate change are to be expected.To improve predictions on climate change impacts on infectious disease,we suggest that more emphasis should be given to the integration of biomedical and ecological research for studying both the physiological and ecological mechanisms which mediate climate change impacts on disease,and to the development of harmonized methods and approaches to obtain more comparable results,as this would support the discrimination of case-specific versus

  13. Climate change & infectious diseases in India: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, V Ramana; Schramm, Paul J; Luber, George

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in India, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive health care strategies with their patients.

  14. Influence of diabetes and hyperglycaemia on infectious disease hospitalisation and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Jensen, J S; Nordestgaard, B G

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetes mellitus is believed to increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The effects of hyperglycaemia per se on infectious disease risk are unknown and the influence of diabetes on infectious disease outcome is controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 10,063 indi...

  15. Climate change and infectious disease risk management: a localised health security perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic risks in relation to climate change are not fully understood and to a large extent have to be regarded as unpredictable. It is therefore important to focus attention on human vulnerability and coping for which more certain influences on disease risk can be assessed. Despite commonplace environmental conditions for infectious diseases around the world, only some people are affected. This is because the larger proportions of disease risks are regularly a function of human socio-econo...

  16. Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Parkinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.

  17. Factors influencing the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.

  18. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change.

  19. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. PMID:26479830

  20. Genetic influences on incidence and case-fatality of infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies suggest that genetic susceptibility contributes to familial aggregation of infectious diseases or to death from infections. We estimated genetic and shared environmental influences separately on the risk of acquiring an infection (incidence) and on dying from...

  1. The influence of infectious factors on dendritic cell apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicka-Sierszen, Agata; Grzegorczyk, Janina Ł.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens can have a negative influence on dendritic cells (DCs), causing their apoptosis, which prevents active presentation of foreign antigens. It results in a state of immunosuppression which makes the body susceptible to secondary infections. Infected immature DCs have lower expression of co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, reduced ability to secrete cytokines and an inhibited maturation process and are incapable of effective antigen presentation and activation of T-lymphocytes. In so...

  2. Climatic changes, seasonality and the dynamics of infectious diseases in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the last few years the potential impact of climate change on infectious and parasitic diseases has drawn an increasing attention although the issue is still quite controversial. Many infectious diseases, especially of wildlife, have a remarkable meteo-climatic footprint. In some cases, outbreaks are clearly synchronized with seasonal fluctuations in temperature, humidity and rainfall patterns. Seasonal changes are ubiquitous in ecology and affect the timing of both outbreak and wildlife demography on a yearly basis but more subtly, can contribute to generate more complex, inter-annual dynamics on a longer time scale. Meteo-climatic fluctuations can affect the infective agent directly by modifying the life expectancy of the free-living stages or, indirectly, through changes in immune response, behaviour, demography (timing of reproduction, mortality, etc.), abundance (birth pulses, resources availability) of the host and vectors. This may result in turn in a change of probability of transmission between susceptible and infected animals or between susceptible hosts and infective stages/propagules with remarkable effects on the epidemiological patterns at the population or community level. Changes in the statistical properties of climate, especially in the combination of temperature and rainfall patterns, can thus ultimately affect the geographical distribution and the dynamics of pathogens and vectors. In the present work, I briefly illustrate two specific examples of how seasonality in meteo-climatic variables can affect the dynamics of infectious diseases caused by micro and macroparasites. In the first case, I investigate how seasonal fluctuations in demography of the host affect the dynamics of rabies epidemics and show how short-living, fast-reproducing host species may respond to seasonality differently than long-living, slowly reproducing ones. The second example is about the effect of seasonality in the development of hypobiosis (arrested stage

  3. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. McFarlane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010 and historical (1788–1973 review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20 of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  4. The influence of infectious factors on dendritic cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka-Sierszen, Agata; Grzegorczyk, Janina Ł

    2015-10-12

    Pathogens can have a negative influence on dendritic cells (DCs), causing their apoptosis, which prevents active presentation of foreign antigens. It results in a state of immunosuppression which makes the body susceptible to secondary infections. Infected immature DCs have lower expression of co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, reduced ability to secrete cytokines and an inhibited maturation process and are incapable of effective antigen presentation and activation of T-lymphocytes. In some cases, the ability of DCs to undergo rapid apoptosis is important for the body defense, which is probably because of DCs' ability to cross-present and cooperate with other cells. Apoptotic bodies released from the infected DCs are phagocytosed by other DCs, which then stimulate the effector cells and present antigens more efficiently than infected cells. The aim of this article is to review how the DCs respond to viral and bacterial factors and which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for their apoptosis. PMID:26528349

  5. Unhealthy landscapes: Policy recommendations on land use change and infectious disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Daszak, Peter; Tabor, Gary M; Aguirre, A Alonso; Pearl, Mary; Epstein, Jon; Wolfe, Nathan D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Molyneux, David; Bradley, David J

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal zone degradation, and other activities. These changes in turn cause a cascade of factors that exacerbate infectious disease emergence, such as forest fragmentation, disease introduction, pollution, poverty, and human migration. The Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence grew out of a special colloquium that convened international experts in infectious diseases, ecology, and environmental health to assess the current state of knowledge and to develop recommendations for addressing these environmental health challenges. The group established a systems model approach and priority lists of infectious diseases affected by ecologic degradation. Policy-relevant levels of the model include specific health risk factors, landscape or habitat change, and institutional (economic and behavioral) levels. The group recommended creating Centers of Excellence in Ecology and Health Research and Training, based at regional universities and/or research institutes with close links to the surrounding communities. The centers' objectives would be 3-fold: a) to provide information to local communities about the links between environmental change and public health; b) to facilitate fully interdisciplinary research from a variety of natural, social, and health sciences and train professionals who can conduct interdisciplinary research; and c) to engage in science-based communication and assessment for policy making toward sustainable health and ecosystems. PMID:15238283

  6. Changing perspectives of infectious causes of maternal mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ajay; Vijayselvi, Reeta; Jose, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infections significantly contribute to maternal mortality. There is a perceived change in the spectrum of such infections. This study aims to estimate the contribution of various types of infections to maternal mortality. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of maternal death cases that took place between 2003 and 2012 in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. The International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality was used to classify the causes of deaths and World Health Organization near-miss criteria were used to identify organ dysfunction that occurred before death. Infections during pregnancy were divided into three groups, i.e., pregnancy-related infections, pregnancy-unrelated infections, and nosocomial infections. Results In this study, 32.53% of maternal deaths were because of some type of infection as the primary cause. The contribution of pregnancy-related infections was comparable with that of pregnancy-unrelated infections (16.03% vs. 16.50%). Metritis with pelvic cellulitis, septic abortions, tuberculosis, malaria, scrub typhus, and H1N1 influenza (influenza A virus subtype) were among the most commonly encountered causes of maternal death due to infections. Another 7.07% of cases developed severe systemic infection during the course of illness as nosocomial infection. A significant majority of mothers were below 30 years of age, were primiparae, had advanced gestational age, and had operative delivery. Cardiovascular and respiratory system dysfunctions were the most common organ dysfunctions encountered. Conclusion The contribution of pregnancy-unrelated infections to maternal deaths is significant. Control of these diverse community-acquired infections holds the key to a reduction in maternal mortality along with the promotion of clean birthing practices. Nosocomial infections should not be underestimated as a contributor to maternal mortality. PMID:26692770

  7. Delays reducing waterborne and water-related infectious diseases in China under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H.; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy J.; Justin V. Remais

    2014-01-01

    Despite China’s rapid progress improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. Because certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temper...

  8. Delays in reducing waterborne and water-related infectious diseases in China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H.; Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy J.; Remais, Justin V.

    2014-12-01

    Despite China's rapid progress in improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. As certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrhoeal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temperature projections from global climate models, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios, and projected demographic changes. By 2030, climate change is projected to delay China's rapid progress towards reducing WSH-attributable infectious disease burden by 8-85 months. This development delay summarizes the adverse impact of climate change on WSH-attributable infectious diseases in China, and can be used in other settings where a significant health burden may accompany future changes in climate even as the total burden of disease falls owing to non-climate reasons.

  9. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  10. Influence of the factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas L; Dahl, Mortens; Nordestgaard, Borge G;

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial.......The effect of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation on infectious disease susceptibility and outcome is controversial....

  11. Influence of high-order nonlinear fluctuations in the multivariate susceptible-infectious-recovered master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Basil S.; Eckhoff, Philip A.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a high-order analytical expansion of the epidemiological susceptible-infectious-recovered multivariate master equation and include terms up to and beyond single-particle fluctuations. It is shown that higher order approximations yield qualitatively different results than low-order approximations, which is incident to the influence of additional nonlinear fluctuations. The fluctuations can be related to a meaningful physical parameter, the basic reproductive number, which is shown to dictate the rate of divergence in absolute terms from the ordinary differential equations more so than the total number of persons in the system. In epidemiological terms, the effect of single-particle fluctuations ought to be taken into account as the reproductive number approaches unity.

  12. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J

    2004-07-29

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases. The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'. Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living

  13. The impact of climate change on infectious disease transmission: perceptions of CDC health professionals in Shanxi Province, China.

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    Junni Wei

    Full Text Available There have been increasing concerns about the challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases due to climate change, especially in developing countries including China. Health professionals play a significant role in the battle to control and prevent infectious diseases. This study therefore aims to investigate the perceptions and attitudes of health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in different levels in China, and to consider adaptation measures to deal with the challenge of climate change. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 staff in CDCs in Shanxi Province, China, whose routine work involves disease control and prevention. Data were analyzed using descriptive methods and logistic regression. A majority of the CDC staff were aware of the health risks from climate change, especially its impacts on infectious disease transmission in their jurisdictions, and believed climate change might bring about both temporal and spatial change in transmission patterns. It was thought that adaptation measures should be established including: strengthening/improving currently existing disease surveillance systems and vector monitoring; building CDC capacity in terms of infrastructure and in-house health professional training; development and refinement of relevant legislation, policies and guidelines; better coordination among various government departments; the involvement of the community in infectious disease interventions; and collaborative research with other institutions. This study provides a snapshot of the understanding of CDC staff regarding climate change risks relevant to infectious diseases and adaptation in China. Results may help inform future efforts to develop adaptation measures to minimize infectious disease risks due to climate change.

  14. Changes in Circulating Procalcitonin Versus C-Reactive Protein in Predicting Evolution of Infectious Disease in Febrile, Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Hoeboer (Sandra); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective:Although absolute values for C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) are well known to predict sepsis in the critically ill, it remains unclear how changes in CRP and PCT compare in predicting evolution of: infectious disease, invasiveness and severity (e.g. developmen

  15. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J McMichael

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  16. Genetic and infectious profiles influence cerebrospinal fluid IgG abnormality in Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

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    Satoshi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in Japanese MS patients. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA, and varicella zoster virus (VZV in 94 patients with MS and 367 unrelated healthy controls (HCs. We defined CSF IgG abnormality as the presence of CSF OBs and/or increased IgG index (>0.658. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CSF IgG abnormality was found in 59 of 94 (62.8% MS patients. CSF IgG abnormality-positive patients had a significantly higher frequency of brain MRI lesions meeting the Barkhof criteria compared with abnormality-negative patients. Compared with HCs, CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients showed a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 1501, whereas CSF IgG abnormality-negative patients had a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 0405. CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients had a significantly higher frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies compared with CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients, although there was no difference in the frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies between HCs and total MS patients. Compared with HCs, anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected significantly less frequently in the total MS patients, especially in CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients. The frequencies of antibodies against EBNA and VZV did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: CSF IgG abnormality is associated with Western MS-like brain MRI features. DRB1 1501 and C. pneumoniae infection confer CSF IgG abnormality, while DRB1 0405 and H. pylori infection are positively and negatively

  17. Glucose metabolism in children: influence of age, fasting, and infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C.W.R. Zijlmans; A.A.M.W. van Kempen; M.J. Serlie; H.P. Sauerwein

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the occurrence of hypoglycemia in young children as a common and serious complication that needs to be avoided because of the high risk of brain damage and mortality. Young age, fasting, and severe infectious disease are considered important risk factors. The limited data on th

  18. Influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Lu; Xiao-Lei Jiang; Ming-Hui Wu; Yun-Jun Wu; Qiang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope on inflammation mediators and stress hormones of the patients with infectious renal calculi. Methods:A total of 62 patients with infectious renal calculi in our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were selected as the study object,and they were randomly divided into control group(pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases and observation group(ultrasonic adsorption lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope group) 31 cases,then the serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment and at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were compared. Results:The serum expression levels of inflammation mediators and stress hormones of two groups before the treatment were compared,all P>0.05,and the serum expression levels of observation group at 12 h-24 h and 48 h after the treatment were significantly lower than those of control group,while the expression levels of two groups after the treatment were all significantly higher than those before the treatment,all P<0.05. Conclusions:The inflammation mediators and stress hormones of patients with infectious renal calculi who are treated with pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy by percutaneous nephroscope are relatively lower,and it shows that the trauma and bad stress for the body are better controlled, so its clinical application value are relatively higher.

  19. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  20. Factors influencing performance of internet-based biosurveillance systems used in epidemic intelligence for early detection of infectious diseases outbreaks.

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    Philippe Barboza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet-based biosurveillance systems have been developed to detect health threats using information available on the Internet, but system performance has not been assessed relative to end-user needs and perspectives. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Infectious disease events from the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS weekly international epidemiological bulletin published in 2010 were used to construct the gold-standard official dataset. Data from six biosurveillance systems were used to detect raw signals (infectious disease events from informal Internet sources: Argus, BioCaster, GPHIN, HealthMap, MedISys and ProMED-mail. Crude detection rates (C-DR, crude sensitivity rates (C-Se and intrinsic sensitivity rates (I-Se were calculated from multivariable regressions to evaluate the systems' performance (events detected compared to the gold-standard 472 raw signals (Internet disease reports related to the 86 events included in the gold-standard data set were retrieved from the six systems. 84 events were detected before their publication in the gold-standard. The type of sources utilised by the systems varied significantly (p<0001. I-Se varied significantly from 43% to 71% (p=0001 whereas other indicators were similar (C-DR: p=020; C-Se, p=013. I-Se was significantly associated with individual systems, types of system, languages, regions of occurrence, and types of infectious disease. Conversely, no statistical difference of C-DR was observed after adjustment for other variables. CONCLUSION: Although differences could result from a biosurveillance system's conceptual design, findings suggest that the combined expertise amongst systems enhances early detection performance for detection of infectious diseases. While all systems showed similar early detection performance, systems including human moderation were found to have a 53% higher I-Se (p=00001 after adjustment for other variables. Overall, the use of moderation, sources

  1. Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

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    Anna Mummert

    Full Text Available During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality.

  2. Strategic alliance between the infectious diseases specialist and intensive care unit physician for change in antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, D; Belloni, R

    2005-02-01

    There is a general consensus that antimicrobial use in intensive care units (ICU) is greater than that in general wards. By implementing a strategy of systematic infectious disease consultations in agreement with the ICU chief, we have modified the antibiotic prescription habits of the ICU physician. A reduction was observed in the use of selected antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins, vancomycin, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam), with a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay for ICU patients and lower antibiotic costs without negative impact on patient mortality. Leadership by the infectious diseases consultant in combination with commitment by ICU physicians is a simple and effective method to change antibiotic prescription habits in the ICU. PMID:15828447

  3. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ruth; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should be pursued.

  4. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cox

    Full Text Available Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should

  5. Enzymatic treatment of specimens before DNA extraction directly influences molecular detection of infectious agents.

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    Pablo Goldschmidt

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Biological samples, pharmaceuticals or food contain proteins, lipids, polymers, ammoniums and macromolecules that alter the detection of infectious agents by DNA amplification techniques (PCR. Moreover the targeted DNA has to be released from the complex cell walls and the compact nucleoprotein matrixes and cleared from potential inhibitors. The goal of the present work was to assess the efficiency of enzymatic pretreatments on infectious agents to make DNA available for further extraction and amplification. METHODS: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani were mixed with an internal control virus and treated with: 1 proteinase K; 2 lyticase and 3 lyticase followed by proteinase K. DNAs was manually extracted using the QIAmp DNA Mini kit or the MagNA Pure Compact automate. DNA extraction yields and the inhibitors were assessed with a phocid Herpesvirus. Bacterial detection was performed using TaqMan real-time PCR and yeasts and filamentous Fungi with HRM (real-time PCR followed by high-resolution melting analysis. RESULTS: Viral DNA was released, extracted and detected using manual and automatic methods without pre enzymatic treatments. Either the manual or the automatic DNA extraction systems did not meet the sensitivity expectations if enzymatic treatments were not performed before: lyticase for Fungi and Proteinase K for Bacteria. The addition of lyticase and proteinase K did not improve results. For Fungi the detection after lyticase was higher than for Proteinase K, for which melting analysis did not allow fungal specification. DISCUSSION: Columns and magnetic beads allowed collecting DNA and separate PCR inhibitors. Detection rates cannot be related to DNA-avidity of beads or to elution but to the lack of proteolysis.

  6. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2014-11-01

    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1.

  7. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations.

  8. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations. PMID:27450526

  9. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  10. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  11. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  12. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies. PMID:27074898

  13. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  14. Social structure, infectious diseases, disasters, secularism, and cultural change in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E W

    2015-03-01

    Why do cultures change? The present work examined cultural change in eight cultural-level markers, or correlates, of individualism in the United States, all of which increased over the course of the 20th century: frequency of individualist themes in books, preference for uniqueness in baby naming, frequency of single-child relative to multichild families, frequency of single-generation relative to multigeneration households, percentage of adults and percentage of older adults living alone, small family size, and divorce rates (relative to marriage rates). We tested five key hypotheses regarding cultural change in individualism-collectivism. As predicted by previous theories, changes in socioeconomic structure, pathogen prevalence, and secularism accompanied changes in individualism averaged across all measures. The relationship with changes in individualism was less robust for urbanization. Contrary to previous theories, changes in individualism were positively (as opposed to negatively) related to the frequency of disasters. Time-lagged analyses suggested that only socioeconomic structure had a robust effect on individualism; changes in socioeconomic structure preceded changes in individualism. Implications for anthropology, psychology, and sociology are discussed.

  15. Influence of Climate Changes on Health (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Grigorova, Evgenija

    2015-01-01

    Although climate changes are one of the most serious public health risks for all nations, it appears that the medical society in the East European countries is not too much concerned. The aim of this paper is to point out the main treats on health provoked by climate changes. The literature review was the source of information. Based on the PubMed where in 2015 more than 65,000 papers were dedicated to different aspects of the influence of the climate changes on the human health, as well as 3,500 articles for the pediatric population, we present a review of the main health risks. Especially, the impact of the climate changes on the children's health is overviewed. In separate parts, the thermal stress, extreme weather events, changes of infection's pattern, how to measure health risks as well as some mitigation measures are discussed. PMID:27442405

  16. Weather, water quality and infectious gastrointestinal illness in two Inuit communities in Nunatsiavut, Canada: potential implications for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sherilee L; Edge, Victoria L; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-03-01

    Climate change is expected to cause changes in precipitation quantity, intensity, frequency and duration, which will subsequently alter environmental conditions and might increase the risk of waterborne disease. The objective of this study was to describe the seasonality of and explore associations between weather, water quality and occurrence of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses (IGI) in two communities in Nunatsiavut, Canada. Weather data were obtained from meteorological stations in Nain (2005-2008) and Rigolet (2008). Free-chlorine residual levels in drinking water were extracted from municipal records (2005-2008). Raw surface water was tested weekly for total coliform and E. coli counts. Daily counts of IGI-related clinic visits were obtained from health clinic registries (2005-2008). Analysis of weather and health variables included seasonal-trend decomposition procedures based on Loess. Multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to examine potential associations between weather events (considering 0-4 week lag periods) and IGI-related clinic visits. In Nain, water volume input (rainfall + snowmelt) peaked in spring and summer and was positively associated with levels of raw water bacteriological variables. The number of IGI-related clinic visits peaked in the summer and fall months. Significant positive associations were observed between high levels of water volume input 2 and 4 weeks prior, and IGI-related clinic visits (P climate change on regional Inuit human and environmental health.

  17. Infectious Aortitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, F Daniel; Jamison, Bruce M; Hibbert, Benjamin

    2016-09-28

    Aortitis is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious etiologies, each with distinct treatment implications. We present the case of a patient who sustained a type A aortic dissection during urgent coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome. Clinical findings and events during the procedure raised suspicion for an underlying vascular disorder; however, the diagnosis of staphylococcal aortitis was not made until pathological examination of resected tissue. Clues to the diagnosis of infectious aortitis noted throughout the patient's clinical course are detailed as are potential consequences of diagnostic delays and treatment decisions, underscoring the difficulties in recognizing and managing the condition. In addition, we describe a previously unreported complication of cardiac catheterization in the setting of an infectious aortopathy.

  18. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  19. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne;

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for the health of the host. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of a moderate diet shift from Average Danish Diet to New Nordic Diet on...... the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio (P/B), we were able to detect...... significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes influence microbiota response to a dietary...

  20. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of all...

  1. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations. PMID:26168924

  2. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  3. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization.

  4. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization. PMID:25688014

  5. Modifications of the 3 '-UTR stem-loop of infectious bursal disease virus are allowed without influencing replication or virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Pritz-Verschuren, S.B.E.

    2004-01-01

    Many questions regarding the initiation of replication and translation of the segmented, double-stranded RNA genome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) remain to be solved. Computer analysis shows that the non-polyadenylated extreme 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the coding strand of both g

  6. Influence of degenerative changes of intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the material properties of normal and degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs and examine the effect of degenerative changes on IVD pathology. Methods: A computer-based online search was under-taken to identify English articles about material properties of IVDs published from January 1950 to 2011 in PubMed database. The retrieved keywords included material properties, intervertebral disc and degeneration. Based on the principles of reliability, advancement and efficiency, the obtained data were primarily examined, and the original source was retrieved to read the full-text. Repetitive articles were excluded. The data of material properties of normal and degenerated IVDs were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Results: The data of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus, hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pres-sure of normal and degenerated IVDs were obtained. Com-pared with normal IVDs, the Young's modulus and shear modulus of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus were higher in degenerated IVDs, the Poisson's ratio was lower while the hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pressure were higher. Besides, the degeneration-related alterations in IVDs had an influence both on itself and other spinal structures, leading to diseases such as bulging disc, discogenic pain and spinal stenosis. Meanwhile, the heavy mechanical loading and injury indicated important pathways to IVD degeneration. Conclusions: To a certain extent, the degenerative changes of IVD influence its material properties. And the degeneration-related alterations of composition can cause structural failure of IVDs, leading to injuries and diseases. Key words: Intervertebral disc; Mechanical phenomena; Degeneration; Elastic modulus; Permeability; Pathology

  7. Changes of four common non-infectious liver diseases for the hospitalized patients in Beijing 302 hospital from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binxia; Li, Baosen; Huang, Ang; Sun, Ying; Teng, Guangju; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Li, Jin; Zou, Zhengsheng

    2016-08-01

    The implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program in China has led to a significant decline in the prevalence and incidence of liver diseases secondary to hepatitis B virus over the past two decades. With recent changes in the economy and increases in average incomes in China during the same period, there has been a rapid rise in per capita alcohol consumption and an epidemic of obesity. We hypothesized that the burden of liver diseases in China has shifted from infectious to non-infectious etiologies. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 20,378 patients who were hospitalized in Beijing 302 hospital between 2002 and 2013. We found that the total admission rate secondary to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD), autoimmune liver disease (AILD), and drug-induced liver injury (DILI) was 10.7%. ALD was the leading cause of inpatient hospitalization (3.9% of total admissions). The rate of inpatient admission for ALD, AILD, and DILI increased by 170%, 111%, and 107%, respectively during the study period. Chinese herbal medicine was the primary cause of DILI in our subjects. The burden of non-infectious liver diseases has increased over the last decade among hospitalized patients in a large tertiary hospital in China. The increase in the rate of admission for ALD and DILI from Chinese herbal medicine suggests that strategies to reduce harmful use of alcohol and increase awareness and education on the use of herbal medicine are needed. PMID:27519542

  8. Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2011-09-01

    The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the

  9. Climate Change Influences on Antarctic Bird Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in the major environmental variables like: temperature, wind and precipitation have occurred in the Antarctic region during the last 50 years. In this very sensitive region, even small changes can potentially lead to major environmental perturbations. Then the climate change poses a new challenge to the survival of Antarctic wildlife. As important bioindicators of changes in the ecosystem seabirds and their response to the climate perturbations have been recorded. Atmospheric warming and consequent changes in sea ice conditions have been hypothesized to differentially affect predator populations due to different predator life-history strategies and substantially altered krill recruitment dynamics.

  10. Networks for change: How networks influence organizational change

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on organizational change by examining organizations as social entities embedded in inter-organizational networks. In contrast to extant research that focuses on macro environment and internal factors to explain organizational change we put forth the social network surrounding the firm as a major driver of any change process. In specific we examine organization change as driven by the organizations? positions and relations in an interorganizational netw...

  11. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...

  12. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): early changes in blood and aspects of the immune Response after Injection of IHN Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Smith, Lynnwood

    1974-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were injected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus and various hematological and blood chemical changes were monitored over 9 days. The packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and plasma bicarbonate were significantly depressed by day 4. Plasma chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and blood cell types did not change during the 9 days. Furthermore, plasma  LDH isozyme was significantly increased by the fourth day, and fish infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and redmouth bacterium did not show specific LDH isozyme alterations. Acid-base alterations occurred at 10 C but not at 18 C. The acid-base imbalance and elevation of the  LDH isozyme were consistently associated with the early development of the disease.The immune response after injection of IHN virus was determined and protection from disease was tested by passive immunization. Actively immunized fish developed IHN-neutralizing antibodies within 54 days after injection of virus, and the antibodies were protective when juvenile fish were passively immunized and experimentally challenged with IHN virus.

  13. Nine challenges in incorporating the dynamics of behaviour in infectious diseases models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Funk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the spread of infectious diseases in human populations has been modelled with static parameters. These parameters, however, can change when individuals change their behaviour. If these changes are themselves influenced by the disease dynamics, there is scope for mechanistic models of behaviour to improve our understanding of this interaction. Here, we present challenges in modelling changes in behaviour relating to disease dynamics, specifically: how to incorporate behavioural changes in models of infectious disease dynamics, how to inform measurement of relevant behaviour to parameterise such models, and how to determine the impact of behavioural changes on observed disease dynamics.

  14. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne;

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND) as...... opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Nevertheless, by stratifying subjects into two enterotypes, distinguished by the Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio...... (P/B), we were able to detect significant changes in the gut microbiota composition resulting from the interventions. Subjects with a high-P/B experienced more pronounced changes in the gut microbiota composition than subjects with a low-P/B. The study is the first to indicate that enterotypes...

  15. Enterotypes influence temporal changes in gut microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Kellebjerg Poulsen, Sanne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota plays an important role for human health. The question is whether we can modulate the gut microbiota by changing diet. During a 6-month, randomised, controlled dietary intervention, the effect of consuming a diet following the New Nordic Diet recommendations (NND) as opposed to Average Danish Diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota in humans (n=62) was investigated. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the microbiota did not change significantly by the intervention. Neverth...

  16. Are Rorschach Responses Influenced by Society's Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Louise Bates

    1975-01-01

    Based on the general belief that people "normally" see male figures on Rorschach Card III and females on Card VII; to see the opposite, according to some, would indicate a confusing of sex roles. This study makes two comparisons: age and time changes of individual responses to these cards in different decades. (DEP)

  17. Influence of degenerative changes of intervertebral disc

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ling; ZHANG Li-ying; Liu, Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the material properties of normal and degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs) and examine the effect of degenerative changes on IVD pathology. Methods: A computer-based online search was under-taken to identify English articles about material properties of IVDs published from January 1950 to 2011 in PubMed database. The retrieved keywords included material properties, intervertebral disc and degeneration. Based on the principle...

  18. NOx Change over China and Its Influences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu(刘煜); I. S. A. ISAKSEN; J. K. SUNDET; HE Jinhai(何金海); YAN Peng(颜鹏)

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of the increase of NOx emission over China.The model is capable to reproduce basically the seasonal variation of surface NOx and ozone over eastern China.NOx emission data and observations reveal that NOx over easternChina increases quite quickly with the economic development of China.Model results indicate that NOxconcentration over eastern China increasingly rises with the increase of NOx emission over China,and accelerates to increase in winter.When the NOx emission increases from 1995 to its double,the ratio of NO2/NOx abruptly drops in winter over northern China.Ozone at the surface decreases in winter with the continual enhancement of the NOx level over eastern China,but increases over southern China in summertime.It is noticeable that peak ozone over northern China increases in summer although mean ozone changes little.In summer,ozone increases in the free troposphere dominantly below 500 hPa.Moreover,the increases of total ozone over eastern China are proportional to the increases of NOx emission.In a word,the model results suggest that the relationship between NOx and ozone at the surface would change with NOx increase.

  19. Climate and climate change and infectious disease risk in Thailand: A spatial study of dengue hemorrhagic fever using GIS and remotely-sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzera, Kristopher

    The scientific community has widely accepted that climate plays a key role in the sustainability and transmission of many infectious diseases. Global climate change can potentially trigger the spread of disease into new regions and increase the intensity of disease in regions where it is endemic. This study explores the association between monthly conditions of climate change to changes in disease risk, emphasizing the potential spread of dengue fever due to climate change in Thailand. This study also develops techniques new to GIS and remote sensing that generate surfaces of daily minimum temperature toward identifying areas at greater transmission risk. Dengue fever expansion due to global warming is a serious concern for Thailand where warming temperatures may increase the size of the habitat of the disease-spreading vector, Aedes aegypti, particularly during cooler months when transmission is limited by environmental conditions. In this study, first, the association between past dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and climate in Thailand is determined. Second, evidence of recent climate change is related to changes in DHF rates. Third, daily minimum temperature is derived from remote sensing toward identifying the spatial and temporal limitations of potential transmission risk. The results indicate that minimum temperature has recently experienced a rapid increase, particularly in the winter months when transmission is low. This is associated with a recent rise in winter DHF cases. As increasing minimum temperatures in these regions are anticipated to continue, we can expect dengue transmission rates to also increase throughout the year.

  20. The influence of greenhouse gases on global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to influence of greenhouse gases on global climate change. Thus, the impacts associated with increasing of CO2 concentration are considered. The impacts associated with decreasing of ozone layer are considered as well. The influence of air temperature on agriculture is studied.

  1. Climate change impact on a groundwater-influenced hillslope ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate change on a groundwater-influenced ecosystem on a hill slope consisting of two vegetation types, one adapted to wet and one adapted to dry soil conditions. The individual effects of changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration

  2. Climate change impact on a groundwater-influenced hillslope ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brolsma, R.J.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of climate change on a groundwater‐influenced ecosystem on a hill slope consisting of two vegetation types, one adapted to wet and one adapted to dry soil conditions. The individual effects of changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO2 concentration

  3. Best practice influence on project changes during the construction phase.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaravino, Brian Douglas.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS This thesis analyzes the influence of team building, constructability, and project change management best practices on the reduction of project changes during the construction phase. Construction Industry Institute Owner, Naval Facilities Command, and Construction Industry Institute Contractor data are separately evaluated to determine if a statistically significance relationship between best practice use and a reduction in the project change rate during construction exists. Conclus...

  4. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. E. MacPhee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters.

  5. Infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system infections represents a group of life-threatening diseases that present a formidable challenge to physicians. Despite the development of effective antimicrobial agents and modern surgical techniques, significant mortality and morbidity with CNS infections persist. Since the introduction of computed tomography, there is evidence of a marked decrease in mortality among patients with brain abscesses, although the morbidity has not changed significantly. CT correlation with pathology of the various CNS infections may aid in earlier diagnosis and bring about further disease in morbidity and mortality. Infections reach the brain or meninges mainly by two routes: (1) hematogenous dissemination from a distant infective focus to the meninges, corticomedullary junction, and choroid plexus; (2) direct extension by bony erosion for an adjacent focus of suppuration (otitis, mastoidits, sinusitis), by transmission along anaostomotic veins from the face, scalp, and orbits, and by transmission along cranial nerves following neurosurgery or traumatic craniocerebral wounds. Certain external factors serve to enhance the risk of intracranial infections, such as radiation; immunosuppressive or steroid therapy; cyanotic congenital heart disease; systemic illness such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or cirrhosis; leukemia, lymphoma, or agammaglobulinemia; severe body stress; midline bony fusion defects; surgical or traumatic craniocerebral injury; and pulmonary or other systemic infections

  6. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  7. The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The apparent influence of climatic change on recent changes of range by European insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) For several years I have been collecting data concerning changes in the ranges of European insects, especially Lepidoptera and Orthoptera. The vast majority of those species which have

  8. Communicating change: the influence of information, communication, uncertainty and cynicism on readiness for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.L. Elving

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In previous studies we have shown the influence of information and communication on the success of organizational change. We extended that research with the inclusion of cynical responses to top management about the change, change fatigue and turnover intentions. Methodology: This study was

  9. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  10. Modeling of preventive maintenance changes influence upon flight safety indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.В. Гончаренко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  It is considered a simplified model of connection between the catastrophic events flow frequency and both preventive maintenance changes periodicity and diagnosis depth of aviation equipment. It is deduced specific formulas for computing the changes and diagnostics parameters influence upon the values of both the catastrophic events flow frequency and technical-economical control factor criterion of flight safety levels.

  11. Human migration and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, S M

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are defined as diseases that have appeared recently or that have recently increased in their frequency, geographical distribution or both. Commercial globalisation, population movements and environmental changes are the main factors favouring the international spread of microorganisms. Transport and communication development constitutes also a remarkable factor in the worldwide dispersion of microorganisms. The mass movement of large numbers of people creates new opportunities for the spread and establishment of common or novel infectious diseases. A surveillance system to detect emergent and re-emergent infections, a rapid responsiveness of healthcare systems and laboratories, vector control, and the provision of healthcare education programmes to inform the population of how to avoid infections are needed in order to stop the spread of infectious diseases. PMID:19220349

  12. Simulating infectious disease risk based on climatic drivers: from numerical weather prediction to long term climate change scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Ndione, J. A.; Diallo, M.; MacLeod, D.; Faye, O.; Ba, Y.; Dia, I.; Medlock, J. M.; Leach, S.; McIntyre, K. M.; Baylis, M.; Morse, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant health and socioeconomic impacts. In particular, vector born diseases are the most likely to be affected by climate; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the surrounding environmental conditions. Disease risk models of various complexities using different streams of climate forecasts as inputs have been developed within the QWeCI EU and ENHanCE ERA-NET project frameworks. This work will present two application examples, one for Africa and one for Europe. First, we focus on Rift Valley fever over sub-Saharan Africa, a zoonosis that affects domestic animals and humans by causing an acute fever. We show that the Rift Valley fever outbreak that occurred in late 2010 in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania might have been anticipated ten days in advance using the GFS numerical weather prediction system. Then, an ensemble of regional climate projections is employed to model the climatic suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito for the future over Europe. The Asian tiger mosquito is an invasive species originally from Asia which is able to transmit West Nile and Chikungunya Fever among others. This species has spread worldwide during the last decades, mainly through the shipments of goods from Asia. Different disease models are employed and inter-compared to achieve such a task. Results show that the climatic conditions over southern England, central Western Europe and the Balkans might become more suitable for the mosquito (including the proviso that the mosquito has already been introduced) to establish itself in the future.

  13. What Influences Climate and Glacier Change in the Southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of climate change in the areas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of available water resources from their mountain glaciers. Many of these glaciers over the region have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable. Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration on their shrinkage. However, the causes of the glacier meltings are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. However, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable the future prediction on glacier changes.

  14. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  15. Storm track processes and the opposing influences of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T. A.; Baldwin, M.; Barnes, E. A.; Caballero, R.; Garfinkel, C. I.; Hwang, Y.-T.; Li, C.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Rivière, G.; Simpson, I. R.; Voigt, A.

    2016-09-01

    Extratropical cyclones are storm systems that are observed to travel preferentially within confined regions known as storm tracks. They contribute to precipitation, wind and temperature extremes in mid-latitudes. Cyclones tend to form where surface temperature gradients are large, and the jet stream influences their speed and direction of travel. Storm tracks shape the global climate through transport of energy and momentum. The intensity and location of storm tracks varies seasonally, and in response to other natural variations, such as changes in tropical sea surface temperature. A hierarchy of numerical models of the atmosphere-ocean system -- from highly idealized to comprehensive -- has been used to study and predict responses of storm tracks to anthropogenic climate change. The future position and intensity of storm tracks depend on processes that alter temperature gradients. However, different processes can have opposing influences on temperature gradients, which leads to a tug of war on storm track responses and makes future projections more difficult. For example, as climate warms, surface shortwave cloud radiative changes increase the Equator-to-pole temperature gradient, but at the same time, longwave cloud radiative changes reduce this gradient. Future progress depends on understanding and accurately quantifying the relative influence of such processes on the storm tracks.

  16. Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashfaq, Moetasim [Stanford University, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, Christopher B. [Stanford University, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Diffenbaugh, Noah S. [Stanford University, Department of Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford, CA (United States); Purdue University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Stanford University, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We use a quantile-based bias correction technique and a multi-member ensemble of the atmospheric component of NCAR CCSM3 (CAM3) simulations to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) biases on future climate change projections. The simulations, which cover 1977-1999 in the historical period and 2077-2099 in the future (A1B) period, use the CCSM3-generated SSTs as prescribed boundary conditions. Bias correction is applied to the monthly time-series of SSTs so that the simulated changes in SST mean and variability are preserved. Our comparison of CAM3 simulations with and without SST correction shows that the SST biases affect the precipitation distribution in CAM3 over many regions by introducing errors in atmospheric moisture content and upper-level (lower-level) divergence (convergence). Also, bias correction leads to significantly different precipitation and surface temperature changes over many oceanic and terrestrial regions (predominantly in the tropics) in response to the future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. The differences in the precipitation response from SST bias correction occur both in the mean and the percent change, and are independent of the ocean-atmosphere coupling. Many of these differences are comparable to or larger than the spread of future precipitation changes across the CMIP3 ensemble. Such biases can affect the simulated terrestrial feedbacks and thermohaline circulations in coupled climate model integrations through changes in the hydrological cycle and ocean salinity. Moreover, biases in CCSM3-generated SSTs are generally similar to the biases in CMIP3 ensemble mean SSTs, suggesting that other GCMs may display a similar sensitivity of projected climate change to SST errors. These results help to quantify the influence of climate model biases on the simulated climate change, and therefore should inform the effort to further develop approaches for reliable climate change projection. (orig.)

  17. INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON WATER RESOURCES IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ivanov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the current state of affairs with water resources in Moldova, the challenges it faces for its national human and economic development, having in mind that the water resources are quite limited in Moldova, which encounters pollution, degradation influenced by climate change and unwise human activity to their biodiversity and ecosystems, availability and accessibility. It also attempts to highlight the relationship between climate change and water resources in Moldova, which has adverse effects on both environment and people’s health, and raise significant hurdles to the international, regional and sectoral development.

  18. E-commerce influence on changes in logistics processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Żurek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The aim of this publication is to address the changes in retail trade, which have a direct influence on the development of e-commerce which in turn causes modifications to logistics chain management strategies and methods of flow control. Materials: The article has been written on the basis of an analysis of subject literature together with determining the influence of e-commerce to changes in logistics processes. The publications included in this study have been selected in order to present the subject of e-commerce development as well as evaluate changes in methods of flow control. The analysis has been prepared based on the author's experience and available reports and publications. Results: As a result of the conducted analysis, an assessment of the proficiency level of the changes in logistics processes on the local and international market as well as of the trends for these changes has been made. Conclusions: With the development of e-commerce, a new logistics chain management strategy began to appear, which covered both the process of handling the online and offline sales channel. Therefore, it can be concluded that properly adapted flow control methods will be the means for achieving the goal. Tasks will include: streamlining flow processes, improving the efficiency of logistic processes as well as adjusting them to market requirements.    

  19. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use Oliver and Holzinger?s (2008) conceptual framework on the case of the zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 1990-2013. We use patent and sales data to operationalize the R&D and commercializa...

  20. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    OpenAIRE

    Singh S

    2011-01-01

    Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work follow...

  1. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  2. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions. PMID:21269678

  3. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  4. The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the

  5. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate. PMID:24600281

  6. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  7. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  8. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  9. The influence of vegetation dynamics on anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Port

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vegetation-climate and vegetation-carbon cycle interactions during anthropogenic climate change are assessed by using the Earth System Model MPI ESM including a module for vegetation dynamics. We assume anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the RCP 8.5 scenario in the period from 1850 to 2120 and shut them down afterwards to evaluate the equilibrium response of the Earth System by 2300.

    Our results suggest that vegetation dynamics have a considerable influence on the changing global and regional climate. In the simulations, global mean tree cover extends by 2300 due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming. Thus, land carbon uptake is higher and atmospheric CO2 concentration is lower by about 40 ppm when considering dynamic vegetation compared to a static pre-industrial vegetation cover. The reduced atmospheric CO2 concentration is equivalent to a lower global mean temperature. Moreover, biogeophysical effects of vegetation cover shifts influence the climate on a regional scale. Expanded tree cover in the northern high latitudes results in a reduced albedo and additional warming. In the Amazon region, declined tree cover causes a higher temperature as evapotranspiration is reduced. In total, we find that vegetation dynamics have a slight attenuating effect on global climate change as the global climate cools by 0.22 K in 2300 due to natural vegetation cover shifts.

  10. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  11. 1950-2009年乐山市传染病疾病谱变迁趋势分析%Changing Trend of Infectious Diseases Spectrum in Leshan, 1950-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昆; 江正斌; 徐蓉芳; 黄林; 郭志洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the changing trend of infectious diseases spectrum in Leshan and provide scientific evidence for government working out strategies for prevention and control. Methods Data of the infectious diseases epidemic in Chengdu was analyzed by using the methods of descriptive epidemiology to get the changing trend of infectious diseases spectrum. Results From 1950's to 1980's, the top one incidence of infectious diseases was natural focal and insect - borne diseases, it changed to intestinal diseases in 1990's and to respiratory diseases from 2000 to 2009. The top one mortality of infectious diseases was respiratory diseases of children from 1950's to 1970's, it changed to natural focal and insect -borne diseases from 1980's to 1990's, and to blood and sexually transmitted diseases from 2000 to 2009. Infectious diseases of children were well - controlled since 1980's, but the incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV / AIDS, etc. increased significantly. Conclusion The situation of infectious diseases controlling is still urgent in Leshan. It is important for government to perform its functions effectively, increase the financial input of infectious diseases prevention and control, and improve the level of epidemic forecast and public health emergency response capabilities of professional bodies.%目的 了解乐山市传染病的疾病谱变迁趋势,为政府制订防制对策提供科学依据.方法 利用乐山市1950-2009年的传染病疫情资料,采用描述性流行病学方法分析传染病的疾病谱变迁趋势.结果 传染病发病率20世纪50~80年代自然疫源性及虫媒居首位,90年代变迁为肠道占第1位,2000-2009年再变迁为呼吸道居首位;死亡率50~ 70年代儿童呼吸道占第1位,80~90年代变迁为自然疫源性及虫媒居首位,2000-2009年再变迁为血源及性传播占第1位.80年代以后儿童传染病得到有效控制,而肺结核、乙型肝炎、

  12. Infectious endocarditis: rlieumatologic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Tarasova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess rheumatologic aspects of modern infectious endocarditis (IE and to determine role of anti-inflammatory therapy in complex treatment of the disease. Material and methods. 50 pts with IE (24 female, 26 male aged 16 to 60 years were included. Primary IE was diagnosed in 15, secondary - in 35 cases. 7 pts had acute and 43 — subacute course. 40 pts had definite and 10 — probable IE. Results. Mean period till correct diagnosis establishment was 112± 116,5 days. Diagnostic difficulties were more frequent in subacute variant of IE (p=0,03. Heart diseases prevailed among cardiac risk factors (p=0,0l. Clinical picture of IE was very polymorphous. Glucocorticoids (GC were administered to 21 pts in addition to antibiotics due to signs of organ immunopatology and high laboratory measures of immune activity. Positive effect of glucocorticoids was achieved in 64% of pts. Conclusion. Development of immunological changes complicates timely diagnosis of IE and requires exclusion of different diseases including rheumatic pathology. IE treatment strategy does not exclude administration of GC low doses for prominent immunopathological signs in addition to massive antibacterial therapy.

  13. The influence of vegetation dynamics on anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Port

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vegetation–climate and vegetation–carbon cycle interactions during anthropogenic climate change are assessed by using the Earth System Model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI ESM that includes vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle. We assume anthropogenic CO2 emissions according to the RCP 8.5 scenario in the time period from 1850 to 2120. For the time after 2120, we assume zero emissions to evaluate the response of the stabilising Earth System by 2300.

    Our results suggest that vegetation dynamics have a considerable influence on the changing global and regional climate. In the simulations, global mean tree cover extends by 2300 due to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and global warming. Thus, land carbon uptake is higher and atmospheric CO2 concentration is lower by about 40 ppm when considering dynamic vegetation compared to the static pre-industrial vegetation cover. The reduced atmospheric CO2 concentration is equivalent to a lower global mean temperature. Moreover, biogeophysical effects of vegetation cover shifts influence the climate on a regional scale. Expanded tree cover in the northern high latitudes results in a reduced albedo and additional warming. In the Amazon region, declined tree cover causes a regional warming due to reduced evapotranspiration. As a net effect, vegetation dynamics have a slight attenuating effect on global climate change as the global climate cools by 0.22 K due to natural vegetation cover shifts in 2300.

  14. Fight against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  15. The Influence of Declustering on Seismicity Rate Change Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stiphout, T.; Schorlemmer, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-12-01

    Analyzing seismicity rate changes (SRC) is widely used in statistical seismology because transients in activity can be related to changes in physical properties in the Earth's crust (e.g., changes in static/dynamic stress, fluid migration, precursory signal). However, how to best estimate the significance of SRC in the presence of earthquake clustering remains a challenge. Declustering is commonly applied to separate dependent events (fore- and aftershocks, swarms) from independent events (background) that may contain imprints of changes in physical processes. Because declustering is a non-unique process, it potentially has a large impact on the estimated SRC and, consequently, the interpretation of an observed transient. We present a new approach for estimating the significance of SRC based on extensive Monte Carlo simulations over the entire parameter space of common declustering algorithms. We also include uncertainties of the hypocenter parameters, variations in sampling volumes, duration of rate changes, and bin sizes. To be able to compare the significance of the SRC values across different parameter spaces and different SRC estimators (e.g., z- and β-values) , we translate the values of different estimators into parameter-independent probabilities. We have performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the impact of declustering algorithms and parameters settings on seismicity analysis. As an example application, we investigate the influence on estimating the significance of precursory seismic quiescence (PSQ). The PSQ hypothesis states that some main shocks are preceded by a significant decrease in the seismicity rate of micro-earthquakes, in the years to months prior, and including parts or all of the subsequent ruptured volume. Detecting PSQ requires careful measurements of background SRC. For the sensitivity analysis, we use a variety of data sets. Preliminary results on simple stochastic simulated catalogs indicate that declustering may have a

  16. The Influence and the Countermeasures about Water Resources in Northwest of Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the influences and countermeasures of climate changes on the water resources in northwest.[Method] The influences of climate changes on water resources in northwest part were discussed.Considering to the demand of water,corresponding countermeasures were proposed.[Result] Though there were distinct regional differences about the influences of climate changes on water resources in northwest part,the positive influences were larger than negative influences in general;because o...

  17. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.

    2011-12-01

    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  18. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data...... of blood donors followed up retrospectively for self-reported infectious mononucleosis. CONCLUSIONS: Younger siblings, and to a lesser degree older siblings, seem to be important in the transmission of EBV within families. Apparently the dogma of low birth order in a sibship as being at the highest risk...... sibship structure into account. RESULTS: A total of 12,872 cases of infectious mononucleosis were observed during 35.3 million person-years of follow-up. Statistical modelling showed that increasing sibship size was associated with a reduced risk of infectious mononucleosis and that younger siblings...

  19. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  20. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  1. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, S.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows

  2. Infectious disease agents mediate interaction in food webs and ecosystems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selakovic, Sanja; de Ruiter, P.C.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows

  3. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks-Pollock, E; de Jong, M C M; Keeling, M J; Klinkenberg, D; Wood, J L N

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock di

  4. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  5. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Infectious diseases -- new and ancient threats to world health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, S J; Carnes, B; Rogers, R G; Smith, L

    1997-07-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries and are re-emerging as a serious health problem in developed countries. Outbreaks of Ebola, dengue hemorrhagic fever, cholera, and bubonic plague have occurred in low-income countries and multidrug-resistant organisms have surfaced throughout the world. Since 1973, over 28 new disease-causing microbes have been identified. This issue of "Population Bulletin" analyzes the impact of factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, poverty, travel, agricultural practices, climate changes, natural disasters, and medical technology on the resurgence of infectious and parasitic diseases as well as the influence of diseases such as AIDS on population dynamics and socioeconomic development. Most of these diseases could be prevented, cured, or eradicated with known public health measures. National governments can help reduce poverty, step up immunization programs, and lessen the chances of introducing new diseases. Nongovernmental organizations can disseminate preventive knowledge and monitor disease outbreaks. The medical profession can strengthen infection control precautions and institute surveillance of the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Since the geographic isolation that used to contain disease outbreaks has been replaced by permeable international borders, the campaign against infectious and parasitic diseases must be global. PMID:12292663

  7. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Dotters-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

  8. Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. IHN is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  9. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  10. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J.

    2014-02-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems.

  11. Influence Strategies of Principals: Ordinary Times Compared with Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether principals utilized flexible influence strategies under changing circumstances, based on perceptions of 450 Israeli elementary teachers. Principals acted mainly through an informal, less directive orientation of influence both in ordinary times and in times of change. Principals' leaned toward participatory influence approaches.…

  12. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  13. Landscape genetics in a changing world: disentangling historical and contemporary influences and inferring change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-12-01

    Landscape genetics seeks to determine the effect of landscape features on gene flow and genetic structure. Often, such analyses are intended to inform conservation and management. However, depending on the many factors that influence the time to reach equilibrium, genetic structure may more strongly represent past rather than contemporary landscapes. This well-known lag between current demographic processes and population genetic structure often makes it challenging to interpret how contemporary landscapes and anthropogenic activity shape gene flow. Here, we review the theoretical framework for factors that influence time lags, summarize approaches to address this temporal disconnect in landscape genetic studies, and evaluate ways to make inferences about landscape change and its effects on species using genetic data alone or in combination with other data. Those approaches include comparing correlation of genetic structure with historical versus contemporary landscapes, using molecular markers with different rates of evolution, contrasting metrics of genetic structure and gene flow that reflect population genetic processes operating at different temporal scales, comparing historical and contemporary samples, combining genetic data with contemporary estimates of species distribution or movement, and controlling for phylogeographic history. We recommend using simulated data sets to explore time lags in genetic structure, and argue that time lags should be explicitly considered both when designing and interpreting landscape genetic studies. We conclude that the time lag problem can be exploited to strengthen inferences about recent landscape changes and to establish conservation baselines, particularly when genetic data are combined with other data.

  14. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles ...

  15. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  16. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Sjamsul Bahri; T Syafriati

    2011-01-01

    The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on), variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease) or old di...

  17. 山西省太原市传染病医院2001-2011年疾病谱变迁及常见传染病流行趋势分析%2001-2011 annual changes of disease spectrum and trends analysis of common infectious diseases of the infectious diseases hospital of Taiyuan in Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯亦农; 刘宝芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the inpatients species changes of infectious disease hospital from 2001 to 2011 years in Taiyuan,and make relevant recommendations to the trends and prevention strategies for common infectious diseases.Methods The diseases species of the hospital from 2001 to 2011 years and the number of hospitalized patients were retrospectively counted and analyzed.Results The proportion of liver disease hospitalized was always more than 60% in the ten years;The bacillary dysentery decreased from 4.23% in 2006 to 0.96% in 2011 ;The hospitalized patients with measles decreased significantly since 2009,and only 0.26% in 2011 ;In 2008,hand-foot-mouth disease accounted for 3.42% of the hospitalized patients,and it peaked in 2010,accounting for 7.51% ; The number of hospitalized patients with rabies disease rised in 2011,accounting for 0.27%.Conclusion Liver disease is still the major infectious diseases of the hospital;The mumps,chicken pox,scarlet fever and other respiratory diseases as well as hand-foot-mouth disease is a common infectious disease threats to the health of infants and young children,and for the increasing trend of the number of patients with brucellosis hairtetracycline,the tetracycline and brucellosis drugs for children should be promoted to product and sale.The rabies vaccination knowledge should be popularized,and the incidence of rabies should be reduced.%目的 分析2001-2011年太原市传染病医院住院病种的变化,对常见传染病的流行趋势及防治策略提出相关建议.方法 对2001-2011年该院各种疾病病种及住院例数进行回顾性统计分析.结果 肝病的住院比例在十年间始终在60%以上;细菌性痢疾从2006年的4.23%下降至2011年的0.96%;自2009年以后麻疹住院患者明显减少,2011年仅占0.26%;2008年手足口病占住院患者的3.42%,2010年达到高峰,占7.51%;2011年狂犬病住院例数攀升,达到0.27%.结论 肝病仍是该院的主

  18. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Madsen, H.; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantification of the flood risk relative to changes in imperviousness and climate change. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense, but is easily applicable for the majority of cities within Eur...

  19. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  20. Feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa

    2009-10-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.

  1. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy.

  2. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  3. Employee resistance to organizational change: managerial influence tactics and leader-member exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Stacie A; Cable, Daniel M

    2008-03-01

    The authors explored the relationship between managerial influence tactics and employee resistance to organizational change. Using attribution theory, the authors developed a series of hypotheses concerning the effects of influence tactics on employee resistance to change and the ways in which these relationships are moderated by leader-member exchange. Results, which are based on multisource data, suggest that employee resistance reflects both the type of influence a manager uses and the strength of leader-member exchange. PMID:18361644

  4. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck;

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes...... with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial...

  5. Influence of a temperature change on in-reactor creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of pressurized tube creep experiments were evaluated to determine the effect of a temperature change on the in-reactor creep of AISI 316 stainless steel. In contrast to prior experiments where a temperature change was imposed and only a short interval of additional fluence accumulated prior to examination, this experiment examines the long term effects of a temperature change. Data are reported from three separate experiments in which the temperature history was altered by a linear reduction with fluence, a step increase and a step decrease. Analysis of the data indicated that the long term creep rate adjusts to the new temperature. However, evidence of swelling and stress affected swelling resulting from the temperature change were found

  6. Biodiversity loss, emerging infectious diseases and impact on human and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are losing biodiversity through several factors ranging from global warming, climatic change, unsustainable use of natural resources, human settlements, demand for food, medicine etc. Consequently, the biodiversity losses are causing emergence of infectious diseases (EIDs) which are making them more virulent than the past. Both biodiversity loss and emergence of diseases significantly impact the human derived benefits in-terms of economy and food. Ecological stability, productivity and food-web interactions are indirectly correlated with biodiversity and any change in these will cause losses in biodiversity that would certainly influence the human derived benefits and crops. The current article reviews the biodiversity losses and emerging infectious diseases at various levels reported by recent literature which will help in current status of EIDs and future recommendations. (author)

  7. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  8. Studies on Infectious Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncas, J.; Chagnon, A.; Pavilanis, V.

    1966-01-01

    Viral studies were carried out on throat swabs, rectal swabs and washed white blood cells from 27 cases of infectious mononucleosis (positive Paul-Bunnell-David-sohn test), and from 22 controls. Four cytopathic agents were isolated in the test group, two of which were readily subcultured for at least three successive passages. Three cytopathic agents were recovered in the control group, two of which have been identified as adenovirus type 5 and adenovirus type 3. The unidentified agents tested so far are sensitive to ether and to pH 3. The results of acridine-orange staining and the immunofluorescence technique, using a conjugated control serum and two conjugated convalescent infectious mononucleosis sera, indicate that the isolated agent or agents in the test group are RNA-type agents with a cytoplasmic cycle of development. The overall results of this study lead the authors to suspect a respiratory syncytial-like myxovirus as the as yet unidentified agent which they recovered. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 3cFig. 3dFig. 3eFig. 3f PMID:4952899

  9. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  10. Do climate changes influence dispersal and population dynamics of dragonflies in the western Peruvian Andes?

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    For nine dragonfly species (five aeshnids and four libellulids) all previous and verifiable data are related to the vertical climate zones and nature regions of the western Peruvian Andes and the Peruvian Pacific coast. Climate changes due to the El Niño and La Niña phenomena, as well as the global climate change have an influence on the different natural regions and also restrict aquatic biotopes. These changes influence the dispersal and behavior of some dragonflies and concer...

  11. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on, variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease or old disease will be re-emerged (re-emerging diseases. This paper will discuss the effect of global warming and climate change on animal diseases in Indonesia such as Bluetongue (BT, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis (JE, West Nile (WN, and Rift Valley fever (RVF. The climate changes such as increasing the earth temperature and rainfall will cause extremely increase of vector population for BT, JE, WN and RVF. In addition, animal transportation and bird migration from one country to others or region will cause changing of ecological system and will open the chance to distribute the diseases. Hence, anticipation on those disease outbreaks should be taken by conducting the surveilance and early detection to those diseases. The possibility of entering Nipah disease in Indonesia should be anticipated because the avaibility of Nipah virus and the reservoir host (Pteropus spp and also pigs as amplifier host in the surrounding area. Other diseases such as, leptospirosis, anthrax and avian influenza (H5N1 are also have a wider potential to distributing the disease related to the climate change in Indonesia.

  12. REASONS OF CURRENCY FLUCTUATIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The exchange rate has direct impact on economy of any state. Without competent management, it is impossible to achieve successful functioning of national economy, which causes the need of studying of the matter. Fluctuations of an exchange rate depend on market condition. Therefore, the exchange rate is under influence of a condition of the balance of payments, a difference of interest rates in various countries, extent of use of currency in international payments, speculative currency transactions and activity of the currency markets, inflation and many others, considered in this article. Possible consequences of their influence on exchange rate are specified, examples are given. Dependence of growth of the money supply, the monetary base and inflation in Russia is reflected. The analysis of economic aspects on which exchange rate renders direct influence, namely, foreign trade, capital streams, interest rates, business development, purchasing power of the population, growth of economy is carried out. The assessment of an exchange rate of the Russian Federation is carried out. The following factors have the greatest impact on it: floating rate of ruble, increase of a rate of refinancing, oil depreciation, and lack of possibility of refinancing of external debts. Measures for stabilization of ruble, among which fixation of currency positions of banks, increase of control of target use of earlier issued credits, differentiation of speculative operations from the others, introduction of a tax of Tobin and introduction of indispensable conditions of sale of a certain part of revenue are offered. Realization of these measures will have positive impact on stabilization of ruble exchange rate and an economic situation of Russia in general

  13. Anthropogenic influence on multidecadal changes in reconstructed global evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, H.; Ribes, A.; Decharme, B.; Alkama, R.; Sheffield, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to intensify the global hydrological cycle, with an increase of both evapotranspiration (EVT) and precipitation. Yet, the magnitude and spatial distribution of this global and annual mean response remains highly uncertain. Better constraining land EVT in twenty-first-century climate scenarios is critical for predicting changes in surface climate, including heatwaves and droughts, evaluating impacts on ecosystems and water resources, and designing adaptation policies. Continental scale EVT changes may already be underway, but have never been attributed to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Here we provide global gridded estimates of annual EVT and demonstrate that the latitudinal and decadal differentiation of recent EVT variations cannot be understood without invoking the anthropogenic radiative forcings. In the mid-latitudes, the emerging picture of enhanced EVT confirms the end of the dimming decades and highlights the possible threat posed by increasing drought frequency to managing water resources and achieving food security in a changing climate.

  14. Influence of Climatic Change on Rice Production in Anqing Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the influence of climatic variation on rice production in Anqing zone.[Method] Based on temperature and precipitation data in rice growth period (May-November) during 1980-2009,by using five-year sliding average method,the moving average charts of temperature and rainfall were made.The variation characteristics of main factors (temperature and precipitation) which affected rice growth were analyzed.By using line moving average simulation method,the climatic yield was ...

  15. Influence of Dynamical Change of Edges on Clustering Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Ruan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering coefficient is a very important measurement in complex networks, and it describes the average ratio between the actual existent edges and probable existent edges in the neighbor of one vertex in a complex network. Besides, in a complex networks, the dynamic change of edges can trigger directly the evolution of network and further affect the clustering coefficients. As a result, in this paper, we investigate the effects of the dynamic change of edge on the clustering coefficients. It is illustrated that the increase and decrease of the clustering coefficient can be effectively controlled by adding or deleting several edges of the network in the evolution of complex networks.

  16. Does the weather influence public opinion about climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, S. D.; McDaniel, J.

    2010-12-01

    Public opinion in North America about the science of anthropogenic climate change and the motivation for policy action has been variable over the past twenty years. The trends in public opinion over time have been attributed the general lack of pressing public concern about climate change to a range of political, economic and psychological factors. One driving force behind the variability in polling data from year to year may be the weather itself. The difference between what we “expect” - the climate - and what we “get” - the weather - can be a major source of confusion and obfuscation in the public discourse about climate change. For example, reaction to moderate global temperatures in 2007 and 2008 may have helped prompt the spread of a “global cooling” meme in the public and the news media. At the same time, a decrease in the belief in the science of climate change and the need for action has been noted in opinion polls. This study analyzes the relationship between public opinion about climate change and the weather in the U.S. since the mid-1980s using historical polling data from several major organizations (e.g. Gallup, Pew, Harris Interactive, ABC News), historical monthly air temperature (NCDC) and a survey of opinion articles from major U.S. newspapers (Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Houston Chronicle, USA Today). Seasonal and annual monthly temperature anomalies for the northeastern U.S and the continental U.S are compared with available national opinion data for three general categories of questions: i) Is the climate warming?, ii) Is the observed warming due to human activity?, and iii) Are you concerned about climate change? The variability in temperature and public opinion over time is also compared with the variability in the fraction of opinion articles in the newspapers (n ~ 7000) which express general agreement or disagreement with IPCC Summary for Policymakers consensus statements on climate change (“most of

  17. Influence of Heat Treatment on Color Change of Poplar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, Populus tomentosa was used as samples for heat treatment in order to find the initial effect rule of color change, when the temperature rose to180, 200 and 220 oC and the time was kept for 1, 2 and 3 h, respectively. The results are shown as follows: The color of treated wood can be changed obviously by the heat treatment. Under the same temperature, the color saturation becomes smaller and the difference of color becomes more obvious with the increase of the keeping time. Lightness and color...

  18. Changing Economic and Social Influences on Family Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Lisbeth J.; Salisbury, Christine L.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of such societal changes as increased incidences of single parenthood, divorce, and out-of-home childcare for achieving the family focus in early intervention services as required by Public Law 99-457 are addressed. (Author/DB)

  19. Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; Żymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

    2011-10-01

    The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

  20. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  1. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  2. Selected Health Behaviors that Influence College Freshman Weight Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Danella Gilmore; Corwin, Sara J.; Valois, Robert F.; Sargent, Roger G.; Morris, Richard Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors investigated the effect of physical activity (PA), fruit and vegetable intake, and alcohol use on 6-month weight change in 193 college freshmen (78.8% white, 88.2% women, 94.5% on a meal plan). Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey in fall 2002 (baseline) and spring 2003 (follow-up). Results:…

  3. PREFERRED MODALITY INFLUENCES ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Andrew M.; Andrew Jackson; Terry, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested, both retrospectively and prospectively, exercise-induced mood changes among regular exercisers. Specifically, it examined the extent to which preferred exercise modality promoted greater mood benefits. A group of 25 exercise participants (M = 35.5 yr., SD = 10.5 yr.) took part in the study. All participants had exercised at least three times a week (M = 3.5, SD = 2.3) during the previous year. Participants completed a 14-item Exercise Preference Questionnaire to prov...

  4. Infectious Disease Risk Associated with Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation opens with views of the shuttle in various stages of preparation for launch, a few moments after launch prior to external fuel tank separation, a few pictures of the earth,and several pictures of astronomical interest. The presentation reviews the factors effecting the risks of infectious disease during space flight, such as the crew, water, food, air, surfaces and payloads and the factors that increase disease risk, the factors affecting the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight, and the environmental factors affecting immunity, such as stress. One factor in space infectious disease is latent viral reactivation, such as herpes. There are comparisons of the incidence of viral reactivation in space, and in other analogous situations (such as bed rest, or isolation). There is discussion of shingles, and the pain and results of treatment. There is a further discussion of the changes in microbial pathogen characteristics, using salmonella as an example of the increased virulence of microbes during spaceflight. A factor involved in the risk of infectious disease is stress.

  5. Influence of vegetation changes on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, Per

    In a heath region at Hjelm Hede in Denmark oak trees are invading a Calluna/Empetrum vegetation. In less than a century the oak invasion has caused considerable changes in the soil: what was once an O-horizon under Calluna has changed to an A-horizon under oak; the Calluna E-horizon has lost its distinct appearance; and the sharp boundary between E and Bh has been obliterated. The directly visible changes are associated with a rise in pH of about one unit in the top horizon under the oaks, an increasing content of organic matter in the E-horizon, a decreasing content of organic matter in the Bh-horizon, and a fall in the C/N ratio. In order to estimate the total microbiological activity, cotton strips were placed in the upper soil horizons. The loss in tensile strength during two summer months was 10-15% under Calluna, but more than 50% under oaks. Initial attempts to find differences in the type and content of organic matter showed that the most abundant low-molecular organic acids extracted from the Of-horizons were 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuic acid), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid). The extraction was done in 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 10.2. The organic compounds were determined by HPLC. The 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was relatively the most important compound under the Calluna heath, whereas 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid was most important under oaks. Extractions were performed on water samples from field lysimeter experiments to determine whether the substituted benzoic acids in the soil water arose under transport. These extractions exposed a ppm concentration of 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, a compound believed to originate from microbial decomposition of lysimeter material.

  6. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  7. An Influence of Changes of Heliogeophysical Conditions on Influenza Epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elchin S. Babayev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For purposes of studying of possible influence of the solar and geomagnetic activity on influenza diseases and epidemic, the data covering the time period of 1976-2004 is studied for the Absheron Peninsula area including the capital city Baku (the Republic of Azerbaijan with several millions of inhabitants. Period, duration, intensity and seasonal behavior of the influenza epidemic, tendency of its beginning within a solar cycle are determined. Investigations reveal that influenza epidemic usually begins 2-3 years before and / or 2-3 years after the 11-years sunspot cycle maximum. We suppose that solar activity affects the influenza epidemic mainly through geomagnetic activity (magnetic storms. The comparative analysis of years of high solar activity and both periods of originating of epidemics and pandemics on the base of antigenic formulas of influenza viruses described with the help of characters of structure of a virus (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase has revealed definite regularity in the circulation of influenza infections. Forecast method for prophylactic measures is developed for considered region. Obtained results are interpreted and compared with similar ones.

  8. Visiting a climate-influenced national park: the stability of climate change perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Matthew Tyler James; Hallo, Jeffrey C; Wright, Brett A; Moore, Dewayne; Powell, Robert B

    2013-11-01

    Understanding perceptions of global environmental issues, such as climate change, can help inform resource management, policy development, and communication with constituents. Although a considerable amount of research documents citizens' perceptions of climate change, few have investigated how interactions with climate-impacted parks and protected areas influence these perceptions, and consequently elements of environmental management. Using a mixed methods Instrument Development Approach, the researchers examined the stability of park visitors' (N = 429) climate change perceptions during a daylong interaction with climate-sensitive and influenced resources at Kenai Fjords National Park in Alaska. Results indicate that global-level beliefs about climate change remained relatively stable during a park experience, but perceptions about climate change at the park-level (e.g., impacts) appeared more malleable. Findings also revealed the type of park experience (terrestrial vs. marine) can influence the degree of change in visitors' perceptions. Implications for communication, outreach, and park management are discussed.

  9. Influence of diseases and metabolic disorders on cow weight changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirements on increasing economic efficiency of cattle breeding force farmers to use the latest up-to-datetechnology for monitoring and management of farming quality. Regular weighing and data processing can forinstance discover mistakes that can indicate defects, e.g. nutrition deficiencies, incorrect embryonic development,health problems, demanding nursing intervention. The aim of the research was to monitor manifestations of diseasesand metabolic disorders in the course of weight curve based on data from an automated system for weighing the liveweight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtainweight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already dryingoff, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes wereestablished after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifestedonly ketosis in the weight curves with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. The results of the study will beapplied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding,monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  10. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12617344

  11. INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITY CHANGES ON UV DISINFECTION OF WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Vaezi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR has been accepted as an attractive alternative to chlorination for the disinfection of wastewater. In this study the effluent from Sahebgaranieh treatment plant was subjected to changes in UV transmission and turbidity in order to correlate these commonly measured parameters with the performance of a submerged -UV- reactor employed in disinfecting the effluent. Studies have shown successful performance of the reactor in disinfecting typical secondary effluents. Highly significant correlations are observed between TJV- transmission, turbidity, and the degree of coliforms inactivation which depend upon disinfection limit. Besides, the method was regarded suitable in disinfecting effluent samples, having suspended solids twice as much the discharge quality at disinfection detention time of 102 seconds. Average UV dosages ranged from 230 to 580 milliwatt - second per square centimeter.

  12. The impacts of influence strategies on organizational subgroup members' evaluations of management accounting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates how different influence strategies affect business unit managers’ and controllers’ evaluations of the success of a management accounting change (MAC). Using survey data on paired observations from managers and controllers in 68 business units, I find that influence

  13. Transgenic animals resistant to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiley, L

    2016-04-01

    The list of transgenic animals developed to test ways of producing livestock resistant to infectious disease continues to grow. Although the basic techniques for generating transgenic animals have not changed very much in the ten years since they were last reviewed for the World Organisation for Animal Health, one recent fundamental technological advance stands to revolutionise genome engineering. The advent of technically simple and efficient site-specific gene targeting has profound implications for genetically modifying livestock species.

  14. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation se...

  15. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  16. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidalgo H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  17. 中国1990与2010年感染性疾病的疾病负担研究%The burden of infectious disease and changing pattern from in 1990 and 2010, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于石成; 周脉耕; 刘世炜; 李镒冲; 胡跃华; 葛辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the burden of infectious disease of the Chinese population in 1990 and 2010 and changing pattern in the past 20 years. Methods Results of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) were used to demonstrate the burden of infectious disease of the Chinese population in 1990 and 2010 and changing pattern from 1990 to 2010 by gender and age groups, including indicators of incidence, mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), disability⁃adjusted life years (DALY), and their age⁃standardized rates using data of the 2010 National Census as a standard population. Results In 1990 incidence, standardized incidence rate, mortality, standardized mortality rate, DALY, standardized DALY rate, YLL, standardized YLL rate, YLD, and standardized YLD rate of infectious disease in China were 3 067 469 200 cases, 242 669.34 cases/100 000, 824 300 cases, 72.27 cases/100 000, 58 937 700 person⁃years(PYRS), 3 992.85 PYRS/100 000, 46 504 100 PYRS, 2 932.99 PYRS/100 000, 12 433 600 PYRS, and 1 059.86 PYRS/100 000, respectively. All the aboved indicators were declined from 1990 to 2010, in 2010 they were 3 065 985 800 cases, 224 351.66 cases/100 000, 388 600 cases, 30.74 cases/100 000, 19 492 200 PYRS, 1 440.75 PYRS/100 000, 12 045 700 PYRS, 891.87 PYRS/100 000, 7 446 500 PYRS, and 548.89 PYRS/100 000, respectively. When 2010's indicators were compared to those in 1990, the rates of increase of incidence, incidence rate, mortality, mortality rate, DALY, DALY rate, YLL, YLL rate, YLD, and YLD rate were 56.84%,-9.85%,-33.07%,-61.54%,-27.68%,-58.42%,-32.46%,-61.17%,-16.75%, and-52.13%for 50-69 age group;for≥70 age group,57.90%,-5.86%, 7.41%, -36.12%, -5.00%, -43.51%, -5.14%,-43.59%, -4.52%, and-43.2%. Conclusions The burden of infectious disease of the Chinese population was declined from 1990 to 2010;however, the incidence of infectious disease was increased in≥50 age groups.%目的:分析1990

  18. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  19. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations. PMID:27179801

  20. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  1. Monthly Changes in the Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on Surface Air Temperature over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiayou; TAN Benkui; SUO Lingling; HU Yongyun

    2007-01-01

    Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is used to study monthly changes in the influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) on spring, summer and autumn air temperature over China with the January 500 hPa geopotential height data from 1951 to 2004 and monthly temperature data from January to November at 160 stations in China. Several AO indices have been defined with the 500-hPa geopotential data and the index defined as the first principal component of the normalized geopotential data is best to be used to study the influence of the AO on SAT (surface air temperature) in China. There are three modes through which the AO in winter influences SAT in China. The influence of the AO on SAT in China changes monthly and is stronger in spring and summer than in autumn. The main influenced regions are Northeast China and the Changjiang River drainage area.

  2. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  3. A dynamic model for infectious diseases: The role of vaccination and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Sekhara Rao, P.; Naresh Kumar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding dynamics of an infectious disease helps in designing appropriate strategies for containing its spread in a population. Recent mathematical models are aimed at studying dynamics of some specific types of infectious diseases. In this paper we propose a new model for infectious diseases spread having susceptible, infected, and recovered populations and study its dynamics in presence of incubation delays and relapse of the disease. The influence of treatment and vaccination efforts on the spread of infection in presence of time delays are studied. Sufficient conditions for local stability of the equilibria and change of stability are derived in various cases. The problem of global stability is studied for an important special case of the model. Simulations carried out in this study brought out the importance of treatment rate in controlling the disease spread. It is observed that incubation delays have influence on the system even under enhanced vaccination. The present study has clearly brought out the fact that treatment rate in presence of time delays would contain the disease as compared to popular belief that eradication can only be done through vaccination.

  4. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  5. Influence of temperature on autogenous deformation and relative humidity change in hardening cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change (RH change) in hardening cement paste. Theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented, which elucidate the influence of temperature on these properties. This is an important subject in the control...

  6. The Influence of British Social Changes on the Origin and Development of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Social changes are one of the main factors of the orion and development of a language.This author mainly analyzes the influence of British social changes on the origin and development of English from three periods in the history of English language.

  7. The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Liu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type, family housing conditions, family relationship network, the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood. In addition, it discusses the influence of family changes in the socialization of…

  8. Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005–2011: comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Iyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods: We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results: Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions: We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others.

  9. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  10. The Influence of the Leadership Style on the Resistance to Change Phenomenon in Romanian Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Braduţanu

    2014-01-01

    In this article we examine the influence of the leadership style on the resistance to change phenomenon, as well as how the degree of resistance to change differs in private organizations versus public ones. After analyzing the literature and conducting a survey in Romanian organizations we have concluded that the leadership style adopted by a top manager has an important impact on employees resistance to change. The research was designed to inform practitioners, researchers, m...

  11. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief s...

  12. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-01-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and...

  13. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  14. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Onozuka

    2014-01-01

    Local weather factors are widely considered to influence the transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. Few studies, however, have examined the non-stationary relationships between global climatic factors and transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. We analyzed monthly data for cases of infectious gastroenteritis in Fukuoka, Japan from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the pattern of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Sou...

  15. The Influence of the Leadership Style on the Resistance to Change Phenomenon in Romanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Braduţanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the influence of the leadership style on the resistance to change phenomenon, as well as how the degree of resistance to change differs in private organizations versus public ones. After analyzing the literature and conducting a survey in Romanian organizations we have concluded that the leadership style adopted by a top manager has an important impact on employees resistance to change. The research was designed to inform practitioners, researchers, managers and other interested persons about the influence of the leadership style on the resistance to change phenomenon, as well as how the phenomenon is manifested in different types of organizations. The main contribution of this paper is that in order to benefit of a lower degree of resistance to change from employees, the participative leadership style is recommended to be applied.

  16. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten;

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantification...... of the flood risk relative to changes in imperviousness and climate change. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense, but is easily applicable for the majority of cities within Europe, as it relies on open source data for the European continent. Results from Odense show that urban development...... during the past 30 years caused an increase in flood exposure that is comparable to what is expected in the RCP4.5 (+2°C) climate scenario....

  17. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  18. Re-emergence of Chikungunya and other scourges: the role of globalization and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Globalization and climate change are important phenomena in a changing world. To date, only the effect of globalisation on infectious diseases, from vector-borne to respiratory infections, has been well established. The influence of cyclic natural climatic events and local variations in temperature and precipitation has also been recognised; however, there is still no conclusive evidence of an effect of global warming on infectious disease patterns. PMID:19351987

  19. Well-being & psychological distress : genetic and environmental influences on stability, change, and covariance

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An important goal to psychological research is to advance knowledge on development and sustenance of positive mental health. This study is the first large scale twin study investigating the genetic and environmental influences on stability and change in both psychological well-being and distress during the developmental juncture of young adulthood. The study also aims to illuminate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on indicators of well-being and distress are overlappin...

  20. Strategic change communication : The influence of top managers' sensegiving over middle managers' sensemaking

    OpenAIRE

    Rosén, Carl; Aljuburi, Dhabia; Beaussant, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore factors that influence the sensemaking of middle managers during strategic change, and how top managers may influence those factors by making sense of them prior to the formation of the strategy. Methodology: In this paper, a qualitative research method with an abductive approach is used to explore individuals’ understanding and perspectives regarding the phenomenon under study. The data collection is based on interviewing six managers and two...

  1. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigate up to what extent the spatial heterogeneity in the projected changes in DTR during the rest of the 21st century (under several emission scenarios) is explained by the regional variability in projected precipitation changes. DTR is indeed a suitable index of climate variability and change [1] and several studies have highlighted the existence of a negative correlation with both the cloud cover and the precipitation rate over land throughout last century [2]. Precipitation reduces DTR mainly by decreasing surface solar radiation through increased cloud cover and by increasing daytime surface evaporative cooling through increased soil moisture content. Whether or not these processes are captured in the current generation of global and regional models is matter of research. To achieve our objective, we make use of the climate projections made available by the CMIP5 project as well as their historical runs, along with reanalysis and station data. At inter-annual timescale, the seasonal mean DTR simulated by an ensemble of CMIP5 models for the last decades shows a negative relationship over land with the simulated precipitation at zero lag. The correlation is globally very strong except during winter at higher latitudes. This corresponds well with the correlations observed in the re-analysis datasets. Some spatial variability in correlation strength is however noticeable between both datasets. Concerning the projected changes, the negative correlation between DTR and precipitation does not hold globally; no correlation or even positive correlations are observed in different climate regions, including Northern South America and Central Europe. Within this study we will further investigate the physical process that could explain this change in correlation sign as well as the reason why positive correlations are rarely observed or simulated at inter-annual timescale under current climate during summer and at lower latitudes during winter. [1] K

  2. Changes in social relations in old age. Are they influenced by functional ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjorn E;

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland...... for help in Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADL). Depressive symptoms, living alone and locality were included as covariates in the multivariate analyses. There were large changes in social relations in old age, but the changes included widely varying patterns of losses and gains among...

  3. The Influences of the Chinese Modern Family Changes on the Socialization of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chenggang; Liu Dan

    2006-01-01

    This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type,family housing conditions,family relationship network.the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood.In addition,it discusses the influence of family changes in the soeialization of children.Then it expounds the new transformation in children's socialization because of family,school,mass media,etc.Finally,it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

  4. The Influence of Shaolin Teaching to Houjie`s Personality Change in Shaolin Film (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustinus Sufianto; Jemmy Tantra; Fenny Gunadi

    2015-01-01

    New Shaolin is a famous film from China. The story tells about Houjies life and his personality change. Shaolins positive influence in Houjies life is the main purpose of this research. Research used references and the theory of Sigmund Freud of ID, Ego and Superego to analyze Houjies personality change. Result shows that after receiving Shaolins teaching, he became a better man. In Shaolin, Houjie was forgiven. Shaolins teaching such as chanting a scripture can help improve his thoughts. Ref...

  5. Geophysical features influence the climate change sensitivity of northern Wisconsin pine and oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweiten, Michael A; Calcote, Randy R; Lynch, Elizabeth A; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Schuurman, Gregor W

    2015-10-01

    Landscape-scale vulnerability assessment from multiple sources, including paleoecological site histories, can inform climate change adaptation. We used an array of lake sediment pollen and charcoal records to determine how soils and landscape factors influenced the variability of forest composition change over the past 2000 years. The forests in this study are located in northwestern Wisconsin on a sandy glacial outwash plain. Soils and local climate vary across the study area. We used the Natural Resource Conservation Service's Soil Survey Geographic soil database and published fire histories to characterize differences in soils and fire history around each lake site. Individual site histories differed in two metrics of past vegetation dynamics: the extent to which white pine (Pinus strobus) increased during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climate period and the volatility in the rate of change between samples at 50-120 yr intervals. Greater increases of white pine during the LIA occurred on sites with less sandy soils (R² = 0.45, P climate (R² = 0.55, P change between samples was positively associated with LIA fire frequency (R² = 0.41, P change and rate-of-change volatility were associated with higher fire frequency. Over longer (multi-centennial) time frames, forest composition change, especially increased white pine, shifted most in sites with more soil moisture. Our results show that responsiveness of forest composition to climate change was influenced by soils, local climate, and fire. The anticipated climatic changes in the next century will not produce the same community dynamics on the same soil types as in the past, but understanding past dynamics and relationships can help us assess how novel factors and combinations of factors in the future may influence various site types. Our results support climate change adaptation efforts to monitor and conserve the landscape's full range of geophysical features.

  6. CFD-based simulation of operational point influences on product changing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöke, L.; Wortberg, J.

    2014-05-01

    In the means of production, saving resources is becoming more and more a priority optimizing plastics extrusion processes. The analysis of color and material changes has become very interesting to prevent unnecessary material loss. This interest is justified especially due to increasing numbers of changing processes as a reaction of more individual product specifications and thus decreasing lot sizes in the last decades. It can be shown that commercial numerical tools are capable of plausible calculations of changing processes, enabling process observations and giving the possibility of predicting different influences. Due to the highly dynamical character of the flow behavior in the control volume, a transient approach is necessary to show the effects of different operational points on product changes. To determine the progress of the product change the volume of fluid model (VOF) as multiphase approach is used. The analysis of influences from operational points on the changing process is achieved by separate observations of two important input parameters. On one hand the effects of varied mass flow rates as inlet boundary conditions and on the other hand different mass temperatures are observed. To check the plausibility of the calculation method the results are discussed referring to exemplary experimental data in qualitative comparison. The experimental data is obtained using special laboratory equipment neglecting influences from the extruder and taking only the die as control volume into consideration.

  7. Climate changes influence free-living stages of soil-transmitted parasites of European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexander D; Poole, Adam; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2013-04-01

    Climate warming has been suggested to augment the risk of infectious disease outbreaks by extending the seasonal window for parasite growth and by increasing the rate of transmission. Understanding how this occurs in parasite-host systems is important for appreciating long-term and seasonal changes in host exposure to infection and to reduce species extinction caused by diseases. We investigated how free-living stages of two soil-transmitted helminths of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) responded to experimental changes in temperature by performing laboratory experiments with environmental chambers and field manipulations using open-top-chambers. This study was motivated by our previous observations that air temperature has increased over the last 30 years in our field site and that during this period intensity of infection of Graphidium strigosum but not Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was positively associated with this temperature increase. Laboratory and field experiments showed that both parasites accelerated egg development and increased hatching rate and larval survival in response to accumulating thermal energy. Both parasites behaved similarly when exposed to diverse temperature regimes, decadal trends, and monthly fluctuations, however, T. retortaeformis was more successful than G. strigosum by showing higher rates of egg hatching and larval survival. Across the months, the first day of hatching occurred earlier in warmer conditions suggesting that climate warming can lengthen the period of parasite growth and host exposure to infective stages. Also, T. retortaeformis hatched earlier than G. strigosum. These findings showed that seasonal changes in intensity, frequency, and duration of daily temperature are important causes of variability in egg hatching and larva survival. Overall, this study emphasizes the important role of climate warming and seasonality on the dynamics of free-living stages in soil-transmitted helminths and their

  8. Do weather changes influence pain levels in women with fibromyalgia, and can psychosocial variables moderate these influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, Geir; Eide, Hilde; Kristjansdottir, Ólöf Birna; Nes, Andrea Aparecida Gonçalves; Sexton, Harold; Fors, Egil A.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between fibromyalgia pain and weather, and to investigate whether psychosocial factors influence this relationship. Women with chronic widespread pain/fibromyalgia ( N = 50) enrolled in a larger study, were recruited from a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program in Norway ( 2009-2010), and reported their pain and psychological factors up to three times per day (morning, afternoon, evening) for 5 weeks. These ratings were then related to the official local weather parameters. Barometric pressure recorded simultaneously impacted pain significantly while temperature, relative humidity, and solar flux did not. No psychological variables influenced the weather-pain interaction. No weather parameter predicted change in the subsequent pain measures. The magnitude of the inverse association between pain and barometric pressure was very small, and none of the psychological variables studied influenced the association between pain and barometric pressure. All in all, the evidence for a strong weather-pain association in fibromyalgia seems limited at best.

  9. Changes in dynamics processes of the muscles’ traction under influence of stress-factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nozdrenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of fibers’ dynamic parameters of the frog Rana temporaria skeletal muscle m. tibialis traction under influence of modulated stimulation and aluminium chloride solutions was studied. At 10-4,5·10-4 and 10‑3 M·l-1 concentrations of aluminium chloride the nonlinear decrease of the muscle fibers’ traction parameters was observed.

  10. Innovation in South African Science Education (Part 2): Factors Influencing the Introduction of Instructional Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M. Allyson; Rogan, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are some of the factors that have influenced the introduction of instructional change into Black South African classrooms. The Science Education Project of the 1980s, teacher uncertainty, pupil expectations, the epistemology of science education, resources, and the image of innovation are discussed. (CW)

  11. Social and Linguistic Factors' Influences on Semantic Change in English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂宇明

    2009-01-01

    this paper aims to analyze the social and linguistic factors' influence on semantic change in Eng~a vocabulary. Mainly speaking, the social factors include social development, social context, social class, national feeling, racial feeling, gender different, and social value, and lin-guistic factors consist of generalization, specialization, amelioration. pejoration, metaphor and metonymy.

  12. Limitations on Change: Current Conditions Influencing Academic Intransigence in Educational Administration Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Connie Stokes; Pounder, Diana G.

    An analysis of academic intransigence (resistance to change) in educational administrative preparation programs is presented in this paper. Drawing upon two conceptual frameworks, the stakeholder perspective and Porter's (1980) five-force model of industry structure and competitive influence, two factors contributing to academic intransigence are…

  13. The Alliance in Couple Therapy: Partner Influence, Early Change, and Alliance Patterns in a Naturalistic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Morten G.; Owen, Jesse; Duncan, Barry L.; Sparks, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the alliance and outcome in couple therapy and examine whether the alliance predicted outcomes over and above early change. The authors also investigated partner influence and gender and sought to identify couple alliance patterns that predicted couple outcomes. Method:…

  14. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  15. Social and Economic Influences in Curriculum Change in Japan: Case History of Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yasuo

    1981-01-01

    Surveys social, economic and environmental characteristics of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s and describes their influence on curriculum changes in secondary science education. Discusses Japanese attitudes towards nature as a foundation for environmental education, the impact of western culture on this attitude, and the future of environmental…

  16. Situational Changes in Self-Awareness Influence 3- and 4-Year-Olds' Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Anderson, J. R.; Campbell, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, heightened self-awareness leads to adherence to socially valued norms, whereas lowered self-awareness is associated with antinormative behavior. Levels of self-awareness are influenced by environmental cues such as mirrors. Do situational changes in self-awareness also have an impact on preschoolers' self-regulation? Adherence to a…

  17. 儿童传染性单核细胞增多症T细胞亚群变化%The change of T-lymphocyte subgroup in children with infectious mononucleosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素红; 冯俊杰; 马爱钟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨传染性单核细胞增多症(infectious mononucleosis,IM)患儿T细胞亚群的变化.方法 选取2005年1月至2010年12月在我院住院确诊为Epstein-Barr( EB)病毒感染引起的IM患儿60例为IM组,同期来我院门诊健康体检患儿36例为对照组.所有患儿行血常规、血涂片、T细胞亚群、肝肾功能及病毒抗体、肝炎病毒抗体检测.T细胞亚群检测包括CD3、CD4、CD8、CD4/CD8.结果 与对照组比较,IM组患儿CD3( 81.55%±9.04%)、CD8 (58.13%±13.35%)比例较对照组(53.58%±5.97%)、(31.22%±8.72%)明显升高(P<0.05);CD4( 18.19%±7.61%)、CD4/CD8(0.37±0.33)比值较对照组(36.98%±5.32%、1.98±0.41)明显降低(P<0.05).IM组患儿白细胞计数、异型淋巴细胞比值及谷丙转氨酶与CD4/CD8的下降无相关性(P均>0.05).结论 EB病毒感染引起IM患儿免疫功能显著低下,可早期进行免疫干预治疗.%Objective To investigate the change of T-lymphocyte subgroup in children with infectious mononucleosis (IM).Methods Sixty young children with IM caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were recruited for this study in Jiaxing First Hospital from Jan 2005 to Dec 2010.Thirty-six normal children were chosen as control group.Both of the two groups were detected blood test,blood smear,T-lymphocyte subgroup ( including CD3,CD4,CD8,CD4/CD8 ),liver and kidney function test,IgM antibodies of EBV,cytomegalovirus,adenovirus,and hepatitis virus.Results Compared with the control group (53.58% ± 5.97%,31.22%±8.72% ),the ratio of CD3 (81.55% ±9.04% ) and CD8(58.13% ± 13.35% ) were significantly higher in IM group( P <0.05 ).And the ratio of CD4 ( 18.19% ± 7.61% ) and CD4/CD8 (0.37 ± 0.33) were significantly lower in IM group,compared with the control group (36.98% ± 5.32%,1.98 ± 0.41 )(P < 0.05 ).While the leukocyte count,the ratio of abnormal leukomonocyte,and alanine transaminase had no correlation with the decrease of CD4

  18. What Is New in Infectious Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Paul P

    2016-01-01

    The practice of infectious diseases is an ever-changing discipline. Diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis have been with mankind for millennia, whereas conditions such as AIDS and Zika virus are relatively new maladies. A working knowledge of clinical presentations associated with Zika virus infection, syphilis, and common parasitic infections will help the primary care provider determine whom to treat and whom to refer to a specialist. Increasing the use of vaccination for influenza and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection should reduce the burden of these common diseases. PMID:27621340

  19. Infectious Disease Specialist: What Is an Infectious Disease Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospitalized. An ID specialist may also recommend a vaccination regimen for you and your children. One of ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  20. The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, N J

    2012-04-01

    The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host-pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host-pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host-pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host-pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases.

  1. Geophysical features influence the climate change sensitivity of northern Wisconsin pine and oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweiten, Michael A; Calcote, Randy R; Lynch, Elizabeth A; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Schuurman, Gregor W

    2015-10-01

    Landscape-scale vulnerability assessment from multiple sources, including paleoecological site histories, can inform climate change adaptation. We used an array of lake sediment pollen and charcoal records to determine how soils and landscape factors influenced the variability of forest composition change over the past 2000 years. The forests in this study are located in northwestern Wisconsin on a sandy glacial outwash plain. Soils and local climate vary across the study area. We used the Natural Resource Conservation Service's Soil Survey Geographic soil database and published fire histories to characterize differences in soils and fire history around each lake site. Individual site histories differed in two metrics of past vegetation dynamics: the extent to which white pine (Pinus strobus) increased during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climate period and the volatility in the rate of change between samples at 50-120 yr intervals. Greater increases of white pine during the LIA occurred on sites with less sandy soils (R² = 0.45, P forest compositional change and rate-of-change volatility were associated with higher fire frequency. Over longer (multi-centennial) time frames, forest composition change, especially increased white pine, shifted most in sites with more soil moisture. Our results show that responsiveness of forest composition to climate change was influenced by soils, local climate, and fire. The anticipated climatic changes in the next century will not produce the same community dynamics on the same soil types as in the past, but understanding past dynamics and relationships can help us assess how novel factors and combinations of factors in the future may influence various site types. Our results support climate change adaptation efforts to monitor and conserve the landscape's full range of geophysical features. PMID:26591463

  2. Climate Changes and their Influence on the Design of Hydraulic Structures from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Trofin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the human being influenced environmentally the Earth, causing global environmental changes of such a size that have become global phenomena. These changes include the climate, ozone layer depletion, biogeochemical cycles, hydrological cycle, and water resources, raising the ocean levels or thermohaline circulation. The hydrological cycle and water resources changes have significant effects on the design of hydraulic structures, provided they are exploited in the presence or absence of major climatic factors, such as water, air, or soil.

  3. Changes in Climatic Factors Influencing the Growth Period of Corn in Fengjie County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhen; MAO; Xinli; MOU; Chen; MA; Jiang; HUANG; Lin; YUAN

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of global climate change,we analyze the change tendency of average temperature and amount of precipitation influencing the corn’s growth period. The results show that from March to August,the monthly temperatures show an upward trend,but the rise is different in different months,and the maximum temperature rise is in May. Precipitation in different months has different trends. Climate change brings about favorable conditions at high altitudes in Fengjie,reduces production due to the temperature drop after the beginning of autumn,and increases the pressure on the corn supply.

  4. Regime change thresholds in flute-like instruments: influence of the mouth pressure dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Soizic; Vergez, Christophe; Fabre, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Since they correspond to a jump from a given note to another one, the mouth pressure thresholds leading to regime changes are particularly important quantities in flute-like instruments. In this paper, a comparison of such thresholds between an artificial mouth, an experienced flutist and a non player is provided. It highlights the ability of the experienced player to considerabily shift regime change thresholds, and thus to enlarge its control in terms of nuances and spectrum. Based on recent works on other wind instruments and on the theory of dynamic bifurcations, the hypothe- sis is tested experimentally and numerically that the dynamics of the blowing pressure influences regime change thresholds. The results highlight the strong influence of this parameter on thresholds, suggesting its wide use by experienced musicians. Starting from these observations and from an analysis of a physical model of flute-like instruments, involving numerical continuation methods and Floquet stability analysis, a phenomenolo...

  5. Normal Modes of Prion Proteins: From Native to Infectious particle◊

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Abraham O.; Levitt, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Prion proteins (PrP) are the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (i.e. mad cow disease). To be infectious, prion proteins must undergo a conformational change involving a decrease of α-helical content along with an increase of β-strand structure. This conformational change was evaluated by means of elastic normal modes. Elastic normal modes show a diminution of two α-helices by one and two residues, as well as an extension of two β-strands by three residues each whic...

  6. Facts about Infectious Diseases (ID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and influenza. Travelers to foreign countries may require vaccinations against yellow fever, cholera, typhoid fever or hepatitis ... 1300 Wilson Boulevard Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22209 | Phone: (703) 299-0200 | Fax: (703) 299-0204 For ... | HIVMA | Contact Us © Copyright IDSA 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America Full Site Mobile Site

  7. Global Spread of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S.; Zee, A.

    2003-01-01

    We develop simple models for the global spread of infectious diseases, emphasizing human mobility via air travel and the variation of public health infrastructure from region to region. We derive formulas relating the total and peak number of infections in two countries to the rate of travel between them and their respective epidemiological parameters.

  8. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  9. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure

  10. [Nutrient composition changes in coastal waters of Tangshan Bay, Hebei, China under anthropogenic influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-wei; Cui, Li-tuo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), data from 25 marine monitoring stations in Tangshan Bay from 1995 to 2012 were collected to study the change of nutrient composition in Tangshan Bay under anthropogenic influence. Results showed that the inorganic nitrogen (DIN) presented an obvious increase trend in the near 20 years, while the PO₄³⁻-P and SiO₃²⁻-Si presented a decrease trend. The average N:P ratio increased from 3.0 in 1995 to 26.0 in 2012, but the average Si:N ratio decreased, indicating the nutrient structure in seawater had substantially changed in the near 20 years. According to the results of PCA, the change of water quality was identified. The analysis extracted the first two principal components (PC). PC1 was associated with DIN, NO₃⁻-N, NH₄⁺-N, PO₄³⁻-P and NO₂⁻-N, which explained 71.5% of the variance. PC2 was characterized by Chl a and SiO₃²⁻-Si, which explained 21.8% of the variance. It indicated that the water quality of Tangshan bay was closely related to DIN and PO₄³⁻-P. The two principal component scores revealed the interannual change trend of water quality in the Tangshan Bay under anthropogenic influence, which changed from the N limitation before development and at early stage of development (1995-2005) to the P limitation after development (since 2007). The nutrient composition in Tangshan Bay had changed significantly under anthropogenic influence, therefore, special attention is needed on the the change of nutrients in seawater of Tangshan Bay, especially the increase of inorganic nitrogen content. PMID:27228623

  11. The effects of radioactive pollution on the dynamics of infectious diseases in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between infectious diseases and chemical pollution are well known and recognised as important factors in regulating the way wild animals respond to contaminant exposure. However, the impact of ionising radiation and radionuclides has often been overlooked when assessing host–pathogen interactions in polluted habitats, despite often occurring together with chemical contamination. Nevertheless, a comprehensive body of literature exists from laboratory and field studies on host–pathogen relationships under radiation exposure, and with a renewed interest in radioecology developing; an evaluation of infectious disease dynamics under these conditions would be timely. The present study assesses the impact of external ionising radiation and radionuclides on animal hosts and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoans, helminths, arthropods) in laboratory studies and collates the data from field studies, including the large number of investigations undertaken after the Chernobyl accident. It is apparent that radiation exposure has substantial effects on host–pathogen relationships. Although damage to the host immune system is a major factor other variables, such as damage to host tissue barriers and inhibition of pathogen viability are also important in affecting the prevalence and intensity of parasitic diseases. Field studies indicate that the occurrence of host–pathogen associations in radioactively contaminated sites is complex with a variety of biotic and abiotic factors influencing both pathogen and host(s), resulting in changes to the dynamics of infectious diseases. - Highlights: ► Infectious diseases are important regulating factors in the way wildlife respond to contaminants. ► An assessment of the effects of radioactive exposure to host–pathogen relationships in animals is given. ► Radioactive exposure has a profound effect on host–pathogen interactions. ► Both hosts and pathogens may be either negatively or positively affected

  12. [INFLAMMATION AND CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, T A; Tazina, S Ya; Kaktursky, L V; Kanareitseva, T D; Stefanenko, N I; Burtsev, V I; Semenenko, N A

    2016-01-01

    The study included 62 patients with uncomplicated primary and secondary infectious endocarditis admitted to S.PBotkin city hospital from 2011 to 2014. The emphasis is laid on diagnostic significance of dynamic measurements of the levels of C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor and highly sensitive troponin-1 for the evaluation of activity of the infectious/toxic process, severity of the disease, and detection of complications. The study revealed the relationship of the enhanced level of troponin-1 with changes of inflammation markers, morphofunctional characteristics of myocardium, and circulatory failure. Morphologicl study demonstrated inflammatory and dystrophic changes in myocardium, focal and diffuse cardiofibrosis suggesting development of non-coronarogenic myocardial lesions that play an important role in the progress of cardiac failure associated with infectious endocarditis.

  13. Distribution of pathogen and change of hepatase in childhood-onset infectious mononucleosis%传染性单核细胞增多症患儿病原体的分布及肝酶的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶洪群; 温怀凯; 谢奇朋

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察传染性单核细胞增多症(IM)患儿病原体分布情况及肝酶的变化.方法:分析170例初诊IM患儿EB病毒和TORCH中IgM抗体阳性分布情况及血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)的水平.结果:170例IM患儿,9例未检出病原体IgM抗体,30例检出1种病原体IgM抗体,131例检出2种或2种以上病原体IgM抗体.IM患儿血清ALT、AST升高,B、C、D、E组明显高于A组(P<0.05),B、C、D和E组之问无明显差异(P>0.05).结论:IM可由多种病原体感染引起,以混合感染为主,尤其是EB病毒与巨细胞病毒、单纯疱疹病毒的混合感染.病原体IgM抗体阳性的IM患儿血清肝酶明显高于病原体IgM抗体阴性者,但与病原体IgM抗体阳性种类的多少无关.%Objective: To observe the distribution of pathogen and change of hepatase in childhood -onset infectious mononucleosis ( IM). Methods: Distribution of IgM antibodies, levels of ALT and AST in EB virus and TORCH of 170 IM patients were analyzed. Results: In all of the 170 patients, 9 of them were not found IgM antibody, 30 of them had one kind of IgM antibodies, 131 patients had two or more kinds of IgM antibodies. The levels of ALT and AST were significantly higher in IM patients. In group B, C, D and E, the levels of ALT and AST were significantly higher than those in group A. But there was no significant difference between group B, C, D and group E. Conclusion:IM can be caused by many pathogens, especially mixed infection of EB virus and cytomegalovirus ( CMV) or herpes simple virus( HSV) . Level of hepatase in IM patients with IgM antibody positive was higher than that in those negative cases, which had no correlation to the types of IgM antibodies.

  14. The Influence of Water Level Change in Slope Stability of Earth Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zheng-hua; Han Bo; Liao Hong-jian; Gao Xiao-yu

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of seepage flow and slope stability to earth dam in water level change is performed. FEM is used to analyzing the influence of percolation and the results including the pore water head of any point, seepage discharge and so on are obtained. The method of slices is introduced to calculating the slope stability of the earth dam. Through an example it is separately discussed the influence of seepage flow when water level is changed in earth dam slope and the effects of percolation in the stability of the earth dam slope. Some helpful conclusions are gained.This can be making the best of the tow methods and the results can be used in engineering for reference.

  15. [Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Vliet, J A; Reusken, C B E M

    2008-04-12

    Climate change is associated with changes in the occurrence of arthropod-borne diseases. It is difficult to foresee which arthropod-borne diseases will appear in the Netherlands due to climate change. Climate change influences the prevalence of ticks and may lead to a further increase in Lyme disease and an increased risk of the introduction of rickettsioses. With further warming of the climate there is a real possibility of settlement of the mosquito Aedes albopictus and introduction of the sandfly in the Netherlands. Whether this will lead to circulation of micro-organisms transmitted by these vectors (e.g. West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Leishmania) is not clear. Continued vigilance is necessary, even for vector-borne diseases that appear to be less relevant for the Netherlands.

  16. The influence of drawing speed on structure changes in high carbon steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suliga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of the drawing speed on structure changes has been assessed. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigation confirmed that for wires drawn with high total draft, exceeding 80 %, makes it impossible to clearly assess the impact of drawing technology on structural changes in the drawn wires. Thus, to assess the structural changes necessary to apply quantitative methods. On the basis of examination of the wire structure by measuring of electrical resistance, the structure changes in drawn wires has been determined. It has been shown that the increase of drawing speed, especially above 15 m/s, causes an increase in structure defect, with a decline in platelet orientation of cementite in drawn wires.

  17. The influence of land use change on karst water quality of Shuicheng Basin in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAYanan; YUANDaoxian

    2004-01-01

    The influence of land use and land cover on ecological environment is a focus of global change research. The paper chooses an industrial city-Shuicheng in Guizhou Province-as a study area because the karst water quality around the city is deteriorating with land use and land cover change.The natural susceptibility of karst water system is an important factor leading to karst water pollution.But land use and land cover change is also a main factor according to the chemical analysis of karst water quality and land use change. So it is a good way to protect karst water through rational planning and managing of land use and land cover.

  18. Influence of temperature changes on torsional rigidity and damping coefficient of rubber torsional vibration damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech HOMIK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The short explanation of usefulness of rubber torsional dampers in crankshaft in multi-cylinder engines is presented. The description of the construction and operation of rubber torsional damper is also included. In the rubber torsional damper, the damping is achieved as the effect of internal friction resulting from the deformation of the rubber material. This deformation appears while the internal rubber elasticity is overloaded. Both the physical and mechanical rubber properties depend on temperature change. In cooperation with rubber dampers manufacturer the experimental investigations are made in order to establish the influence of temperature change on torsional stiffness and damping.

  19. Changes in social relations in old age. Are they influenced by functional ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald;

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this article were to describe changes in social relations from ages 75 to 80, and analyze whether changes in social relations are influenced by functional ability at age 75. The study includes data from the NORA follow-up study of 75-80 year-old men and women in Jyväskylä (Finland......, close friends, acquaintances, and neighbors; 2) diversity of social relations (number of types of social contacts); 3) telephone contacts; and 4) social participation. The function of social relations was measured by instrumental social support. Functional ability was measured by tiredness and need for...

  20. Sensitivity of worst-case strom surge considering influence of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Izuru; Hibino, Kenshi; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Shiogama, Hideo; Mori, Nobuhito; Shibutani, Yoko; Takemi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    There are two standpoints when assessing risk caused by climate change. One is how to prevent disaster. For this purpose, we get probabilistic information of meteorological elements, from enough number of ensemble simulations. Another one is to consider disaster mitigation. For this purpose, we have to use very high resolution sophisticated model to represent a worst case event in detail. If we could use enough computer resources to drive many ensemble runs with very high resolution model, we can handle these all themes in one time. However resources are unfortunately limited in most cases, and we have to select the resolution or the number of simulations if we design the experiment. Applying PGWD (Pseudo Global Warming Downscaling) method is one solution to analyze a worst case event in detail. Here we introduce an example to find climate change influence on the worst case storm-surge, by applying PGWD to a super typhoon Haiyan (Takayabu et al, 2015). 1 km grid WRF model could represent both the intensity and structure of a super typhoon. By adopting PGWD method, we can only estimate the influence of climate change on the development process of the Typhoon. Instead, the changes in genesis could not be estimated. Finally, we drove SU-WAT model (which includes shallow water equation model) to get the signal of storm surge height. The result indicates that the height of the storm surge increased up to 20% owing to these 150 years climate change.

  1. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, O. D.; Bindoff, N. L.; Halloran, P. R.; Ilyina, T.; Le Quéré, C.

    2013-03-01

    Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2]) changes between ∼1970 and ∼1992 using simulations from two Earth System Models (MPI-ESM-LR and HadGEM2-ES). We detect a response to external forcing at a 90% confidence level and find that observed [O2] changes are inconsistent with internal variability as simulated by models. This result is robust in the global ocean for depth-averaged (1-D) zonal mean patterns of [O2] change in both models. Further analysis with the MPI-ESM-LR model shows similar positive detection results for depth-resolved (2-D) zonal mean [O2] changes globally and for the Pacific Ocean individually. Observed oxygen changes in the Atlantic Ocean are indistinguishable from natural internal variability. Simulations from both models consistently underestimate the amplitude of historical [O2] changes in response to external forcing, suggesting that model projections for future ocean deoxygenation may also be underestimated.

  2. Detecting an external influence on recent changes in oceanic oxygen using an optimal fingerprinting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Andrews

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean deoxygenation has been observed in all major ocean basins over the past 50 yr. Although this signal is largely consistent with oxygen changes expected from anthropogenic climate change, the contribution of external forcing to recent deoxygenation trends relative to natural internal variability is yet to be established. Here we conduct a formal optimal fingerprinting analysis to investigate if external forcing has had a detectable influence on observed dissolved oxygen concentration ([O2] changes between ~ 1970 and ~ 1992 using simulations from two Earth System Models (MPI-ESM-LR and HadGEM2-ES. We detect a response to external forcing at a 90% confidence level and find that observed [O2] changes are inconsistent with internal variability as simulated by models. This result is robust in the global ocean for depth-averaged (1-D zonal mean patterns of [O2] change in both models. Further analysis with the MPI-ESM-LR model shows similar positive detection results for depth-resolved (2-D zonal mean [O2] changes globally and for the Pacific Ocean individually. Observed oxygen changes in the Atlantic Ocean are indistinguishable from natural internal variability. Simulations from both models consistently underestimate the amplitude of historical [O2] changes in response to external forcing, suggesting that model projections for future ocean deoxygenation may also be underestimated.

  3. Climate Change and Watershed Hydrology—Heavier Precipitation Influence on Stormwater Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blair

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff in the USA is a main driver of non-point source pollution and other major problems for urbanizing areas, and runoff effects will be exacerbated by the increased frequency and intensity of heavier storm events that are projected as climate changes. The purpose of this paper is to consider how increased rainfall from storms could influence direct stormwater runoff in urbanizing watersheds. As part of a recent research project in coastal Beaufort County, South Carolina, USA, we applied the Stormwater Runoff Modeling System (SWARM to model various combinations of development levels and climate change scenarios. SWARM single-event output showed dramatic increases in runoff volume and rate, in some cases almost doubling under moderate climate change scenario and tripling under severe climate change scenario. In all cases, modeled impacts from climate change exceeded those of development. By quantifying stormwater runoff based on climate change scenarios within the context of development, the findings add to the recognition that they must be considered together when projecting changes in watershed hydrology and that climate change effects potentially exceed those of development.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF HELICOPTER DESCENT VELOCITY CHANGES ON THE PHENOMENON OF VORTEX RING STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Grzegorczyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a numerical aerodynamic analysis whose purpose was to determine the influence of the rate of descent on the vortex ring state (VRS. This phenomenon occurs for an appropriate combination of induced velocity and the velocity of the incoming airstream from the bottom. The rates of change of velocities delimit dangerous areas of flight. The simulations were performed using FLUENT software and the geometry of helicopter W-3 „Sokół”.

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF HELICOPTER DESCENT VELOCITY CHANGES ON THE PHENOMENON OF VORTEX RING STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Grzegorczyk

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a numerical aerodynamic analysis whose purpose was to determine the influence of the rate of descent on the vortex ring state (VRS). This phenomenon occurs for an appropriate combination of induced velocity and the velocity of the incoming airstream from the bottom. The rates of change of velocities delimit dangerous areas of flight. The simulations were performed using FLUENT software and the geometry of helicopter W-3 „Sokół”.

  6. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Skye; Miller, Melinda M.; Filipski, Sarah B.; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental variables and husbandry practices can influence physiology and alter behavior in mice. Our study evaluated the effects of cage change on serum corticosterone levels and anxiety-like behaviors in C57BL/6 male mice. We examined the effects of 3 different methods of performing cage transfer and of transferring mice to a clean or a dirty familiar cage microenvironment. The 3 different handling methods were forceps transfer, gentle transfer with gloved hands, and a passive transfer t...

  7. Abiotic vs. biotic influences on habitat selection of coexisting species: Climate change impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.

    2001-01-01

    Species are commonly segregated along gradients of microclimate and vegetation. I explore the question of whether segregation is the result of microhabitat partitioning (biotic effects) or choice of differing microclimates (abiotic effects). I explored this question for four ground-nesting bird species that are segregated along a microclimate and vegetation gradient in Arizona. Birds shifted position of their nests on the microhabitat and microclimate gradient in response to changing precipitation over nine years. Similarly, annual bird abundance varied with precipitation across 12 yr. Those shifts in abundance and nesting microhabitat with changing precipitation demonstrate the importance of abiotic influences on bird distributions and habitat choice. However, nest-site shifts and microhabitat use also appear to be influenced by interactions among coexisting species. Moreover, shifts in habitat use by all species caused nest predation (i.e., biotic) costs that increased with increasing distance along the microclimate gradient. These results indicate that abiotic and biotic costs can strongly interact to influence microhabitat choice and abundances of coexisting species. Global climate change impacts have been considered largely in terms of simple distributional shifts, but these results indicate that shifts can also increase biotic costs when species move into habitat types for which they are poorly adapted or that create new biotic interactions.

  8. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities.

  9. Impulsive sounds change European seabass swimming patterns: Influence of pulse repetition interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We exposed impulsive sounds of different repetition intervals to European seabass. • Immediate behavioural changes mirrored previous indoor & outdoor studies. • Repetition intervals influenced the impacts differentially but not the recovery. • Sound temporal patterns may be more important than some standard metrics. - Abstract: Seismic shootings and offshore pile-driving are regularly performed, emitting significant amounts of noise that may negatively affect fish behaviour. The pulse repetition interval (PRI) of these impulsive sounds may vary considerably and influence the behavioural impact and recovery. Here, we tested the effect of four PRIs (0.5–4.0 s) on European seabass swimming patterns in an outdoor basin. At the onset of the sound exposures, the fish swam faster and dived deeper in tighter shoals. PRI affected the immediate and delayed behavioural changes but not the recovery time. Our study highlights that (1) the behavioural changes of captive European seabass were consistent with previous indoor and outdoor studies; (2) PRI could influence behavioural impact differentially, which may have management implications; (3) some acoustic metrics, e.g. SELcum, may have limited predictive power to assess the strength of behavioural impacts of noise. Noise impact assessments need to consider the contribution of sound temporal structure

  10. 血清载脂蛋白E在儿童感染性疾病中的变化%The changes of serum apolipoprotein E in pediatric infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付盼; 王传清; 王爱敏; 谢文华; 冯志敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血清载脂蛋白E(ApoE)在儿童感染性疾病中的变化.方法 279例感染性疾病患儿中,脓毒症65例,化脓性脑膜炎47例,细菌性肺炎67例,无菌性脑膜炎47例,支原体肺炎53例.采用透射免疫比浊法(IA)检测感染性疾病患儿的血清ApoE水平.构建B组鼠伤寒沙门菌诱导的脓毒症小鼠模型,采用IA检测小鼠血清ApoE水平,实时荧光定量PCR和Western印迹法检测小鼠肝脏ApoE mRNA和蛋白的表达.两组间均数比较采用独立样本t检验.结果 血清ApoE在细菌性感染性疾病患儿中明显升高,在脓毒症患儿中高达(59.8±23.5) mg/L(t=-5.118,P<0.01),在无菌性脑膜炎和支原体肺炎患儿中无明显变化.脓毒症小鼠模型血清ApoE水平明显升高,但肝脏ApoE mRNA和蛋白的表达下降,mRNA的相对值在造模后3h下降了71%(t=5.022,P<0.01),在造模后24 h下降了73%(t=4.181,P<0.01).结论 血清ApoE水平在细菌性感染性疾病中显著升高,而肝脏中ApoE表达下降,说明ApoE血清升高机制与肝脏表达不相关.%Objective To investigate the changes of serum apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in children with infectious diseases.Methods A total of 279 pediatric patients with infectious diseases were enrolled in this study,including 65 patients with sepsis,47 patients with bacterial meningitis,67 patients with bacterial pneumonia, 47 patients with aseptic meningitis and 53 patients with mycoplasma pneumonia. The serum ApoE collected from all patients was detected by immunoturbidimetric assay (IA).The septic mouse model was established by intraperitoneal injection of group B Salmonella typhimurium.Mouse serum ApoE levels were detected by IA,and the hepatic ApoE mRNA and protein expressions of mice were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot,respectively.Data in two groups were compared by independent-sample t test.Results Serum ApoE levels in patients with bacterial

  11. Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brooks-Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.

  12. [Infectious agents and autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, C; Madrid-Marina, V; Camarena-Medellín, B E; Peralta-Zaragoza, O; Barrera, R

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the molecular aspects of the relationships between infectious agents and autoimmune diseases, the mechanisms of immune response to infectious agents, and the more recent hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases are discussed. The antigens are processed and selected by their immunogenicity, and presented by HLA molecules to the T cell receptor. These events initiate the immune response with the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Although there are several hypotheses regarding the cause of autoimmune diseases and too many findings against and in favor of them, there is still no conclusive data. All these hypothesis and findings are discussed in the context of the more recent advances. PMID:1615352

  13. Infectious pathogens and bronchiolitis outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma.

  14. Do climate changes influence dispersal and population dynamics of dragonflies in the western Peruvian Andes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Hoffmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For nine dragonfly species (five aeshnids and four libellulids all previous and verifiable data are related to the vertical climate zones and nature regions of the western Peruvian Andes and the Peruvian Pacific coast. Climate changes due to the El Niño and La Niña phenomena, as well as the global climate change have an influence on the different natural regions and also restrict aquatic biotopes. These changes influence the dispersal and behavior of some dragonflies and concern also loss of habitats as well as alterations of biotic and abiotic factors at and in water. However new waters and habitats also are formed in most nature regions. Specialists like Rhionaeschna peralta, a species of high mountain regions and the Puna, are not able to react to habitat losses by adaptation, while other species such as R. maita and R. marchali do colonize new habitats also in higher altitudes. While the here represented aeshnids change their distribution ranges within the vertical nature regions of the west Andes, this is suspected for three of the four libellulids (Orthemis ferruginea, O. discolor and Pantala flavescens as latitudinally respectively longitudinally immigrations and expansions of their areals. For all species discussed, a seasonally earlier flight beginning is detectable, but for no species an extension of their flight time. Altogether, the above named three libellulid do react more flexibly and faster to the alterations by climate changes than the majority of the five aeshnid species. The influence of increased UV-B and UV-A radiation possibly affects also the site occurrence of some species in high altitudes of the Andes.

  15. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, Amber M.; Kevlahan, Nicholas K.-R.; Earn, David J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that...

  16. Influence of attention on bimodal integration during emotional change decoding: ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuhai; Han, Lingzi; Pan, Zhihui; Luo, Yangmei; Wang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Recent findings on audiovisual emotional interactions suggest that selective attention affects cross-sensory interaction from an early processing stage. However, the influence of attention manipulation on facial-vocal integration during emotional change perception is still elusive at this point. To address this issue, we asked participants to detect emotional changes conveyed by prosodies (vocal task) or facial expressions (facial task) while facial, vocal, and facial-vocal expressions were presented. At the same time, behavioral responses and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that bimodal emotional changes were detected with shorter response latencies compared to each unimodal condition, suggesting that bimodal emotional cues facilitated emotional change detection. Moreover, while the P3 amplitudes were larger for the bimodal change condition than for the sum of the two unimodal conditions regardless of attention direction, the N1 amplitudes were larger for the bimodal emotional change condition than for the sum of the two unimodal conditions under the attend-voice condition, but not under the attend-face condition. These findings suggest that selective attention modulates facial-vocal integration during emotional change perception in early sensory processing, but not in late cognitive processing stages. PMID:27238075

  17. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  18. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  19. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-05-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and underlying systemic associations. The long-term prognosis visually and systemically must be weighed against the risks and benefits of the treatment regimen. A large variety of corticosteroid formulations currently exist and are the mainstay of initial treatment. Traditional steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents are also an important arsenal against these vasculitides. Recently, a new class of drugs called biologics, which target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic treatment. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on non-infectious orbital vasculitides. PMID:22361845

  20. 78 FR 65343 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special...

  1. 76 FR 10384 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council,...

  2. SPATIAL DYNAMICS OF LAND COVER AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate changes may allow for vector-transmitted tropical diseases to spread into temperate areas. Areas of low ecological diversity are at higher risk of infectious disease transmission due to decreased zooprophylaxis, the diversion of disease carrying insects from humans to...

  3. Interannual variability of tropospheric composition: the influence of changes in emissions, meteorology and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voulgarakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We have run a chemistry transport model (CTM to systematically examine the drivers of interannual variability of tropospheric composition. On a global scale, changing meteorology (winds, temperatures, humidity and clouds is found to be the most important factor driving interannual variability of NO2 and ozone on the timescales considered. The strong influence of emissions is largely confined to areas where intense biomass burning events occur. For CO, interannual variability is almost solely driven by emission changes, while for OH meteorology dominates, with the radiative influence of clouds being a very strong contributor. Through a simple attribution analysis we conclude that changing cloudiness drives 25% of the interannual variability of OH over Europe by affecting shortwave radiation. Over Indonesia this figure is as high as 71%. Changes in cloudiness contribute a small but non-negligible amount (up to 6% to the interannual variability of ozone over Europe and Indonesia. This suggests that future assessments of trends in tropospheric oxidizing capacity should account for interannual variability in cloudiness, a factor neglected in many previous studies. The approach followed in the current study can help explain observed tropospheric variability, such as the increases in ozone concentrations over Europe in 1998.

  4. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  5. Escaping the poverty trap: modeling the interplay between economic growth and the ecology of infectious disease

    CERN Document Server

    Goerg, Georg M; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Althouse, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of economies and infectious disease are inexorably linked: economic well-being influences health (sanitation, nutrition, treatment capacity, etc.) and health influences economic well-being (labor productivity lost to sickness and disease). Often societies are locked into ``poverty traps'' of poor health and poor economy. Here, using a simplified coupled disease-economic model with endogenous capital growth we demonstrate the formation of poverty traps, as well as ways to escape them. We suggest two possible mechanisms of escape both motivated by empirical data: one, through an influx of capital (development aid), and another through changing the percentage of GDP spent on healthcare. We find that a large influx of capital is successful in escaping the poverty trap, but increasing health spending alone is not. Our results demonstrate that escape from a poverty trap may be possible, and carry important policy implications in the world-wide distribution of aid and within-country healthcare spending.

  6. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles.

    Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  7. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  8. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is one of the main mechanisms of sexual selection, with profound implications for individual fitness. Changes in environmental conditions can cause individuals to alter their mate search behaviour, with consequences for mate choice. Human-induced eutrophication of water bodies...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....... is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...

  9. INFLUENCE OF STEAM PRESSURE ON CHEMICAL CHANGES OF HEAT-TREATED MONGOLIAN PINE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of heat-treated wood have been studied extensively in recent years. However, study on wood that has been treated in pressurized steam is limited, as most wood heat treatments are carried out in atmospheric steam. The main purpose of this study was to explore the influence of steam pressure on chemical changes of heat-treated wood. Wet chemical analysis, elemental analysis, and FTIR analysis were performed to investigate the changes of cell wall components of Mongolian pine wood. Samples treated in pressurized steam had lower percentages of polysaccharides and higher percentages of lignin compared to those treated in atmospheric steam, indicating greater chemical changes during the treatment. It was also found that thermal degradation of both samples was modest at the treatment temperature of 205 °C. These results help to explain the better dimensional stability and limited strength deterioration of wood treated in pressurized steam.

  10. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  11. Normal modes of prion proteins: from native to infectious particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Abraham O; Levitt, Michael

    2011-03-29

    Prion proteins (PrP) are the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (i.e., mad cow disease). To be infectious, prion proteins must undergo a conformational change involving a decrease in α-helical content along with an increase in β-strand content. This conformational change was evaluated by means of elastic normal modes. Elastic normal modes show a diminution of two α-helices by one and two residues, as well as an extension of two β-strands by three residues each, which could instigate the conformational change. The conformational change occurs in a region that is compatible with immunological studies, and it is observed more frequently in mutant prions that are prone to conversion than in wild-type prions because of differences in their starting structures, which are amplified through normal modes. These findings are valuable for our comprehension of the conversion mechanism associated with the conformational change in prion proteins. PMID:21338080

  12. Human Impacts and Climate Change Influence Nestedness and Modularity in Food-Web and Mutualistic Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Takemoto

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity-non-random structural patterns of ecological networks-influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate. In pollination networks, for instance, nestedness increased and modularity decreased in response to increased human impacts. Modularity in seed-dispersal networks decreased with temperature change (i.e., warming, whereas food web nestedness increased and modularity declined in response to global warming. Although our findings are preliminary owing to data-analysis limitations, they enhance our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecological communities.

  13. Human Impacts and Climate Change Influence Nestedness and Modularity in Food-Web and Mutualistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kajihara, Kosuke

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical studies have indicated that nestedness and modularity—non-random structural patterns of ecological networks—influence the stability of ecosystems against perturbations; as such, climate change and human activity, as well as other sources of environmental perturbations, affect the nestedness and modularity of ecological networks. However, the effects of climate change and human activities on ecological networks are poorly understood. Here, we used a spatial analysis approach to examine the effects of climate change and human activities on the structural patterns of food webs and mutualistic networks, and found that ecological network structure is globally affected by climate change and human impacts, in addition to current climate. In pollination networks, for instance, nestedness increased and modularity decreased in response to increased human impacts. Modularity in seed-dispersal networks decreased with temperature change (i.e., warming), whereas food web nestedness increased and modularity declined in response to global warming. Although our findings are preliminary owing to data-analysis limitations, they enhance our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecological communities. PMID:27322185

  14. Thermal physical properties and key influence factors of phase change emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; YANG Rui; ZHANG Yinping; HUANG Zhe; LIN Jia; WANG Xin

    2005-01-01

    Latent functionally thermal fluids (LFTF) are a novel kind of heat storage and heat transfer fluids that include phase change microcapsule slurry and phase change emulsion (PCE). They have much greater apparent specific heats and higher heat transfer abilities in the phase change temperature range than conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids such as water. Thus they are advantageous in the field of the convective heat transfer enhancement and energy transport. In this paper, some thermal physical properties such as viscosity, fusion heat and apparent specific heat (cp) are measured, and the influences of some factors (such as selection of surfactants, preparation method, temperature, mixing ratio of surfactants and mass concentration of phase change material) on them are discussed. The study shows that: 1) the viscosity of the PCE prepared in the present work is lower than that reported in the literature; 2) its apparent specific heat value for the phase change temperature region is high and proportionally increases with the concentration of phase change material.

  15. Changes of Urban Boundary Layer Thermodynamic Stability Induced by Heat Island Effect and Their Influences on Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the characteristics of the changes of the urban boundary layer thermodynamic stability induced by heat island effect and their influences on precipitation.[Method] Proceeding from the thermodynamic equation,the changes of urban boundary layer thermodynamic stability caused by the urban heat disturbance and the mean state of heat island effect were discussed.The influence of the changes of urban boundary layer thermodynamic stability on the precipitation was expounded.Combini...

  16. Influence of climate variability versus change at multi-decadal time scales on hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that rainfall and hydrological extremes do not randomly occur in time, but are subject to multidecadal oscillations. In addition to these oscillations, there are temporal trends due to climate change. Design statistics, such as intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) for extreme rainfall or flow-duration-frequency (QDF) relationships, are affected by both types of temporal changes (short term and long term). This presentation discusses these changes, how they influence water engineering design and decision making, and how this influence can be assessed and taken into account in practice. The multidecadal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological extremes were studied based on a technique for the identification and analysis of changes in extreme quantiles. The statistical significance of the oscillations was evaluated by means of a non-parametric bootstrapping method. Oscillations in large scale atmospheric circulation were identified as the main drivers for the temporal oscillations in rainfall and hydrological extremes. They also explain why spatial phase shifts (e.g. north-south variations in Europe) exist between the oscillation highs and lows. Next to the multidecadal climate oscillations, several stations show trends during the most recent decades, which may be attributed to climate change as a result of anthropogenic global warming. Such attribution to anthropogenic global warming is, however, uncertain. It can be done based on simulation results with climate models, but it is shown that the climate model results are too uncertain to enable a clear attribution. Water engineering design statistics, such as extreme rainfall IDF or peak or low flow QDF statistics, obviously are influenced by these temporal variations (oscillations, trends). It is shown in the paper, based on the Brussels 10-minutes rainfall data, that rainfall design values may be about 20% biased or different when based on short rainfall series of 10 to 15 years length, and

  17. Some proves of integrated influence of geomagnetic activity and weather changes on human health

    CERN Document Server

    Khabarova, O V

    2008-01-01

    Our environment includes many factors, and each person on the Earth is permanently influenced by two of them: weather and magnetic field. It was found in the works of many investigators that the weather changes correlate with human health state. In the same time, disturbances of geomagnetic field (as one of the space weather manifestations) may influence bioobjects, including people. In this work we demonstrate the cumulative effect of different external factors (space weather and meteorological weather parameters) on human health on the base of medical experimental data (blood pressure and heart rate data rows for 86 people). It is shown that inclusion both solar-geomagnetic and weather parameters in simulation process give adjusting mixed parameter, which correlates with health state significantly better, than separated environmental parameters do.

  18. Influence of material composition on thermal expansion of graphitic materials and changes under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the binder coke content and graphitization temperature on thermal expansion of graphite were investigated. Property correlations such as of anisotropy with real density or coefficient of volume thermal expansion have been found. An important part of this paper deals with the irradiation induced changes of thermal expansion. Interpretations of the irradiation behaviour base on the influence of material composition and heat treatment procedure. Measurements of lattice spacings were performed using high temperature X-ray diffractometer equipment in order to calculate the lattice expansion in c-direction for an estimation of its contribution to the expansion of the bulk material. Corresponding measurements were also performed on neutron irradiated graphite specimens. (orig./GSC)

  19. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LVR/LVW), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LVR/(LVW + SV0)], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LVR/LVW (r = 0.759, p R/LVW influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  20. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Volume Change of Blended Cement Containing Steel Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the condition of 20 ℃, 5% sulfate liquor curing, standard tap water curing and 50% RH curing-three different curing environments, the volume change of steel slag blended cement influenced by environmental factors was studied. With steel slag addition 10%, 30%, 50%, from 90 days to 356 days, the relationship of shrinkage and three different curing environments is: dry curing environment>tap water curing environment>sulfate curing environment. But, the sample shrinkage in 28 days has much difference with the curing environment, which has no obvious orderliness. The different effects on blended cement containing steel slag in different environmental factors were analyzed using SEM.

  1. Morphofunctional changes and mechanisms of their realization in developing lungs under influence of paracetamol and nimesulid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko S.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of organs and tissues normality development studying is conditioned on continuous growth of conge-nital abnormalies оn the base of greater drugs distribution. The anomalie s of lungs development unde r influence of paraceta-mol and nimesulide are examined and the possible mechanisms of their appearance are analysed. It is determined that lungs develop more slowly under action of paracetamol than in norm and paracetamol lead to development of bronchial asthma during postnatal period of life. Small in numbers researches of nimesulide influen ce demonstrate changes of lungs histogene-sis, which show up in thei r development deceleration.

  2. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b......) AOT40C (high AOT40C values can cause damages on plants and, first and foremost, crops), (c) AOT40F (high AOT40F values can cause damages on forest trees), (d) number of "bad days" (large numbers of "bad days" can cause damage to people suffering from asthmatic diseases). Critical levels...

  3. Wte Power Plant Operation on the Energy Market Under the Influence of Legislation Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomić, T.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, A.;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of combined heat and power waste-to-energy plant is investigated in theconditions of implementation of the new legal framework for waste disposal and management aswell as new power market conditions. As waste management is a core issue of sustainabledevelopment...... solid waste as fuel changes, which has a great influence on theoperation of waste-to-energy based systems. While there is a lot of fuel in the first years of operation,the feasibility of facilities may come in jeopardy with further development of waste managementsystem. This paper investigates gradual...

  4. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  5. [Update in Infectious Diseases 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Francisco Javier; López González, Laura; García-García, Ana Belén; Chiarella, Flavia; Picazo, Juan José

    2015-09-01

    Infectious disease remains current worldwide. During the second half of 2014 an outbreak of ebolavirus hit West Africa with implications in the rest of the world. In fact, Spain declared the first imported case of this infection. Multiresistant enterobacteria outbreaks are emerging all around the world in a moment on which WHO draws attention to the limited resources, coining the term "post antibiotic era". On the other hand, 2014 went down in history as one in which hepatitis C is cured. Are also current HIV epidemiological control or strategies for antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:26365724

  6. The Influence of Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Readiness for Change in a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norshidah

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the effectiveness in implementing organizational change. However, many change effort fail due to several factors such as lack of commitment, style of leadership, and emotional distress of the employees who have to implement the change. This study was intended to determine the influence of leadership behavior and…

  7. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marroon Thabane; John K Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common disorder wherein symptoms of IBS begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Published studies have reported incidence of PI-IBS to range between 5% and 32%. The mechanisms underlying the development of PI-IBS are not fully understood, but are believed to include persistent sub-clinical inflammation, changes in intestinal permeability and alteration of gut flora. Individual studies have suggested that risk factors for PI-IBS include patients' demographics, psychological disorders and the severity of enteric illness. However, PI-IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific disease markers and, to date, no definitive therapy exists. The prognosis of PIIBS appears favorable with spontaneous and gradual resolution of symptoms in most patients.

  8. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurath, G.; Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.;

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 I...... influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture....

  9. Genetic Susceptibility to Feline Infectious Peritonitis in Birman Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liu, Hongwei; Sorensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA...

  10. The influence of changes in glacier extent and surface elevation on modeled mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are widely recognized as unique demonstration objects for climate change impacts, mostly due to the strong change of glacier length in response to small climatic changes. However, glacier mass balance as the direct response to the annual atmospheric conditions can be better interpreted in meteorological terms. When the climatic signal is deduced from long-term mass balance data, changes in glacier geometry (i.e. surface extent and elevation must be considered as such adjustments form an essential part of the glacier reaction to new climatic conditions. In this study, a set of modelling experiments is performed to assess the influence of changes in glacier geometry on mass balance for constant climatic conditions. The calculations are based on a simplified distributed energy/mass balance model in combination with information on glacier extent and surface elevation for the years 1850 and 1973/1985 for about 60 glaciers in the Swiss Alps. The results reveal that over this period about 50–70% of the glacier reaction to climate change (here a one degree increase in temperature is "hidden" in the geometric adjustment, while only 30–50% can be measured as the long-term mean mass balance. For larger glaciers, the effect of the areal change is partly reduced by a lowered surface elevation, which results in a slightly more negative balance despite a potential increase of topographic shading. In view of several additional reinforcement feedbacks that are observed in periods of strong glacier decline, it seems that the climatic interpretation of long-term mass balance data is rather complex.

  11. The influence of changes in glacier extent and surface elevation on modeled mass balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are widely recognized as unique demonstration objects for climate change impacts, mostly due to the strong change of glacier length in response to small climatic changes. However, glacier mass balance as the direct response to the annual atmospheric conditions can be better interpreted in meteorological terms. When the climatic signal is deduced from long-term mass balance data, changes in glacier geometry (i.e. surface extent and elevation must be considered as such adjustments form an essential part of the glacier reaction to new climatic conditions. In this study, a set of modeling experiments is performed to assess the influence of changes in glacier geometry on mass balance for constant climatic conditions. The calculations are based on a simplified distributed energy/mass balance model in combination with information on glacier extent and surface elevation for the years 1850 and 1973/1985 for a larger sample of glaciers in the Swiss Alps. The results reveal that about 50–70% of the glacier reaction to climate change (here a one degree increase in temperature is "hidden" in the geometric adjustment, while only 30–50% can be measured as the long-term mean mass balance. Thereby, changes in glacier extent alone have an even stronger effect, but they are partly compensated for by a lowered surface elevation which gives on average a slightly more negative balance despite an increase of topographic shading. In view of several additional reinforcement feedbacks that are observed in periods of strong glacier decline, it seems that the climatic interpretation of mass balance data is also rather complex.

  12. The Influence of Shaolin Teaching to Houjie`s Personality Change in Shaolin Film (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Sufianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available New Shaolin is a famous film from China. The story tells about Houjies life and his personality change. Shaolins positive influence in Houjies life is the main purpose of this research. Research used references and the theory of Sigmund Freud of ID, Ego and Superego to analyze Houjies personality change. Result shows that after receiving Shaolins teaching, he became a better man. In Shaolin, Houjie was forgiven. Shaolins teaching such as chanting a scripture can help improve his thoughts. Reflection and Kungfu brought Houjie out of his revenge and bad emotion, also bring harmony to his thoughts and heart. Houjies pre-character was dominated by his ID, but after he had entered Shaolin and learned Shaolins teaching, Houjie studied how to reach balance in 3 factors mentioned in the theory of personality.

  13. Pharmacology in space. Part 1. Influence of adaptive changes on pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The topic of pharmacology in space, i.e. the administration of drugs during space flight and the subsequent pharmacokinetic handling of the pharmaceuticals, is a new field about which little is known. In a two-part series, Claire Lathers and colleagues highlight some of the current questions in this field. In this first article the physiological and biochemical changes associated with weightlessness in space are discussed. These changes induce adaptive alterations which may influence the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. The cardiovascular system is of particular relevance here. Also discussed are the classes of pharmacological agent that are most likely to be used during space flight for medical problems and thus, by necessity, will become drugs to be examined in space to determine whether their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are altered. Therapy of the most common spaceflight ailment-motion sickness-will be considered next month in Part 2.

  14. The influence of cultural habits on the changing pattern of functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Paul; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dyspepsia is a common gastroenterological problem with an estimated global prevalence between 7 and 40%. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a major economic burden to patients and healthcare systems and significantly affects patient quality of life. The ROME III definition of FD divides it into two subgroups, epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome, the former being more associated with reflux disease and the latter with gastric dysmotility. The global incidence and prevalence of FD continues to rise, but the reason for this is not clear. Rising global obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease rates may be contributing to the rise in FD. Socioeconomic and cultural demographic changes such as changing dietary habits and rapid urbanization, particularly in the developing countries, are likely to be influencing the course of FD and the way it presents. PMID:24732186

  15. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  16. The Influence of North Atlantic Valves and Gateways on Neogene Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Our current proxies for pCO2 suggest Neogene levels were relatively constant (~300 ± 100 ppm) except for the middle Miocene Climatic Optimum with estimates approaching 400 ± 100 ppm. Yet, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet became a polar ice sheet and permanent feature on Earth while large-scale Northern Hemisphere ice sheets waxed and waned with scant differences in pCO2. Three possibilities to explain these observations are: 1) our pCO2 proxies are incorrect; 2) Earth's climate is far more sensitive than our current model simulations suggest; or 3) tectonic differences overprinted accepted climate sensitivity to pCO2. Two marine gateways that influenced Neogene deep-water circulation are the Greenland-Scotland Ridge and the Central American Isthmus (CAI). Driven by mantle plume variations under Iceland, the GSR acted as a regulator of Northern Component Water (NCW, analogous to NADW) by controlling access to the dense polar waters to the north. During the latest Miocene and early Pliocene, mean depths along the GSR and NCW production were at their greatest. By the late Pliocene (~3 Ma), mantle plume activity increased and NCW production waned. Most researchers have focused on surface water changes (e.g., salinity) in relating closure of the CAI to Pliocene climate change. However, I propose that its primary influence came with the elimination of low-latitude, deep-water connection between the Atlantic and Pacific. Combined with vigorous NCW production, closure of the CAI re-distributed nutrients between the oceans. Carbon isotope and Cd/Ca profiles indicate that "modern" basin-to-basin differences started during the latest Miocene and were fully developed in the Pliocene. The South Atlantic path for NCW also delivered heat to the Southern Ocean, facilitating sea ice changes, as indicated by biosiliceous patterns. These tectonic boundary changes and their affects on surface and deep water circulation contributed to the Pliocene pause in global cooling that began in

  17. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  18. Duodenogastral reflux and its influence on manifestation of morphological changes of gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Yu.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the diseases of the gastroduodenal zone chronic gastritis (CG occupies one of the leading positions. One of the main forms of CG is reflux gastritis (RG based on long-term location of duodenal content in the gastric antrum, so-called duodenal reflux (DR. It is well known that stable inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa (GM appears under the influence of bile acid and gastric juice, leading to chronic antral gastritis followed by gradual development of atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia appearance. Therefore the aim of our work was to investigate the influence of the DR on the course of chronic hepatitis and morphological changes in the gastric mucosa. We observed 70 patients with chronic RG, aged from 22 to 59 years, average age – 43,5±1,2 years. The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals of both sexes aged from 19 to 39 years. As a result it was found out that pain and dyspeptic syndromes caused problems most of all. While studying the content of bile acids in gastric juice of all patients examined it was higher (1,42±0,05 g/L in comparison with the control group (0,65±0,04 g/L. Content of bile acids in groups of RG patients with atrophy and without it was analyzed. The role of DR as an independent factor of recomposing changes in GM in chronic RG was proved.

  19. DYNAMIC CHANGES OF BRAIN ASYMMETRY UNDER INFLUENCE OF THE CONFLICT- INDUCING FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryn V.G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic changes of brain asymmetry under influence of the conflict-inducing factor at male and female teenagers with different level of a potential conflictness were investigated. 4 groups of examinees by gender and conflictness level were described: I – “conflict” boys, II – “conflict” girls, III – “non-conflict” boys, IV – “non-conflict” girls. Gender differences in hemispheres domination under influence the conflict- inducing factor were revealed. Dependence of brain asymmetry changes on the level of a potential conflictness for female examinees was revealed. Left hemisphere domination for male examinees (group I and III, independently of conflictness level, as for the beginning, as to the end of a game, is determined. Right hemisphere mainly domination in researched cortex areas for “conflict” girls (II prior to beginning of experiment is shown, however by the end of experiment difference between hemispheres activity level is decreasing. Right hemisphere mainly domination in investigated cortex areas was detected prior to the beginning of experiment for “non conflict” girls (IV. Switch of hemispheres domination from right to the left in frontal lobe at the end of experiment was observed. In temporal cortex difference between hemispheres activity level is leveling.

  20. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence. PMID:26754941

  1. [Changes in Spatial Organization of Cortical Rhythm Vibrations in Children uner the Influence of Music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepovalnikov, A N; Egorov, M V

    2015-01-01

    Changes is systemic brain activity under influence of classical music (minor and major music) were studied at two groups of healthy children aged 5-6 years (n = 53). In 25 of studied children the Luscher test showed increased level of anxiety which significantly decreased after music therapy sessions. Bioelectrical cortical activity registered from 20 unipolar leads was subjected to correlation, coherence and factor analysis. Also the dynamics of the power spectrum for each of the EEG was studied. According to EEG all children after listening to both minor and major tones showed reorganization of brain rhythm structure accompanied by a decrease in the level of coherence and correlation of EEG; also was found significant and almost universal decrease in the EEG power spectrum. Registered EEG changes under the influence of classical music seems to reflect a decrease in excess of "internal tension" and weakening degree of "stiffness" to ensure the activity of cerebral structures responsible for mechanisms of "basic integration" which maintain constant readiness of brain to rapid and complete inclusion in action. PMID:26859984

  2. BENDING VIBRATION AND STABILITY OF A MULTIPLE-NANOBEAM SYSTEM INFLUENCED BY TEMPERATURE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Karličić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the bending vibration and stability of a multiple-nanobeam system (MNBS coupled in elastic medium and influenced by temperature change and compressive axial load. The MNBS is modeled as the system consisting of a set of m identical and simply supported nanobeams mutually connected by Winkler’s type elastic layers. According to the Euler - Bernoulli beam and nonlocal thermo-elasticity theory, the system of m coupled partial differential equations is derived and solved by means of the method of separation of variables as well as the trigonometric one. Analytical solutions for natural frequencies and critical buckling loads of elastic MNBS are obtained. The effects of nonlocal parameter, temperature change and the number of nanobeams on the natural frequencies and the buckling loads are investigated through numerical examples. Thus, this work can represent a starting point to examine dynamical behavior and design of complex nanobeam structures, nanocomposites and nanodevices under the influence of various physical fields.

  3. Study of influence of exchange rate change on the supply and demand of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y.H.; Shin, D.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The change of relative prices of trading goods and non-trading goods due to appreciation or depreciation of real exchange rates influences industrial structure and trading infrastructure by changing output, consumption, import and export, and prices of domestic economy. Considering that energy is used as intermediate input of all industrial sectors as well as in final consumption in the Korean economy which lacks energy resources and relies on imported energy resources, I believe that assessing the concrete effects of the real exchange rate change onto the energy industry must be a very important item in establishing effective energy policy. In this thesis, I measure the elasticity of the exchange rate as endogenous factors related to the energy industry using a CGE model that breaks down the energy industry. One (1) % depreciation of real exchange rate increases the domestic sales prices of all energy industry sectors, and the price increase ratios of petroleum and coal products are calculated as the highest among these. Petroleum and coal products show the highest price increase ratios while both the output and export decrease. On the other hand, depreciation increases the domestic sales prices of power generation, city gas, and heating sectors, but it is found to increase the output apart from petroleum and coal products. Depreciation of the real exchange rate is found to change the composition of the energy industry from petroleum and coal products to power generation, city gas, and heating sectors. 11 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Influencing organisational change in the NHS: lessons learned from workplace wellness initiatives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Lloyd, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the key issues in influencing organisational change in NHS settings, in the development of workplace wellness interventions to improve employee health and wellbeing. To tackle poor public health and associated rising healthcare costs, there must be a focus on the root cause of many preventable diseases - unhealthy lifestyle choices. Workplace wellness initiatives are now an important prevention strategy adopted by socially responsible organisations to target the health and wellbeing of working age adults. Lessons learned from initiatives in secondary care suggest that effective implementation requires change in organisational 'health culture', through a combination of education, behaviour change intervention, needs-based facilities, and services and strategies for developing supportive and health-promoting work environments. Most of all, employers must demonstrate a commitment to health and wellness that is fully integrated with their mission, values and long-term vision, paving the way for sustainable lifestyle changes. Evaluation systems must be in place to measure the impact and outcomes of wellness schemes. PMID:19094421

  5. Influencing organisational change in the NHS: lessons learned from workplace wellness initiatives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Holly; Lloyd, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the key issues in influencing organisational change in NHS settings, in the development of workplace wellness interventions to improve employee health and wellbeing. To tackle poor public health and associated rising healthcare costs, there must be a focus on the root cause of many preventable diseases - unhealthy lifestyle choices. Workplace wellness initiatives are now an important prevention strategy adopted by socially responsible organisations to target the health and wellbeing of working age adults. Lessons learned from initiatives in secondary care suggest that effective implementation requires change in organisational 'health culture', through a combination of education, behaviour change intervention, needs-based facilities, and services and strategies for developing supportive and health-promoting work environments. Most of all, employers must demonstrate a commitment to health and wellness that is fully integrated with their mission, values and long-term vision, paving the way for sustainable lifestyle changes. Evaluation systems must be in place to measure the impact and outcomes of wellness schemes.

  6. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Changes in Foxtail Millet Planting Area in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; LIU; Yu; ZHAO; Fei; LIU; Shunguo; LI; Guirong; WANG; Xinshi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Since reform and open to the outside world,foxtail millet planting area in Hebei Province has constantly reduced,and its planting region has changed from the whole province into some regions,with obvious changes. In this paper,by using qualitative and quantitative approaches like chart analysis,summarizing,Delphi method and osculating value model,the influencing factors of changes in millet growing region in Hebei Province were studied. The results showed that the changes of millet planting area were closely related to many factors,such as little investment in scientific research,weak policy support,a single consumer product demand,the rapid development of other staple crops, labor migration,relatively low comparative effectiveness and physiological characteristics of the millet itself. Then some suggestions were put forward,such as increasing research support,strengthening scientific research strength,researching and developing deeply processed products, expanding consumer groups,improving millet policy support,providing subsidies for planting the improved varieties,researching and developing various types of machinery,and increasing millet production technology training.

  7. Mesoscale Morphological Change, Beach Rotation and Storm Climate Influences along a Macrotidal Embayed Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-shore profiles and environmental forcing were used to analyse morphological change of a headland bay beach: Tenby, West Wales (51.66 N; −4.71 W over a mesoscale timeframe (1996–2013. Beach profile variations were attuned with longer term shoreline change identified by previous research showing southern erosion and northern accretion within the subaerial zone and were statistically significant in both sectors although centrally there was little or no significance. Conversely a statistically significant volume loss was shown at all profile locations within the intertidal zone. There were negative phase relationships between volume changes at the beach extremities, indicative of beach rotation and results were statistically significant (p < 0.01 within both subaerial (R2 = 0.59 and intertidal (R2 = 0.70 zones. This was confirmed qualitatively by time-series analysis and further cross correlation analysis showed trend reversal time-lagged associations between sediment exchanges at either end of the beach. Wave height and storm events displayed summer/winter trends which explained longer term one directional rotation at this location. In line with previous regional research, environmental forcing suggests that imposed changes are influenced by variations in southwesterly wind regimes. Winter storms are generated by Atlantic southwesterly winds and cause a south toward north sediment exchange, while southeasterly conditions that cause a trend reversal are generally limited to the summer period when waves are less energetic. Natural and man-made embayed beaches are a common coastal feature and many experience shoreline changes, jeopardising protective and recreational beach functions. In order to facilitate effective and sustainable coastal zone management strategies, an understanding of the morphological variability of these systems is needed. Therefore, this macrotidal research dealing with rotational processes across the entire intertidal

  8. Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takahito; Crucifix, Michel

    2016-07-01

    The last glacial period was punctuated by a series of abrupt climate shifts, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. The frequency of DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, the influence of external forcings on DO events is investigated with statistical modelling. We assume two types of simple stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The model parameters are estimated by using the maximum likelihood method with the NGRIP Ca^{2+} record. The stochastic oscillator model with at least the ice volume forcing reproduces well the sample autocorrelation function of the record and the frequency changes of warming transitions in the last glacial period across MISs 2, 3, and 4. The model performance is improved with the additional insolation forcing. The BIC scores also suggest that the ice volume forcing is relatively more important than the insolation forcing, though the strength of evidence depends on the model assumption. Finally, we simulate the average number of warming transitions in the past four glacial periods, assuming the model can be extended beyond the last glacial, and compare the result with an Iberian margin sea-surface temperature (SST) record (Martrat et al. in Science 317(5837): 502-507, 2007). The simulation result supports the previous observation that abrupt millennial-scale climate changes in the penultimate glacial (MIS 6) are less frequent than in the last glacial (MISs 2-4). On the other hand, it suggests that the number of abrupt millennial-scale climate changes in older glacial periods (MISs 6, 8, and 10) might be larger than inferred from the SST record.

  9. Social, demographic, and environmental influences on perceptions and memories of weather, climate, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Julie Suzanne

    This research seeks to understand how people in the Denver metropolitan area perceive and remember weather, climate, and climate change and how social, demographic, and environmental factors might influence these perceptions and memories. To do this, an online survey was completed in 2006 and in-person interviews were conducted in 2010 and 2011. The online survey and the in-person interviews both asked questions about recent weather, seasonal climate for specific years, beliefs about climate change and human impact on climate change, and social and demographic information. During the 2010--2011 in-person interviews, ambient meteorological conditions were recorded. For climate recollections, overall accuracy was about 20%. In general, women who were politically liberal, majored in a science field, believed in climate change, and were in a good mood were the most accurate for past climates. However, this accuracy was still only about 30%. For recent weather memories, the accuracy was about 50%. Time was the biggest indicator of accuracy, with the most recent weather being remembered the most accurately. When asked to rate the weather from positive to negative for specific events, respondents reported the weather with a negative bias for extremely negative flashbulb memory events. For perceptions about climate change, over 80% of the respondents in the Denver metropolitan area believed global warming was occurring and that humans had an impact on global warming. Over 80% of respondents believed that global warming will impact the Denver metropolitan area, however not all of these people knew how climate change would impact them personally.

  10. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke

    2014-06-03

    Local weather factors are widely considered to influence the transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. Few studies, however, have examined the non-stationary relationships between global climatic factors and transmission of infectious gastroenteritis. We analyzed monthly data for cases of infectious gastroenteritis in Fukuoka, Japan from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the pattern of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Infectious gastroenteritis cases were non-stationary and significantly associated with the IOD and ENSO (Multivariate ENSO Index [MEI], Niño 1 + 2, Niño 3, Niño 4, and Niño 3.4) for a period of approximately 1 to 2 years. This association was non-stationary and appeared to have a major influence on the synchrony of infectious gastroenteritis transmission. Our results suggest that non-stationary patterns of association between global climate factors and incidence of infectious gastroenteritis should be considered when developing early warning systems for epidemics of infectious gastroenteritis.

  11. The influence of climate change on meteorological drought characteristic in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change and its influence on water resource are the worldwide issues. This study aims at investigating the impacts of climate change on drought characteristic in western Taiwan. This analysis on local climate change, may provide the reference for climate change study on Asia region. Thirty-one rainfall stations with at least 80 years records over western Taiwan provide the data set to analysis trend and change in the long term rainfall series. As the area of Taiwan is too small, the GCM is not suitable for our investigation on climate change. Therefore, the statistical methods of Cumulative Deviations test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney-Pettitt test were applied to detect the change points of annual rainfall depth and detect whether the long-term rainfall series exist variation and tendency in the historical records. The analytical results reveal that a significant change point occurs during about 1960s for annual rainfall series. Two samples in the long- tern rainfall series are further divided based on this change point. Yearly rainfall depth increases in northern Taiwan and decreases in middle and southern Taiwan. Average values and standard deviation of monthly rainfall depth in these two samples are compared. A stable reducing tendency of average rainfall in the wet seasons (May to October) is found in middle and southern Taiwan and increasing tendency in northern Taiwan. We further investigate whether drought characteristic is difference before and after 1960. Nine irrigation areas in Taiwan are divided based on its irrigation system. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is estimated and compared with historical agriculture drought. It is found that 3-month SPI has better characteristic than 1-month SPI to respond the agriculture drought characteristic. Therefore, 3-month SPI for each irrigation area is estimated both before and after 1960. It is found that the frequency and duration of moderate dry (3-month SPI<-1.0) and severely dry

  12. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  13. Analysis of status and influence factors of health literacy of infectious diseases prevention of the urban and ru-ral residents in China%中国居民传染病防治素养水平及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相刚; 李长宁; 李英华; 李莉; 聂雪琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解我国居民传染病防治素养水平及其影响因素,为制定和评价健康素养政策和干预措施提供依据。方法采用分层多阶段与人口规模成比例抽样(PPS 抽样)方法,对全国31个省(自治区、直辖市)336个监测点非集体居住的15~69岁常住人口进行问卷调查。结果2012年健康素养监测共调查102985人,收回有效问卷98448份,有效率为95.59%。2012年我国居民健康传染病防治素养水平为17.53%。城市居民为21.24%,农村居民为15.45%;东部地区居民为18.76%,中部地区居民为17.59%,西部地区居民为15.69%;25~34岁年龄组为20.36%,65~69岁年龄组为13.80%。多因素 Logistic 回归分析结果显示:性别、年龄、文化程度、职业是影响居民传染病健康素养高低的重要因素。女性传染病防治素养水平高于男性(OR =1.077,95%CI:1.023~1.134);文化程度越高,传染病防治素养水平越高,大专/本科及以上文化程度者 OR 值为4.238(95%CI:3.384~5.307);公务员/事业单位人员传染病防治素养水平高于其他职业人群。结论我国居民传染病防治素养水平较低,应根据性别、年龄、文化程度、职业的不同特点,开展有针对性的健康素养教育活动。%Objective To understand the status and its influencing factors of health literacy of infectious diseases prevention in China,to explore the method for improving the health information literacy.Methods Using stratified multi-stage and PPS sampling method,the permanent resident population aged 15 -69 years old,from 336 monitor districts of 31 provinces,were investigated with questionnaire about health information literacy.Results In 2012 Chinese residents health literacy monitoring,102 985 permanent resident population aged 15 -69 years old were investigated.98 448 valid questionnaires were analyzed

  14. Policy shifts influence the functional changes of the CNH systems on the Mongolian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet; Shao, Changliang; Fan, Yi; Zhang, Yaoqi; Amarjargal, Amartuvshin; Brown, Daniel G.; Qi, Jiaguo; Han, Juanjuan; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Dong, Gang

    2015-08-01

    By applying the concept of the coupled natural and human system (CNH), we compared spatiotemporal changes in livestock (LSK), land cover, and ecosystem production to understand the relative roles that natural and social driving forces have on CNH dynamics on the Mongolia plateau. We used socioeconomic and physical data at prefecture level for Inner Mongolia and Mongolia from 1981 through 2010 to represent changes in net primary productivity (NPP), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), precipitation, annual average temperature, LSK, livestock density (LSKD), land cover change (LCC), gross domestic production (GDP), and population (POP). The ratios such as LSK:NPP, LSKD: EVI, LSKD:albedo, LSK:POP, and LSK:GDP were examined and compared between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to quantify the complex interactions. Substantial differences in LSK, POP, and economic development were found among the biomes and between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia. When various indicators for policy shifts—such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) for China, the Third Campaign to Reclaim Abandoned Agriculture Lands (ATAR-3), and the Grain for Green Program for China (GFG)—were added into our SEM, the results showed significant change in the strength of the above relationships. After China joined the WTO, the relationships in Inner Mongolia between LSKD:LCC and LSKD:NPP were immensely strengthened, whereas relationships in NPP:LCC were weakened. In Mongolia, the ATAR-3 program first appeared to be an insignificant policy, but the Collapse of the Soviet Union enhanced the correlation between LSKD:LCC, weakened the connection of LCC:NPP, and did not affect LSKD:NPP. We conclude that human influences on the Mongolian CNH system exceeded those of the biophysical changes, but that the significance varies in time and per biome, as well as between Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.

  15. Coastal erosion's influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demographic flight to the coast, begun in early civilization, continues unabated worldwide according to latest studies. The percentage of population living on the coast is expected to remain relatively constant over the next few decades, but the total numbers will increase as the population increases. Recent coastal battering by hurricanes and extratropical storms poses questions about coastal habitability and the real economics of coastal development. Repair costs are borne by private individuals as well as the public in various direct and indirect ways. As these costs escalate, it is fitting to ask what the future portends for storm and coastal-flood damage. It is known that development pressures will continue to increase along the coast, but what will happen concurrently to natural-hazard threats to this infrastructure? Though much emphasis has been placed on sea-level rise, the broader issue is climate change in general. Here, the author considers climate change in both its natural and anthropogenic perspectives. Without becoming mired in the debate about the greenhouse effect and human influence on climatic shifts, some of the broad classes of natural hazards that might accompany climate change are examined. There are several categories of possible global-change effects on coastal erosion. In the early 1980's, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report postulated increases in global sea level up to 4 meters during the next 100 years. Though balanced somewhat by other, lower estimates of sea-level rise, this higher extreme grabbed public attention. During the next decade, scientists attempted to concur on a more reasonable estimate of global sea-level rise due to climate change. Recent credible estimates suggest that approximately 10 to 20 percent of EPA's earlier maximum estimate is most reasonable

  16. The predicted influence of climate change on lesser prairie-chicken reproductive parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Davis, Dawn M.; Boydston, Kathy K.; Dixon, Charles; Heck, Willard R.

    2013-01-01

    The Southern High Plains is anticipated to experience significant changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change. These changes may influence the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) in positive or negative ways. We assessed the potential changes in clutch size, incubation start date, and nest survival for lesser prairie-chickens for the years 2050 and 2080 based on modeled predictions of climate change and reproductive data for lesser prairie-chickens from 2001–2011 on the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. We developed 9 a priori models to assess the relationship between reproductive parameters and biologically relevant weather conditions. We selected weather variable(s) with the most model support and then obtained future predicted values from climatewizard.org. We conducted 1,000 simulations using each reproductive parameter’s linear equation obtained from regression calculations, and the future predicted value for each weather variable to predict future reproductive parameter values for lesser prairie-chickens. There was a high degree of model uncertainty for each reproductive value. Winter temperature had the greatest effect size for all three parameters, suggesting a negative relationship between above-average winter temperature and reproductive output. The above-average winter temperatures are correlated to La Niña events, which negatively affect lesser prairie-chickens through resulting drought conditions. By 2050 and 2080, nest survival was predicted to be below levels considered viable for population persistence; however, our assessment did not consider annual survival of adults, chick survival, or the positive benefit of habitat management and conservation, which may ultimately offset the potentially negative effect of drought on nest survival.

  17. Estimation of the possible influence of future climate changes on biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H. M.; Nishina, K.; Ito, A.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, climate change has progressed worldwide and their influences on ecosystem structure and function that provide various goods and services to humans' well-being are of the greatest concerns. The ecosystem function and services are tightly coupled with the biodiversity, particularly via food web and biogeochemical cycles and here carbon is one of the central elements. The photosynthetic carbon fixation by plants, which forms the basis of the food web, is known to be highly sensitive to meteorological changes including radiation, temperature, precipitation and CO2 concentration. Thus an analysis of the effect of future climate change on the carbon cycle processes including photosynthetic production in a biogeographical region, which is important from the viewpoint of the biodiversity conservation, such as "biodiversity hotspot", might enable us to discuss the relevance between climate change and biodiversity.In ISI-MIP (Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project) phase 1, we have estimated NPP (net primary production), plant biomass and soil organic carbon by seven global biome models under climate conditions from 1901 to 2100 based on four RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways for 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 W m-2 stabilization targets) and five global climate models. In the present study, we analyzed these outputs to reveal the effects of changes on NPP, plant biomass and soil organic carbon in 20 biodiversity hotspots in various climatic regions. Although NPP of whole world tended to increase under RCP 8.5 W m-2 scenario, some biome models have shown that NPP of the hotspots in tropical regions decrease.

  18. The influence of land use and climate change on forest biomass and composition in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Foster, David R; Scheller, Robert; Kittredge, David

    2011-10-01

    Land use and climate change have complex and interacting effects on naturally dynamic forest landscapes. To anticipate and adapt to these changes, it is necessary to understand their individual and aggregate impacts on forest growth and composition. We conducted a simulation experiment to evaluate regional forest change in Massachusetts, USA over the next 50 years (2010-2060). Our objective was to estimate, assuming a linear continuation of recent trends, the relative and interactive influence of continued growth and succession, climate change, forest conversion to developed uses, and timber harvest on live aboveground biomass (AGB) and tree species composition. We examined 20 years of land use records in relation to social and biophysical explanatory variables and used regression trees to create "probability-of-conversion" and "probability-of-harvest" zones. We incorporated this information into a spatially interactive forest landscape simulator to examine forest dynamics as they were affected by land use and climate change. We conducted simulations in a full-factorial design and found that continued forest growth and succession had the largest effect on AGB, increasing stores from 181.83 Tg to 309.56 Tg over 50 years. The increase varied from 49% to 112% depending on the ecoregion within the state. Compared to simulations with no climate or land use, forest conversion reduced gains in AGB by 23.18 Tg (or 18%) over 50 years. Timber harvests reduced gains in AGB by 5.23 Tg (4%). Climate change (temperature and precipitation) increased gains in AGB by 17.3 Tg (13.5%). Pinus strobus and Acer rubrum were ranked first and second, respectively, in terms of total AGB throughout all simulations. Climate change reinforced the dominance of those two species. Timber harvest reduced Quercus rubra from 10.8% to 9.4% of total AGB, but otherwise had little effect on composition. Forest conversion was generally indiscriminate in terms of species removal. Under the naive

  19. CT evaluation of sacroiliitis: Differentiation of infectious sacroiliitis versus ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Young; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sang Un [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To determine the characteristic CT findings of infectious sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with infectious sacroiliitis confirmed by culture and clinical follow ups and in 5 patients with ankylosing spondylitis by HLA-B27 typing. Mean age were 30 years in ankylosing spondylitis and 29 years in infectious sacroiliitis. CT scans were obtained with GE 9800 or Toshiba 900-S Scanner. We analyzed CT findings in regard to the morphology and degree of bone erosion, and the adjacent soft tissue change. All cases of ankylosing spondylitis had bilateral and asymmetric bone erosion, predominantly in ilium, showing subchondral sclerosis on ilium. Infectious sacroiliitis showed unilateral involvement and soft tissue swelling in 10 cases and abscess in 5 cases. We concluded that CT was useful in the differentiation between infectious sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis.

  20. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students' engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students' epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  1. The influence of model structure on groundwater recharge rates in climate-change impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Brunner, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Numerous modeling approaches are available to provide insight into the relationship between climate change and groundwater recharge. However, several aspects of how hydrological model choice and structure affect recharge predictions have not been fully explored, unlike the well-established variability of climate model chains—combination of global climate models (GCM) and regional climate models (RCM). Furthermore, the influence on predictions related to subsoil parameterization and the variability of observation data employed during calibration remain unclear. This paper compares and quantifies these different sources of uncertainty in a systematic way. The described numerical experiment is based on a heterogeneous two-dimensional reference model. Four simpler models were calibrated against the output of the reference model, and recharge predictions of both reference and simpler models were compared to evaluate the effect of model structure on climate-change impact studies. The results highlight that model simplification leads to different recharge rates under climate change, especially under extreme conditions, although the different models performed similarly under historical climate conditions. Extreme weather conditions lead to model bias in the predictions and therefore must be considered. Consequently, the chosen calibration strategy is important and, if possible, the calibration data set should include climatic extremes in order to minimise model bias introduced by the calibration. The results strongly suggest that ensembles of climate projections should be coupled with ensembles of hydrogeological models to produce credible predictions of future recharge and with the associated uncertainties.

  2. Network structure and influence of the climate change counter-movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change represents a global threat to human well-being and ecosystem functioning. Yet despite its importance for science and policy, our understanding of the causes of widespread uncertainty and doubt found among the general public remains limited. The political and social processes driving such doubt and uncertainty are difficult to rigorously analyse, and research has tended to focus on the individual-level, rather than the larger institutions and social networks that produce and disseminate contrarian information. This study presents a new approach by using network science to uncover the institutional and corporate structure of the climate change counter-movement, and machine-learning text analysis to show its influence in the news media and bureaucratic politics. The data include a new social network of all known organizations and individuals promoting contrarian viewpoints, as well as the entirety of all written and verbal texts about climate change from 1993-2013 from every organization, three major news outlets, all US presidents, and every occurrence on the floor of the US Congress. Using network and computational text analysis, I find that the organizational power within the contrarian network, and the magnitude of semantic similarity, are both predicted by ties to elite corporate benefactors.

  3. [Influence of land use change on dissolved organic carbon export in Naoli River watershed. Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-min; Lyu, Xian-guo; Liu, Xing-tu; Xue, Zhen-shan

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of land use change on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in Naoli River watershed, Northeast China. Seasonal variation of DOC concentrations of the river water and its relationship with land use in the whole watershed and 100 m riparian zone at the annual average scale were analyzed using the method of field sampling, laboratory analysis, GIS and statistics analysis. The results showed that the concentrations of DOC under base flow conditions in spring and summer were significantly higher than that in fall in the study watershed. The seasonal trend of DOC concentrations in wetland-watersheds was similar to that in all the sub-watersheds, while significantly different from that in non-wetland watersheds. On the annual average scale, percentage of wetland in the whole watershed and paddy field in the 100 m riparian zone had positive relationship with the DOC concentration in the river water, while percentage of forest in the whole watershed had negative relationship with it (P riparian zone significantly promoted DOC export, while forest alleviated it. Land use change in the watershed in the past few decades dramatically changed the DOC balance of river water. PMID:27112020

  4. Scaling the Problem: How Commercial Interests Have Influenced the U.S. Dialogue on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Rogerson, P.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, corporations and their affiliates have played an increasing role in the national conversation on climate change, with companies weighing in not only on policy debates but also participating in discussions around climate science. A few of these companies in particular have been tremendously influential in dictating how the public understands, or misunderstands, climate science and how the national discourse on climate policy has progressed, or not progressed. To better understand this corporate involvement, we explored the roles that major corporate actors have played during a key time period in 2009 and 2010 when several important climate change policy proposals were being actively debated in the United States. Analyzing multiple venues in which companies engaged in discussion of climate change with different audiences—including the government, shareholders, and the public—we assess the degree to which commercial interests have helped or hindered a science-based public discourse on climate policy in the past decade. Discussion will focus especially on corporations' use of third party organizations, including industry trade groups, think tanks, and others, to exert influence on climate-related policy without accountability.

  5. Infectious diseases associated with caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igreja, Ricardo Pereira

    2011-06-01

    In recent times, caving has become increasingly popular, with almost 2 million people visiting national park caves each year in the United States. Although the 2 million tourist visits are extremely low risk, smaller numbers of sport cavers are at risk for some high risk conditions, and expedition cavers are at risk for some obscure infections. Infectious diseases like histoplasmosis, rabies, leptospirosis, and tick-borne relapsing fever may be transmitted by the underground fauna. To reduce the risk of illness or injury while caving, knowledge of potential risks before engaging in this activity is important. Caving preparation needs to be carefully planned and executed, including vaccinations, prophylactic medications, and advice regarding safe conduct and behaviors. PMID:21664559

  6. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  7. [Frequent infectious diseases in migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, A

    2016-05-01

    The current influx of refugees and the high rate of immigration increase the rate and impact of infectious diseases in Europe. Infections can be detected at the initial examination of arriving refugees as a result of systematic screening or within the framework of general medical care. Diagnosis and treatment require special expertise and in some cases special precautions. The spectrum of infections is determined by the country of origin of migrants and the conditions experienced on fleeing to Germany. In this article the diagnostics and treatment of the most important infections are presented. As far as infections are concerned refugees and migrants do not represent a threat to the general population but instead have to be perceived as a highly vulnerable group. PMID:27142435

  8. Investigating the Influence of Employee Attitude toward Change and Leadership Style on Change Readiness by SEM (Case Study: Isfahan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Faghihi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Change has become a normal occurrence within organizations and especially municipalities, due to the rapid society and economic changes. In a competitive global economy, organizations are forced to stay abreast with environmental changes in order to survive. Employee readiness for change can be a determining factor of successful change. To recognize antecedents of change readiness, the present study has conducted two variables of employee's attitude toward change as individual aspect and leadership style as organizational aspect of change readiness. The hypotheses have been tested by SEM on sample case of Isfahan municipality as a powerful organization which deals with change. The results have indicated that there are positive significant relationships between employee's attitude toward change and employee readiness and also change-oriented leadership style and employee readiness.

  9. Influence of Migrant Workers Returning to Hometown on the Changes of Village Social Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey data of Village Z in Henan Province and from the perspective of the end of villages,we studied the influence of migrant workers returning to hometown on the changes of village social structure from village social interaction and village right reconstruction.Survey results show that social interaction centers of migrant workers returning to hometown for starting an undertaking move outside,which has exceeded the range of rural society of acquaintances and promoted the breaking of the traditional social relationship network " Differential Model of Association".In addition,migrant workers returning to hometown actively participate in building village rights and show more passionate political enthusiasm and practice of modern democratic concept.Furthermore,it not only speeds up disintegration of China’s small peasant economy and division of traditional farmers,but also is an important opportunity for realizing farmers’ self-ending and village ending,as well as urban and rural integration.

  10. Fostering Change from Within: Influencing Teaching Practices of Departmental Colleagues by Science Faculty with Education Specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Seth D; Rudd, James A; Stevens, Michael T; Tanner, Kimberly D; Williams, Kathy S

    2016-01-01

    Globally, calls for the improvement of science education are frequent and fervent. In parallel, the phenomenon of having Science Faculty with Education Specialties (SFES) within science departments appears to have grown in recent decades. In the context of an interview study of a randomized, stratified sample of SFES from across the United States, we discovered that most SFES interviewed (82%) perceived having professional impacts in the realm of improving undergraduate science education, more so than in research in science education or K-12 science education. While SFES reported a rich variety of efforts towards improving undergraduate science education, the most prevalent reported impact by far was influencing the teaching practices of their departmental colleagues. Since college and university science faculty continue to be hired with little to no training in effective science teaching, the seeding of science departments with science education specialists holds promise for fostering change in science education from within biology, chemistry, geoscience, and physics departments.

  11. Community reintegration of ex-prisoners: type and degree of change in variables influencing successful reintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkfield, Alison J; Graffam, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Community reintegration of ex-prisoners is an important issue in efforts to reduce recidivism. The present study examined the multiple, complex, and dynamic nature of variables influencing successful reintegration by assessing the type and degree of change in reintegration variables over time. Participants were 79 adult prisoners (54 male, 25 female) who completed a prerelease questionnaire 1 month before their release, which focused on prison-related variables, participant background, and anticipated conditions upon release. A postrelease questionnaire was administered to the same participants at 1-4 weeks and 3-4 months postrelease, focusing on the quality of life conditions experienced following release. Results indicate that current health ratings and several indicators of drug use were significantly different over the three measurement phases. Ratings of employment and housing stability, finance, and social support were unchanged over the postrelease period. Theoretical implications of the present investigation for reintegration theory are discussed, together with practical applications.

  12. Influence of stress path change on the resistance to plastic deformation of cold rolled sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zonghai Ding; Pavel Huml

    2005-01-01

    Flat workpieces have been tested in order to investigate the influence of stress path change (loading mode) while keeping strain path unchanged. These investigations are pertinent to the testing of cold rolled strips and to subsequent forming. The workpieces which first compressed by plane strain compression in thickness direction were then tested in perpendicular direction in order to measure the influence of strain and stress path. The tension workpieces came from flat die compression test at different deformation histories. Two different materials were investigated: 18/8 Ti stainless steel and AW-1050 aluminium. The results show that the plastic flow by tension in lengthwise direction after pre-strain by compression in thickness direction will begin at an appreciably lower stress than that of the workpieces unloaded after pre-compression. Comparing with two materials, it can be seen that both 18/8Ti stainless steel and AW-1050 aluminium behave similarly. The drop in yield stress is lower for AW-1050 aluminium than that for 18/8 Ti stainless steel. However, reloading in different directions than in the precious step results in significantly higher strain hardening.

  13. Structural changes in fine-grained high-temperature steels under the influence of temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine-grained high-temperature steels have gained great importance as materials for reactor pressure vessels. Alloying with small additions of carbide-forming elements does not only preserve the fine grain but also helps to achieve a certain retention of hardness which improves the high-temperature strength of these steels. During welding, a narrow zone of the basic material is heated over the transition temperature. The result is a coarse-grained, austenitic structure. In order to find out whether such structural changes caused by welding may damage the material during heat treatment or operation, the mechanical properties of some types of structures were tested with regard to their strength, their notched bar impact strength, and their creep rupture strength, and the findings were interpreted with the aid of scans of the surfaces of fracture and electron microscope pictures of the microstructure. The results show that the toughness of the structure of a heat influence region of the steels investigated would decrease further at operating temperatures above 2000C and below the appropriate tempering temperature if the additional heat treatment in the tempering temperature region after welding were omitted. The toughness of the heat influence region is increased by annealing to such a degree that it almost reaches that of the basic material. (GSCH)

  14. Host life history strategy, species diversity, and habitat influence Trypanosoma cruzi vector infection in Changing landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Gottdenker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic land use may influence transmission of multi-host vector-borne pathogens by changing diversity, relative abundance, and community composition of reservoir hosts. These reservoir hosts may have varying competence for vector-borne pathogens depending on species-specific characteristics, such as life history strategy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how anthropogenic land use change influences blood meal species composition and the effects of changing blood meal species composition on the parasite infection rate of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in Panama. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: R. pallescens vectors (N = 643 were collected in different habitat types across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Blood meal species in DNA extracted from these vectors was identified in 243 (40.3% vectors by amplification and sequencing of a vertebrate-specific fragment of the 12SrRNA gene, and T. cruzi vector infection was determined by pcr. Vector infection rate was significantly greater in deforested habitats as compared to contiguous forests. Forty-two different species of blood meal were identified in R. pallescens, and species composition of blood meals varied across habitat types. Mammals (88.3% dominated R. pallescens blood meals. Xenarthrans (sloths and tamanduas were the most frequently identified species in blood meals across all habitat types. A regression tree analysis indicated that blood meal species diversity, host life history strategy (measured as r(max, the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase, and habitat type (forest fragments and peridomiciliary sites were important determinants of vector infection with T. cruzi. The mean intrinsic rate of increase and the skewness and variability of r(max were positively associated with higher vector infection rate at a site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, anthropogenic landscape disturbance increased vector infection with T

  15. Influence of degenerative changes of intervertebral disc on its material properties and pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; CHEN Hai-bin; ZHANG Ling; ZHANG Li-ying; LIU Jing-cheng; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the material properties of normal and degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs) and examine the effect of degenerative changes on IVD pathology.Methods: A computer-based online search was undertaken to identify English articles about material properties of IVDs published from January 1950 to 2011 in PubMed database.The retrieved keywords included material properties,intervertebral disc and degeneration.Based on the principles of reliability,advancement and efficiency,the obtained data were primarily examined,and the original source was retrieved to read the full-text.Repetitive articles were excluded.The data of material properties of normal and degenerated IVDs were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis.Results: The data of Young's modulus,Poisson's ratio,shear modulus,hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pressure of normal and degenerated IVDs were obtained.Compared with normal IVDs,the Young's modulus and shear modulus of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus were higher in degenerated IVDs,the Poisson's ratio was lower while the hydraulic permeability and intradiscal pressure were higher.Besides,the degeneration-related alterations in IVDs had an influence both on itself and other spinal structures,leading to diseases such as bulging disc,discogenic pain and spinal stenosis.Meanwhile,the heavy mechanical loading and injury indicated important pathways to IVD degeneration.Conclusions: To a certain extent,the degenerative changes of IVD influence its material properties.And the degeneration-related alterations of composition can cause structural failure of IVDs,leading to injuries and diseases.

  16. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-06-01

    Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

  17. Alterations of hydraulic soil properties influenced by land-use changes and agricultural management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Thomas; Kreiselmeier, Janis; Chandrasekhar, Parvathy; Jülich, Stefan; Schwärzel, Kai; Schwen, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Estimation and modeling of soil water movement and the hydrologic balance of soils requires sound knowledge about hydraulic soil properties (HSP). The soil water characteristics, the hydraulic conductivity function and the pore size distribution (PSD) are commonly used instruments for the mathematical representation of HSP. Recent research highlighted the temporal variability of these functions caused by meteorological or land-use influences. State of the art modeling software for the continuous simulation of soil water movement uses a stationary approach for the HSP which means that their time dependent alterations and the subsequent effects on soil water balance is not considered. Mathematical approaches to describe the evolution of PSD are nevertheless known, but there is a lack of sound data basis for parameter estimation. Based on extensive field and laboratory measurements at 5 locations along a climatic gradient across Austria and Germany, this study will quantify short-term changes in HSP, detect driving forces and introduce a method to predict the effects of soil and land management actions on the soil water balance. Amongst several soil properties, field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities will be determined using a hood infiltration experiments in the field as well as by evaporation and dewpoint potentiometer method in the lab. All measurements will be carried out multiple times over a span of 2 years which will allow a detailed monitoring of changes in HSP. Experimental sites where we expect significant inter-seasonal changes will be equipped with sensors for soil moisture and matric potential. The choice of experimental field sites follows the intention to involve especially the effects of tillage operations, different cultivation strategies, microclimatically effective structures and land-use changes. The international project enables the coverage of a broad range of soil types as well as climate conditions and hence will have broad

  18. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  19. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  20. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:25024856

  1. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  2. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper;

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  3. On study of global warming influence on natural resources and Kazakstan economy and adaption activity under possible climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of study of anthropogenic climate changes and its potential influence on economics and natural resources of Kazakhstan are generalized. Possible measures on adaptation and weakening of greenhouse effect impact in power engineering, agriculture and water recourses management are discussed. Further actions related with fulfillment of Republic of Kazakhstan obligations within Framework Convention of United Nations on Climate Change are proposed. (author)

  4. Spatial dynamics and genetics of infectious diseases on heterogeneous landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Leslie A; Biek, Roman

    2007-10-22

    Explicit spatial analysis of infectious disease processes recognizes that host-pathogen interactions occur in specific locations at specific times and that often the nature, direction, intensity and outcome of these interactions depend upon the particular location and identity of both host and pathogen. Spatial context and geographical landscape contribute to the probability of initial disease establishment, direction and velocity of disease spread, the genetic organization of resistance and susceptibility, and the design of appropriate control and management strategies. In this paper, we review the manner in which the physical organization of the landscape has been shown to influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of host-pathogen interactions, and how we might incorporate landscape architecture into spatially explicit population models of the infectious disease process to increase our ability to predict patterns of disease occurrence and optimally design vaccination and control policies.

  5. Discrete stochastic metapopulation model with arbitrarily distributed infectious period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ceron, Nancy; Chavez-Casillas, Jonathan A; Feng, Zhilan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a stochastic discrete-time model is developed to study the spread of an infectious disease in an n-patch environment. The model includes an arbitrary distribution of the (random) infectious period T, and the results are used to investigate how the distribution of T may influence the model outcomes. General results are applied to specific distributions including Geometric, Negative Binomial, Poisson and Uniform. The model outcomes are contrasted both numerically and analytically by comparing the corresponding basic reproduction numbers R0 and probability of a minor epidemic (or probability of disease extinction) P0. It is shown analytically that for n = 2 the reproduction numbers corresponding to different distributions of T can be ordered based on the probability generating function ϕT of T. In addition, numerical simulations are carried out to examine the final epidemic size F and duration of the epidemic D of a two-patch model. PMID:25550286

  6. Identity, influence, and change: rediscovering John Turner's vision for social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D; Reynolds, Katherine J

    2012-06-01

    John Turner, whose pioneering work on social identity and self-categorization theories changed the face of modern social psychology, died in July 2011. This unique virtual special issue celebrates Turner's life and work by reproducing a number of key articles that were published in the British Journal of Social Psychology and the European Journal of Social Psychology over the course of his career. These articles are of three types: first, key position papers, on which Turner was the leading or sole author; second, papers that he published with collaborators (typically PhD students) that explored key theoretical propositions; third, short commentary papers, in which Turner engaged in debate around key issues within social psychology. Together, these papers map out a clear and compelling vision. This seeks to explain the distinctly social nature of the human mind by showing how all important forms of social behaviour - and in particular, the propensity for social influence and social change -are grounded in the sense of social identity that people derive from their group memberships. As we discuss in this editorial, Turner's great contribution was to formalize this understanding in terms of testable hypotheses and generative theory and then to work intensively but imaginatively with others to take this vision forward.

  7. Differentiating Climate Change and Emissions Influence on Future Ozone and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, J.; Kim, Y. M.; Gao, Y.; Fu, J. S.; Chang, H. H.; Liu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    From the advent of coal burning and the subsequent industrial revolution to the present, human activities continue to influence ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. Besides the obvious environmental and climate implications, studies have shown convincing links between O3 exposure and health. These adverse health outcomes range from impaired lung function and cardiovascular stress to premature death. However, little is known concerning the potential impacts of future mitigation policies on O3 and health. Applying novel modeling strategies, we provide evidence of the impact of mitigation on O3 attributable to both climate change and anthropogenic emissions. We employ the latest emission scenarios for both low and high emissions (Representative Concentration Pathways or RCPs) and include population projections to estimate excess mortality associated with each source separate from one another. We found that, by the mid-21st century, U.S. O3 could increase by 0.9% per year under a low emission future and by 1.6% under high emission settings. We predict excess mortality from high emission-induced O3 to increase annually by over 1,200 deaths. Conversely, excess deaths from lower emissions may decrease by over 1,600 annually. Taken together, these results indicate that mitigation efforts may significantly offset the effect of climate change on O3-related mortality.

  8. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON ACCURACY OF ECM BY CHANGING THE CONDUCTIVITY OF ANODE FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Zhijian; ZHANG Lixin; TANG lin

    2008-01-01

    The change of conductivity, thickness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) appearance of the anode film of CrWMn in 10( NaNO3 at different anode potential either with or without the magnetic field applied are investigated by testing film resistance, galvanostatic transient and using SEM to design magnetic circuit in magnetic assisted electrochemical machining (MAECM). The experiments show that the anode film has semi-conducting property. Compared with the situation without magnetic field applied, the resistance of the film formed at 1.8V (anode potential) increased and decreased at 4.0V while B=0.4T and the magnetic north pole points toward anode. The SEM photo demonstrates that the magnetic field will densify the film in the passivation area and quicken dissolution of the anode metal in over-passivation area. Based on the influence of magnetic field on electrochemical machining(ECM) due to the changes of the anode film conductivity behavior, the magnetic north pole should be designed to point towards the workpiece surface that has been machined. Process experiments agree with the results of test analysis.

  9. Influence of the collection tube on metabolomic changes in serum and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bascón, M A; Priego-Capote, F; Peralbo-Molina, A; Calderón-Santiago, M; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-04-01

    Major threats in metabolomics clinical research are biases in sampling and preparation of biological samples. Bias in sample collection is a frequently forgotten aspect responsible for uncontrolled errors in metabolomics analysis. There is a great diversity of blood collection tubes for sampling serum or plasma, which are widely used in metabolomics analysis. Most of the existing studies dealing with the influence of blood collection on metabolomics analysis have been restricted to comparison between plasma and serum. However, polymeric gel tubes, which are frequently proposed to accelerate the separation of serum and plasma, have not been studied. In the present research, samples of serum or plasma collected in polymeric gel tubes were compared with those taken in conventional tubes from a metabolomics perspective using an untargeted GC-TOF/MS approach. The main differences between serum and plasma collected in conventional tubes affected to critical pathways such as the citric acid cycle, metabolism of amino acids, fructose and mannose metabolism and that of glycerolipids, and pentose and glucuronate interconversion. On the other hand, the polymeric gel only promoted differences at the metabolite level in serum since no critical differences were observed between plasma collected with EDTA tubes and polymeric gel tubes. Thus, the main changes were attributable to serum collected in gel and affected to the metabolism of amino acids such as alanine, proline and threonine, the glycerolipids metabolism, and two primary metabolites such as aconitic acid and lactic acid. Therefore, these metabolite changes should be taken into account in planning an experimental protocol for metabolomics analysis.

  10. Soil Phosphorus Dynamics as Influenced by Land Use Changes in Humid Tropical, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-Cheng; HUANG Jian-Hui; PAN Qing-Min; TANG Jian-Wei; HAN Xing-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Land use changes can greatly influence soil phosphorus (P) dynamics, especially when converting native forests to agricultural land. Soils in Xishuangbanna, which is one of southwest China's tropical areas that maintain fragments of primary forests, were studied to a) evaluate the effect of two common land use changes, conversion of forests to agricultural land or rubber tree plantation, on the dynamics of available P and total P in bulk soils as well as total P in particle size fractions; b) assess the relationship between soil P dynamics and soil organic carbon (SOC); and c)elucidate the relationship between soil P content and soil properties such as pH and texture. Clearing secondary forests with subsequent shifting cultivation and establishment of rubber tree plantation caused significant decreases (P < 0.05)in available P at 0-20 cm soil depths, whereas for total P there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) when converting to shifting cultivation, rubber tree plantation, or fallow field at both 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths. Abandonment of fields used for shifting cultivation led to significant increases (P < 0.05) in available P at 20-40 cm depth. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between soil organic carbon and soil P content. Compared to secondary forests, the ratio of organic carbon to total P in surface soils (0-20 cm) of shifting cultivation and rubber tree plantation was significantly lower (P < 0.05).

  11. Changes in ganglion cell physiology during retinal degeneration influence excitability by prosthetic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Alice; Ratliff, Charles; Sampath, Alapakkam; Weiland, James

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Here we investigate ganglion cell physiology in healthy and degenerating retina to test its influence on threshold to electrical stimulation. Approach. Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa cause blindness via outer retinal degeneration. Inner retinal pathways that transmit visual information to the central brain remain intact, so direct electrical stimulation from prosthetic devices offers the possibility for visual restoration. Since inner retinal physiology changes during degeneration, we characterize physiological properties and responses to electrical stimulation in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of both wild type mice and the rd10 mouse model of retinal degeneration. Main results. Our aggregate results support previous observations that elevated thresholds characterize diseased retinas. However, a physiology-driven classification scheme reveals distinct sub-populations of ganglion cells with thresholds either normal or strongly elevated compared to wild-type. When these populations are combined, only a weakly elevated threshold with large variance is observed. The cells with normal threshold are more depolarized at rest and exhibit periodic oscillations. Significance. During degeneration, physiological changes in RGCs affect the threshold stimulation currents required to evoke action potentials.

  12. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N. O. Anyoha; F. N. Nnadi; J. Chikaire; J. A. Echetama; C. O. Utazi; R. A. Ihenacho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomi...

  13. The influence of virus-induced changes in plants on aphid vectors: insights from luteovirus pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2011-08-01

    Plant virus infection can alter the suitability of host plants for their aphid vectors. Most reports indicate that virus-infected plants are superior hosts for vectors compared to virus-free plants with respect to vector growth rates, fecundity and longevity. Some aphid vectors respond preferentially to virus-infected plants compared to virus-free ones, while others avoid infected plants that are inferior hosts. Thus, it appears vectors can exploit changes in host plant quality associated with viral infection. Enhanced vector performance and preference for virus-infected plants might also be advantageous for viruses by promoting their spread and possibly enhancing their fitness. Our research has focused on two of the most important luteoviruses that infect wheat (Barley yellow dwarf virus), or potato (Potato leafroll virus), and their respective aphid vectors, the bird-cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The work has demonstrated that virus infection of host plants enhances the life history of vectors. Additionally, it has shown that virus infection alters the concentration and relative composition of volatile organic compounds in host plants, that apterae of each vector species settle preferentially on virus-infected plants, and that such responses are mediated by volatile organic compounds. The findings also indicate that plants respond heterogeneously to viral infection and as a result different plant parts change in attractiveness to vectors during infection and vector responses to virus-infected plants are dynamic. Such dynamic responses could enhance or reduce the probability of virus acquisition by individual aphids searching among plants. Finally, our work indicates that compared to non-viruliferous aphids, viruliferous ones are less or not responsive to virus-induced host plant volatiles. Changes in vector responsiveness to plants after vectors acquire virus could impact virus epidemiology by influencing virus

  14. Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.

  15. Ontogeny influences sensitivity to climate change stressors in an endangered fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoroske, L M; Connon, R E; Lindberg, J; Cheng, B S; Castillo, G; Hasenbein, M; Fangue, N A

    2014-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most human-impacted habitats globally, and their management is often critically linked to recovery of declining native species. In the San Francisco Estuary, the Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endemic, endangered fish strongly tied to Californian conservation planning. The complex life history of Delta Smelt combined with dynamic seasonal and spatial abiotic conditions result in dissimilar environments experienced among ontogenetic stages, which may yield stage-specific susceptibility to abiotic stressors. Climate change is forecasted to increase San Francisco Estuary water temperature and salinity; therefore, understanding the influences of ontogeny and phenotypic plasticity on tolerance to these critical environmental parameters is particularly important for Delta Smelt and other San Francisco Estuary fishes. We assessed thermal and salinity limits in several ontogenetic stages and acclimation states of Delta Smelt, and paired these data with environmental data to evaluate sensitivity to climate-change stressors. Thermal tolerance decreased among successive stages, with larval fish exhibiting the highest tolerance and post-spawning adults having the lowest. Delta Smelt had limited capacity to increase tolerance through thermal acclimation, and comparisons with field temperature data revealed that juvenile tolerance limits are the closest to current environmental conditions, which may make this stage especially susceptible to future climate warming. Maximal water temperatures observed in situ exceeded tolerance limits of juveniles and adults. Although these temperature events are currently rare, if they increase in frequency as predicted, it could result in habitat loss at these locations despite other favourable conditions for Delta Smelt. In contrast, Delta Smelt tolerated salinities spanning the range of expected environmental conditions for each ontogenetic stage, but salinity did impact survival in juvenile and

  16. Time series regression model for infectious disease and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Chisato; Armstrong, Ben; Chalabi, Zaid; Mangtani, Punam; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Time series regression has been developed and long used to evaluate the short-term associations of air pollution and weather with mortality or morbidity of non-infectious diseases. The application of the regression approaches from this tradition to infectious diseases, however, is less well explored and raises some new issues. We discuss and present potential solutions for five issues often arising in such analyses: changes in immune population, strong autocorrelations, a wide range of plausible lag structures and association patterns, seasonality adjustments, and large overdispersion. The potential approaches are illustrated with datasets of cholera cases and rainfall from Bangladesh and influenza and temperature in Tokyo. Though this article focuses on the application of the traditional time series regression to infectious diseases and weather factors, we also briefly introduce alternative approaches, including mathematical modeling, wavelet analysis, and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Modifications proposed to standard time series regression practice include using sums of past cases as proxies for the immune population, and using the logarithm of lagged disease counts to control autocorrelation due to true contagion, both of which are motivated from "susceptible-infectious-recovered" (SIR) models. The complexity of lag structures and association patterns can often be informed by biological mechanisms and explored by using distributed lag non-linear models. For overdispersed models, alternative distribution models such as quasi-Poisson and negative binomial should be considered. Time series regression can be used to investigate dependence of infectious diseases on weather, but may need modifying to allow for features specific to this context. PMID:26188633

  17. 76 FR 27070 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel,...

  18. The Influence of Global Climate Changes on Storm-Tracks of Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, Y.; Krupchatnikov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    Non-stationary eddies in mid-latitude storm-tracks are an important mechanism of energy, moment and moisture transfer in climate system [1]. Baroclinic eddies bring heavy rains and other hazard weather phenomena in the middle latitudes, play an important role in the global energy and the hydrological cycle. Recently, the increase of a cyclones rate at high latitudes with their frequency decrease in the second half of the 20th century was discovered using reanalysis data [2,3]. However, there is still no common point of view about how storm-track's distribution and intensity will be changed under the climate change influence [4,5]. In our work we investigate a variation of transient eddies general propagation tracks as a result of the global climate change effect. Using global large-scale intermediate complexity model of climate system [6] the numerical experiment was provided for the time period from 850 to 3000 year with a scenario of greenhouse gases influence on climate. From 850 to 2005 this impact was set according to the protocol "Historical simulations" of CMIP5 [7]. For 21th century anthropogenic effects were set according to the most aggressive scenario RCP 8.5 [8]. For the period 22-23 centuries CO2 concentration was on the level of 2100 year, and for 24-30 centuries it returned to pre-industrial value linearly in time of 100 years. Using a filter [9] we defined three variation intervals: low-frequency, medium-frequency and high-frequency. In our work we paid attention to medium-scale waves (i.e. 2-8 days). Two seasons were chosen: winter and summer. For each season we considered average fields of parameters characterizing poleward heat flux at 700 mb and transient eddies variance at 250 mb. Besides of the sensitivity of storm-track dynamic we considered some other features of "warm" climate. The work is partially supported by The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation #(#07.514.11.4044), RFBR grants #10-07-00547, #11-05-01190, and SB

  19. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  20. Fiber Bragg gratings in the radiation environment: Change under the influence of radiolytic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, Oleg V.; Golant, Konstantin M.; Shevtsov, Igor'A.; Fedorov, Artem N.

    2015-08-01

    The change of the transmission spectra of fiber Bragg gratings written in the optical fibers, whose silica cores are doped with either germanium or nitrogen, is studied experimentally under the influence of gamma-radiation. The transmission spectra in the neighborhood of the resonance (Bragg) wavelengths were regularly recorded "in-situ" in the course of irradiation during 24 days. For this purpose, uncoated gratings were placed in a pool near the spent fuel rods of a nuclear reactor. The fibers with the gratings written in them were in immediate contact with water. The estimated total absorbed radiation dose of the fibers is approximately 5 MGy. Molecular hydrogen, which is produced by radiolysis of water and penetrates into the core of silica fiber, is found to interact with the defects of Ge-doped silica induced by gamma-radiation, thereby causing a strong impact on the parameters of the spectrum of the Bragg gratings. On the contrary, in the case of gratings inscribed in N-doped silica fibers, the hydrogen molecules interact with defects induced in the course of laser UV exposure during the grating writing only. The possible subsequent formation of additional defects in N-doped silica under the influence of gamma-radiation has no substantial impact on the transmission spectra of Bragg gratings, which remained stable. The obtained results suggest that a small amount of molecular hydrogen resided in the fiber core is the main source of radiation instability of Ge-doped fiber Bragg grating sensors in radiation environments. These hydrogen molecules can remain in the Bragg gratings, in particular, after the inscription process in the hydrogen-loaded fibers.

  1. [Influence of Marine Aquaculture Around Coal Power Plant on Mercury Species Change in Auuatic Ecological Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Wang, Yuan-na; You, Qiong-zhi; Gao, Xue-fei; He, Shan-shan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the influence of marine aquaculture around coal power plant on Hg species change in aquatic ecological environment, the fish farming area in Xiangshan Harbor, Zhejiang province, was studied. The concentrations of different Hg species in sea water collected from marine aquaculture sites (MS) and references sites (RS) were measured. The result showed that the total mercury (THg) concentration in the surface water reached 83.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 97.1 pmol x L(-1). Dissolved Hg (DHg) in pore water of core sediment decreased with the increasing depth. Meanwhile, the DHg content in pore water above 10 cm was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that below 10 cm, which confirmed the influence of coal-fired power plants on the surrounding areas. THg concentration in MS (96.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 133 pmol x L(-1)) was higher than that in RS (69.5 pmol x L(-1) +/- 39.4 pmol x L(-1)), which was mainly resulted from the accumulation of sewage discharge by the employees and fish feed material in sediments during breeding that were further released to the overlying water. Methylmercury concentration in pore water of MS (24.0 pmol x L(-1) +/- 16.7 pmol x L(-1)) was also significantly higher than that in RS (6.60 pmol x L(-1) +/- 5.11 pmol x L(-1)), which demonstrated that marine aquaculture activities promoted the methylmercury production by increasing the accumulation of organic matter in sediment. PMID:26592015

  2. Fiber Bragg gratings in the radiation environment: Change under the influence of radiolytic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butov, Oleg V., E-mail: obutov@mail.ru; Golant, Konstantin M. [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio-Engineering and Electronics of RAS, 11-7 Mokhovaya Str., Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Shevtsov, Igor' A.; Fedorov, Artem N. [Prolog LLC, PO Box 3007, Obninsk, the Kaluga Region 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-21

    The change of the transmission spectra of fiber Bragg gratings written in the optical fibers, whose silica cores are doped with either germanium or nitrogen, is studied experimentally under the influence of gamma-radiation. The transmission spectra in the neighborhood of the resonance (Bragg) wavelengths were regularly recorded “in-situ” in the course of irradiation during 24 days. For this purpose, uncoated gratings were placed in a pool near the spent fuel rods of a nuclear reactor. The fibers with the gratings written in them were in immediate contact with water. The estimated total absorbed radiation dose of the fibers is approximately 5 MGy. Molecular hydrogen, which is produced by radiolysis of water and penetrates into the core of silica fiber, is found to interact with the defects of Ge-doped silica induced by gamma-radiation, thereby causing a strong impact on the parameters of the spectrum of the Bragg gratings. On the contrary, in the case of gratings inscribed in N-doped silica fibers, the hydrogen molecules interact with defects induced in the course of laser UV exposure during the grating writing only. The possible subsequent formation of additional defects in N-doped silica under the influence of gamma-radiation has no substantial impact on the transmission spectra of Bragg gratings, which remained stable. The obtained results suggest that a small amount of molecular hydrogen resided in the fiber core is the main source of radiation instability of Ge-doped fiber Bragg grating sensors in radiation environments. These hydrogen molecules can remain in the Bragg gratings, in particular, after the inscription process in the hydrogen-loaded fibers.

  3. Multifractal signatures of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Amber M; Kevlahan, Nicholas K-R; Earn, David J D

    2012-09-01

    Incidence of infection time-series data for the childhood diseases measles, chicken pox, rubella and whooping cough are described in the language of multifractals. We explore the potential of using the wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM) method to characterize the multiscale structure of the observed time series and of simulated data generated by the stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model. The singularity spectra of the observed time series suggest that each disease is characterized by a unique multifractal signature, which distinguishes that particular disease from the others. The wavelet scaling functions confirm that the time series of measles, rubella and whooping cough are clearly multifractal, while chicken pox has a more monofractal structure in time. The stochastic SEIR epidemic model is unable to reproduce the qualitative singularity structure of the reported incidence data: it is too smooth and does not appear to have a multifractal singularity structure. The precise reasons for the failure of the SEIR epidemic model to reproduce the correct multiscale structure of the reported incidence data remain unclear. PMID:22442094

  4. Antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Infectious causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyagari A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoeas (AAD is caused by Clostridium difficile, making it the commonest identified and treatable pathogen. Other pathogens implicated infrequently include Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Candida spp. and Salmonella spp. Most mild cases of AAD are due to non-infectious causes which include reduced break down of primary bile acids and decrease metabolism of carbohydrates, allergic or toxic effects of antibiotic on intestinal mucosa and pharmacological effect on gut motility. The antibiotics most frequently associated with C. difficile associated diarrhoea are clindamycin, cephalosporin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Clinical presentation may vary from mild diarrhoea to severe colitis and pseudomembranous colitis associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most sensitive and specific diagnostic test for C. difficile infection is tissue culture assay for cytotoxicity of toxin B. Commercial ELISA kits are available. Though less sensitive, they are easy to perform and are rapid. Withdrawal of precipitating antibiotic is all that is needed for control of mild to moderate cases. For severe cases of AAD, oral metronidazole is the first line of treatment, and oral vancomycin is the second choice. Probiotics have been used for recurrent cases.

  5. Does the location of a company’s global headquarters have an influence on its climate change awareness?

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zao

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies whether the location of a company’s global headquarters has an influence on its climate change awareness. The global headquarters hosting business elites from multinational companies are the surrogate indicators of the opinion leaders in the business world. At different locations, these opinion leaders receive different information from their interaction with their surroundings. The political influence, the market pressure, and the peer pressure a company receives are compa...

  6. Environmental stimulation influence the cognition of developing mice by inducing changes in oxidative and apoptosis status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Wang, Shao-Hui; Jia, Nan; Xie, Min; Liao, Xiao-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Environment condition has been shown to play an important role in brain development. The present study examined the effects of enriched and impoverished environment on both spatial and emotional learning and memory of young mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. 3-week-old mice were housed in enriched environment (n=10, 10 mice in a large cage with toys and a running wheel), or standard environment (n=10, 10 mice in a large cage without objects), or impoverished environment (n=10, single mice in a small cage without objects) for 6weeks. Then, the spatial and emotional cognition of mice were evaluated by the water maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance test, respectively. To explore the underlying mechanisms, oxidation measurement in hippocampus and medial-temporal lobe cortex (MTLC) and apoptosis examination in hippocampus were performed. Results showed that compared with standard environment group, enriched and impoverished mice exhibited high and low performance levels in behavior tests, respectively. The oxidative status of hippocampus and MTLC were decreased in enriched group but increased in impoverished group. Moreover, changes in apoptosis of hippocampus in these two groups showed the same tendency with oxidative status. These results suggest that environment condition can simultaneously influence spatial and emotional learning and memory, which may result from inducing changes in the oxidative and apoptosis status in associated brain regions. Here, we firstly report using young mice to examine the oxidative status as a primary and direct factor to explore the mechanism of effects of different environment on both spatial and emotional cognition. PMID:23273784

  7. Resident microbiota affect Bordetella pertussis infectious dose and host specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Feaga, Heather A; Park, Jihye; Muse, Sarah J; Safi, Chetan Y; Rolin, Olivier Y; Young, Sarah E; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-03-01

    Before contacting host tissues, invading pathogens directly or indirectly interact with host microbiota, but the effects of such interactions on the initial stages of infection are poorly understood. Bordetella pertussis is highly infectious among humans but requires large doses to colonize rodents, unlike a closely related zoonotic pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, raising important questions about the contributions of bacterial competition to initial colonization and host selection. We observed that <100 colony-forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica efficiently infected mice and displaced culturable host microbiota, whereas 10 000 CFU of B. pertussis were required to colonize murine nasal cavities and did not displace host microorganisms. Bacteria isolated from murine nasal cavities but not those from the human lower respiratory tract limited B. pertussis growth in vitro, indicating that interspecies competition may limit B. pertussis colonization of mice. Further, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment delivered before B. pertussis inoculation reduced the infectious dose to <100 CFU, and reintroduction of single Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species was sufficient to inhibit B. pertussis colonization of antibiotic-treated mice. Together, these results reveal that resident microorganisms can prevent B. pertussis colonization and influence host specificity, and they provide rationale for manipulating microbiomes to create more-accurate animal models of infectious diseases.

  8. On the Identifiability of Transmission Dynamic Models for Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintusaari, Jarno; Gutmann, Michael U; Kaski, Samuel; Corander, Jukka

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important for both biological research and public health applications. It has been widely demonstrated that statistical modeling provides a firm basis for inferring relevant epidemiological quantities from incidence and molecular data. However, the complexity of transmission dynamic models presents two challenges: (1) the likelihood function of the models is generally not computable, and computationally intensive simulation-based inference methods need to be employed, and (2) the model may not be fully identifiable from the available data. While the first difficulty can be tackled by computational and algorithmic advances, the second obstacle is more fundamental. Identifiability issues may lead to inferences that are driven more by prior assumptions than by the data themselves. We consider a popular and relatively simple yet analytically intractable model for the spread of tuberculosis based on classical IS6110 fingerprinting data. We report on the identifiability of the model, also presenting some methodological advances regarding the inference. Using likelihood approximations, we show that the reproductive value cannot be identified from the data available and that the posterior distributions obtained in previous work have likely been substantially dominated by the assumed prior distribution. Further, we show that the inferences are influenced by the assumed infectious population size, which generally has been kept fixed in previous work. We demonstrate that the infectious population size can be inferred if the remaining epidemiological parameters are already known with sufficient precision.

  9. Do changing moisture levels during incubation influence phenotypic traits of hatchling snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Phenotypic traits (e.g., size, strength, speed) of hatchlings in many reptile species are influenced by hydric conditions in the nest. Previous experiments have focused on comparisons between eggs maintained under constant (but different) conditions, but eggs in natural nests frequently experience strong temporal shifts in soil water content during incubation. Keelback snakes (Tropidonophis mairii) in the Australian wet-dry tropics nest over most of the year, so early nests experience decreasing water availability during development, late nests experience increases, and others (midyear) remain stable in this respect. We mimicked these three conditions and incubated 54 eggs (nine from each of six clutches) in a split-clutch design to maintain the same average water content but with differing trajectories through incubation. The experimental treatments significantly affected the total amount of water taken up by the eggs (and thus final egg mass), but incubation periods were unaffected. Hatchling size but not strength showed minor but statistically significant effects of incubation regimes. The ability of keelback eggs to take up excess water whenever it becomes available (either early or late in development) and to retain it even when conditions change buffers embryogenesis effectively (but not completely) against fluctuations in soil water conditions. PMID:15957107

  10. Influence of Procyanidin Contained Foods on Changes of Antioxidant Indexes and Endogenous Substances of Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the influence of procyanidin contained foods on changes of antioxidant indexes and endogenous substances of athletes, this study selected 16 athletes and divides them into the control group (A and the experiment group (B. Having taken procyanidin contained medicines for two weeks; athletes in B took centrifugal exercise with heavy intensity to establish the model of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS. Pain threshold with subject feelings and blood IL-6, T-AOC, SOD and MDA were measured at different time points. The measurement showed that after exercise, pain thresholds in A, B at different time points decreased remarkably; while at a same time point, pain threshold in A was lower than that in B. In both groups, post-exercise blood IL-6 increased first and then decreased and reached its peak immediately after exercise; SOD activity also increased first and decreased later and MDA rose up to its apex and then went down. As for the same time point comparison, IL-6 in A was significantly higher than in B, so did MDA; but SOD in A was notably lower than in B. Thus the conclusion is that procyanidin controls IL-6 to relieve DOMS after centrifugal exercise with heavy intensity, which effectively enhances oxidation resistance of organism.

  11. Landscape changes influence the occurrence of the melioidosis bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil in northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Kaestli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The soil-dwelling saprophyte bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Despite the detection of B. pseudomallei in various soil and water samples from endemic areas, the environmental habitat of B. pseudomallei remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a large survey in the Darwin area in tropical Australia and screened 809 soil samples for the presence of these bacteria. B. pseudomallei were detected by using a recently developed and validated protocol involving soil DNA extraction and real-time PCR targeting the B. pseudomallei-specific Type III Secretion System TTS1 gene cluster. Statistical analyses such as multivariable cluster logistic regression and principal component analysis were performed to assess the association of B. pseudomallei with environmental factors. The combination of factors describing the habitat of B. pseudomallei differed between undisturbed sites and environmentally manipulated areas. At undisturbed sites, the occurrence of B. pseudomallei was found to be significantly associated with areas rich in grasses, whereas at environmentally disturbed sites, B. pseudomallei was associated with the presence of livestock animals, lower soil pH and different combinations of soil texture and colour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study contributes to the elucidation of environmental factors influencing the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and raises concerns that B. pseudomallei may spread due to changes in land use.

  12. Changes in the Influence of Alcohol-Paired Stimuli on Alcohol Seeking across Extended Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbit, Laura H.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose. Finally, the impact of the stimuli on ongoing instrumental responding was examined in a Pavlovian–instrumental transfer (PIT) test. While a significant PIT effect was observed following 2 weeks of either alcohol or sucrose self-administration, the magnitude of this effect was greater following 8 weeks of training. The specificity of the PIT effect appeared unchanged by extended training. While it is well established that evaluation of the outcome of responding contributes less to behavioral control following extended training and/or drug exposure, our data indicate that reward–predictive stimuli have a stronger contribution to responding after extended training. Together, these findings provide insight into the factors that control behavior after extended drug use, which will be important for developing effective methods for controlling and ideally reducing these behaviors. PMID:27777560

  13. Early ischemic CT changes before thrombolysis: The influence of age and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Thomassen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lars Thomassen, Ulrike Waje-Andreassen, Halvor NaessDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, NorwayObjectives: The significance of early ischemic changes (EIC on computed tomography (CT within 3 hours after stroke onset remains controversial. The semi-quantitative Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS is found to have prognostic value in early stroke. This study assesses factors associated with the presence of EIC and the relation between EIC and clinical outcome.Materials and methods: CT scans from 61 consecutive patients receiving thrombolytic therapy were reviewed by 3 experienced stroke neurologists, assessing EIC (ASPECTS and vascular signs (hyperdense middle cerebral artery stem and/or branches. Short-term outcome was assessed with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale at 24 hours and long-term outcome with the modified Rankin Scale score after 3 months.Results: The prevalence of EIC was 54% and the agreement between assessors was good (kappa 0.52–0.67. EIC was independently associated with younger age and absence of diabetes mellitus. Neither EIC nor vascular signs were associated with 3-months outcome.Conclusions: ASPECTS is as simple, systematic approach to assessing EIC, and the interobserver agreement is good. Patient age and diabetes mellitus influence the presence of EIC.Keywords: acute stroke, computed tomography, ischemia, thrombolysis

  14. Trains of Thought in Treating Infectious Atypical Pneumonia with Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳

    2003-01-01

    @@ Infectious atypical pneumonia (also called severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS by WHO) is a new type of infectious disease, whose disease condition is fierce and ferocious, rapid in changing, seriously threatened human health and life. The author has treated around 200 SARS patients in Guangzhou and Hong Kong with integrative Chinese and western medicine (ICWM) approach from January 2003till present. Now I would like to make a comment on ICWM in treating SARS.

  15. A branching model for the spread of infectious animal diseases in varying environments

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Pieter; Meester, R; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a stochastic model, describing outbreaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or human health consequences, and which can result in such severe economic losses that immediate sets of measures need to be taken to curb the spread. During an outbreak of such a disease, the environment that the infectious agent experiences is therefore changing due to the subsequent control measures taken. In our model, we introduce a general branching process in ...

  16. Is the thymus a target organ in infectious diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Savino

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The thymus is a central lymphoid organ, in wich T cell precursors differentiale and generate most of the so-called T cell reprtoire. Along with a variety of acute infectious diseases, we and others determined important changes in both microenvironmental and lymphoid compartments of the organ. For example, one major and common feature observed in acute viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, is a depletion of cortical thymocytes, mostly those bearing the CD4-CD8 double positive phenotype. This occurs simmultaneously to the relative enrichment in medullary CD4 or CD8 single positive cells, expressing high densities of the CD3 complex. Additionally we noticed a variety of changes in the thymic microenvironment (and particularly is epithelial component, comprising abnormal location of thymic epithelial cell subsets as well has a denser Ia-bearing cellular network. Moreover, the extracellular matrix network was altered with an intralobular increase of basement membrane proteins that positively correlated with the degree of thymocyte death. Lastly, anti-thymic cell antibodies were detected in both human and animal models of infectious diseases, and in some of them a phenomenon of molecular mimicry could be evidenced. Taken together, the data receiwed herein clearly show that the thymus should be regarded as a target in infectious diseases.

  17. 北京市2886名服务业从业人员传染病预防素养水平及其影响因素分析%Analysis on status and influencing factors of health literacy on infectious diseases prevention among 2886 em-ployees in service industry of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申洋; 赵芳红; 常春; 蒋莹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the health literacy level on infectious diseases prevention among the services em-ployees in Beijing and identify the influencing factors.Methods 2886 services employees who were handling the health cer-tificates in Beijing CDC were investigated by questionnaires about health literacy.Accuracy was used to describe the aware-ness on knowledge of infectious diseases,Chi-square tests were used to analyze health literacy on infectious diseases preven-tion of the subgroup subjects,and logistic regression was employed to determine the influencing factors.Results In our study,11.4% (329 /2886)of the subjects were classified as enough health literacy on infectious diseases prevention,and the low level of health literacy was observed among the subjects who were aged≥45 years (5.0%,14 /281),middle school and below (5.1%,40 /779),food related industries (9.9%,80 /809),average monthly income of 3000 -3999 RMB (8.8%,51 /579),and no internet-literate (2.8%,4 /142).Multivariable logistic analysis showed that education and in-come were the major influencing factors,among which the OR for junior college and above was 3.476 (95% CI:2.355 -5.130);for average monthly income of 3000 -3999 RMB was 0.514 (95% CI:0.280 -0.944).Conclusion The serv-ices employees in Beijing were considered as low level of health literacy on infectious diseases prevention and tailored inter-vention measures are urgently needed.%目的:分析北京市服务业从业人员传染病预防素养水平现状并探讨其影响因素。方法采用《公共卫生从业相关素养调查问卷》及《2013年中国居民健康素养调查问卷》,对2886位到北京市疾病预防控制中心办理健康证的服务业从业人员进行问卷调查。用χ2检验分析不同特征人群传染病预防素养水平,用 Logistic 回归分析传染病预防素养的影响因素。结果北京市服务业从业人员具备传染病预防素养的比例为11.4%(329/2886),≥45

  18. Advances in microfluidics in combating infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Andy; Pavesi, Andrea; Yazdi, Saeed Rismani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    One of the important pursuits in science and engineering research today is to develop low-cost and user-friendly technologies to improve the health of people. Over the past decade, research efforts in microfluidics have been made to develop methods that can facilitate low-cost diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-poor settings. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microfluidic devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases and emphasis is placed on malaria, sepsis and AIDS/HIV. Other infectious diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis, and dengue are also briefly discussed. These infectious diseases are chosen as they contribute the most to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of research in this area is evaluated and projection toward future applications and accompanying challenges are also discussed. PMID:26854743

  19. Infectious Disease Management: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade in Canada, infectious disease outbreaks have repeatedly been in the public spotlight. The Escherichia coli outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario (1, the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Toronto, Ontario (2 and the Clostridium difficile hospital outbreak in Montreal, Quebec (3, have cost lives, grabbed headlines and stressed local health care systems. Each outbreak raised questions about our ability to prevent outbreaks, detect outbreaks early, and respond efficiently and effectively to infectious disease crises; these outbreaks also highlighted gaps in Canada's preparedness for managing major infectious disease problems when multiple jurisdictions are involved (4. Canada's poor track record of tuberculosis control in the north (5 raises the concern that this problem is not limited to crisis situations, but rather has deeper implications for the management of infectious diseases in Canada.

  20. Infectious optic neuropathies: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahloun R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rim Kahloun, Nesrine Abroug, Imen Ksiaa, Anis Mahmoud, Hatem Zeghidi, Sonia Zaouali, Moncef KhairallahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Monastir, Monastir, TunisiaAbstract: Different forms of optic neuropathy causing visual impairment of varying severity have been reported in association with a wide variety of infectious agents. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious conditions is based on epidemiological data, history, systemic symptoms and signs, and the pattern of ocular findings. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and polymerase chain reaction in selected cases. Treatment of infectious optic neuropathies involves the use of specific anti-infectious drugs and corticosteroids to suppress the associated inflammatory reaction. The visual prognosis is generally good, but persistent severe vision loss with optic atrophy can occur. This review presents optic neuropathies caused by specific viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases.Keywords: optic neuropathy, viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi, vaccination

  1. Infectious Mononucleosis: Recognition and Management in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis strikes many young athletes. Considered here are its epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural course, complications, and management. The focus is on concerns of athletes with a perspective on personality, convalescence, and chronic fatigue. (Author/MT)

  2. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population......-based Danish cohorts of patients who were tested for infectious mononucleosis: 17,045 with serologic evidence of having had acute EBV infection, and 24,614 with no such evidence. We combined the cohort of patients who had serologically verified infectious mononucleosis with a cohort of 21,510 Swedish patients...... with infectious mononucleosis (combined total, 38,555). Biopsy specimens of Hodgkin's lymphomas occurring during follow-up in this combined cohort were tested serologically for the presence of EBV. Using this information, we modeled the relative risk of EBV-negative and EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma...

  3. What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What's the Difference Between Infectious and Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > What's ...

  4. Infectious Diseases and Immunizations. Matrix No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, John L.

    This paper summarizes the major advances achieved by research in the fields of infectious diseases and immunizations during the 1970s, and delineates directions for future research in these fields. (Author/MP)

  5. Infectious disease management in primary care: perceptions of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röing Marta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to keep the level of antibiotic prescribing low to contain the development of resistant bacteria. This study was conducted to reveal new knowledge about how GPs think in relation to the prescribing of antibiotics - knowledge that could be used in efforts toward rational treatment of infectious diseases in primary care. The aim was to explore and describe the variations in GPs' perceptions of infectious disease management, with special reference to antibiotic prescribing. Methods Twenty GPs working at primary care centres in a county in south-west Sweden were purposively selected based on the strategy of including GPs with different kinds of experience. The GPs were interviewed and perceptions among GPs were analysed by a phenomenographic approach. Results Five qualitatively different perceptions of infectious disease management were identified. They were: (A the GP must help the patient to achieve health and well-being; (B the management must meet the GP's perceived personal, professional and organisational demands; (C restrictive antibiotic prescribing is time-consuming; (D restrictive antibiotic prescribing can protect the effectiveness of antibiotics; and (E patients benefit personally from restrictive antibiotic prescribing. Conclusions Restrictive antibiotic prescribing was considered important in two perceptions, was not an issue as such in two others, and was considered in one perception although the actual prescribing was greatly influenced by the interaction between patient and GP. Accordingly, to encourage restrictive antibiotic prescribing several aspects must be addressed. Furthermore, different GPs need various kinds of support. Infectious disease management in primary care is complex and time-consuming, which must be acknowledged in healthcare organisation and planning.

  6. 太原市传染病医院近二十年疾病谱变迁分析及防治策略的建议%Disease patterns changes and suggestions of control strategy in the Infectious Diseases Hospital of Taiyuan in recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宝芳; 顾伟玲; 王霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the change of diseases patterns in our hospital in recent twenty years and to provide suggestions on the control strategy of infectious diseases. Methods The types of the diseases and the number of corresponding patients in the hospital in the last two decades were statistically analyzed, retrospectively. Results The number of patients with hepatitis and liver cirrhosis always rank as the top of all the diseases; bacterial dysentery ranked to the second from the 1990s to early and medium of 21st century, but cases with bacterial dysentery declined significantly since 2007. Measles, mumps, chicken pox, scarlet fever which belong to respiratory infectious diseases were the main kinds of diseases; patients with brucellosis increased during the recent 12 years ( 1999-2010 ); Since 2008 hand-foot-and-mouth disease became one of the main kinds; Influenza A ( H1N1 ) became a new infectious disease since 2009. Conclusions Viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis are the main infectious diseases which threaten to people' s health. Patients with bacterial dysentery declined significantly since 2007. Measles, mumps, chicken pox, scarlet fever threatened the children' s health during the recent 20 years, so the immunization measures and immune adjustment strategies should be taken. Since 2008 hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an immerging common infectious disease triggering some public health emergencies. The number of patients with brucellosis is rising year by year which should be paid more attention to.%目的 分析近20年太原市传染病医院住院病种的变化,对常见传染病的防治策略提出相关建议.方法 对近20年来该院各种疾病病种及住院人数进行回顾性分析.结果 各种肝炎及肝硬化的住院人数始终高居所有住院病种的首位;细菌性痢疾从上世纪90年代至21世纪初、中期一直居住院病种的第2位,但2007年以后该病种住院人数明显下降;麻疹、流行性腮腺炎、猩红

  7. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Anyoha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.

  8. The Control of Infectious Coryza in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Ariyanti; Supar

    2007-01-01

    Infectious coryza or infectious snot is a disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum (HPG), that infects upper respiratory tract of either layer or broiler chickens or other poultry raised under small and large farm conditions. Infection on growing chicken caused reduction of weight gain, whereas in adult layer chicken caused decreasing egg productions, and hence significantly caused economic losses in poultry industries. Coryza cases in the farms are difficult to control by antibiotic trea...

  9. Infectious optic neuropathies: a clinical update

    OpenAIRE

    Kahloun R; Abroug N; Ksiaa I; Mahmoud A; Zeghidi H; Zaouali S; Khairallah M

    2015-01-01

    Rim Kahloun, Nesrine Abroug, Imen Ksiaa, Anis Mahmoud, Hatem Zeghidi, Sonia Zaouali, Moncef KhairallahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Monastir, Monastir, TunisiaAbstract: Different forms of optic neuropathy causing visual impairment of varying severity have been reported in association with a wide variety of infectious agents. Proper clinical diagnosis of any of these infectious conditions is based on epidemiological data...

  10. CHANGE OF MORPHOLOGY OF THE CARBON CHROME-MOLYBDENUM STEEL STRUCTURE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature-temporal parameters of thermal treatment on changing of structure and characteristics of carbon chrome-molybdenum steel is studied. It is shown that there are considerable areas with granular morphology of cementite in metal structure after high-temperature tempering, what provides lowering of microhardness of steel by 25%, and after medium-temperature tempering there are no essential structural changes.

  11. CHANGE OF MORPHOLOGY OF THE CARBON CHROME-MOLYBDENUM STEEL STRUCTURE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko; N. I. Anelkin; T. N. Golubenko; Shcherbakov, V. I.; O. V. Lutsenko; L. A. Drobyshevskij

    2016-01-01

    Influence of temperature-temporal parameters of thermal treatment on changing of structure and characteristics of carbon chrome-molybdenum steel is studied. It is shown that there are considerable areas with granular morphology of cementite in metal structure after high-temperature tempering, what provides lowering of microhardness of steel by 25%, and after medium-temperature tempering there are no essential structural changes.

  12. Influence of heat treatment on changes on structure and magnetic properties of CoSiB alloy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Nowosielski; A. Zajdel; S. Lesz; B. Kostrubiec; Z. Stokłosa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes influence of heat treatment on changes on structure and magnetic properties of the amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD), static and dynamic measurements of magnetic properties (magnetic balance, fluxmeter, Maxwell-Wien bridge).Findings: The crystallization process involved by heat treatment leads to significant changes of structure and magnetic properties of amorphous...

  13. Evaluation of influence of historical changes in land use along the middle Vistula river reach on flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamuz, Emilia; Romanowicz, Renata; Booij, Martijn

    2014-05-01

    There is a vast literature on the influence of land use changes on rainfall-runoff processes. The problem is difficult as it requires separation of climatic and water management related changes from land use influences. The present paper addresses the problem of the influence of land use changes on maximum flows at cross-sections along the middle River Vistula reach. We adopt a methodology tested at the catchment scale, which consists of an optimisation of a rainfall-runoff model using a moving time horizon and analysis of the variability of model parameters. In the present application, it consists of an analysis of changes of roughness coefficients of a distributed HEC-RAS model, optimised using a moving five-year window. The chosen river reach (between Annopol and Gusin) has a recorded history of land use changes over 50 years (from 1949 to 2001), which included 36% of the study area. The nature of the changes is complex and shows different trends for different plant communities and sections of the valley. Generally, there has been a several percent increase in the area occupied by forests and grassland communities and a slight increase in the proportion of scrub. The first step of the procedure is to define the river reaches that have recorded information on land use changes. The second step is to perform a moving window optimisation of the HEC-RAS model for a chosen river reach. In order to assess the influence of land use changes on maximum flow values, the goodness-of-fit of the simulation of annual maximum water levels is used as an optimisation criterion. In this way the influence of land use changes on maximum inundation extent related to flood risk assessment can be estimated. The final step is to analyse the results and relate the model parameter changes to historical land use changes. We report here the results of the first two steps of the procedure. This work was partly supported from the project "Stochastic flood forecasting system (The River Vistula

  14. Making Good Choices: How Autonomy Support Influences the Behavior Change and Motivation of Troubled and Troubling Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Autonomy is a basic human need having influence on motivation. Facilitating student autonomy is an essential ingredient of effective programs for maximizing internalized change and increasing motivation in troubled and troubling youth. This article examines the theoretical concepts of autonomy and control related to choices and considers their…

  15. Organization changes of the university’s corporate culture under the influence of the social Internet communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyutin Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the definition of the term "corporate culture of the university" is refined and supplemented. It is noted that the traditional understanding does not reflect the fundamental changes taking place in the education system and interpersonal relationships of teachers and students of the university, and that undoubtedly have a significant influence on the corporate culture of the university formation

  16. Against the Grain: The Influence of Changing Agricultural Management on the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    The rise of modern agriculture was one of the most transformative events in human history, and has forever changed our relationship to the natural world. By clearing tropical forests, practicing subsistence agriculture on marginal lands and intensifying industrialized farmland production, agricultural practices are changing the worldês landscapes in pervasive ways. In the past decade, we have made tremendous progress in monitoring agricultural expansion from satellites, and modeling associated environmental impacts. In the past decade, the Earth System Science research community has begun to recognize the importance of agricultural lands, particularly as they continue expanding at the expense of important natural ecosystems, potentially altering the planetês carbon cycle and climate. With the advent of new remote sensing and global modeling methods, several efforts have documented the expansion of agricultural lands, the corresponding loss of natural ecosystems, and how this may influence the earth system. But the geographic expansion of agricultural lands is not the whole story. While significant agricultural expansion (or extensification) has occurred in the past few decades, the intensification of agricultural practices Ð under the aegis of the -Green Revolution" Ð has dramatically altered the relationship between humans and environmental systems across the world. Simply put, many of the worldês existing agricultural lands are being used much more intensively as opportunities for agricultural expansion are being exhausted elsewhere. In the last 40 years, global agricultural production has more than doubled Ð although global cropland has increased by only 12% Ð mainly through the use of high yielding varieties of grain, increased reliance on irrigation, massive increases in chemical fertilization, and increased mechanization. Indeed, in the past 40 years there has been a 700% increase in global fertilizer use and a 70% increase in irrigated cropland area

  17. The Influence of a Record Heat Wave on Environmental Change in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, Diane; Cox, Christopher; Stone, Robert; Divoky, George

    2016-04-01

    The May 2015 average temperature at the NOAA Global Monitoring Division's Barrow Observatory (BRW), Alaska, set a 90+ year record high, averaging -2.2°C (28°F), nearly 5°C (9°F) above average. The 2015 spring transition in Barrow was notable with the second earliest date of snow melt on record (JD148, May 28) and earliest ice free conditions on a local lagoon (JD178, June 27). Anomalous early snowmelt was also observed at nearby Cooper Island where a colony of sea birds, the Black Guillemot, nests each year once snow disappears. The appearance of "first egg" is well correlated with the date of snowmelt at BRW (Fig. 1), as is the ice-out date at the Isaktoak Lagoon (ISK). In 2015, the first egg was observed on JD159 (June 8), the earliest in the 40-year record (source: Friends of Cooper Island, http://cooperisland.org/). The 2015 melt at BRW was very early due mainly to an unusually intense heat wave affecting all of Alaska. Each day of advance in the melt date at BRW results in an annual net radiation increase at the surface of about 1%. The documented changes can influence biogeochemical cycles, permafrost temperatures, and potentially the release of stored carbon. BRW permafrost temperatures were warmer than the three previous years; the active layer depth (ALD) was ~6 cm deeper in 2015 than in 2014; and the temperature at 120 cm was ~0.5°C warmer. The anomalous warmth that prevailed during spring 2015 can be primarily attributed to atmospheric circulation. Abnormal warmth of the North Pacific and a perturbed jet stream underlie the heat wave and advection of warm air into the Arctic. Warming was likely amplified locally as the early melting of snow increased absorption of solar radiation. Key factors contributing to the anomalous 2015 spring at BRW and the impact early melt had on the 2015 summer surface radiation budget will be discussed. The role of circulation anomalies reported by reanalysis data over the course of the Barrow observational record will

  18. Factors influencing growth of Acanthopagrus butcheri (Sparidae) in a eutrophic estuary have changed over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Alan; Hall, Norman G.; Potter, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    The overall growth of Acanthopagrus butcheri in the eutrophic Swan River Estuary has previously been shown to decline between 1993-95 and 2007-11. This was attributed to the effects of an increase in hypoxia on A. butcheri in deeper water, brought about by reductions in freshwater flushing, and to density-dependent effects as this species became concentrated in the better-oxygenated, nearshore shallow waters. In the present study, a year-effect model was developed that provided a good fit to the lengths at age and could thus be used to explore the following: 1) The extent to which somatic growth of A. butcheri differed between years in the above two periods and within the later period, which was extended to include data for 2012 to 2014, and 2) whether annual growth in 2007-14 was related to temperature and/or freshwater discharge. Annual length increments for females and males during the second year of life, predicted from the model and when using a common initial length, were almost invariably less in each year in 2007-14 than in 1993-95. In 2007-14, these predicted increments varied by ˜2 times for both females and males and were positively correlated with average temperature during the main growth phase of A. butcheri. They were not significantly correlated, however, with freshwater discharge in the preceding cool wet 'winter' months, when the vast majority of rainfall occurs. The demonstration that the growth of A. butcheri was positively correlated with temperature for years in the latter period is consistent with the metabolic theory of ecology and contrasts with growth declining between 1993-95 and 2007-14 when temperatures were increasing. Thus, any influence of temperature on growth between those periods was overridden by the effects of other factors, i.e. hypoxia and related changes in density. As A. butcheri completes its life cycle within its natal estuary and has plastic biological characteristics, it is an ideal candidate for use as an indicator of

  19. Pathology influences blood pressure change following vagal stimulation in an animal intubation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The haemodynamic response to critical care intubation is influenced by the use of sedation and relaxant drugs and the activation of the vagal reflex. It has been hypothesized that different disease states may have a contrasting effect on the cardiovascular response to vagal stimulation. Our objective was to determine whether the blood pressure response to vagal stimulation was modified by endotoxaemia or hypovolaemia. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were anaesthetised with urethane before tracheotomy. The exposed left Vagus nerve of randomised groups of control (n = 11, endotoxin (n = 11, 1 mg/kg, hypovolaemia 40% (n = 8 and hypovolaemia 20% (n = 8 rabbits were subjected to 10 Hz pulsed electrical stimulations of 25 s duration every 15 min. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded from a catheter in the right carotid artery connected to an iWorx monitor. Serum catecholamines were measured every 30 min using reverse-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography. The change in blood pressure after vagal stimulation was compared to controls for one hour after the first death in the experimental groups. RESULTS: 29% of the rabbits died in the hypovolaemia 40% group and 27% in the endotoxin group. One rabbit died in the hypovolaemia 40% group before vagal stimulation and was excluded. Following electrical stimulation of the Vagus nerve there was a fall in blood pressure in control rabbits. Blood pressure was conserved in the hypovolaemic rabbits compared to controls (p<0.01. For the endotoxaemic rabbits, there was a non-significant trend for the mean blood pressure to decrease more than the controls. Serum catecholamines were significantly raised in both the hypovolaemic and endotoxaemic rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Pathology may contribute to modifications in blood pressure when vagal activation occurs. Patients who are either already vasoconstricted, or not vasoplegic, may be less at risk from intubation-related vagally mediated

  20. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  1. NCAR activities related to translating climate and weather information into infectious-disease and other public-health early warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, T.; Monaghan, A.; Hopson, T.

    2010-09-01

    The atmosphere can influence the spread of human and agricultural infectious diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including the effect of the atmosphere on the health of the pathogen itself, the health and number of disease vectors, human behavior, wind transport, and flooding. Through knowledge of the statistical or physical relationships between disease incidence, for example outbreaks, and weather or climate conditions, it is possible to translate predictions of the atmosphere into predictions of disease spread or incidence. Medium range forecasts of weeks can allow redistribution of vaccines and medical personnel to locations that will be in greatest need. Inter-seasonal forecasts, e.g. based on the ENSO cycle, can provide long-lead-time information for disease early-warning systems, which can guide the manufacture of vaccines and inform aid agencies about future requirements. And knowledge of longer-term trends in climate conditions, associated, for example, with increases in green-house gases, can be used for development of infectious-disease mitigation and prevention policies. Because of the existence of complex physical, biological, and societal aspects to the links between atmospheric conditions and disease, prediction systems must be constructed based on knowledge of multiple disciplines. To be described in the presentation are activities at the National Center for Atmospheric Research that involve the coupling of atmospheric models with infectious-disease models and decision-support systems. These include 1) the use of operational multi-week weather forecasts to estimate the spatial and temporal variability of the threat of bacterial meningitis in West Africa, 2) climate and spatial risk modeling of human plague in Uganda, 3) a study of how climate variability and human landscape modification interact to influence key aspects of both mosquito vector ecology and human behavior, and how they influence the increased incidence of dengue fever

  2. Study on the Climate Changes Characteristics in the Hilly Region of the Loess Plateau and Its Influence on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the climate changes characteristics in the hilly region of the loess plateau and its influence on agricultural production.[Method] Taking Yan'an City as an example,and by dint of temperature and precipitation in nine meteorological stations from 1957 to 2007 and accumulated anomaly curve,linear regression and relevant analysis,the climate changes characteristics in 51 years in Yan'an were expounded.The climate changes in the hilly region of the loess plateau were studied and...

  3. Node discovery in meta-population network behind infectious disease outbreak

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    Stochasticity and spatial heterogeneity are of great interest recently in studying the spread of an infectious disease. Populations in a combination of epidemiological compartment models and a meta-population network model are described by stochastic differential equations. The presented method solves a node discovery problem to identify the nodes within a given dataset which are directly influenced by an unknown neighboring node during the spread. The dataset is either the time sequence data on the number of infectious persons or new cases in the early growth phase of an infectious disease outbreak. The network topology and transmission parameters are revealed by the maximal likelihood estimation. The degree of influence on individual nodes from an unknown origin is calculated with the technique of the extreme sequence detection given the revealed topology and parameters. The method is tested with computationally synthesized datasets and the WHO dataset on SARS outbreak.

  4. Soil management and carbon calculation methods influence changes in soil carbon estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the years, many studies have evaluated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) mass on a fixed-depth (FD) basis without considering changes in soil mass caused by changing in bulk density. In two study sites, we investigated the effect of different management practices on SOC changes calcul...

  5. Influence of climate and land use change on spatially resolved volatilization of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from background soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Jiří; Komprdová, Klára; Sáňka, Milan; Možný, Martin; Nizzetto, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The subject of this study is the assessment of the influence of climate and land use change on the potential re-emission of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from background and agricultural soils. A deterministic spatially and temporally explicit model of the air-surface exchange was created, fed with distributed data of soil and atmospheric concentrations from real measurements, and run under various scenarios of temperature and land use change for a case study area representative of central European conditions. To describe land use influence, some important features were implemented including effect of plowing, influence of land cover, temperature of soil, and seasonal changes of air layer stability. Results show that volatilization of pesticides from soil largely exceeded dry gas deposition in most of the area. Agricultural soils accounted for more than 90% of the total re-emissions both because of the generally higher soil fugacities (higher loads of chemicals and relatively low organic carbon content), but also due to physical characteristics and land management practices enhancing the dynamics of the exchange. An increase of 1 °C in air temperature produced an increase of 8% in the averaged total volatilization flux, however this effect can be neutralized by a change of land use of 10% of the arable lands to grassland or forest, which is consistent with projected land use change in Europe. This suggests that future assessment of climate impact on POP fate and distribution should take into consideration land use aspects.

  6. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  7. The climate influence of anthropogenic land-use changes on near-surface wind energy potential in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; WANG Yuan; CHU HuiYun; TANG JianPing

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential impact of climate change on wind energy in China. The climate change of near-surface wind energy potential in China under the background of global warming and its association with anthropogenic land-use changes are investigated by calculating the difference in surface wind speeds between the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the observations since the re-analysis dataset contains the influence of large-scale climate changes due to greenhouse gases, it is less sensitive to regional surface processes associated with land types. The surface wind data in this study consist of long-tarm observations from 604 Chinese Roution Meteorological Stations and theNCEP/NCAR reanalysis data from 1960-1999. The results suggest that the observed mean wind speeds significantly weakened and the near-surface wind power trended downward due to urbanization and other land-use changes in the last 40 years. The mean wind energy weakened by -3.84 W·m-2 per decade due to the influence of anthropogenic land-use change, which is close to the observed climate change (-4.51 W·m-2/10 a).

  8. 78 FR 58322 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases B Subcommittee (MID-B...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  9. Some aspects of pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, William T.; Amend, Donald F.

    1972-01-01

    The histopathogenesis of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus infection was studied by exposing juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to the IHN virus. Fish samples were taken every 24 h for histological examination and for determination of virus concentration. A close correlation was found between histopathological changes and virus concentration. The most significant changes occurred 4 days after exposure. The haematopocitic tissue of the kidney was the most extensively involved but minor degenerative changes were seen in the liver, pancreas, and in the granular cells of the digestive tract. On the 4th day, maximum tissue concentration of virus was reached and the mortality increased. By the 5th day, 90% of the samples showed extensive pathological changes in the kidney, together with variable changes in spleen, liver, pancreas, and gut. Similarities in the histopathogenesis of IHN, Oregon sockeye disease (OSD), Sacramento River chinook disease (SRCD) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), are discussed.

  10. Changes in Carbon Pools Influenced by Changes in Physiography a Decade Following Wildfire in Black Spruce Forests of Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, G. P.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Topography and parent material (PM) texture control site drainage owing to changes in water holding capacity, infiltration, and insolation. In turn, these factors also affect fire regime. However, the interactive effects of site physiography, edaphic controls, and wildfire severity on ecosystem carbon accrual after wildfire are poorly understood. Throughout the summer of 2004 an area the size of Massachusetts burned in interior Alaska, and several studies were initiated to investigate the controls on organic layer consumption. In this study we resampled organic layer depths, below ground carbon stocks, and site revegetation from 38 burned black spruce sites from the 2004 wildfires. We collected ten year post-fire measurements of soil and woody-debris pools with the goal of understanding effects of landscape position, site physiography (topography/aspect and parent material soil texture), and fire severity (burn depth) on changes in carbon accumulation following wildfire. We also measured seedling recruitment to ascertain changes in post-fire succession and how this might affect trajectories of ecosystem carbon storage in the future.

  11. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on...

  12. A statistical modelling study of the abrupt millennial-scale climate changes focusing on the influence of external forcings

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsui, Takahito

    2015-01-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events are abrupt millennial-scale climate changes mainly detected in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial cycle. The frequency of the DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, we investigate the influences of external forcings on DO events with statistical modelling. We assume two types of generic stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The models are calibrated by maximizing their likelihood and compared using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Among the models, the stochastic oscillator model forced by both insolation and ice volume changes is favored by the NGRIP calcium ion data. The BIC scores provide positive evidence for the ice volume forcing in the presence of the insolation forcing but weak evidence for the insolation forcing in the presence of the ice volume for...

  13. Influence of atmospheric ice nucleus concentrations on cold cloud radiant properties and cold cloud reflectivity changes in past years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PAL satellite dataset which have long temporal span is used in the study. Relationship between cold cloud reflectivity and aerosol concentration in Beijing is analyzed as an example. From analysis, cold cloud reflectivity is found to be well correlated with aerosol optical depth. Meanwhile, it is retro-correlated with surface visibility. The results mean that cold cloud reflectivity is possibly influenced by ice nucleus concentration changes. Analysis about cold cloud reflectivity changes during the period 1982-1999 in Beijing shows that reflectivity increases in earlier years and decreases in later years. The data of cold cloud reflectivity in China show that reflectivity in some regions has changed. For the reason that cold cloud is very important in global climate system, those changes of cold cloud reflectivity can lead to climate changes finally.

  14. Changes in group treatment procedures of Danish finishers and its influence on the amount of administered antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee;

    2016-01-01

    increase their total amount of administered antimicrobials. Based on Danish national register data, we performed a retrospective cohort study with three groups. The cohort of primary interest (Cohort Change) consisted of 50 finisher farms which changed their group treatment procedure from feed...... throughout the study period. Cohort Change experienced a significant increase in the total amount of prescribed antimicrobials between the years. This increase might be caused by the treatment of more pigs, since antimicrobials administered through the feed are mainly administered at the pen level, while...... antimicrobials administered in water are mainly administered at the section level. However, we cannot exclude that a change in clinical disease has influenced the amount of prescribed antimicrobials. No change was observed in the other two cohorts. Furthermore, the difference in the amount of prescribed...

  15. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  16. A comprehensive infectious disease management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Alex; Farley, John D

    2009-01-01

    An efficient electronic management system is now an essential tool for the successful management and monitoring of those affected by communicable infectious diseases (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, hepatitis C - HEP C) during the course of the treatment. The current methods which depend heavily on manual collecting, compiling and disseminating treatment information are labor-intensive and time consuming. Clinics specialized in the treatment of infectious diseases use a mix of electronic systems that fail to interact with each other, result in data duplication, and do not support treatment of the patient as a whole. The purpose of the Infectious Disease Management System is to reduce the administrative overhead associated with data collection and analysis while providing correlation abilities and decision support in accordance with defined treatment guidelines. This Infectious Disease Management System was developed to: Ensure cost effectiveness by means of low software licensing costs, Introduce a centralized mechanism of collecting and monitoring all infectious disease management data, Automate electronic retrieval of laboratory findings, Introduce a decision support mechanism as per treatment guidelines, Seamlessly integrate of application modules, Provide comprehensive reporting capabilities, Maintain a high level of user friendliness.

  17. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Lafferty, Kevin D; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S; Hudson, Peter J; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Control of human infectious disease has been promoted as a valuable ecosystem service arising from the conservation of biodiversity. There are two commonly discussed mechanisms by which biodiversity loss could increase rates of infectious disease in a landscape. First, loss of competitors or predators could facilitate an increase in the abundance of competent reservoir hosts. Second, biodiversity loss could disproportionately affect non-competent, or less competent reservoir hosts, which would otherwise interfere with pathogen transmission to human populations by, for example, wasting the bites of infected vectors. A negative association between biodiversity and disease risk, sometimes called the "dilution effect hypothesis," has been supported for a few disease agents, suggests an exciting win-win outcome for the environment and society, and has become a pervasive topic in the disease ecology literature. Case studies have been assembled to argue that the dilution effect is general across disease agents. Less touted are examples in which elevated biodiversity does not affect or increases infectious disease risk for pathogens of public health concern. In order to assess the likely generality of the dilution effect, we review the association between biodiversity and public health across a broad variety of human disease agents. Overall, we hypothesize that conditions for the dilution effect are unlikely to be met for most important diseases of humans. Biodiversity probably has little net effect on most human infectious diseases but, when it does have an effect, observation and basic logic suggest that biodiversity will be more likely to increase than to decrease infectious disease risk.

  18. Influence of Anthropogenic Land-Use Change on Hillslope Erosion in the Waipaoa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski-Darriau, C.; Roering, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    European settlement of the North Island, New Zealand resulted in deforestation of >90% of the landscape followed by conversion to pastureland. The resulting loss of vegetation cover triggered a sharp increase in hillslope erosion as widespread earthflow complexes and gully systems developed on the weak marine sedimentary lithologies in the Waipaoa River basin. However, the rate and volume of hillslope degradation due to land-use change has not been quantified. Using a 1955-2013 decadal sequence of aerial photographs for a ~16 km2 sub-catchment, we mapped the spatial extent of active landslides and then created a 'turf index' to relate the amount of ground disruption to average downslope velocity. The sub-catchment is predominately comprised of a weak mélange of highly sheared mudstone and riddled with pervasive earthflows that often span from ridgetop to the channel, dissected by gullies. We separated the landslides into three turf classes based on the spectral signature of the landslide, which relates to the style of ground disruption. Based on the movement of trees and other features, we assigned velocities to each class. The resulting three landslide categories are: 1) little to no disrupted ground that averaged ≤1 m/yr, 2) a mix of disrupted ground and intact blocks that averaged 2-5 m/yr, and 3) no intact blocks or vegetation that averaged ≥5 m/yr. We then calculated the average annual sediment flux based on the corresponding turf index, landslide depth, and length along the channel or gully. Using an average toe depth of 4.4 ± 1.3 m (avg ± sd) determined from field measurements of 37 earthflows, we calculated a sub-catchment averaged erosion rate of up to 23 mm/yr (for 1955). Despite evidence that >99% of the terrain is covered by post-LGM landslides, only 38% is active in 1955 (and that proportion is decreasing through time—seemingly correlated with localized reforestation). Compared with long-term (post-18 ka) erosion rates from this catchment (1

  19. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the

  20. Global Dynamics of Infectious Disease with Arbitrary Distributed Infectious Period on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current epidemic models assume that the infectious period follows an exponential distribution. However, due to individual heterogeneity and epidemic diversity, these models fail to describe the distribution of infectious periods precisely. We establish a SIS epidemic model with multistaged progression of infectious periods on complex networks, which can be used to characterize arbitrary distributions of infectious periods of the individuals. By using mathematical analysis, the basic reproduction number R0 for the model is derived. We verify that the R0 depends on the average distributions of infection periods for different types of infective individuals, which extend the general theory obtained from the single infectious period epidemic models. It is proved that if R0<1, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; otherwise the unique endemic equilibrium exists such that it is globally asymptotically attractive. Finally numerical simulations hold for the validity of our theoretical results is given.

  1. Influence of changes in humidity on dry temperature in GPS RO climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Danzer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio occultation (RO data are increasingly used in climate research. Accurate phase (change measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS signals are the basis for the retrieval of near-vertical profiles of bending angle, microwave refractivity, density, pressure, and temperature. If temperature is calculated from observed refractivity with the assumption that water vapor is zero, the product is called "dry temperature", which is commonly used to study earth's atmosphere, e.g., when analyzing temperature trends due to global warming. Dry temperature is a useful quantity, since it does not need additional background information in its retrieval. However, it can only be safely used as proxy for physical temperature, where moisture is negligible. The altitude region above which water vapor does not play a dominant role anymore, depends primarily on latitude and season. In this study we first investigated the influence of water vapor on dry temperature RO profiles. Hence, we analyzed the maximum altitude down to which monthly mean dry temperature profiles can be regarded as being equivalent to physical temperature. This was done by examining dry temperature to physical temperature differences of monthly mean analysis fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, studied from 2006 until 2010. We introduced cutoff criteria, where maximum temperature differences of −0.1, −0.05, and −0.02 K were allowed (dry temperature is always lower than physical temperature, and computed the corresponding altitudes. As an example, a temperature difference of −0.05 K in the tropics was found at an altitude of about 14 km, while at higher northern latitudes in winter it was found at an altitude of about 9–10 km, in summer at about 11 km. Furthermore, regarding climate change, we expect an increase of absolute humidity in the atmosphere. This possible trend in water vapor could yield a wrongly interpreted dry temperature trend

  2. Influence of changes in humidity on dry temperature in GPS RO climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Danzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio Occultation (RO data are increasingly used in climate research. Accurate phase (change measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS signals are the basis for the retrieval of near vertical profiles of bending angle, microwave refractivity, density, pressure, and temperature. If temperature is calculated from observed refractivity with the assumption that water vapor is zero, the product is called "dry temperature", which is commonly used to study the Earth's atmosphere, e.g., when analyzing temperature trends due to global warming. Dry temperature is a useful quantity, since it does not need additional background information in its retrieval. However, it can only be safely used as proxy for physical temperature, where moisture is negligible. The altitude region above which water vapor does not play a dominant role anymore, depends primarily on latitude and season. In this study we first investigated the influence of water vapor on dry temperature RO profiles. Hence, we analyzed the maximum altitude down to which monthly mean dry temperature profiles can be regarded as being equivalent to physical temperature. This was done by examining dry temperature to physical temperature differences of monthly mean analysis fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, studied from 2006 until 2010. We introduced cutoff criteria, where maximum temperature differences of −0.1, −0.05, and −0.02 K were allowed (dry temperature is always lower than physical temperature, and computed the corresponding altitudes. As an example, a temperature difference of −0.05 K in the tropics was found at an altitude of about 14 km, while at higher northern latitudes in winter it was found at an altitude of about 9 to 10 km, in summer at about 11 km. Furthermore, regarding climate change, we expect an increase of absolute humidity in the atmosphere. This possible trend in water vapor could yield a wrongly interpreted dry temperature

  3. The Potential Impact of Climate Change on Soil Properties and Processes and Corresponding Influence on Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Brevik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the IPCC, global temperatures are expected to increase between 1.1 and 6.4 °C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered. Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Because of this, altered climate will have an effect on soil processes and properties. Recent studies indicate at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric C, lowering soil organic matter levels. Soil erosion by wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the N cycle and, in turn, how that will affect C storage in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of how erosion processes will be influenced by changes in climate. The response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like N and P, and how that will influence soil organic matter levels, is another critical research need. How soil organic matter levels react to changes in the C and N cycles will influence the ability of soils to support crop growth, which has significant ramifications for food security. Therefore, further study of soil-climate interactions in a changing world is critical to addressing future food security concerns.

  4. Influence of the Changes Brought by INCOTERMS 2010 to International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Dugan; Iuliana Talmaciu

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the changes that have occurred in international trade terms – INCOTERMS 2010. The authors make an analysis of the changes and the new clauses in international trade and divide these into two broad categories: structural changes and conceptual changes. In this analysis we present an exhaustive approach, taking into account developments of International Commercial Terms from its first edition in 1936 to the latest revision in 2010.

  5. The influence of changes in glacier extent and surface elevation on modeled mass balance

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, F.

    2010-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as unique demonstration objects for climate change impacts, mostly due to the strong change of glacier length in response to small climatic changes. However, glacier mass balance as the direct response to the annual atmospheric conditions can be better interpreted in meteorological terms. When the climatic signal is deduced from long-term mass balance data, changes in glacier geometry (i.e. surface extent and elevation) must be considered as such adjustments ...

  6. The Influence of Subcultures on Planned Change in a Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Mary G.; Guglielmino, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative case study focusing on a collegewide change initiative was conducted to provide community college leaders with a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the role of subcultures in planned change. Research indicates that institutional culture is a primary factor in the success of change programs; however, little research…

  7. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme...... rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding...... owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984–2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes...

  8. Procalcitonin for the differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dong; Zhou, Jianxin; Haraguchi, Go; Arai, Hirokuni; Mitaka, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was performed to assess the value of procalcitonin (PCT) for the differential diagnosis between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cardiac surgery. Methods Patients diagnosed with SIRS after cardiac surgery between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013 were retrospectively studied. A total of 142 patients with SIRS, infectious (n = 47) or non-infectious (n = 95), were included. The patients with infectious SIRS included 11 with ...

  9. Biodiversity loss and infectious diseases: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    When conservation biologists think about infectious diseases, their thoughts are mostly negative. Infectious diseases have been associated with the extinction and endangerment of some species, though this is rare, and other factors like habitat loss and poorly regulated harvest still are the overwhelming drivers of endangerment. Parasites are pervasive and play important roles as natural enemies on par with top predators, from regulating population abundances to maintaining species diversity. Sometimes, parasites themselves can be endangered. However, it seems unlikely that humans will miss extinct parasites. Parasites are often sensitive to habitat loss and degradation, making them positive indicators of ecosystem “health”. Conservation biologists need to carefully consider infectious diseases when planning conservation actions. This can include minimizing the movement of domestic and invasive species, vaccination, and culling.

  10. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  11. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  12. Infectious diseases and securitization: WHO's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiyong; Karackattu, Joe Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The threat posed by infectious diseases has been increasingly framed as a security issue. The UN Security Council's Resolution 1308, which designated HIV/AIDS as a threat to international security, evidenced the securitization process. Using securitization theory as a theoretical tool, this article explores the securitization of infectious diseases in the World Health Organization (WHO). While WHO has tended to securitize infectious diseases since 2000, it has encountered a dilemma in the process because of the inherent asymmetry of interest between developed and developing countries. The act of securitization in WHO currently remains mostly a rhetorical device, since WHO's norms emblematic of securitization have not been backed by operational measures for verification or enforcement due to these asymmetric interests. PMID:21612367

  13. The Influence Of Leadership Role Competencies On Organisation Change Outcome In The Manufacturing Industry In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Smit

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the influence leadership role congruence has on organisation change within three South African organisations in the manufacturing industry. The research was done in two phases. Phase I investigated the utilisation of leaders in specific leadership change roles. Four leadership change roles (Initiator, Shaper, Monitor, and Assessor were identified, each for which a set of competencies (competence cluster was developed. A questionnaire (Leadership Role Competence Questionnaire measuring the perceived level of competence for each role was designed. Phase II investigated the influence of the congruence results on organisational change outcome. A questionnaire (Change Outcome Questionnaire measuring the soft dimensions of organisation change was developed. All three respondent organisations’ leaders involved with their organisations’ change initiatives were selected for Phase I. A random sample of 120 employees per organisation was used for Phase II. The main findings were that congruence existed for two roles (Initiator and Assessor. In addition to this it was found that role congruence for the Initiator and Assessor roles influenced change outcome positively, and that a lack of congruence for the Shaper and Monitor roles had a negative influence on change outcome. OpsommingHierdie artikel fokus op die invloed wat rolkongruensie het op organisasieverandering binne drie Suid Afrikaanse maatskappye in die vervaardigingsektor. Die navorsing is gedoen in twee fases. Fase I het die aanwending van leiers in spesifieke leierskapsveranderingsrolle ondersoek. Vier leierskapsveranderingsrolle (Inisieerder, Vormer, Moniteerder, en Assessor was geïdentifiseer waarvoor vir elk ’n stel vaardighede (vaardigheidsbondel ontwikkel is. ’n Vraelys (Leierskaps-Rol-Vaardigheid Vraelys wat die waargenome vlak van vaardigheid in elke rol meet, is ontwikkel. Fase II het die invloed wat die kongruensieresultate op die

  14. The influence of music on psychiatric patients' immediate attitude change toward therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahans, D; Calford, M B

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish that in an audience situation, music may facilitate an immediate attitude change toward a therapist by patients. To determine the characteristics of such a change, recorded (popular and classical) and live (cello) music was employed. A semantic differential was used to measure attitude change by psychiatric inpatients and control subjects (medical students and student nurses). Significant attitude change were found when the music presented was the preference of the therapist and when this preference was conveyed to the audience. Patient breakdown into diagnostic categories also showed that patients with affective or alcoholic disorders showed significantly larger attitude change than the controls. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive consistency theories of attitude change, concluding that maximal attitude change toward a therapist occurs under conditions in which the therapist presents new aspects of behavior (in terms of previous exposure) to the patients.

  15. The influence of music on psychiatric patients' immediate attitude change toward therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahans, D; Calford, M B

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish that in an audience situation, music may facilitate an immediate attitude change toward a therapist by patients. To determine the characteristics of such a change, recorded (popular and classical) and live (cello) music was employed. A semantic differential was used to measure attitude change by psychiatric inpatients and control subjects (medical students and student nurses). Significant attitude change were found when the music presented was the preference of the therapist and when this preference was conveyed to the audience. Patient breakdown into diagnostic categories also showed that patients with affective or alcoholic disorders showed significantly larger attitude change than the controls. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive consistency theories of attitude change, concluding that maximal attitude change toward a therapist occurs under conditions in which the therapist presents new aspects of behavior (in terms of previous exposure) to the patients. PMID:10256728

  16. Non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; CHEUNG Ning; TIAN Bei; WEI Wen-bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-infectious endophthalmitis was reported to occur after cataract surgery or intravitreal injections.This study reported a series of patients having non-infectious endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy in the same two operation rooms during the same period to estimate the risk factors for non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy.Methods Medical records of patients who presented with severe non-infectious endophthalmitis following vitrectomy between May 13 and June 8,2011,were reviewed.The presenting symptoms and signs were collected,including visual acuity,intraocular pressure,cornea and anterior chamber activity.The treatments and results of microbiology examination were also recorded and analyzed.Results Ten patients were identified with severe non-infectious endophthalmitis,presenting 1 day after pars plana vitrectomy.Three eyes (30%) had previous intraocular surgeries,four (40%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy,and one (10%) got pars plana vitrectomy combinded with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.All the patients were initially treated with topical and/or oral steroids.Only two patients had intravenous antibiotics because of the atypical presentation.One eye had paracentesis because of high intraocular pressure and the aqueous sample was sent for microbiological examination.The culture of the aqueous,air in the operation room,the swab from hand of surgeons,infusion fluid,and vitrectomy effluent were all negative for bacteria and fungi.The inflammation regressed rapidly after the initial treatment.Conclusions Intraocular surgery history,poor general health status,longer operation time,and more surgical procedures are the risk factors for non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy.It responds well to steroids.

  17. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases

  18. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteo-arthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatric patients as follows: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 4 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases and other different diseases 9 cases

  19. [Corticosteroids in the treatment of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronig, I; Schibler, M; Rougemont, M; Emonet, S

    2013-04-24

    The addition of a corticosteroid has become a common practice for the treatment of some infectious diseases, such as meningitis, septic shock, moderate to severe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The belief that steroids may have a beneficial effect in the early stage of pro-inflammatory infections explains the renewed interest for these treatments. This review of recent literature helps determine the use of steroids in the treatment of infectious diseases as formal guidance, questionable or rather contraindicated. When there is a clear scientific indication for the use of corticosteroids regardless of the current infection, the latter is never a formal contraindication.

  20. Conceptual Model for Automatic Early Warning Information System of Infectious Diseases Based on Internet Reporting Surveillance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA-QI MA; LI-PING WANG; XUAO-PENG QI; XIAO-MING SHI; GONG-HUAN YANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish a conceptual model of automatic early warning of infectious diseases based on internet reporting surveillance system,with a view to realizing an automated warning system on a daily basis and timely identifying potential outbreaks of infectious diseases. Methods The statistic conceptual model was established using historic surveillance data with movable percentile method.Results Based on the infectious disease surveillance information platform,the conceptualmodelfor early warning was established.The parameter,threshold,and revised sensitivity and specificity of early warning value were changed to realize dynamic alert of infectious diseases on a daily basis.Conclusion The instructive conceptual model of dynamic alert can be used as a validating tool in institutions of infectious disease surveillance in different districts.

  1. The influence of climate changes on carbon cycle in the russian forests. Data inventory and long-scale model prognoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorin, A.O.; Nazarov, I.M.; Lelakin, A.L. [Inst. Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The growing up climate changes arise the question about reaction of forests. Forests cover 770 Mha in Russia and are giant carbon reservoir. Climate changes cause disbalance in carbon budget that give additional CO{sub 2} exchange between forests and the atmosphere. The aim of the work is estimation of these fluxes. This problem is directly connected with an GHG inventory, vulnerability and mitigation assessment, which are necessary for future Russian Reports to UN FCCC. The work includes the following steps: (1) Collection of literature data as well as processing of the experimental data on influence of climate changes on forests, (2) Calculation of carbon budget as base for calculations of CO{sub 2} fluxes, (3) Developing of new version of CCBF (Carbon and Climate in Boreal Forests) model, (4) Model estimations of current and future CO{sub 2} fluxes caused by climate changes, forest cuttings, fires and reforestation

  2. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  3. Laboratory simulation of temperature changes by insolation and fire and their influence on physical properties of travertines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kompaníková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insolation and fire represents important factor for study of historical object destruction. The results have shown that temperature changes by insolation (60°C and fire (200, 400, 600, and 800°C significantly contributed to the change of physical properties of Slovak travertine from Spišské Podhradie and Ludrová. Research was oriented not only on a visual change of rocks (colour change, brightness and surface roughness, but also on the quantitative and qualitative analyses of mineral composition, connected with structural changes as well as study of selected physical properties. The micropetrographic study indicated that increasing of temperature was followed by expand of fractures as reflected even change of true and specific bulk density. Significant increase of microcracks was determined at 600°C by optical microscopy. The macroscopic observation of microcracks was visible at 800°C subsequently followed by destruction of samples. By spectrophotometry was visible colour change by increasing of temperature. The brightness of travertine samples was decreasing till 600°C, but after 600°C it became markedly increasing. With increasing of temperature travertine surface samples had also change from a few hundred nanometres to several microns. The investigation of thermal decay by insolation and fire may lead to an improved assessment of natural building stones that have been used as building and decorative stone on ancient monument.

  4. Influence of higher sodium substitutions on magnetic entropy change and transition temperature in lanthanum manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sethulakshmi; I A Al Omari; M R Anantharaman

    2015-10-01

    Present investigation focuses on the variation of magnetic entropy change for higher sodium substitution above 50% in lanthanum manganites. Magnetic measurements indicated that all samples exhibit a ferromagnetic ordering near room temperature. Magnetic isotherms for different temperatures above and below 300 K were recorded and the magnetic entropy change for compositions belonging to La1−Na MnO3 for = 0.6 to 0.9 in steps of 0.1 was estimated for different applied magnetic fields. It has been found that the compositions having a Na substitution of 0.6 are having the largest entropy change, and the entropy change increases with applied magnetic field for all compositions. The change in entropy also decreases with increase in substitution of sodium. A notable change in transition temperature with Na concentration is also found in this sample series.

  5. Influence of extraction type on the total phenolics, total flavonoids and total colour change of different varieties of fig extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jokić, Stela; MUJIĆ, Ibrahim; Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Velić, Darko; Bilić, Mate; Planinić, Mirela; Lukinac, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-liquid extraction with 80% of aqueous ethanol solution on the total phenolics, total flavonoids and total colour change of extracts from five different varieties of figs (Bjelica, Termenjača, Crnica, Bružetka bijela and Šaraguja). The total phenolic content was determined by using Folin Ciocalteau assay. The content of total flavonoids was measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colourimetric ...

  6. The influence of refractive index change and initial bending of cantilevers on the optical lever readout method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Greve, Anders; Svendsen, Winnie Edith;

    2010-01-01

    It has been speculated that the initial bending of cantilevers has a major influence on the detector signal in a cantilever-based sensor using the optical lever readout method. We have investigated theoretically as well as experimentally the changes induced in the detector signal when the optical...... experimentally using an environmental chamber and varying the pressure. We sketch routes to circumvent the problem and formulas suitable for data treatment are given....

  7. Changes and recovery of soil bacterial communities influenced by biological soil disinfestation as compared with chloropicrin-treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlick, Subrata; Inoue, Takashi; Takehara, Toshiaki; Kaku, Nobuo; Ueki, Katsuji; Ueki, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Soil bacterial composition, as influenced by biological soil disinfestation (BSD) associated with biomass incorporation was investigated to observe the effects of the treatment on the changes and recovery of the microbial community in a commercial greenhouse setting. Chloropicrin (CP) was also used for soil disinfestation to compare with the effects of BSD. The fusarium wilt disease incidence of spinach cultivated in the BSD- and CP-treated plots was reduced as compared with that in the untre...

  8. Wearing a safety harness during treadmill walking influences lower extremity kinematics mainly through changes in ankle regularity and local stability

    OpenAIRE

    Decker Leslie M; Cignetti Fabien; Stergiou Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Wearing a harness during treadmill walking ensures the subject's safety and is common practice in biomedical engineering research. However, the extent to which such practice influences gait is unknown. This study investigated harness-related changes in gait patterns, as evaluated from lower extremity kinematics during treadmill walking. Findings Healthy subjects (n = 10) walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed for 3 minutes with and without wearing a harness (LiteGa...

  9. A Study on In-Line Tablet Coating—the Influence of Compaction and Coating on Tablet Dimensional Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyadi, C.; Tan, B. X.; Chan, L. W.; Heng, P. W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to coating, tablets are usually stored for a definite period to enable complete strain recovery and prevent subsequent volumetric expansion-related coating defects. In-line coating is defined as the coating of tablets immediately after compaction. In-line coating will be expected to improve manufacturing efficiencies. In this study, the possibility of in-line coating was studied by evaluating the influence of compaction and coating on tablet dimensional changes. The use of tapered dies ...

  10. The influence of organizational and national culture on the acceptance of organizational change: Empirical study in Serbian enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Šapić Srđan; Erić Jelena; Stojanović-Aleksić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Organizational culture is one of the most important factors influencing the process of organizational change. As such it is the object of research and analysis in this paper. Key values held by the employees that impact the formation of organizational culture, as well as the feedback organizational culture has in determining organizational processes are explored. Different relevant classifications of organizational cultures are described depending on research focus. Special consideration is g...

  11. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi correlati. Gli alimenti che

  12. How changes in nutrition have influenced the development of allergic diseases in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peroni Diego G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasing prevalence of allergic diseases in childhood in the last decades could be linked to concomitant dietary changes, especially with the modified and lower consumption of fruit, vegetables and minerals. The consumption of these foods by pregnant women and children in the first years of life seems to be associated with a reduced risk of asthma and related symptoms. Foods that can prevent the development of wheezing through their antioxidant effects contain vitamin C and selenium; blood levels of these elements correlate negatively with the risk of wheezing. Intake of vitamin E during pregnancy also appears to be correlated with a reduced risk of wheezing for the unborn child. Similarly, low intake of zinc and carotenoids by pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma in childhood. Fiber also has anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects against allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. The consumption of fat influences the development of the airways. Populations in Western countries have increased their consumption of n-6 PUFAs and, in parallel, reduced n-3 PUFAs. This has led to decreased production of PGE2, which is believed to have a protective effect against inflammation of the airways. Conflicting hypotheses also concern vitamin D; both an excess and a deficiency of vitamin D, in fact, have been associated with an increased risk of asthma. Further studies on the role of these substances are necessary before any conclusions can be drawn on a clinical level. Astratto La crescente prevalenza negli ultimi decenni delle malattie allergiche in età pediatrica potrebbe essere legata a concomitanti cambiamenti nella dieta, in particolare alla minore e modificata introduzione di frutta, verdura e minerali. Il consumo di questi alimenti da parte delle donne in gravidanza e dei bambini nei primi anni di vita sembra essere associato ad un ridotto rischio di asma e di sintomi

  13. Climate Change and Its Influence on Crop Farming in Xintai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the variation characteristics of climate and its influence on the crop farming in Xintai City.[Method] By using the yearly and monthly average temperature,rainfall,first and last frost dates,frost-free period,sunshine hours,etc.in Xintai City during 1957-2009,the variation characteristics of climate and its influence on the crop farming in Xintai City in recent 53 years were analyzed.[Result] The temperature rose in the fluctuation in Xintai City.The warm winter pheno...

  14. Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010". Influence of climate change on biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, B.S.J.; Vos, C.C.; Strien, van, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    This report takes the first steps for the development of a climate change indicator system, based on the different responses of species to climate change. The usefulness of several climate change indicators is tested, by analyzing the relation between indicators and population trends of target species. The study is restricted to terrestrial ecosystems. Also a reference list for cold, warmth and neutral preferent indicator groups is provided. An inventory of CBS and Alterra

  15. The influence of emission changes on ozone concentrations and nitrogen deposition into the southern North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke M.I. Meyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changes in amount of emission for NOx (Nitrogen monoxide NO + Nitrogen dioxide NO2 and NMVOC (Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds on concentrations of ozone (O3, NOx, nitric acid (HNO3 and on nitrogen deposition in the area of the southern North Sea are investigated. One reference case for the period 16 June till 20 June, 1998 and six emission scenarios are calculated. Spatial and temporal emission patterns are kept and overall emission factors are used that correspond to years 1998 (reference, 1970 and 2010. Some more artificial emission scenarios are constructed to investigate the effect of a changed ratio of NOx to NMVOC emissions. The meteorology is unchanged for all scenarios. The studies are performed with the meteorology/chemistry model M-SYS (METRAS/MECTM including a simple aerosol chemistry and using a horizontal resolution of 8 km. Changes in emissions of NMVOC and NOx cause nonlinear changes in O3, NOx and HNO3 concentrations. The concentration changes depend on emission changes and on changes in the ratio of NMVOC to NOx emissions. The whole area, over land and water, turns out to be in the NMVOC limited regime. Ozone scenario concentrations linearly depend on the ratio of NMVOC to NOx emissions. NOx concentrations linearly depend on changes in the total emissions of NOx and NMVOC. They are inversely related to changes in the ratio of NMVOC to NOx emissions. HNO3 concentrations mainly depend on the total emission changes with NOx emission changes being of doubled relevance compared to NMVOC emission changes. The same relation is found for nitrogen deposition. Compared to mean ozone concentrations from the reference case, higher (lower NOx emissions reduce (increase ozone concentrations, while HNO3 concentrations are increased (reduced. In contrast, reduced (increased NMVOC emissions reduce (increase both, ozone and HNO3 concentrations and, in addition, the nitrogen deposition.

  16. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In ...

  17. Evaluation of factors influencing root-induced changes of copper fractionation in rhizosphere of a calcareous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major factors influencing the root-induced copper fractionation changes within the rhizosphere of maize, wheat, pea, and soybean seedlings were evaluated using a contaminated calcareous soil. The effects of acidification, alkalization, and introduction of root exudates were investigated by addition of acid, alkaline and root exudates from solution cultures, prior to incubation and copper fractionation. Raw and sterilized soils were compared for changes of copper fractionation in the rhizosphere using rhizoboxes with maize, wheat, pea and soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the general trend in considerable changes was similar among the plant species studied. The rhizosphere experienced a depletion of carbonate associated and organic bound copper along with an accumulation of exchangeable and Fe-Mn oxide bound copper. The resulting significant influence of root exudates on copper fractionation appears to have been produced through complexation rather than acidification or alkalization. The increase in exchangeable copper in rhizosphere was strengthened by microorganisms. - Influence of root exudates on copper fractionation appeared to be due to complexation, rather than acidification or alkalisation

  18. Changes in the Factors Influencing Public Acceptance of Nuclear Power Generation in Japan Since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power generation has decreased in Japan since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. This study examines how the factors influencing public acceptance of nuclear power changed after this event. The influence factors examined are perceived benefit, perceived risk, trust in the managing bodies, and pro-environmental orientation (i.e., new ecological paradigm). This study is based on cross-sectional data collected from two online nationwide surveys: one conducted in November 2009, before the nuclear accident, and the other in October 2011, after the accident. This study's target respondents were residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures in the Tohoku region of Japan, as these areas were the epicenters of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the locations of nuclear power stations. After the accident, trust in the managing bodies was found to have a stronger influence on perceived risk, and pro-environmental orientation was found to have a stronger influence on trust in the managing bodies; however, perceived benefit had a weaker positive influence on public acceptance. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  19. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  20. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data.

  1. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hendriks; B. van den Putte; G.J. de Bruijn

    2014-01-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational

  2. Changing Times in England: The Influence on Geography Teachers' Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare

    2012-01-01

    School geography in England has been characterised as a pendulum swinging between policies that emphasise curriculum and pedagogy alternately. In this paper, I illustrate the influence of these shifts on geography teacher's professional practice, by drawing on three "moments" from my experience as a student, teacher and teacher educator. Barnett's…

  3. Corporate influence and conflicts of interest: assessment of veterinary medical curricular changes and student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowers, Kristy L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Kogan, Lori R

    2015-01-01

    The ethics document of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges provides guiding principles for veterinary schools to develop conflict of interest policies. These policies regulate faculty and student interactions with industry, potentially reducing the influence companies have on students' perceptions and future prescribing practices. This paper examines the implementation of a conflict of interest policy and related instructional activities at one veterinary college in the US. To inform policy and curricular development, survey data were collected regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing, including their perceptions of their own susceptibility to bias in therapeutic decisions. Responses from this group of students later served as control data for assessing the effectiveness of educational programs in the content area. A conflict of interest policy was then implemented and presented to subsequent classes of entering students. Classroom instruction and relevant readings were provided on ethics, ethical decision making, corporate influences, and the issue of corporate influence in medical student training. Within seven days of completing a learning program on conflict of interest issues, another cohort of veterinary students (the treatment group) were administered the same survey that had been administered to the control group. When compared with the control group who received no instruction, survey results for the treatment group showed moderate shifts in opinion, with more students questioning the practice of industry-sponsored events and use of corporate funds to reduce tuition. However, many veterinary students in the treatment group still reported they would not be personally influenced by corporate gifts. PMID:25526761

  4. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  5. The influence of organizational culture on organizational preferences towards the choice of organizational change strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture, through its assumptions, values, norms and symbols, determines the way in which the members of an organization perceive and interpret the reality within and around their organization, as well as the way they behave in that reality. For this reason we may assume that organizational culture has an impact on the way in which an organization changes, and that matching of organizational culture and change strategy will improve the efficiency of the change process. In this paper specific hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational culture and certain change strategies are formulated. Types of organizational culture are differentiated according to Handy’s and Trompenaars’ classifications. Organizational change strategies have been differentiated according to previous work of Chin & Benne but one more strategy has been added. Classifications of both the organizational cultures and of the organizational change strategies are based on the same criteria of differentiation: distribution of power in an organization and orientation toward relationships or tasks. For this reason it is possible to formulate hypotheses about the causal relationship between certain types of organizational cultures and certain types of organizational change strategies. Thus, eight hypotheses are formulated in this paper, relating particular change strategies with particular types of organizational culture.

  6. Using Simulations in the Middle School: Does Assertiveness of Dyad Partners Influence Conceptual Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windschitl, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines how academic assertiveness in junior high school students was related to conceptual change and the degree to which their assertiveness affected conceptual change in the partners paired with them for a series of activities using a simulation of the human cardiovascular system. Indicates that the assertiveness ratings of the individuals'…

  7. Infectious and Environmental Influences on the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lili; Lyons, Jasmine; Magliano, Dianna J

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. While it is intuitively appealing to believe that the causes of obesity are manifestly related to excess dietary intake, combined with a reduced expenditure of energy via a decrease in physical activity, it is also been noted that the evidence for these as the sole causes of the obesity epidemic is incomplete. This has led to the search for other causes of obesity, particularly those which stem from the environment we live in. This review will explore two putative causes of obesity: infections and environmental pollutants. It will focus on the key human infection associated with obesity-human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) and will discuss several environmental pollutants which have been postulated to be involved in the development of obesity: bisphenol A, phthalates and persistent organic pollutants. For each of these, the epidemiology and biological mechanisms underpinning the association of these agents with obesity will be reviewed. PMID:27394433

  8. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  9. The Organizational Change Process: Its Influence on Competences Learned on the Job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Rabelo Neiva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in a Brazilian court that was subjected to the introduction of e-process, and bears the following objectives: (a describe the context of changes in terms of planning and perceived risk degree; (b describe the results perceived after the introduction of the e-process; (c describe the support to learning and the competences learned during the e-process implementation; (d identify the links between variables of changing context, support to learning and the competences learned during the introduction of the e-process at the Higher Justice Court. 219 civil servants participated in the study, which used scales of changing context, results of the change of competences and support to learning. Scales were subjected to exploratory factor analysis with robust statistical indexes and three multiple regressions to test the associations between variables. Results pointed out that characteristics of the change process and support to learning affect learned competences.

  10. Abrupt climate change in southeast tropical Africa influenced by Indian monsoon variability and ITCZ migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Russell, James M.

    2007-08-01

    The timing and magnitude of abrupt climate change in tropical Africa during the last glacial termination remains poorly understood. High-resolution paleolimnological data from Lake Tanganyika, Southeast Africa show that wind-driven seasonal mixing in the lake was reduced during the Younger Dryas, Inter-Allerød Cool Period, Older Dryas, and Heinrich Event 1, suggesting a weakened southwest Indian monsoon and a more southerly position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over Africa during these intervals. These events in Lake Tanganyika, coeval with millennial and centennial-scale climate shifts in the high latitudes, suggest that changes in ITCZ location and Indian monsoon strength are important components of abrupt global climate change and that their effects are felt south of the equator in Africa. However, we observe additional events in Lake Tanganyika of equal magnitude that are not correlated with high-latitude changes, indicating the potential for abrupt climate change to originate from within tropical systems.

  11. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety.

  12. The influence of historical climate changes on Southern Ocean marine predator populations: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Jane L; Emmerson, Louise M; Miller, Karen J

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid physical and biological changes that are likely to have profound implications for higher-order predators. Here, we compare the long-term, historical responses of Southern Ocean predators to climate change. We examine palaeoecological evidence for changes in the abundance and distribution of seabirds and marine mammals, and place these into context with palaeoclimate records in order to identify key environmental drivers associated with population changes. Our synthesis revealed two key factors underlying Southern Ocean predator population changes; (i) the availability of ice-free ground for breeding and (ii) access to productive foraging grounds. The processes of glaciation and sea ice fluctuation were key; the distributions and abundances of elephant seals, snow petrels, gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguins all responded strongly to the emergence of new breeding habitat coincident with deglaciation and reductions in sea ice. Access to productive foraging grounds was another limiting factor, with snow petrels, king and emperor penguins all affected by reduced prey availability in the past. Several species were isolated in glacial refugia and there is evidence that refuge populations were supported by polynyas. While the underlying drivers of population change were similar across most Southern Ocean predators, the individual responses of species to environmental change varied because of species specific factors such as dispersal ability and environmental sensitivity. Such interspecific differences are likely to affect the future climate change responses of Southern Ocean marine predators and should be considered in conservation plans. Comparative palaeoecological studies are a valuable source of long-term data on species' responses to environmental change that can provide important insights into future climate change responses. This synthesis highlights the importance of protecting productive foraging grounds

  13. Influence of land cover changes on the physical and chemical properties of alpine meadow soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Taking the alpine cold meadow grassland in the southeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as an example, this research deals with the characteristics of alpine meadow soil property changes, including soil nutrients, soil physical properties and soil moisture content under different land coverage conditions. With the degradation of grassland vegetation and the decline of vegetation coverage, soil compactness reduces, gravel content increases and bulk density increases. The originally dense root-system layer is gradually denuded, making the soil coarse and gravel. The change of the organic matter contents with the vegetation coverage change in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm) has shown an obvious cubic polynomial curve process. The organic matter contents increase rapidly when land coverage is above 60%, contrarily decreases on a large scale when land coverage is below 30%. Between 30%-60% of land coverage the organic matter contents remain stable. The total N and organic matter contents in soil have shown quite similar change regularity. Following this the mathematic equations are derived to describe such change processes. Moisture content in soil changes sharply with the vegetation coverage change. Soil moisture content change with the vegetation coverage change has shown a quadratic parabola process. Results have shown that organic matter content and the total N content of the alpine meadow soil decrease by 14890 kg/hm2 and 5505 kg/hm2 respectively as the vegetation coverage reduces from 90% to less than 30%. The heavy changes of soil physical and chemical properties with grassland degradation have made the recovery of alpine meadow ecological system impossible. The protection of alpine meadow vegetation is of vital importance to the maintenance of the regional soil environment and the regional ecological system.

  14. Prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Winton, J.R.; Kimura, T.

    1989-01-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the most important limitations to the successful propagation of aquatic animals. Most of the losses caused by pathogens in aquaculture could be prevented by health inspection, adequate environment and sound management practices. Effective control measures, mainly based upon 1) avoidance of pathogens 2) modification of the environment 3) improvement of host resistance 4) vaccination and 5) chemoprophylaxis are described.

  15. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  16. Addressing Infectious Disease Challenges by Investigating Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balskus, Emily P

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities occupy essentially every habitat on earth and have profound effects on our environment and human health. The National Microbiome Initiative will provide a framework for interdisciplinary microbiome research. The challenges inherent in discovering and understanding microbiome functions, especially those associated with infectious disease, present countless opportunities for chemists. PMID:27626096

  17. Mathematical aspects of infectious disease dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldin, B.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis `Mathematical aspects of infectious disease dynamics' by Barbara Boldin is about model formulation, analysis and interpretation of four questions arising from biology or medicine. Suppose that a new population is introduced into a steady community. When the basic reproduction ratio R_0 of

  18. Measurement and Modeling: Infectious Disease Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretzschmar, MEE

    2016-01-01

    After some historical remarks about the development of mathematical theory for infectious disease dynamics we introduce a basic mathematical model for the spread of an infection with immunity. The concepts of the model are explained and the model equations are derived from first principles. Using th

  19. Travel and pregnancy: an infectious diseases perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhutu, Kudzai; Torda, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to travel during pregnancy. In the presence of an altered immune state, exposure to certain microbes can be particularly harmful. We have undertaken a review of the literature in order to provide strategies to minimize the infectious disease risks of pregnant travel. Included is a discussion of common immunizing agents and their safety in pregnancy.

  20. [Combined physiotherapy of chronic infectious prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, A A; Popkov, V M; Zemskov, S P; Glybochko, P V; Bliumberg, B I

    2007-01-01

    Our experience with therapy of 259 outpatients with chronic infectious prostatitis (CIP) aged 16-55 years has demonstrated that combined treatment of CIP with rectal digital massage of the prostate, electrophoresis of chimotripsin solution with dimexide and local magnetotherapy (Intramag unit) significantly raises treatment efficacy, shortens treatment, prevents complications. PMID:17472003

  1. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  2. Translational medicine policy issues in infectious disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fears, R.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, V. ter

    2010-01-01

    The European Academies Science Advisory Council has published a series of reports on infectious disease policy issues, analyzing priorities for building the science base as part of public health strategy. Among current challenges facing the European Union are the needs to tackle antibiotic resistanc

  3. Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.

    1985-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.

  4. Climate change influence on POPs distribution and fate: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Valle, M; Codato, E; Marcomini, A

    2007-04-01

    Climate change has the potential of affecting the behaviour and distribution of organic pollutants, including POPs. Direct effects of climate change, like temperature increase, modification of wind and precipitation patterns, sea level rise, snow and ice cover, may be very effective in altering the partitioning of POPs among the environmental compartments. Other consequences of future climate scenarios may imply the alteration of degradation rates, soil properties (and hence land use), air-particle partitioning of chemicals and so forth. A case study is here presented to illustrate the major implications of climate change on the long term at the local scale. A dynamic multimedia model was applied to selected PCB and PCDD/F congeners to simulate the effects of climate change on their distribution and fluxes over the next 50 y in the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Different climate change scenarios were tested, finding noticeable variations in POPs concentration even for minor environmental changes. PCBs and PCDFs environmental concentrations may differ by a factor two in a moderate climate change scenario, compared to a situation with stable climate over the next 50 y. However, model results also suggest that if global warming may have the potential of reducing the environmental levels of these chemicals, it would probably enhance their mobility and hence their potential for long range atmospheric transport.

  5. Transfusion practices and infectious risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Lobel, Gregg P; Javidroozi, Mazyar

    2016-06-01

    Transfusion-transmitted infections remain among the most-feared complications of allogeneic blood transfusion. Thanks to several strategies including donor screening and deferral, blood testing and pathogen inactivation, their risks have reached all-time low levels, particularly in developed nations. Nonetheless, new and emerging infections remain a threat that is likely to exacerbate in the coming years with continued globalization and climate change. More effective strategies of pathogen inactivation and more vigilant horizon screening are hoped to abate the risk. Additionally, allogeneic transfusion has repeatedly been shown to be associated with worsening of outcomes in patients, including the documented increased risk of infections (often nosocomial) in recipients of transfusions. The underlying mechanism is likely to be related to immunosuppressive effects of allogeneic blood, iron content, and bacterial contamination. This issue is best addressed by more judicious and evidence-based use of allogeneic blood components to ensure the potential benefits outweigh the risks. PMID:26959944

  6. Incorporating Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability Models: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Mann

    Full Text Available The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the model. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate models, respectively. Our two climate models show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our model would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many models likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change.

  7. Incorporating Anthropogenic Influences into Fire Probability Models: Effects of Human Activity and Climate Change on Fire Activity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael L; Batllori, Enric; Moritz, Max A; Waller, Eric K; Berck, Peter; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Dolfi, Emmalee

    2016-01-01

    The costly interactions between humans and wildfires throughout California demonstrate the need to understand the relationships between them, especially in the face of a changing climate and expanding human communities. Although a number of statistical and process-based wildfire models exist for California, there is enormous uncertainty about the location and number of future fires, with previously published estimates of increases ranging from nine to fifty-three percent by the end of the century. Our goal is to assess the role of climate and anthropogenic influences on the state's fire regimes from 1975 to 2050. We develop an empirical model that integrates estimates of biophysical indicators relevant to plant communities and anthropogenic influences at each forecast time step. Historically, we find that anthropogenic influences account for up to fifty percent of explanatory power in the model. We also find that the total area burned is likely to increase, with burned area expected to increase by 2.2 and 5.0 percent by 2050 under climatic bookends (PCM and GFDL climate models, respectively). Our two climate models show considerable agreement, but due to potential shifts in rainfall patterns, substantial uncertainty remains for the semiarid inland deserts and coastal areas of the south. Given the strength of human-related variables in some regions, however, it is clear that comprehensive projections of future fire activity should include both anthropogenic and biophysical influences. Previous findings of substantially increased numbers of fires and burned area for California may be tied to omitted variable bias from the exclusion of human influences. The omission of anthropogenic variables in our model would overstate the importance of climatic ones by at least 24%. As such, the failure to include anthropogenic effects in many models likely overstates the response of wildfire to climatic change. PMID:27124597

  8. Influence of myocardial infarction on changes in the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor in the rat prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Domińska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (AngII is the biologically active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. Tissue- based, local RAS has been identified in the prostate, testis, epididymis and coagulating glands. Experimental and clinical studies have consistently shown that myocardial infarction (MI is associated with activation of the systemic RAS with increased concentration of angiotensin peptides in the blood and changes in expression of angiotensin receptors (AT. Changes in angiotensin receptors in the renal and cardiovascular system after MI are well recognized, but the effects of MI influence on changes in other tissue like the prostate gland are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of myocardial infarction on angiotensin receptor protein and mRNA expression in the rat prostate gland. MI model was established in Wistar rats by ligating the left coronary artery (modified Selye method. The levels of AT1a-b and AT2 receptor mRNAs and proteins were measured in the rat prostate. Our study demonstrates tissue-specific changes in AT1a-b and AT2 receptor expression after myocardial infarction. The results show that MI has a strong influence on the expression of angiotensin receptor type AT1 in the prostate at the protein and mRNA level. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 3, 497–503

  9. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. PMID:21664886

  10. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice. PMID:27356446

  11. Analysis to significant climate change in aerosol influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas by EOF mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Xiaohui; XU; Xiangde; ZHANG; Shengjun; DING; Guoan

    2005-01-01

    Using the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol optical depth (AOD)data and the sunshine duration, fog days, Iow cloud cover (LCC), etc. meteorological data in 1979-2000 in North China, as well as empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode statistical analyses method, the winter aerosol distributive character of Beijing and peripheral city agglomeration and its influence effect on regional climate are investigated in this paper, especially the relation between aerosol influence effect and distinct change regions of eigenvectors of EOF mode. It is found from analyzing the regional distribution of the long-term averaged winter TOMS AOD that there is a large-scale relatively stable high value zone of aerosol concentration in the valley of the Beijing and peripheral U-shape megarelief. A high correlation area of AOD between Beijing and its southern peripheral exists in winter, and in this significant region of aerosol interaction, there is "in-phase" character of the interannual variations of winter AOD, fog days, and LCCs. It indicates that the variations of aerosol in Beijing and its peripheral areas have impacts on interannual changes of fog days and LCCs in this area. The EOF analyses of the meteorological data further reveal the climate change regions and long-term trends of winter sunshine duration-reducing, and LCC- and fog days-increasing in North China. The areas of significant changes of the first EOF eigenvectors (FEE) of sunshine duration, fog days, LCCs almost superpose on corresponding marked regions of interdecadal differences between the 1990s and 1980s, and all accord with the S-N zonal high value pattern and high correlation region of winter AOD in Beijing and its peripheral areas. Interannual variations of their associated time coefficients (ATC) are in phase with that of regional mean AOD, and both of them have a secular rising trend. Results by EOF mode analyses depict the regional climatic change principal character of winter sunshine

  12. Influence of charge changing collisions on charge state distributions (CSD) in non-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an optimal design of ion sources and for some aspects of plasma diagnostics it is important to study the influence of all processes and parameters that are essential for the production and loss of multiply charged ions. Till now all existing calculations of CSD neglected charge transfer because of missing data. Now many of the very big charge transfer cross sections are measured and so we are able to include them into our calculations. (orig.)

  13. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Redlarski; Bogdan Lewczuk; Arkadiusz Żak; Andrzej Koncicki; Marek Krawczuk; Janusz Piechocki; Kazimierz Jakubiuk; Piotr Tojza; Jacek Jaworski; Dominik Ambroziak; Łukasz Skarbek; Dawid Gradolewski

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields we...

  14. Simulation of the influence of historical land cover changes on the global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Civil Aviation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Yan, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Beijing Normal Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE); Wang, Z. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    In order to estimate biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate during last three centuries, a set of experiments with a climate system model of intermediate complexity (MPM-2) is performed. In response to historical deforestation, the model simulates a decrease in annual mean global temperature in the range of 0.07-0.14 C based on different grassland albedos. The effect of land cover changes is most pronounced in the middle northern latitudes with maximum cooling reaching approximately 0.6 C during northern summer. The cooling reaches 0.57 C during northern spring owing to the large effects of land surface albedo. These results suggest that land cover forcing is important for study on historical climate change and that more research is necessary in the assessment of land management options for climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  15. The Influence of Climate Change Efficacy Messages and Efficacy Beliefs on Intended Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Feldman, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Using an online survey experiment with a national sample, this study examined how changing the type and valence of efficacy information in news stories discussing global climate change may impact intended political participation through the mediators of perceived internal, external, and response efficacy. Overall, the results revealed that after a single exposure to a news story, stories including positive internal efficacy content increased perceived internal efficacy, while stories including negative external efficacy content lowered perceived external efficacy. There were limited impacts of other types of efficacy content on perceived efficacy. Perceived internal, external, and response efficacy all offered unique, positive associations with intentions to engage in climate change-related political participation. The results suggest that news stories including positive internal efficacy information in particular have the potential to increase public engagement around climate change. The implications for science communication are discussed. PMID:27487117

  16. The Influence of Climate Change Efficacy Messages and Efficacy Beliefs on Intended Political Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P Sol; Feldman, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Using an online survey experiment with a national sample, this study examined how changing the type and valence of efficacy information in news stories discussing global climate change may impact intended political participation through the mediators of perceived internal, external, and response efficacy. Overall, the results revealed that after a single exposure to a news story, stories including positive internal efficacy content increased perceived internal efficacy, while stories including negative external efficacy content lowered perceived external efficacy. There were limited impacts of other types of efficacy content on perceived efficacy. Perceived internal, external, and response efficacy all offered unique, positive associations with intentions to engage in climate change-related political participation. The results suggest that news stories including positive internal efficacy information in particular have the potential to increase public engagement around climate change. The implications for science communication are discussed. PMID:27487117

  17. Assessing the influence of historic net and gross land changes on the carbon fluxes of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Richard; Schulp, Catharina J E; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Verburg, Peter H; Clevers, Jan G P W; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Herold, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Legacy effects of land cover/use on carbon fluxes require considering both present and past land cover/use change dynamics. To assess past land use dynamics, model-based reconstructions of historic land cover/use are needed. Most historic reconstructions consider only the net area difference between two time steps (net changes) instead of accounting for all area gains and losses (gross changes). Studies about the impact of gross and net land change accounting methods on the carbon balance are still lacking. In this study, we assessed historic changes in carbon in soils for five land cover/use types and of carbon in above-ground biomass of forests. The assessment focused on Europe for the period 1950 to 2010 with decadal time steps at 1-km spatial resolution using a bookkeeping approach. To assess the implications of gross land change data, we also used net land changes for comparison. Main contributors to carbon sequestration between 1950 and 2010 were afforestation and cropland abandonment leading to 14.6 PgC sequestered carbon (of which 7.6 PgC was in forest biomass). Sequestration was highest for old-growth forest areas. A sequestration dip was reached during the 1970s due to changes in forest management practices. Main contributors to carbon emissions were deforestation (1.7 PgC) and stable cropland areas on peaty soils (0.8 PgC). In total, net fluxes summed up to 203 TgC yr(-1) (98 TgC yr(-1) in forest biomass and 105 TgC yr(-1) in soils). For areas that were subject to land changes in both reconstructions (35% of total area), the differences in carbon fluxes were about 68%. Overall for Europe the difference between accounting for either gross or net land changes led to 7% difference (up to 11% per decade) in carbon fluxes with systematically higher fluxes for gross land change data. PMID:26668087

  18. The Influence of Electromagnetic Pollution on Living Organisms: Historical Trends and Forecasting Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Redlarski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation. In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic. For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance. It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E. coli and B. subtilis, nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, land snail, Helix pomatia, common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

  19. Anthropogenic Influences in Land Use/Land Cover Changes in Mediterranean Forest Landscapes in Sicily

    OpenAIRE

    Donato S. La Mela Veca; Sebastiano Cullotta; Sebastiano Sferlazza; Federico G. Maetzke

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes and quantifies the land use/land cover changes of the main forest and semi-natural landscape types in Sicily between 1955 and 2012. We analyzed seven representative forest and shrubland landscapes in Sicily. These study areas were chosen for their importance in the Sicilian forest panorama. We carried out a diachronic survey on historical and current aerial photos; all the aerial images used to survey the land use/land cover changes were digitalized and georeferenced in th...

  20. Institutional changes in Polish landscape parks and their influence on the efficiency of governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kistowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the effects of the changes in the legal regulations, introduced in 2008 and 2009, on the efficiency of administering environmental protection of landscape parks in Poland. These changes concerned the transfer of some human resources and parks' properties to Regional Directorates for Environmental protection (RDO´S) as well as handing the responsibilities for these parks by the Voivodeship governors over to the voivodeship self-governments. The analysis of the documents an...