WorldWideScience

Sample records for challenging nuclear structure

  1. Challenges in nuclear structure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of nuclear structure theory is to build a comprehensive microscopic framework in which properties of nuclei and extended nuclear matter, and nuclear reactions and decays can all be consistently described. Due to novel theoretical concepts, breakthroughs in the experimentation with rare isotopes, increased exchange of ideas across different research areas, and the progress in computer technologies and numerical algorithms, nuclear theorists have been quite successful in solving various bits and pieces of the nuclear many-body puzzle and the prospects are exciting. This article contains a brief, personal perspective on the status of the field.

  2. Challenges in Nuclear Structure Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear structure theory is to build a comprehensive microscopic framework in which properties of nuclei and extended nuclear matter, and nuclear reactions and decays can all be consistently described. Due to novel theoretical concepts, breakthroughs in the experimentation with rare isotopes, increased exchange of ideas across different research areas, and the progress in computer technologies and numerical algorithms, nuclear theorists have been quite successful in solving various bits and pieces of the nuclear many-body puzzle and the prospects are exciting. This article contains a brief, personal perspective on the status of the field.

  3. Nuclear structure physics at GSI - challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation as well the perspectives for the exploration of exotic regions near and at the drip lines as well as at the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be discussed in the frame of recent experimental results and future plans. Selected issues are superheavy nuclei, light halo systems, nuclear skins, and shells far-off stability. Key experimental developments are in flight separation and single-atom decay studies, ultra sensitive gamma-spectroscopy, reaction studies at relativistic energies in complete kinematics, and mass measurements of highest precision in heavy ion storage rings. Characteristic examples of experimental results from superheavy elements, halo and skin-nuclei, and masses in the neutron deficient region below lead will be discussed in the light of currently used theories. A brief outlook on next generation facilities for structure research including high current heavy-ion accelerators and new experimental developments such as reaction studies in storage rings with high resolution and physics using low-energy heavy-ion-electron colliders will be given. (author)

  4. Structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, K. L.; Charit, I.

    2008-12-01

    Generation-IV reactor design concepts envisioned thus far cater toward a common goal of providing safer, longer lasting, proliferation-resistant and economically viable nuclear power plants. The foremost consideration in the successful development and deployment of Gen-IV reactor systems is the performance and reliability issues involving structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. The structural materials need to endure much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive environment, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. Materials under active consideration for use in different reactor components include various ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, ceramics, composites, etc. This paper presents a summary of various Gen-IV reactor concepts, with emphasis on the structural materials issues depending on the specific application areas. This paper also discusses the challenges involved in using the existing materials under both service and off-normal conditions. Tasks become increasingly complex due to the operation of various fundamental phenomena like radiation-induced segregation, radiation-enhanced diffusion, precipitation, interactions between impurity elements and radiation-produced defects, swelling, helium generation and so forth. Further, high temperature capability (e.g. creep properties) of these materials is a critical, performance-limiting factor. It is demonstrated that novel alloy and microstructural design approaches coupled with new materials processing and fabrication techniques may mitigate the challenges, and the optimum system performance may be achieved under much demanding conditions.

  5. Nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarewicz, W

    1999-01-01

    Current developments in nuclear structure are discussed from a theoretical perspective. The studies of the nuclear many-body system provide us with invaluable information about the nature of the nuclear interaction, nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales, and the modes of the nucleonic matter.

  6. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  7. Technical and management challenges associated with structural materials degradation in nuclear reactors in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are active plans worldwide to increase nuclear power production by significant amounts. In the near term (i.e. by 2020) this will be accomplished by, (a) increasing the power output of the existing reactors and extending their life, and by, (b) constructing new reactors that are very similar to the current water-cooled designs. Beyond 2025-2030, it is possible that new reactors (i.e. the 'GEN IV' designs) will be very different from those currently in service. A full discussion of the technical and management concerns associated with materials degradation that might arise over the next 40 years would need to address a wide range of topics. Quite apart from discussing the structural integrity issues for the materials of construction and the fuel cladding, the debate would also need to cover, for example, fuel resources and the associated issues of fuel cycle management and waste disposal, manufacturing capacity, inspection capabilities, human reliability, etc., since these all impact to one degree or another on the choice of material and the reactor operating conditions. For brevity, the scope of this article is confined to the integrity of the materials of construction for passive components in the current water-cooled reactors and the evolutionary designs (which will dominate the near term new constructions), and the very different GEN IV reactor designs. In all cases the operating environments will be more aggressive than currently encountered. For instance, the concerns for flow accelerated corrosion and flow-induced vibration will be increased under extended power uprate conditions for the current water-cooled reactors. Of greater concern, the design life will be at least 60 years for all of the new reactors and for those current reactors operating with extended licenses. This automatically presents challenges with regard to managing both irradiation damage in metallic and non-metallic materials of construction, and environmentally assisted cracking. This

  8. Nuclear energy: meeting the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Nuclear Energy - Meeting the Challenges' was the theme of the 25th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, held in Toronto, Ontario on June 6-9, 2004. The theme has the implication of optimism - that we WILL meet the many challenges needed to overcome if nuclear power is to play a significant role in our energy future. The organizers succeeded in presenting a thorough discussion of the challenges facing the nuclear power industry in Canada with close to 300 delegates attending the three-day event

  9. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  11. Regulatory challenges in the management of aging of structural materials in nuclear power plants; Retos reguladores en la gestion del envejecimiento de los materiales estructurales de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo, C.; Mendoza, C.; Mas, E.; Conde, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The article discusses two major pathways by which a regulatory body, and in particular the CSN, may participate in the acquisition of the necessary knowledge on mechanisms of aging of nuclear structural materials: to participate in forums to share operational experience and R and R project, both nationally and internationally. It notes the importance of this participation to carry out its regulatory function based on the knowledge acquired and the unique challenge of transferring that knowledge to rules and guidelines for their application. The article discusses various R and D projects in which the CSN participates directly. It calls for the presence of regulatory bodies in R and D project funded by the EU and the transfer of the results of such projects to codes, standards or guidelines for feasible implementation. (Author)

  12. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  13. The Colombian nuclear scenario: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    In Colombia, the absence of nuclear-oriented policies based on technical knowledge, the closing of the Nuclear Affairs Institute (1956-1998), the association of the word "nuclear" with weapons, plus the country's last six decades of internal conflict and narcotraffic have discourage the technical, social and environmental nuclear advance. However, there are technical, social and economic national challenges that could be faced by the present nuclear technical capacities.

  14. Nuclear structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, J M

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de

  15. Nuclear security challenges: Japan's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the international community has reviewed and strengthened measures against terrorism in a wide range of areas with a sense of urgency. However, terrorist organizations are increasing their capabilities in carrying out activities such as crossing borders, acquisition of funds and weapons, propaganda campaigns, and making use of advanced science and technology. Strengthened nuclear security measures have particular importance in the fight against terrorism. Nuclear terrorism, should it happen, could cause immeasurable damage and psychological impact on our whole society. Therefore, we should make the utmost effort to take the necessary measures as extensively as possible in order to protect society from nuclear terrorism

  16. Economic challenges of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs of nuclear power is detailed. Concerning the construction costs, the mean value over the French fleet of reactors is 1,2 billions euros/GWe and 1.5 billions euros/GWe when the engineering and pre-exploitation costs are included. The construction costs of future reactors will be far higher than expected: 6 billion euros versus 3.5 billions euros for the EPR. The Audit Office has recently made public the real cost of today's nuclear electricity in France: 54 euros/MWh, this value is given by the CCE method and includes all the aspects of nuclear energy: construction, operation, dismantling, maintenance, upgrading works required for life extension, new safety requirements due to Fukushima feedback and long-term managing of wastes. The cost of nuclear accidents is not taken into account. The costs of dismantling can be estimated from the feedback experience from the dismantling of nuclear reactors in the Usa, the value obtained is consistent with the OECD rule that states that it represents 15% of the construction cost. The economic impact of decommissioning a plant after 40 years of operating life while its operating life could have been extended to reach 50 or even 60 years has a cost of losing 1 billion to 2 billion euros per reactor. Despite the fact that tomorrow's nuclear systems will be more expensive than today's, it will stay in a competitive range. (A.C.)

  17. Materials challenges for nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Allen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The safe and economical operation of any nuclear power system relies to a great extent, on the success of the fuel and the materials of construction. During the lifetime of a nuclear power system which currently can be as long as 60 years, the materials are subject to high temperature, a corrosive environment, and damage from high-energy particles released during fission. The fuel which provides the power for the reactor has a much shorter life but is subject to the same types of harsh environments. This article reviews the environments in which fuels and materials from current and proposed nuclear systems operate and then describes how the creation of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility is allowing researchers from across the United States to test their ideas for improved fuels and materials.

  18. Nuclear material management: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The articles in this dossier were derived from the papers of the yearly S.F.E.N. convention, which took place in Paris, 12-13 March 2008. They deal with the new challenges and prospects in the field of nuclear material management, throughout the nuclear whole fuel cycle, namely: the institutional frame of nuclear materials management, the recycling, the uranium market, the enrichment market, the different scenarios for the management of civil nuclear materials, the technical possibilities of spent fuels utilization, the option of thorium, the convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations, the characterisation of nuclear materials by nondestructive nuclear measurements, the proliferation from civil installations, the use of plutonium ( from military origin) and the international agreements. (N.C.)

  19. High energy nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear field theory has been applied to study nuclear matter as well as finite nuclei. Within the mean field approximation the known bulk properties of nuclei such as binding energy, density, and compressibility are well reproduced. Charge and matter distributions of closed shell nuclei are in good agreement with experimental results, so are rms radii and single-particle energy levels. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicite treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Some of these solutions are considered

  20. Current Challenges of Nuclear Security in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and implementation of clearly defined wide range of methods and techniques aiming at prevention and detection of, and response to theft, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive materials; techniques which include physical protection of such material at an installation or in transit, accountability, personnel reliability and training still present several and serious challenges to the nuclear security system in Tanzania at national scale. Several methods have been developed and implemented nationally to control and assure the security of nuclear and radioactive materials (from mining sites, industrial installation, research centers and hospitals) either at their location (being used or not) or in transit. This paper first present a brief but complete description of detection techniques used in Tanzania to identify nuclear and radioactive material not only at the points of entry but also within its borders. Secondly, the paper focuses on different types of challenges met by the protective measures of the nuclear security system that had been implemented and which solutions were developed to meet these challenges. And finally its maps a road forward on areas in the nuclear security system that need improvements and what future plans to use in order to achieve that purpose. (author)

  1. High energy nuclear structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boguta, J.; Kunz, J.

    1984-03-09

    In conventional nuclear physics the nucleus is described as a non-relativistic many-body system, which is governed by the Schroedinger equation. Nucleons interact in this framework via static two-body potentials, mesonic degrees of freedom are neglected. An alternative description of nuclear physics in terms of a relativistic field theory has been developed by Walecka. The model Lagrangian containing baryons, sigma-mesons and ..omega..-mesons was subsequently extended to include also ..pi..-mesons and rho-mesons. An essential feature of such a nuclear Lagrangian is its renormalizability. In addition to the description of known nuclear structure the field theoretical approach may reveal entirely new nuclear phenomena, based on the explicit treatment of mesonic degrees of freedom. The existence of such abnormal nuclear states was proposed by Lee and Wick employing the sigma-model Lagrangian. There the non-linearity of the meson field equations allows for soliton solutions in the presence of nucleons, in particular the sigma-field may exhibit a kink. Different types of soliton solutions occur in gauge theories with hidden symmetries. In the phenomenological Lagrangian the rho-meson is described by a non-abelian gauge field, that acquires its mass spontaneously due to the non-vanishing vacuum expectation value of a Higgs field. A general ansatz for soliton solutions of such a gauge theory was given by Dashen et al. A specific solution and its possible implications for nuclear physics like anomalous nuclear states were discussed by Boguta.

  2. Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillain, C F; Adams, T F; McCoy, M G; Christensen, R B; Pudliner, B S; Zika, M R; Brantley, P S; Vetter, J S; May, J M

    2003-08-29

    After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources necessary for the complex, highly coupled, multi-physics calculations required to simulate nuclear weapons. This paper describes the hardware and software environment we have applied to fulfill our nuclear weapons responsibilities. It also presents the characteristics of our algorithms and codes, especially as they relate to supercomputing resource capabilities and requirements. It then addresses impediments to the development and application of nuclear weapon simulation software and hardware and concludes with a summary of observations and recommendations on an approach for working with industry and government agencies to address these impediments.

  3. Nuclear renaissance, the challenge; Renacimiento Nuclear, Los desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, J.; Aycart, J.

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Industry has been able to get prepared for the Renaissance by overcoming many different challenges. Most of them related to shortage in capabilities and resources. However, as new builds approach, new challenges appear in the horizon. Now, those are mostly related to the risk management embedded in huge projects like these. This Article provides a vision on how to face those new challenges, so that the industry will not be damaged in its credibility by lack of commitments or failed executions. (Author)

  4. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  5. Nuclear structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of research: Pion charge exchange reactions, including a theory of the contribution of pion absorption and correlated double scattering to double charge exchange, new coupled channel calculations for single and double charge exchange from 14C. Nuclear inelastic scattering, using quark models to calculate nuclear structure functions, and test for sensitivity to the substructure of nucleons in nuclei. Fluctuation-free statistical spectroscopy including the theory and computer programs for interacting-particle densities, spin cutoff factors, occupancies, strength sums, and other expectation values. Proposed research for the coming year in each area is presented

  6. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Christian [AREVA GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Training Center

    2014-07-15

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  7. Current challenges for education of nuclear engineers. Beyond nuclear basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In past decades, curricula for the education of nuclear engineers (either as a major or minor subject) have been well established all over the world. However, from the point of view of a nuclear supplier, recent experiences in large and complex new build as well as modernization projects have shown that important competences required in these projects were not addressed during the education of young graduates. Consequently, in the past nuclear industry has been obliged to either accept long periods for job familiarization, or to develop and implement various dedicated internal training measures. Although the topics normally addressed in nuclear engineering education (like neutron and reactor physics, nuclear materials or thermohydraulics and the associated calculation methods) build up important competences, this paper shows that the current status of nuclear applications requires adaptations of educational curricula. As a conclusion, when academic nuclear engineering curricula start taking into account current competence needs in nuclear industry, it will be for the benefit of the current and future generation of nuclear engineers. They will be better prepared for their future job positions and career perspectives, especially on an international level. The recommendations presented should not only be of importance for the nuclear fission field, but also for the fusion community. Here, the Horizon 2020 Roadmap to Fusion as published in 2012 now is focusing on ITER and on a longer-term development of fusion technology for a future demonstration reactor DEMO. The very challenging work program is leading to a strong need for exactly those skills that are described in this article.

  8. Nuclear fission and nuclear safeguards: Common technologies and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fission and nuclear safeguards have much in common, including the basic physical phenomena and technologies involved as well as the commitments and challenges posed by expanding nuclear programs in many countries around the world. The unique characteristics of the fission process -- such as prompt and delayed neutron and gamma ray emission -- not only provide the means of sustaining and controlling the fission chain reaction, but also provide unique ''signatures'' that are essential to quantitative measurement and effective safeguarding of key nuclear materials (notably 239Pu and 235U) against theft, loss, or diversion. In this paper, we trace briefly the historical emergence of safeguards as an essential component of the expansion of the nuclear enterprise worldwide. We then survey the major categories of passive and active nondestructive assay techniques that are currently in use or under development for rapid, accurate measurement and verification of safe-guarded nuclear materials in the many forms in which they occur throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. 23 refs., 14 figs

  9. Nuclear revival, nuclear safety: challenges for the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear revival is a fact, in Europe and the rest of the world. We are delighted at this. Today, all eyes are on the United Kingdom where the Government intends to do more than merely replace twenty-three aging power plants. The challenge facing them is considerable - Mr. Hutton, Britain's Minister for Trade and Industry, estimates that the work will generate 100,000 jobs. It is to be hoped that the soon-to-end Franco-British summit meeting will have strengthened understanding between the two countries. This would augur well for the French Presidency of the European Union which hopes to launch debate on a common energy policy within the European Council. Since the United Kingdom took the decision to re-launch the construction of nuclear reactors, France is no longer alone; it has a new ally in the nuclear debate. The British decision is also seen as encouraging by all the companies that wish to develop nuclear technology. This development is not only manifest in the United Kingdom; in Germany and a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, there is an obvious, if latent, desire to enter this sector. This document gathers the Proceedings of two symposiums: - the March 2008 conference on 'The Revival of Nuclear Energy, a challenge for the European Union' - and the November 2008 Conference on 'Nuclear safety: a worldwide Public Good'. Contents: Foreword by Claude Fischer; Introduction by Philippe Herzog. Part A: The revival of nuclear energy, a challenge for Europe: Partnerships, Speakers list, Synthesis for decision-makers by Andre Ferron and Michel Cruciani, 1 Address and 3 sessions, Opening Address by Dominique Ristori, First round table: Conditions to re-launch the nuclear industry in Europe, role of companies, banks and public institutions, Second round table: The need for a European energy mix and the necessity to improve the European common Market Model Last round table: The conditions for a European foreign energy policy, Speech of Anne Lauvergeon

  10. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  11. Nuclear knowledge management - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    how, and know why. At the know what level, there is sufficient knowledge of nuclear technology to know what needs to be done. This level is the minimum required for senior managers who make decisions and allocate resources. At the know how level, experts have the technical depth to apply their knowledge to nuclear systems and designs. At the know why level, experts have the fundamental understanding of basic phenomena required to generate new knowledge. Each of the three levels of knowledge is required and each has its own set of challenges to maintain. An additional set of challenges involves the infrastructure required for nuclear knowledge development and maintenance. This infrastructure has always been extensive and includes laboratories capable of handling a variety of nuclear materials, research reactors, hot cells, demonstration facilities, and all the supporting activities such as nuclear operations, health physics, active shops, and licensing. In recent years, the cost of this infrastructure has risen due to such drivers as improved waste management and operations practices, increased security, and evolving regulatory requirements. These trends mean that the only economic means to maintain the infrastructure is through large, centralized facilities that are open to, and serve, all the stakeholders. All the characteristics discussed above must be taken into consideration for a robust nuclear knowledge management system. Indeed, it is the responsibility of decision-makers to ensure that these characteristics are in place or accessible for the deployment of major nuclear facilities. This presentation provides an overview of these characteristics, and the challenges and opportunities associated with them. (author)

  12. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  13. Nuclear fuel supply: challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowen, S. [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Prices of uranium, conversion services and enrichment services have all significantly increased in the last few years. These price increases have generally been driven by a tightening in the supply of these products and services, mostly due to long lead times required to bring these products and services to the market. This paper will describe the various steps in the nuclear fuel cycle for natural and enriched uranium fuel, will discuss the development of the front-end fuel cycle for low void reactivity fuel, and will address the challenges faced in the long-term supply of each component, particularly in the light of potential demand increases as a result of a nuclear renaissance. The opportunities for new capacity and uranium production will be outlined and the process required to achieve sufficient new supply will be discussed. (author)

  14. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  15. Human Resources Development Challenges for Nuclear Newcomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusion and take away messages: • HRD solution is dependent upon country’s economical, societal, industrial situation and development strategy. • HRD to be integrated in the global HCB approach (education and training, KM, knowledge networks). • Maximum local benefit with national development. • International collaboration and partnership with competent and experienced partners is recommended (lever effect). • Anticipation is key. → HRD for a nuclear program is challenging but achievable. Countries already did it and are ready to build long term partnerships

  16. Seismological challenges for stellar structure

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2010-01-01

    Helioseismology has provided very detailed information about the solar interior, and extensive data on a large number of stars, although at less detail, are promised by the ongoing and upcoming asteroseismic projects. In the solar case there remain serious challenges in understanding the inferred solar structure, particularly in the light of the revised determinations of the solar surface composition. Also, a secure understanding of the origins of solar rotation as inferred from helioseismology, both in the radiative interior and in the convection zone, is still missing. In the stellar case challenges are certain to appear as the data allow more detailed inferences of the properties of stellar cores. Large remaining uncertainties in modelling concerns the properties of convective cores and other processes that may cause mixing. As a result of developing asteroseismic signatures addressing these and other issues, we can look forward to a highly challenging, and hence exciting, era of stellar astrophysics.

  17. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-30

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the

  18. Chiral EFT based nuclear forces: achievements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machleidt, R.; Sammarruca, F.

    2016-08-01

    During the past two decades, chiral effective field theory has become a popular tool to derive nuclear forces from first principles. Two-nucleon interactions have been worked out up to sixth order of chiral perturbation theory and three-nucleon forces up to fifth order. Applications of some of these forces have been conducted in nuclear few- and many-body systems—with a certain degree of success. But in spite of these achievements, we are still faced with great challenges. Among them is the issue of a proper uncertainty quantification of predictions obtained when applying these forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. A related problem is the order by order convergence of the chiral expansion. We start this review with a pedagogical introduction and then present the current status of the field of chiral nuclear forces. This is followed by a discussion of representative examples for the application of chiral two- and three-body forces in the nuclear many-body system including convergence issues.

  19. Chiral EFT based nuclear forces: Achievements and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Machleidt, R

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades, chiral effective field theory has become a popular tool to derive nuclear forces from first principles. Two-nucleon interactions have been worked out up to sixth order of chiral perturbation theory and three-nucleon forces up to fifth order. Applications of some of these forces have been conducted in nuclear few- and many-body systems---with a certain degree of success. But in spite of these achievements, we are still faced with great challenges. Among them is the issue of a proper uncertainty quantification of predictions obtained when applying these forces in {\\it ab initio} calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. A related problem is the order by order convergence of the chiral expansion. We start this review with a pedagogical introduction and then present the current status of the field of chiral nuclear forces. This is followed by a discussion of representative examples for the application of chiral two- and three-body forces in the nuclear many-body system includin...

  20. Nuclear regulatory challenges arising from competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years a world-wide trend has been developing to introduce competition in electricity markets. As market competition unfolds, it produces a wide range of safety challenges for nuclear power plant operators and regulators. Nuclear regulators must be aware of the potential safety challenges produced and consider whether new regulatory response strategies are warranted. This report describes many of these challenges, their implications and possible regulatory response strategies. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, although government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  1. Decommissioning of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant, a commercial challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the inspection results which detected cracks in the core shroud, economic aspects have induced PreussenElektra to opt for decommissioning and dismantling of the Wuergassen reactor. As this shutdown of the nuclear power plant is not a planned shutdown, costs arising in addition to the original decommissioning framework studies have to be assessed, especially the expenditure for the adjusted plant manpower requirements, and the additional operating and phase-out costs. Experience has shown that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plants does not pose problems in terms of safety or technology, but still is a commercial challenge. Expense forecasts have to be adjusted in response to the unplanned shutdown. PreussenElektra therefore has set up a modified project and operating structure. The analysis and evaluation of the first decommissioning phase will show whether the cost assessment approaches are in agreement with reality. (orig.)

  2. Regulatory challenges for nuclear energy in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the liberalization of the national electricity markets in the European Union, the nuclear energy sector faces new challenges. The rise of renewable energy sources and their participation in the wholesale markets through power exchanges and bilateral contracts lead to lower prices and intermittency of the system loads. Liberalized markets tend to discriminate capital-intensive generation technologies such as nuclear energy and some of the renewables. This report explores the current challenges and outlines some new regulatory mechanisms for ensuring the availability of nuclear power through “contracts for differences” for new nuclear units as well as for existing nuclear power plants.

  3. Symmetries in nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Allaart, K; Dieperink, A

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 summer school on nuclear physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Netherlands' Physical Society, was the fifth in a series that started in 1963. The number of students attending has always been about one hundred, coming from about thirty countries. The theme of this year's school was symmetry in nuclear physics. This book covers the material presented by the enthusi­ astic speakers, who were invited to lecture on this subject. We think they have succeeded in presenting us with clear and thorough introductory talks at graduate or higher level. The time schedule of the school and the location allowed the participants to make many informal contacts during many social activities, ranging from billiards to surf board sailing. We hope and expect that the combination of a relaxed atmosphere during part of the time and hard work during most of the time, has furthered the interest in, and understanding of, nuclear physics. The organization of the summer school was made possible by substantia...

  4. Structural Materials: New Challenges, Manufacturing and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important criteria of innovative fast reactors and advanced fuel cycle initiatives are improved efficiency, economic competitiveness and reduction of waste. To reach these goals and keep high safety standards, at least at the level of currently operating nuclear reactors, key issues are the availability of suitable structural materials and their performance assessment. The authors, on the basis of the wealth of experience gained in the European Union, India and Japan, aim to define the challenges and current status of material development and set the agenda for R and D in the coming years and decades. It is hoped that the joint perspective would enable realizing the expected criteria of sustainability envisaged through sodium cooled fast reactors and closed fuel cycles. (author)

  5. Small nuclear power: challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates show that, for remote localities difficult of access, nuclear power technologies offer a reasonable alternative to conventional power based on fossil fuels. Still, the deployment of nuclear power sources in the country's northern and eastern territories with hard climatic and complicated social conditions calls for novel designs that satisfy to the requirements beyond the scope of those for the conventional nuclear plant designs. A small nuclear power plant with a water-cooled water-moderated reactor facility, called Unitherm, is one of the most advanced autonomous nuclear heat and power supply designs that satisfies the best to the above requirements, based on the experience in design, manufacture and operation of nuclear propulsion systems. (author)

  6. Meeting the challenge of regulating an expanding nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the structure and operations of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and its role in regulating the nuclear industry. The mandate of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials, to protect health, safety, security, the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy

  7. The regulatory challenges of decommissioning nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each nuclear power plant, fuel cycle facility and nuclear research and test facility that is operating today will eventually reach the end of its useful life and cease operation. During the period of its decommissioning, it is important to properly manage the health and environmental hazards and physical protection measures of the shutdown facility in order to protect the health and safety of the public and workers and to safeguard any nuclear materials. In this regard, the nuclear safety regulatory body is responsible for independently assuring that decommissioning activities are conducted safely, that radioactive materials and spent nuclear fuel are disposed of properly and that the site is in an acceptable end state. The purpose of this report is to describe the broad range of safety, environmental, organisational, human factors and public policy issues that may arise during the decommissioning of nuclear reactors and that the regulatory body should be prepared to deal with in the framework of its national regulatory system. The intended audience is primarily nuclear regulators, although the information and ideas may also be of interest to government authorities, environmental regulators, nuclear operating organisations, technical expert organisations and the general public. (author)

  8. Nuclear Shell Structure Evolution Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhengda; Wang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The Self-similar-structure shell model (SSM) comes from the evolution of the conventional shell model (SM) and keeps the energy level of SM single particle harmonic oscillation motion. In SM, single particle motion is the positive harmonic oscillation and in SSM, the single particle motion is the negative harmonic oscillation. In this paper a nuclear evolution equation (NEE) is proposed. NEE describes the nuclear evolution process from gas state to liquid state and reveals the relations among...

  9. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Hadronic structure; hadrons in nuclei; hot hadronic matter; relativistic nuclear physics and NN interaction; leptonic emissions from high-Z heavy ion collisions; theoretical studies of heavy ion dynamics; nuclear pre-equilibrium reactions; classical chaotic dynamics and nuclear structure; and, theory of nuclear fission

  10. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  11. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  12. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  13. Nuclear energy challenges in this Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past fifty years have witnessed the advent of a new energy source and the beginning of yet another in the series of energy-use transitions that have marked our history since the start of our technological development. Each of these transitions has been accompanied by adaptive challenges. Each unique set of challenges has been met. Today the world faces the need for another transition. This paper outlines some of the associated challenges that lie ahead of us all, as we adapt to this new and exciting environment. The first step in defining the challenges ahead is to make some form of prediction of the future energy supply and demand during the period. Herein, the future up to 2010 is presumed to include two major events -- first, a decline in the availability and a rise in price of petroleum, and second a need to reduce greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. Both of these events are taken to be imminent. Added to these expected events is the assumption that the total of wind, solar, and other such energy sources will be able to contribute, but only in a relatively small way, to the provision of needed energy to our ever-expanding human population. (author)

  14. Nuclear Technology in Israel - Challenges and goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel,where 100% of all energy sources are imported, and where more than 100% of the water potential is used, will have to rely in the future on nuclear power reactors and nuclear desalination. The total electric capacity of about 4,000 Mwe in 1985 will propably rise to about 8,000 Mwe in 1995 and to about 16,000 Mwe or more in 2005. It is likely that the 12,000 Mwe plants to be built and operated after 1985, will be largely nuclear, if possible, with maybe some capacity of alternate sources, now in development in the country, including hydro from a proposed Mediterranean-Dead Sea canal (about 400 m height difference), pumped storage, shale oil, solar ponds. In view of the acute water shortage in the country, it is likely that between one third and one half of the 12,0OO Mwe plants will have to be dual-purpose plants, for power production and water desalination. As a preparation for this stage, a 10 million gallon per day desalination unit, Israeli designed and built, the so-called Horizontal-Tube-Multi-Effect (H.T.M.E.) aluminum tube plant, will be attached to an existing 50 Mwe oil-fuelled turbine and scheduled to be in operation in 1981 at Ashdod on the Mediterranean Sea as a Joint Israel - U.S.A. project. Several identical 1O MGD modules will form in the future the desalination plant to be attached to nuclear dual-purpose reactors. Fuel fabrication, starting possibly with imported enriched UF6 of nuclear fuel following the first LOAD, is contemplated to be made in the country. The desalination plants are intended to be 1O0% locally made. It is besides conceivable that the day will come when it will be nessary to connect the Red Sea and the Mediterranean by another canal, so that by the year 2000 and in the third millenium the two seas will be connected by two waterways -the Suez canal and the Israeli canal. (B.G.)

  15. Advanced nuclear plants meet the economic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants operated in the baseload regime are economically competitive even when compared with plants burning fossil fuels. As they do not produce emissions when operated, they do not pollute the environment. This is clearly reflected also in the internalized costs. After 2000, many new power plants are expected to be constructed in the USA and worldwide. An important role in this phase will be played by advanced light water reactors of the ABWR and SBWR types representing the future state of the art in technology and safety as well as in cost and plant operations management. (orig.)

  16. Seawater desalination using nuclear heat/electricity - Prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desalination of seawater using nuclear energy is a feasible option to meet the growing demand of potable water. Over 150 reactor-years of operating experience of nuclear desalination have been accumulated worldwide. Several demonstration programs of nuclear desalination are also in progress to confirm its technical and economic viability under country specific conditions, with technical co-ordination or support of IAEA. Recent techno-economic feasibility studies carried out by some Member States indicate the competitiveness of nuclear desalination. This paper presents the salient activities on nuclear desalination in the Agency and in the interested Member States. In particular, some data from the feasibility studies carried out in the two south Mediterranean countries - Egypt and Tunisia - for their nuclear power and desalination projects are presented. Economic research on further water cost reduction includes investigation on utilization of waste heat from different nuclear reactor types for thermal desalination, preheat reverse osmosis using condenser cooling water return as feed and hybrid MED-RO desalination systems. The details of these are discussed. The main challenge for the large-scale deployment of nuclear seawater desalination is the lack of infrastructure and resources in the countries affected by water scarcity problems which are, however, interested in adoption of nuclear desalination for the sustainable water resources in the coming years. Socioeconomic and environmental aspects and the public perception for the nuclear desalination projects are also important factors requiring greater information exchange. These aspects are discussed while considering an integrated nuclear desalination system. (author)

  17. Problems of structural mechanics in nuclear design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very careful and detailed stress analysis of nuclear presure vessels and components is essential for ensuring the safety and integrity of nuclear power plants. The nuclear designer, therefore, relies heavily on structural mechanics for application of the most advanced stress analysis techniques to practical design problems. The paper reviews the inter-relation between structural mechanics and nuclear design and discusses a few of the specific structural mechanics problems faced by the nuclear designers in the Department of Atomic Energy, India. (author)

  18. Structural optimization: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of developments in structural optimization techniques and their interface with growing computer capabilities is presented. Structural design steps comprise functional definition of an object, an evaluation phase wherein external influences are quantified, selection of the design concept, material, object geometry, and the internal layout, and quantification of the physical characteristics. Optimization of a fully stressed design is facilitated by use of nonlinear mathematical programming which permits automated definition of the physics of a problem. Design iterations terminate when convergence is acquired between mathematical and physical criteria. A constrained minimum algorithm has been formulated using an Augmented Lagrangian approach and a generalized reduced gradient to obtain fast convergence. Various approximation techniques are mentioned. The synergistic application of all the methods surveyed requires multidisciplinary teamwork during a design effort.

  19. Structural optimization - Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1983-01-01

    A review of developments in structural optimization techniques and their interface with growing computer capabilities is presented. Structural design steps comprise functional definition of an object, an evaluation phase wherein external influences are quantified, selection of the design concept, material, object geometry, and the internal layout, and quantification of the physical characteristics. Optimization of a fully stressed design is facilitated by use of nonlinear mathematical programming which permits automated definition of the physics of a problem. Design iterations terminate when convergence is acquired between mathematical and physical criteria. A constrained minimum algorithm has been formulated using an Augmented Lagrangian approach and a generalized reduced gradient to obtain fast convergence. Various approximation techniques are mentioned. The synergistic application of all the methods surveyed requires multidisciplinary teamwork during a design effort.

  20. Nuclear structure with coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, Apolodor Aristotel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the essential features of a large variety of nuclear structure properties, both collective and microscopic in nature. Most of results are given in an analytical form thus giving deep insight into the relevant phenomena. Using coherent states as variational states, which allows a description in the classical phase space, or provides the generating function for a boson basis, is an efficient tool to account, in a realistic fashion, for many complex properties. A detailed comparison with all existing nuclear structure models provides readers with a proper framework and, at the same time, demonstrates the prospects for new developments. The topics addressed are very much of current concern in the field. The book will appeal to practicing researchers and, due to its self-contained account, can also be successfully read and used by new graduate students.

  1. From Nuclear Structure to Nucleon Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Similarities between nuclear structure study with many-body theory approach and nucleon structure calculations with lattice QCD are pointed out. We will give an example of how to obtain the connected sea partons from a combination of the experimental data, a global fit of parton distribution functions and a lattice calculation. We also present a complete calculation of the quark and glue decomposition of the proton momentum and angular momentum in the quenched approximation. It is found that the quark orbital angular momentum constitutes about 50% of the proton spin.

  2. Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brister, J. [CH2M Hill, Engelwood, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear programme are distilled into four major categories: human resource development, financing, infrastructure and process. In implementing a successful nuclear programme role of the government is key to success. It requires clear and sustained policy support, international and bilateral agreements, developing the depth required of technical skills and infrastructure, proven delivery programme, management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, decommissioning and electricity market regulation.

  3. Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenges new entrant countries face in establishing a nuclear programme are distilled into four major categories: human resource development, financing, infrastructure and process. In implementing a successful nuclear programme role of the government is key to success. It requires clear and sustained policy support, international and bilateral agreements, developing the depth required of technical skills and infrastructure, proven delivery programme, management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, decommissioning and electricity market regulation.

  4. Pion structure function in nuclear medium

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    We study the pion structure function in nuclear medium using the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model, and its implication for the nuclear pion enhancement of the sea quark distribution in nuclei. By using the operator product expansion, medium effect of the nuclear matter is incorporated in calculations of the twist-2 operators. We find density dependence of the pion structure function is rather weak around the nuclear matter density. We also discuss how the medium modification of the pion structure...

  5. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  6. Overview of principles and challenges of fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion offers very attractive features as a sustainable, broadly available energy source: no emissions of greenhouse gases, no risk of severe accident, and no long-lived radioactive waste. Significant advances in the science and technology of fusion have been realized in the past decades. Seven countries (EU, Japan, USA, Russia, S. Korea, China, and India) comprising about half the world population are constructing a major magnetic fusion facility, called ITER, in France. The objectives of ITER are to demonstrate self-sustaining burning fusion plasma and to test fusion technologies relevant to fusion reactor. Many challenges to the practical utilization of fusion energy remain ahead. Among these challenges is the successful development of Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT). FNT includes those fusion system components circumscribing the plasma and responsible for tritium production and processing, heat removal at high temperature and power density, and high heat flux components. FNT components face a new and more challenging environment than experienced by any previous nuclear application. Beyond plasma physics, FNT has most of the remaining feasibility and attractiveness issues in the development of fusion as an energy source. The blanket, a key FNT component, determines the critical path to DEMO. The blanket is exposed to an intense radiation environment. Radioactivity and decay heat can be produced in the structure and other blanket elements. Hence, material choices have a large impact on safety and environmental attractiveness. The unique conditions of the fusion environment include high radiation flux, high surface heat flux, strong 3-D-component magnetic field with large gradients, and ultra-low vacuum. These conditions, together with the requirements for high-temperature operation and tritium self-sufficiency, make blanket design and development challenging tasks. The blanket concepts being considered worldwide can be classified into solid breeders and liquid

  7. The renaissance of nuclear power. Causes and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillriches, Christian [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    An increase in the use of nuclear energy for power generation is predicted worldwide. Confirmation of this trend can already be found today in extensions to nuclear power plant operating licenses and projects for nuclear plant upgrading and uprating. Numerous countries have decided to build new nuclear power plants or are planning to do so, even countries that have not used nuclear energy in the past. The reasons for this global renaissance include a growing demand for electric power all over the world, awareness that our fossil resources are limited, the desire by many countries to reduce their dependence on energy imports, and the drive to combat climate change. The nuclear industry is rising to this challenge by offering advanced reactors of the 3rd generation, by consolidating and restructuring manufacturing capacities, by building up staffing levels and investing in production facilities and the fuel cycle. Standardizing technology, progressively harmonizing safety requirements across national borders and setting up long-term cooperation agreements between vendors and plant operators are options that can help turn the global renaissance of nuclear power into a sustainable success. (orig.)

  8. The renaissance of nuclear power. Causes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the use of nuclear energy for power generation is predicted worldwide. Confirmation of this trend can already be found today in extensions to nuclear power plant operating licenses and projects for nuclear plant upgrading and uprating. Numerous countries have decided to build new nuclear power plants or are planning to do so, even countries that have not used nuclear energy in the past. The reasons for this global renaissance include a growing demand for electric power all over the world, awareness that our fossil resources are limited, the desire by many countries to reduce their dependence on energy imports, and the drive to combat climate change. The nuclear industry is rising to this challenge by offering advanced reactors of the 3rd generation, by consolidating and restructuring manufacturing capacities, by building up staffing levels and investing in production facilities and the fuel cycle. Standardizing technology, progressively harmonizing safety requirements across national borders and setting up long-term cooperation agreements between vendors and plant operators are options that can help turn the global renaissance of nuclear power into a sustainable success. (orig.)

  9. Selected topic in nuclear structure. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of recent experiments performed in different laboratories and a review of fundamental problems of nuclear physics connected with study of nuclear structure, that had just been solved are presented. The proceedings contain 33 articles. (M.F.-W.)

  10. Future challenge of nuclear power in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a single European Market in 1992 are described together with the harmonization of the energy supply system within the Common Market. A forecast of energy demand up to the year 2010 is given and showing France's leading role in nuclear electricity generation and export. A restructuring of the European Nuclear Industry is in progress, eg joint marketing of a common PWR and a challenge has been put to the reactor manufacturers to combine the various design concepts into a joint European Fast Reactor. Plant safety criteria and design features to assure containment integrity and to prevent a core meltdown are discussed. 15 refs., 22 figs

  11. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  12. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant sense of

  13. 3D Printing: A Challenge to Nuclear Export Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Grant

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of manufacturing critical nuclear-fuel cycle technology using 3D printers in order to circumvent export controls. In particular, it examines the possibility that it may soon be possible to 3D-print maraging steel for use in a centrifuge to enrich uranium. The paper finds that while significant technological challenges remain, an expert with access to an off-the-shelf 3D printer, advanced quality control technology and knowledge of centrifuges should be able...

  14. The nuclear renaissance - Opportunities and challenges [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy must be part of the solution to meet future electricity demand and it must be done cost effectively, without damaging our environment. The challenges presented by the new prospects for nuclear energy require the management of (a) closing the looming gap between uranium supply and demand (b) closing the technical and political challenges in exploration and mine development and (c) finding and developing innovations throughout the nuclear fuel cycle that make good economic and environmental sense. The talk elaborates on the increasing uranium consumption, the near time uranium supply challenges, identifies production expansion, and discusses world uranium exploration and advances in mining and milling. It is stressed that the IAEA should play an important role in collecting and disseminating up-to-date information concerning the latest technological advances - through periodic conferences and technical meetings. The organization should gather and compile accurate uranium supply information. In its existing compilation that forms the IAEA Red Book, the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) categories have long been inconsistently reported by member countries, reducing reliability and in some cases overstating or understating the supply potential of important regions. The usefulness of IAEA's supply estimates would be improved by the development of a single, consistent approach to the estimation of uranium potential, which member countries would then be encouraged to adopt. Countries that have abundant resources should be encouraged by the agency to open up their lands to foreign investment for uranium exploration and development. The IAEA should present the case for improved investment climates, educating restrictive jurisdictions about current industry practices and standards, and lobbying for consistent and reasonable licencing processes that reflect science-based assessments of risk. The key note speaker encourages the IAEA to fill its role as an

  15. Nuclear disasters and health: lessons learned, challenges, and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuru, Akira; Tanigawa, Koichi; Kumagai, Atsushi; Niwa, Ohtsura; Takamura, Noboru; Midorikawa, Sanae; Nollet, Kenneth; Yamashita, Shunichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Chhem, Rethy K; Clarke, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Past nuclear disasters, such as the atomic bombings in 1945 and major accidents at nuclear power plants, have highlighted similarities in potential public health effects of radiation in both circumstances, including health issues unrelated to radiation exposure. Although the rarity of nuclear disasters limits opportunities to undertake rigorous research of evidence-based interventions and strategies, identification of lessons learned and development of an effective plan to protect the public, minimise negative effects, and protect emergency workers from exposure to high-dose radiation is important. Additionally, research is needed to help decision makers to avoid premature deaths among patients already in hospitals and other vulnerable groups during evacuation. Since nuclear disasters can affect hundreds of thousands of people, a substantial number of people are at risk of physical and mental harm in each disaster. During the recovery period after a nuclear disaster, physicians might need to screen for psychological burdens and provide general physical and mental health care for many affected residents who might experience long-term displacement. Reliable communication of personalised risks has emerged as a challenge for health-care professionals beyond the need to explain radiation protection. To overcome difficulties of risk communication and provide decision aids to protect workers, vulnerable people, and residents after a nuclear disaster, physicians should receive training in nuclear disaster response. This training should include evidence-based interventions, support decisions to balance potential harms and benefits, and take account of scientific uncertainty in provision of community health care. An open and joint learning process is essential to prepare for, and minimise the effects of, future nuclear disasters. PMID:26251394

  16. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e+e- problem and heavy ion dynamics

  17. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  18. Many-body interactions and nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hjorth-Jensen, M; Hagen, G; Kvaal, S

    2010-01-01

    This article presents several challenges to nuclear many-body theory and our understanding of the stability of nuclear matte r. In order to achieve this, we present five different cases, starting with an idealized toy model. These cases expose problems that need to be understood in order to match recent advances in nuclear theory with current experimental programs in low-energy nuclear physics. In particular, we focus on our current understanding, or lack thereof, of many-body forces, and how they evolve as functions of the number of particles . We provide examples of discrepancies between theory and experiment and outline some selected perspectives for future research directions.

  19. The high burn-up structure in nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo V. Rondinella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During its operating life in the core of a nuclear reactor nuclear fuel is subjected to significant restructuring processes determined by neutron irradiation directly through nuclear reactions and indirectly through the thermo-mechanical conditions established as a consequence of such reactions. In today's light water reactors, starting after ∼4 years of operation the cylindrical UO2 fuel pellet undergoes a transformation that affects its outermost radial region. The discovery of a newly forming structure necessitated the answering of important questions concerning the safety of extended fuel operation and still today poses the fascinating scientific challenge of fully understanding the microstructural mechanisms responsible for its formation.

  20. Teaching nuclear energy: the challenges of interdisciplinarity in the classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drs. Bratt and McCollum teach a third year undergraduate course entitled 'The Science and Politics of Nuclear Energy' at Mount Royal University in Calgary. To the best of our knowledge this is the only course of its kind offered in Canada that combines science and politics of nuclear energy in the same course and taught by specialists in both of those areas. The presentation would cover the following key points: Why was the course conceived? What was the role of MRU's focus on General Education? How was the course conceived? What is unique about it? What is the course content? How is the material delivered? What is the student profile? Explaining the success of the course. From Winter 2011 when there were only 5 registered students in a 30 seat course, to 31 registered students in a 30 seat course in Winter 2012. Challenges of a multi-disciplinary course, ie., science students who are afraid of writing long political papers, social science students who are afraid of the periodic table and math. Challenges of teaching such a course in Calgary, ie., lack of a nuclear industry, lack of guest speakers, etc. The methodology for the course includes: Demographic statistics from student enrolments; Content analysis of course documents Instructor's views on the course; and, A student survey.

  1. Teaching nuclear energy: the challenges of interdisciplinarity in the classroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, D. [Mount Royal Univ., Dept. of Policy Studies, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); McCollum, B. [Mount Royal Univ. Dept. of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Drs. Bratt and McCollum teach a third year undergraduate course entitled 'The Science and Politics of Nuclear Energy' at Mount Royal University in Calgary. To the best of our knowledge this is the only course of its kind offered in Canada that combines science and politics of nuclear energy in the same course and taught by specialists in both of those areas. The presentation would cover the following key points: Why was the course conceived? What was the role of MRU's focus on General Education? How was the course conceived? What is unique about it? What is the course content? How is the material delivered? What is the student profile? Explaining the success of the course. From Winter 2011 when there were only 5 registered students in a 30 seat course, to 31 registered students in a 30 seat course in Winter 2012. Challenges of a multi-disciplinary course, ie., science students who are afraid of writing long political papers, social science students who are afraid of the periodic table and math. Challenges of teaching such a course in Calgary, ie., lack of a nuclear industry, lack of guest speakers, etc. The methodology for the course includes: Demographic statistics from student enrolments; Content analysis of course documents Instructor's views on the course; and, A student survey.

  2. Future nuclear regulatory challenges. A report by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future challenges are considered that may arise from technical, socio-economic and political issues; organizational, management and human aspects; and international issues. The perceived challenges have been grouped into four categories, each covered by a chapter. Technical issues are addressed that many present regulatory challenges in the future: ageing nuclear power plants. External changes to industry are considered next that have an effect on regulators, privatization, cost reduction consequences, commercialization etc. It is followed by the impacts of internal changes: organizational, managerial, human-resources, licensing, staff training etc. Finally, international issues are discussed with potential regulatory impact. (R.P.)

  3. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies: Current Challenges and Future Plans - 12558

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies office (FCT program) is to provide options for possible future changes in national nuclear energy programs. While the recent draft report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future stressed the need for organization changes, interim waste storage and the establishment of a permanent repository for nuclear waste management, it also recognized the potential value of alternate fuel cycles and recommended continued research and development in that area. With constrained budgets and great expectations, the current challenges are significant. The FCT program now performs R and D covering the entire fuel cycle. This broad R and D scope is a result of the assignment of new research and development (R and D) responsibilities to the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), as well as reorganization within NE. This scope includes uranium extraction from seawater and uranium enrichment R and D, used nuclear fuel recycling technology, advanced fuel development, and a fresh look at a range of disposal geologies. Additionally, the FCT program performs the necessary systems analysis and screening of fuel cycle alternatives that will identify the most promising approaches and areas of technology gaps. Finally, the FCT program is responsible for a focused effort to consider features of fuel cycle technology in a way that promotes nonproliferation and security, such as Safeguards and Security by Design, and advanced monitoring and predictive modeling capabilities. This paper and presentation will provide an overview of the FCT program R and D scope and discuss plans to analyze fuel cycle options and support identified R and D priorities into the future. The FCT program is making progress in implanting a science based, engineering driven research and development program that is evaluating options for a sustainable fuel cycle in the U.S. Responding to the BRC recommendations, any resulting legislative changes

  4. StarCore Nuclear - response to a unique challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of clean energy at remote off-grid communities in the far North of Canada - above the 60th parallel - is a difficult challenge; with no grid connectivity the options are limited to some form of carbon-based fuel shipped to the site or the use of 'renewables' - wind, solar, or hydro-electric power. It might seem that this 'renewable power' would be ideal for these communities, but there is always the problem of the reserve power need to support the community needs when the renewable power fails. In the past this has always been provided by diesel or natural gas, but in the face of global warming this is not an attractive - or morally acceptable - long-term solution. StarCore Nuclear is a Canadian start-up nuclear power company with the specific goal of providing clean power, potable water and thermal energy to these remote communities. (author)

  5. Challenges faced by nuclear research centres in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear research centres in Indonesia are mainly owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency, covering basically various research and development facilities for non-energy and energy related activities. The research and development activities cover a broad spectrum of basic, applied, and developmental research involving nuclear science and technology in supporting various fields ranging from basic human needs, e.g. food and health; natural resources and nuclear and environmental safety; as well as industry. Recent economic crisis, triggered by monetary turmoil, has dictated the IAEA to face new challenges and to give more efforts on the application of the so called 'instant technology' i.e. the technology which has been developed and is ready for implementation, especially on food and health, to be better utilized to overcome various problems in the society. Various short and medium term programmes on the application of isotopes, radiation, and nuclear techniques for non-energy related activities have emerged in accord with these efforts. In this regard, besides the intensification of the instant technology implementation on food and health, the nuclear research and development on food plant mutation, fertilizers, radio-vaccines, production of meat and milk, production processes of various radiopharmaceuticals, and radioisotopes as well as radiation processing related to agro-industry have to be intensified using the available laboratories processing facilities. The possibility of the construction of irradiators for post harvesting processes in some provinces is being studied, while the designing and manufacturing of various prototypes of devices, equipment, and instruments for nuclear techniques in health and industry are continued. Considering the wide applications of accelerators for non-energy and energy related research and development, construction of accelerator-based laboratories is being studied. In energy related research the feasibility of

  6. The Eurosafe Forum 2003: Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EUROSAFE is an international forum for discussions among experts from technical safety organisations, research institutes, safety authorities, utilities, the industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations concerning the status of and recent achievements in nuclear installation safety, waste management, radiation safety and nuclear material security. The Eurosafe Forum 2003 - the fifth of its kind - was held at the Palais Brongniart in Paris on November 25 and 26, 2003. This year's theme was: 'Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union: speakers in the various European countries about the environmental scan before enlargement, development and structuring perspectives within the enlarged Europe'. The event brought together 445 experts and researchers from around the world (including 124 from Germany, 184 from France, 88 from Eastern Europe, as well as representatives from Korea, Japan, the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Armenia. The proceedings of the symposium can now be consulted online. The fifth edition of the forum focused on nuclear expertise and the challenge of EU-enlargement and the latest work carried out by GRS, IRSN and their partners from the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Nuclear energy contributes approximately one third of European electricity production. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are increasingly international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge and the need for greater transparency

  7. Smart structure application for the Challenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Blaha, Franz A.

    1994-09-01

    The Challenger aircraft fleet of the Canadian Forces will fly demanding missions, requiring the implementation of a fatigue management program based on the monitoring of in-flight aircraft load conditions. Conventional sensing techniques experience problems arising from severe electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper describes the development of an EMI- insensitive smart-structure sensing concept for loads monitoring. Fiber-optic strain sensors, incorporated at critical structural locations, are used to monitor the fatigue life of the aircraft wing, fuselage, and empennage. A fiber-optic accelerometer is also incorporated in the system. A long-term plan is presented for the development of an advanced smart-structure concept which can support the continuous monitoring of fatigue-prone components, and provide the aircraft with near real-time damage location and assessment.

  8. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-04-20

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

  9. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε2 and ε4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  10. Structured physical examination data: a modeling challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupi, P; van Ginneken, A M

    2001-01-01

    The success of systems facilitating collection of structured data by clinicians is largely dependent on the flexibility of the interface. The Open Record for CAre (ORCA) makes use of a generic model to support knowledge-based structured data entry for a variety of medical domains. An endeavor undertaken recently aimed to cover the broader area of Physical Examination by expanding the contents of the knowledge base. The model was found to be adequately expressive for supporting this task. Maintaining the balance between flexibility of the interface and constraints dictated by reliable retrieval, however, proved to be a considerable challenge. In this paper we illustrate through specific examples the effect of this trade off on the modeling process, together with the rationale for the chosen solutions and suggestions for future research focus.

  11. Overview of nuclear structure with electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geesaman, D. F.

    1999-12-03

    Following a broad summary of the author's view of nuclear structure in 1974, he will discuss the key elements they have learned in the past 25 years from the research at the M.I.T. Bates Linear Accelerator center and its sister electron accelerator laboratories. Electron scattering has provided the essential measurements for most of the progress. The future is bright for nuclear structure research as their ability to realistically calculate nuclear structure observables has dramatically advanced and they are increasingly able to incorporate an understanding of quantum chromodynamics into their picture of the nucleus.

  12. Preface: International workshop on nuclear structure physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Workshop on Nuclear Structure Physics was held in June 1-7, 2008, in Shanghai. The purpose of this Workshop is to review the achievements of a few selected topics, to exchange ideas, and look to the future along these lines. The topics included the properties of low-lying states of medium and heavy nuclei, approximations of the nuclear shell model and applications, structures of atomic nuclei under random interactions, and algebraic approaches in nuclear structure theory. There are 33 talks and 43 participants in this workshop.

  13. Future nuclear fuel cycles: Prospect and challenges for actinide recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear power has the worldwide potential to curtail the dependence on fossil fuels and thereby to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions while promoting energy independence. How we deal with nuclear radioactive waste is crucial in this context. In France, the public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Governments to prepare and pass the 1991 and 2006 Acts, requesting in particular the study of applicable solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste. This necessitates High Active Long Life element (such as the Minor Actinides MA) recycling, since the results of fuel cycle R&D could significantly change the challenges for the storage of nuclear waste. HALL recycling can reduce the heat load and the half-life of most of the waste to be buried to a couple of hundred years, overcoming the concerns of the public related to the long-life of the waste and thus aiding the "burying approach" in securing a "broadly agreed political consensus" of waste disposal in a geological repository. This paper presents an overview of the recent R and D results obtained at the CEA Atalante facility on innovative actinide partitioning hydrometallurgical processes. For americium and curium partitioning, these results concern improvements and possible simplifications of the Diamex-Sanex process, whose technical feasibility was already demonstrated in 2005. Results on the first tests of the Ganex process (grouped actinide separation for homogeneous recycling) are also discussed. In the coming years, next steps will involve both better in-depth understanding of the basis of these actinide partitioning processes and, for the new promising

  14. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumano, S

    2016-01-01

    We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrino-oscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function $b_1$ is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact ...

  15. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation

  16. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  17. Nuclear effects in the structure functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Marco; E Oset; S K Singh

    2003-11-01

    By using a relativistic framework and accurate nuclear spectral function the structure functions 2 and 3 of deep inelastic charged lepton and neutrino scattering are calculated in nuclei and results are presented.

  18. Interprofessional education – structural and didactical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handgraaf Marietta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available After five years of experience in interprofessional education (IPE in the Bachelor programs occupational therapy, midwifery, nursing, speech therapy, and physiotherapy at the University of Applied Sciences in Bochum (Germany, we have systematically evaluated and substantially revised our IPE concept in 2014/15. The structural and curricular embedding of IPE throughout the course of the five Bachelor programs requires the development and ongoing evolution of a binding concept for the interprofessional competence development. This concept needs to be based on a systematic reflection of current practice and sound scientific knowledge concerning interprofessional topics. Furthermore, it needs to address the promotion of competencies to act inter- and transprofessionally to enable a high quality of care (Wissenschaftsrat, 2012; Walkenhorst, 2012. Results of narrative literature reviews, structured internal discussions, interviews of experts and various internal and external evaluations have been incorporated into a new conceptual framework for IPE. It has been shown that a revision of the structure, the temporal sequences of modules and the framework to facilitate interprofessional practice are essential steps for continuous development of interprofessional education. In addition, barriers and challenges are identified and discussed. Overall, the process of development has been coordinated and accompanied continuously and successfully by an IPE committee involving different groups of representative members from the Department of Applied Health Sciences.

  19. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, M; Saito, K; Watanabe, T

    2010-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to the AMD, the Be-9 nucleus consists of two alpha-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F_2 of Be-9 along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F_2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in Be-9. It indicates that the anomalous Be-9 result should be explain...

  20. Nuclear Structure of the Noble Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Nakyeong

    Modern physics usually pictures the nuclear structure as about sphere and treats various detailed situation as perturbative, which may be obscured. In addition, the explanation why 235U undergoes nuclear fission and 238U does not is too difficult and unclear for the people to understand. However, in this paper, we introduce a new approach on the nuclear structure of the noble gas, which simultaneously can explain several phenomena that is obscurely elucidated by modern physics. We consider a 1:1 ratio between protons and neutrons and need the concept of the symmetry of the nuclear structure, because the electron's shell of the noble gas is fully occupied. From these, we can predict the number of neutrons of each noble gas exactly

  1. Challenges for Early Responders to a Nuclear / Radiological Terrorism Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even in the best of circumstances, most municipalities would face severe challenges in providing effective incident response to a large scale radiation release caused by nuclear terrorism or accident. Compounding obvious complexities, the effectiveness of first and early responders to a radiological emergency may also be hampered by an insufficient distribution of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, local policies concerning triage and field decontamination of critical victims, malfunctioning communications, inadequate inter-agency agility, and the psychological 'fear' impact on early responders. This paper examines several issues impeding the early response to nuclear terrorism incidents with specific consideration given to the on-going and forward-thinking preparedness efforts currently being developed in the Sacramento, California region. Specific recommendations are provided addressing hot zone protocols, radiation detection and monitoring equipment, hasty patient packaging techniques, vertically and horizontally integrated pre-event training, mitigating psychological fear, and protocols for the effective 'hand-off' from first responders to subsequent early response-recovery teams. (authors)

  2. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, M.; Chan, S.; Leo, C.; Garcia, S.; Vidal, B.

    2010-07-01

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  3. Training Solutions to the Global Challenges of a Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From East Asia to the United States and all over Europe, the nuclear re-birth is generating demands the training simulation vendors had not faced before. Companies involved in the planning, design, construction and operation of new plants increasingly require simulation tools to satisfy very different needs, all of them on a large scale: education and support of inexperienced newcomer staff, human factors analysis and control room design, e-learning, verification and validation of I and C systems or training and licensing of crews before the actual installations are complete. There is a full set of applications already available to the whole industry to satisfy these needs. End-user friendly Thunder Real-Time Executive (T-REX), poised to become the standard simulation platform for U.S. plants, makes it possible to provide full-scope simulator and simulator exercises to students and others on a memory stick or over the internet. AREVA EPR full-scope training simulator, based on the ALICES integrated object-oriented simulation environment, becomes an engineering simulator for the Flamanville 3 plant under construction in Normandy; the same will happen to the Taishan 1 and 2 simulators in Guangdong (China) while UniStar plans to apply this approach to the future EPR's to be built in the United States. SIREP PWR Basic Principle Simulator, with simplified models which can run on an ordinary PC, is used at GDF SUEZ offices in Brussels to implement their Nuclear Trainees Program. EDF Training Department chooses On-line Micro Simulation (MicroSel), which can be managed with Learning Management Systems, for classroom and stand-alone learning of the basic characteristics of French reactors. All these are examples of how extensive R and D and innovation programs implemented by the simulator providers, some of them under way here in Spain, will help to overcome some of the challenges of the current nuclear expansion.

  4. Forging the Link between Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dickhoff, W H

    2015-01-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for ${}^{40}$Ca as compared to local ones but change the $\\ell$-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by $(e,e'p)$ and $(p,2p)$ reactions are correctly desc...

  5. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Imperatives, Prospects, and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    certainly not new, renewed interest in more tightly coupled energy product plants (such as HES) that meet the objectives outline above have gained additional interest recently, an interest likely sparked by sharpening energy security concerns. Studies have shown that non-nuclear integrated (hybrid) energy systems can have appealing attributes in terms of overall process efficiency, enhanced electric grid stability, renewable energy integration, and economic performance, and lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. These attributes seem to be sufficiently compelling that several significant commercial investments in fossil-renewable HES are being made in the United States while the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has openly solicited information regarding nuclear energy integration schemes. The challenges of nuclear energy integration include myriad issues associated with the following RD and D areas, or 'platforms': (1) feedstock processing (e.g. bio-feedstock integration with coal, carbon feedstock extraction using nuclear energy); (2) heat/energy management (e.g. advanced heat exchangers, process design); (3) energy storage (e.g. H2 production, liquid fuels synthesis); (4) byproduct management (e.g. CO2 recycle approaches); (5) systems dynamics, integration and control (e.g. process dynamics analyses and optimization, advanced prognostics, diagnostics, variable time scale control and flow sheet optimization).

  6. Theoretical nuclear structure. Progress report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Strayer, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    This research effort is directed toward theoretical support and guidance for the fields of radioactive ion beam physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the interface between nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The authors report substantial progress in all these areas. One measure of progress is publications and invited material. The research described here has led to more than 25 papers that are published, accepted, or submitted to refereed journals, and to 25 invited presentations at conferences and workshops.

  7. Nuclear Structure Research at Richmond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausang, Cornelius W. [Univ. of Richmond, VA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The goals for the final year were; (1) to continue ongoing efforts to develop and enhance GRETINA and work towards GRETA; (2) to investigate the structure of non-yrast states in shape transitional Sm and Gd nuclei; (3) to investigate the structure of selected light Cd nuclei; (4) to exploit the surrogate reaction technique to extract (n,f) cross sections for actinide nuclei, particularly the first measurement of the 236Pu and 237Pu(n,f) cross sections.

  8. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  9. Reliability assessment of nuclear structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability assessment of nuclear structural systems has been receiving more emphasis over the last few years. This paper deals with the recent progress made by the Structural Analysis Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), in the development of a probability-based reliability analysis methodology for safety evaluation of reactor containments and other seismic category I structures. An important feature of this methodology is the incorporation of finite element analysis and random vibration theory. By utilizing this method, it is possible to evaluate the safety of nuclear structures under various static and dynamic loads in terms of limit state probability. Progress in other related areas, such as the establishment of probabilistic characteristics for various loads and structural resistance, are also described. Results of an application of the methodology to a realistic reinforced concrete containment subjected to dead and live loads, accidental internal pressures and earthquake ground accelerations are presented

  10. Managing Nuclear Knowledge: a challenge for SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All innovation in nuclear science and nuclear technology for either power or non-power applications relies on knowledge. Preserving and enhancing nuclear knowledge accumulated in the past has become a timely subject of strategic importance. In recent years, political, economical and societal trends urged the need for an efficient management of nuclear knowledge. Foremost, the Belgian government has decided to phase-out nuclear power plants. Privatisation and deregulation rules of the energy market in the European Union drives the nuclear industry to compete in the immediate and near term with other sources of electrical energy. This might result in a reduction of work force and budgets allocated to research and development. These two decisions have as a side effect that fewer young people are attracted by studying nuclear science and nuclear engineering, making the issue of the replacement of the aging nuclear workforce even worse. This changing environment requires therefore the pro-active retention and preservation of our comprehensive nuclear knowledge base and the sustainment of our nuclear education and training efforts. SCK-CEN's initiatives concerning preserving and sharing Nuclear Knowledge and sustaining nuclear education and training are discussed

  11. The Eurosafe Forum 2003: Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, Jean-Francois; Repussard, Jacques (eds.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Hahn, Lothar (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    EUROSAFE is an international forum for discussions among experts from technical safety organisations, research institutes, safety authorities, utilities, the industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations concerning the status of and recent achievements in nuclear installation safety, waste management, radiation safety and nuclear material security. The Eurosafe Forum 2003 - the fifth of its kind - was held at the Palais Brongniart in Paris on November 25 and 26, 2003. This year's theme was: 'Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union: speakers in the various European countries about the environmental scan before enlargement, development and structuring perspectives within the enlarged Europe'. The event brought together 445 experts and researchers from around the world (including 124 from Germany, 184 from France, 88 from Eastern Europe, as well as representatives from Korea, Japan, the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Armenia. The proceedings of the symposium can now be consulted online. The fifth edition of the forum focused on nuclear expertise and the challenge of EU-enlargement and the latest work carried out by GRS, IRSN and their partners from the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Nuclear energy contributes approximately one third of European electricity production. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are increasingly international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge and the need for greater

  12. In situ structural analysis of the human nuclear pore complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Appen, Alexander; Kosinski, Jan; Sparks, Lenore; Ori, Alessandro; DiGuilio, Amanda L; Vollmer, Benjamin; Mackmull, Marie-Therese; Banterle, Niccolo; Parca, Luca; Kastritis, Panagiotis; Buczak, Katarzyna; Mosalaganti, Shyamal; Hagen, Wim; Andres-Pons, Amparo; Lemke, Edward A; Bork, Peer; Antonin, Wolfram; Glavy, Joseph S; Bui, Khanh Huy; Beck, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear pore complexes are fundamental components of all eukaryotic cells that mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Determining their 110-megadalton structure imposes a formidable challenge and requires in situ structural biology approaches. Of approximately 30 nucleoporins (Nups), 15 are structured and form the Y and inner-ring complexes. These two major scaffolding modules assemble in multiple copies into an eight-fold rotationally symmetric structure that fuses the inner and outer nuclear membranes to form a central channel of ~60 nm in diameter. The scaffold is decorated with transport-channel Nups that often contain phenylalanine-repeat sequences and mediate the interaction with cargo complexes. Although the architectural arrangement of parts of the Y complex has been elucidated, it is unclear how exactly it oligomerizes in situ. Here we combine cryo-electron tomography with mass spectrometry, biochemical analysis, perturbation experiments and structural modelling to generate, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive architectural model of the human nuclear pore complex to date. Our data suggest previously unknown protein interfaces across Y complexes and to inner-ring complex members. We show that the transport-channel Nup358 (also known as Ranbp2) has a previously unanticipated role in Y-complex oligomerization. Our findings blur the established boundaries between scaffold and transport-channel Nups. We conclude that, similar to coated vesicles, several copies of the same structural building block--although compositionally identical--engage in different local sets of interactions and conformations. PMID:26416747

  13. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  14. Principal component analysis within nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Sayed, A

    2015-01-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) of different parameters affecting collectivity of nuclei predicted to be candidate of the interacting boson model dynamical symmetries are performed. The results show that, the use of PCA within nuclear structure can give us a simple way to identify collectivity together with the parameters simultaneously affecting it.

  15. Pion double charge exchange and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion double charge exchange to both the double-analog state and the ground state is studied for medium weight nuclei. The relative cross section of these two transitions and the importance of nuclear structure as a function of pion kinetic energy is examined. 16 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Nuclear structure studies at intermediate energies:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses progress on studies on nuclear structure at the University of Minnesota. Some of the topics discussed are: nucleon-nucleon interactions, high spin stretched states, deformed and transition nuclei, giant resonances, measurement of spin observables, pion scattering, delta resonances, and electron scattering

  17. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy's nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy

  18. Shield structure for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved nuclear reactor shield structure is described for use where there are significant amounts of fast neutron flux above an energy level of approximately 70 keV. The shield includes structural supports and neutron moderator and absorber systems. A portion at least of the neutron moderator material is magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear structures in Tribolium castaneum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubov, Dmitry S; Batalova, Florina M; Kiselyov, Artyom M; Stepanova, Irina S

    2013-10-01

    The first ultrastructural and immunomorphological characteristics of the karyosphere (karyosome) and extrachromosomal nuclear bodies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, are presented. The karyosphere forms early in the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase by the gathering of all oocyte chromosomes in a limited nuclear volume. Using the BrUTP assay, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes united in the karyosphere maintain their transcriptional activity until the end of oocyte growth. Hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II and basal transcription factors (TFIID and TFIIH) were detected in the perichromatin region of the karyosphere. The T. castaneum karyosphere has an extrachromosomal capsule that separates chromosomes from the rest of the nucleoplasm. Certain structural proteins (F-actin, lamin B) were found in the capsule. Unexpectedly, the karyosphere capsule in T. castaneum oocytes was found to be enriched in TMG-capped snRNAs, which suggests that the capsule is not only a structural support for the karyosphere, but may be involved in biogenesis of snRNPs. We also identified the counterparts of 'universal' extrachromosomal nuclear domains, Cajal bodies (CBs) and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). Nuclear bodies containing IGC marker protein SC35 display some features unusual for typical IGCs. SC35 domains in T. castaneum oocytes are predominantly fibrillar complex bodies that do not contain trimethyl guanosine (TMG)-capped small nuclear (sn) RNAs. Microinjections of 2'-O-methyl (U)22 probes into the oocytes allowed revealing poly(A)+ RNAs in these nuclear domains. Several proteins related to mRNA export (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein core protein A1, export adapters Y14 and Aly and export receptor NXF1) were also detected there. We believe that unusual SC35 nuclear domains of T. castaneum oocytes are possibly involved in mRNP but not snRNP biogenesis.

  20. Hirschegg '03: Nuclear structure and dynamics at the limits. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were dealt with: Nuclear structure ans symmetries, nuclei near the drip line, halo nuclei and nuclear resonances, superheavy elements and fission, fragmentation and multifragmentation, nuclear astrophysics. (HSI)

  1. Dynamical symmetries in contemporary nuclear structure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, A. I.; Ivanov, M. I.; Drenska, S. L.; Sviratcheva, K. D.; Draayer, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of group theory—the language of symmetries, the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented in terms of chains of group-subgroup structures that define the dynamical symmetry of the system under consideration. This framework enables exact analytic solutions of the associated eigenvalue problems. We review two types of applications of dynamical symmetries in contemporary theoretical nuclear structure physics: first for a classification of the many-body systems under consideration, with respect to an important characteristic of their behavior; and second for the creation of exactly solvable algebraic models that describe specific aspects of this behavior. This is illustrated with the boson and fermion realizations of symplectic structures. In the first case with an application of the sp(4, R) classification scheme of even-even nuclei within the major nuclear shells and next with of the sp(4) microscopic model for the description of isovector pairing correlations.

  2. Sustainability and acceptance - new challenges for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in relation to acceptance of nuclear energy. Acceptance is viewed in terms of public acceptance, industrial acceptance, and internal acceptance/consensus within the nuclear community. It addresses sustainability criteria, the need for innovation, and the different levels of acceptability. The mechanisms of risk perception are discussed along with the technological consequences from risk perception mechanisms leading to specific objections against nuclear energy. (author)

  3. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO2 induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig

  4. Investigation of Nuclear Partonic Structure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Henry J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Engelage, J. M.

    2016-08-30

    Our research program had two primary goals during the period of this grant, to search for new and rare particles produced in high-energy nuclear collisions and to understand the internal structure of nuclear matter. We have developed electronics to pursue these goals at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment and the AnDY experiment. Our results include discovery of the anti-hyper-triton, anti- 3Λ-barH, which opened a new branch on the chart of the nuclides, and the anti-alpha, anti- 4He, the heaviest form of anti-matter yet seen, as well as uncovering hints of gluon saturation in cold nuclear matter and observation of jets in polarized proton-proton collisions that will be used to probe orbital motion inside protons.

  5. The Challenge of Producing Ubiquitinated Proteins for Structural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Faggiano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is an important post-translational modification involved in several essential signalling pathways. It has different effects on the target protein substrate, i.e., it can trigger the degradation of the protein in the proteasome, change the interactions of the modified protein with its partners, or affect its localization and activity. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the consequences of protein ubiquitination, scientists have to face the challenging task of producing ubiquitinated proteins for structural characterization with X-ray crystallography and/or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. These techniques require milligrams of homogeneous samples of high purity. The strategies proposed so far for the production of ubiquitinated proteins can be divided into two groups, i.e., chemical (or non-enzymatic and enzymatic methodologies. In this review, we summarize the still very sparse examples available in the literature that describe successful production of ubiquitinated proteins amenable for biochemical and structural studies, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the techniques proposed. We also give a perspective of the direction in which the field might evolve.

  6. Challenging today's nuclear industry to be competitive in a changing tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the millennium approaches, the future of the nuclear power generation appears desolate. Today's nuclear executives are facing challenges resulting from worldwide change and have forced utilities to reevaluate their corporation's future directions. The nuclear industry must be competitive more than ever to address today's rapid changing marketplace and pressures exerted from: regulatory reformation; increased competition; changes in technology; customer evolution; and globalization. These factors have compelled nuclear executives to address questions such as: What impact will these changes have on today's marketplace, and on my corporation? What will characterize tomorrow's successful nuclear facility? How can today's nuclear corporation compete in tomorrow's marketplace? Will my corporation survive? (author)

  7. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses topics in nuclear theory. These general topics are: Quark physics, Quantum field theory, Relativistic nuclear physics, Nuclear dynamics, and Few-body problems and nonrelativistic methods

  8. Compilations and evaluations of nuclear structure and decay date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material contained in this compilation is sorted according to eight subject categories: 1. General Compilations; 2. Basic Isotopic Properties; 3. Nuclear Structure Properties; 4. Nuclear Decay Processes: Half-lives, Energies and Spectra; 5. Nuclear Decay Processes: Gamma-rays; 6. Nuclear Decay Processes: Fission Products; 7. Nuclear Decay Processes: (Others); 8. Atomic Processes

  9. Proceedings of the conference on nuclear structure at the limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the papers from the Proceedings of the Conference on Nuclear Structure at the Limits. Some of the areas covered by these papers are: nuclear deformation; nuclear decay; nuclear spectroscopy; radioactive ion beams; nuclear models; high spin states; and heavy ion reactions. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  10. Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation

  11. NEW WEB-BASED ACCESS TO NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATASETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINCHELL,D.F.

    2004-09-26

    As part of an effort to migrate the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) databases to a relational platform, a new web interface has been developed for the dissemination of the nuclear structure datasets stored in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File and Experimental Unevaluated Nuclear Data List.

  12. New Challenges in nuclear science: Recent activities at ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Universities in Europe are feeling a declining interest of students in pursuing scientific and technical studies. This is due to a number of reasons, ranging from the focus on specific disciplines at secondary school level to the negative public assessment of some fields of study. This development may entail considerable negative consequences to society as a whole, above and beyond the university disciplines affected. The OECD-NEA study, 'Nuclear Education and Training - Causes for Concern?' and the Nuclear Competence Pool within the framework of the HGF Nuclear Technology Research Pool draw attention to these problems, dealing especially with the nuclear sciences which suffer most from this development. Also in the future, there will be a need for qualified personnel with a background of competent training to operate existing nuclear facilities and address problems arising in the future. Beyond the utilization of nuclear power for electricity generation, these disciplines of the nuclear sciences are also very important to the life sciences, medicine, materials research and development, and other industrial applications. The Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) performs work in these areas of fundamental and applied research, among others: nuclear reactors with ultra-intense lasers; condensed phases of americium under high pressure; criticality aspects of thin layers; photo emission of thin actinide films; alpha immunotherapy in cancer treatment; ITU's Chart of the Nuclides with a decay module. (orig.)

  13. Status and challenges within nuclear waste treatment and ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahim, Hamid Ait

    2008-07-01

    The presentation reviews visions towards sustainable nuclear power, objectives and properties of the generation IV reactors, the MYRRHA project and discusses economical aspects, future perspectives and wider international cooperation. Norway may contribute to the MYRRHA project through competence within reactor technology, nuclear instrumentation and physics (tk)

  14. Nuclear energy between the demand and the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear energy has many benefits for mankind, most importantly the production of electricity. It is the primary application for nuclear energy to acquire electricity by power reactors. There are many other uses of nuclear energy, for example in archaeology, medicine, industry and agriculture. Nuclear energy presently is considered as one of the most important sources of energy, contributing of about 15% of the energy requirements of the world. It is considered a clean nonpolluting source of energy for the environment despite the waste products it generates in contrast to fossil fuel. It is less expensive compared to the other energy sources, for example solar energy, wind energy as well as fossil fuel. From the economic point of view, the price for the kilowatt per hour produced from a power station running on petrol or coal is 35% more expensive than the kilowatt per hour produced from nuclear power station. (author)

  15. Nuclear hybrid energy systems: imperatives, prospects, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In less than 60 years we have witnessed the transition of nuclear electricity production from an experiment on the high desert of the western United States to more than 430 commercial nuclear power reactors deployed in 31 countries, supplying nearly 14% of all global electricity consumed. The speed at which this transition took place was stunning, as has been the evolution of the technology, business management and operations approach to civil nuclear electricity production. Even as the United States took a two-decade hiatus from the construction of new nuclear electricity plants, other nations embraced the technology and continue to do so. Today, there are 53 nuclear power reactors under construction, 142 planned and 327 proposed for development, including a number in the United States

  16. In front of a new challenge: nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sources utilising either radioactive materials or radiation generators have been widely used throughout the world in medicine, research, industry and education for decades. There are both, legal and governmental responsibilities in respect of the safe use of ionising radiation sources, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material. The attacks of 11 September 2001 brought a new dimension to the actions against terrorism. There are not enough legal instruments to control this phenomenon. Potential threat: acquisition of a nuclear weapon, acquisition of nuclear material to construct a nuclear weapon or to cause a radiological hazard, violent acts against nuclear facilities to cause a radiological hazard, acquisition of other radioactive materials to construct a dirty bomb to cause a radiological hazard. 'The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material', IAEA, 1980 obliges Parties to apply established levels of physical protection to nuclear material used for peaceful purposes in international transport. It also requires Parties to criminalize under their respective laws various acts such as theft, illegal acquisition, possession and use, and to establish jurisdiction over those offences to enable the prosecution or extradition of alleged offenders. This is the only international legal instrument in the area of physical protection. Conclusion: At present the threat is not only of a nuclear accident but of a nuclear terrorism attack which could affect any country in the world and the lack of effective legal instruments to respond to that situation. It shows the need for the international community to work together in order to reinforce coordinated and integrated nuclear security and safeguards measures. States shall create appropriated regulatory infrastructures to ensure that the radioactive sources are appropriately regulated and adequately secured at all times. Stronger and

  17. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure and collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four topics on nuclear clustering are discussed. The first subject is about the cluster formation in dilute matter which we think is now observed in heavy ion collisions at hundreds MeV/nucleon. The second subject is about our new proposal of the existence of alpha condensed states in light nuclei. Two other subjects are both about the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei. One is the cluster structures in neutron-rich Be and B isotopes. In these isotopes, the clustering prevails as fundamental characters of nuclear structure. The other is the report of our recent study about the possible relation of the clustering with the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 in 32Mg and 30Ne. (author)

  18. Clustering Aspects in Nuclear Structure and Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H.

    Four topics on nuclear clustering are discussed. The first subject is about the cluster formation in dilute matter which we think is now observed in heavy ion collisions at hundreds MeV/nucleon. The second subject is about our new proposal of the existense of alpha condensed states in light nuclei. Two other subjects are both about the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei. One is the cluster structures in neutron-rich Be and B isotopes. In these isotopes, the clustering prevails as fundamental characters of nuclear structure. The other is the report of our recent study about the possible relation of the clustering with the breaking of the neutron magic number N=20 in 32Mg and 30Ne.

  19. Nuclear structure and Indian Clover array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H C Jain

    2001-07-01

    A brief description of the nuclear structure studies performed with the 14-UD pelletron at TIFR has been presented. The experimental facilities developed for these studies are described. Some of the interesting results obtained for mass 70 to 80 nuclei are presented. The development of a recoil mass spectrometer and an Indian clover array for the study of high spin states in nuclei near drip lines is discussed.

  20. Strength of structural materials of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monography reviews the phenomenon of stress-corrosion craving of zirconium-alloy fuel cans in the nuclear fuel fission products and ways of its prevention. Equations of creep and limiting state of FBR core materials were derived on the basis of the concept of deformation processes unity taking into account the degree of structural stability of alloys, temperature, nonstationary loading and aggressive media effects. Equations of durability under joint quasistatic and cyclic loading are developed. 146 refs.; 91 figs.; 16 tabs

  1. Managing key capabilities: A challenge for nuclear plant building companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear plant building industry faces a paradoxical situation. The use of nuclear reactors to produce energy for civil purposes is both a promising technology, with potentially huge outlets, and a technology facing declining demand. One of the key problems is then: how to maintain the capabilities necessary to benefit from the potential recovery? The resource-based view of strategic management has shown the importance of different types of resources and capabilities in gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Successful incumbents in the market of nuclear station building have built those kinds of distinctive capabilities that give them a competitive advantage over potential new entrants. But we show that, without a permanent activity in plant building, preserving those capabilities necessitates specific strategic action. We firstly develop the argument that the nuclear plant building industry is in a paradoxical situation in terms of demand and technical performance trends. Secondly, we try to identify the key capabilities of the incumbents. We show that companies in that field use mainly three types of distinctive capabilities: pure technical and scientific knowledge in direct relation to the use of nuclear as an energy generator, competences in risk management and competences in large project management, including financing. Thirdly, we show that although some of those capabilities are used through other nuclear-related activities such as plant maintenance or fuel supply, some of them necessitate taking strategic actions in order to be preserved. We argue that this should be a priority of nuclear equipment company managers in the next few years. (author)

  2. 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Shan-Gui; Nuclear Structure in China 2014; NSC2014

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of the contributions to the 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China (NSC2014), held on October 25-28, 2014 in Guilin, China and hosted by Guangxi Normal University. It provides an important updated resource in the nuclear physics literature for researchers and graduate students studying nuclear structure and related topics. Recent progress made in the study of nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin states, nuclear mass and half-life, nuclear astrophysics, super-heavy nuclei, unstable nuclei, density functional theory, neutron star and symmetry energy, nuclear matter, and nuclear shell model are covered.

  3. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust

  4. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  5. Future of Nuclear Structure Studies. Proceedings of a Panel on the Future of Nuclear Structure Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the world enters an age in which nuclear electric power is a reality and man increasingly benefits from nuclear applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, it is useful to re-examine the basic sciences that underlie these important developments. In many ways modern nuclear technology is built on, or derived from, basic research on the atomic nucleus. Today, nuclear physics studies are a fundamental part of the national atomic energy programs in many of the Member States, now more than 100, of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The purpose of the IAEA Panel on the Future of Nuclear Structure Studies, held at Dubna on 1-3 July 1968, was to provide an appraisal of the present status of our knowledge of nuclear structure, to point out the open problems, and to suggest the most promising directions for future research. To reflect the needs of many of the IAEA member nations, special consideration was given to the problems of smaller institutes and developing countries. The major recommendation of the panel concerned the question of regional centres for low- and medium-energy nuclear physics research. The panel supported the organization of regional centres formed by three or more developing countries and equipped with apparatus of intermediate cost and sophistication. The text of the resolution appears at the end of this book, which contains the papers presented to the panel and a record of the discussions. The panel was held in conjunction with the Dubna-sponsored International Symposium on Nuclear Structure, which took place immediately after the panel, on 4-11 July 1968. The invited papers from this symposium, all in English, were published by the Agency in 1968 under the title ''Nuclear Structure: Dubna Symposium 1968''

  6. Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on 12C and 16O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development

  7. Structural integrity of nuclear struts and snubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear struts and snubbers are beam-column structures with variable cross sectional and material properties. Traditionally, the design of their major beam-column components, the threaded rod end and the extension piece pipe, has been based on the interaction equations of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These equations, based in part on test results of rolled wide-flange sections, should be modified when used to determine the adequacy of solid round sections such as the threaded rod ends. An analysis approach is developed employing the necessary modifications. Using these modified interaction equations an assessment of the structural integrity of existing struts and snubbers is presented

  8. Electromagnetic studies of nucleon and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.; Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    Important objectives of the group are the study of subatomic structure through experimental measurements and the interpretation of the data through modeling. The common theme that unifies the studies of strong interactions and hadronic systems is the effort to determine the electromagnetic response as completely as possible. The general approach is coincidence detection of exclusive final states and determination of the dependence on the spin variables using polarized beams and targets and outgoing nucleon polarimetry. Direct reaction and giant resonance studies of electron quasi-elastic scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O are reported, as well as work on nuclear structure models and instrumentation development.

  9. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    2016-06-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e' p) reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e' p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV) and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  10. Energy policy and challenges: which part for the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides many data and charts on the energy domain: energy consumption, energy demand, the reserves, the climatic changes, the renewable energies, the energy cost, the radioactive wastes management, the new nuclear technology. (A.L.B.)

  11. Astrophysical Reaction Rates as a Challenge for Nuclear Reaction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rauscher, T.

    2010-01-01

    The relevant energy ranges for stellar nuclear reactions are introduced. Low-energy compound and direct reactions are discussed. Stellar modifications of the cross sections are presented. Implications for experiments are outlined.

  12. Challenges in structural approaches to cell modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wonpil; Liang, Jie; Olson, Arthur; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Vajda, Sandor; Vakser, Ilya A

    2016-07-31

    Computational modeling is essential for structural characterization of biomolecular mechanisms across the broad spectrum of scales. Adequate understanding of biomolecular mechanisms inherently involves our ability to model them. Structural modeling of individual biomolecules and their interactions has been rapidly progressing. However, in terms of the broader picture, the focus is shifting toward larger systems, up to the level of a cell. Such modeling involves a more dynamic and realistic representation of the interactomes in vivo, in a crowded cellular environment, as well as membranes and membrane proteins, and other cellular components. Structural modeling of a cell complements computational approaches to cellular mechanisms based on differential equations, graph models, and other techniques to model biological networks, imaging data, etc. Structural modeling along with other computational and experimental approaches will provide a fundamental understanding of life at the molecular level and lead to important applications to biology and medicine. A cross section of diverse approaches presented in this review illustrates the developing shift from the structural modeling of individual molecules to that of cell biology. Studies in several related areas are covered: biological networks; automated construction of three-dimensional cell models using experimental data; modeling of protein complexes; prediction of non-specific and transient protein interactions; thermodynamic and kinetic effects of crowding; cellular membrane modeling; and modeling of chromosomes. The review presents an expert opinion on the current state-of-the-art in these various aspects of structural modeling in cellular biology, and the prospects of future developments in this emerging field.

  13. Nuclear security - New challenge to the safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of nuclear power plants involves two aspects: one is to prevent nuclear accidents resulted from systems and equipments failure or human errors; the other is to refrain nuclear accidents from external intended attack. From this point of view, nuclear security is an organic part of the nuclear safety of power plants since they have basically the same goals and concrete measures with each other. In order to prevent malicious attacks; the concept of physical protection of nuclear facilities has been put forward. In many years, a series of codes and regulations as well as technical standard systems on physical protection had been developed at international level. The United Nations passed No. 1540 resolution as well as 'Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear terrorism', and revised 'Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials', which has enhanced a higher level capacity of preparedness by international community to deal with security issues of nuclear facilities. In China, in order to improve the capability of nuclear power plants on preventing and suppressing the external attacks, the Chinese government consecutively developed the related codes and standards as well as technical documents based on the existing laws and regulations, including 'Guide for the Nuclear Security of Nuclear Power Plants' and 'Guide for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials', so as to upgrade the legislative requirements for nuclear security in power plants. The government also made greater efforts to support the scientific research and staff training on physical protection, and satisfying the physical protection standards for newly-built nuclear facilities such as large scale nuclear power plants to meet requirement at international level. At the same time old facilities were renovated and the Chinese government established a nuclear emergency preparedness coordination mechanism, developed corresponding emergency preparedness plans, intensified the

  14. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  15. Opportunities in nuclear structure and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Filomena

    2015-10-01

    The last decade has seen important advances in the area of low energy nuclear physics. New measurements have provided crucial insight into the behavior of nuclei at the limits of stability, including the mapping of the neutron dripline up to Oxygen, investigations of unbound nuclear states, and the discovery of new super-heavy elements. In parallel we have seen a revolution in low-energy nuclear theory, moving toward quantified predictability, rooted in the underlying inter-nucleon forces. But the next decade offers even more opportunities with a new generation factory of rare isotopes, and the anticipated developments in high performance computing. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams coupled with new state-of-the-art detectors will allow us to access a large fraction of the necessary information for the r-process responsible for making at least half of the heavy elements in our universe. FRIB will provide the needed intensities to study global nuclear properties, shell structure, and collective phenomena far from stability. Key measurements are anticipated, at various facilities, which will inform symmetry tests with rare isotopes. We expect to put strict constraints on the equation of state. These and many other opportunities will be highlighted in this overview talk.

  16. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  17. Future goals and challenges of the IAEA nuclear security programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It would be difficult to overstate the urgency of intensifying our collective efforts to secure nuclear material worldwide. The graphic images of 11 September 2001 make abundantly clear the willingness of terrorists to inflict unthinkable destruction and pain. Imagine what the consequences would be if terrorists were to acquire and use dangerous nuclear material to attack any one of us. The quality and scope of nuclear material security must be enhanced if we are to prevent nuclear terrorism. It must be a high priority for all of us. It was this awareness that prompted initiation of the IAEA's nuclear security programme, the subject of my remarks. Immediately after the tragedy of 11 September 2001, several IAEA Member States approached the Director General about the need to strengthen the IAEA's ability to assist Member States in protecting their nuclear and radioactive material against the emerging threat of terrorism. The IAEA responded with alacrity. At the March 2002 IAEA Board of Governors meeting, the Secretariat presented its comprehensive, cross-cutting Nuclear Security Action Plan. The plan has, since then, served as the foundation for the implementation of all IAEA nuclear security activities. To facilitate implementation of the plan, organizational changes were needed. In 2002 the Office of Physical Protection and Material Security was removed from the Department of Safeguards, renamed the Office of Nuclear Security, and relocated to the newly created Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. When this reorganization began, the Office of Physical Protection and Material Security had fewer than ten staff members. Currently, the Office of Nuclear Security has quadrupled to more than 40 staff members engaged in full time or part time capacities. Since its inception in 2002, the IAEA's nuclear security programme has provided direct assistance to over 75 countries, in the form of assessment missions, training courses or support for development of national

  18. Challenges to implementation of knowledge management on drafting of nuclear regulation in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Indonesia still reviewing its nuclear power options, in anticipation of the possible introduction of a NPP in the near future, and in order to contribute to the global nuclear safety culture, the Indonesia Government enacted, on 10 April 1997, Act No. 10 of 1997 on Nuclear Energy. With reference to Article 14 of Act No 10 of 1997, BAPETEN (Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency) is empowered to control on the use of any nuclear energy utilization through regulations, licensing, and inspections. In conducting its tasks, as one of non departmental government agencies, BAPETEN is under and directly responsible to the President of Republic of Indonesia Pursuant to Presidential Decree No 103 year 2001 on Status, Function, Authority, Form and Organization Structure of Non-Departmental Government Agencies. The basic principles of nuclear energy regulate on practice in Indonesia set out in the law provide that control of any nuclear energy application is aimed to: a. Assure the welfare, the security and the peace of people; b. Assure the safety and the health of workers and public, and the environmental protection; c. Maintain the legal order in implementing the use of nuclear energy; d. Increase the legal awareness of nuclear energy user to develop a safety culture in nuclear field; e. Prevent the diversion of the purpose of the nuclear material utilization; and f. Assure for maintaining and increasing the worker discipline on the implementation of nuclear energy utilization. Nuclear energy act enacted in 10 April 1997 and promulgated in state Gazette of Republic Indonesia Year 1997 No 23 Supplementary Gazette 36765 contains of elucidation thereto is the principal and primary law governing all related aspects in the use of nuclear energy i.e. institutions, research and development, exploration, regulatory authority, radioactive waste management, liability for nuclear damage and penal provisions. In order to implement the act comprehensively requires more detailed

  19. Nuclear Structure: Dubna Symposium 1968. Invited Papers from the International Symposium on Nuclear Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invited papers of a Symposium organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, supported by IUPAP and IAEA, and held in Dubna from 4 to 11 July 1968. The meeting was attended by about 450 scientists from 30 countries. The volume contains the invited papers, all by distinguished scientists, and the discussions and short contributions that followed the presentation of these papers. Contents: I. Nuclear structure at low excitations (15 papers) ; II. Nuclear structure at high excitations (6 papers): III. Open problems in nuclear physics (3 papers); IV. Equilibrium deformations (6 papers); V. General properties of nuclei (6 papers); VI. Closing remarks; List of contributions; List of seminar papers; List of participants; Author index. All papers, discussions and short contributions are in English; the abstracts are in English and Russian, which were the working languages of the Symposium. (author)

  20. The European project STRUCTURES: challenges and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de Stefan; Dawson, John; Dawson, Linda; Flintoft, Ian; Garbe, Heyno; Leferink, Frank; Menssen, Benjamin; Mora, Nicolas; Rachidi, Farhad; Righero, Marco; Rubinstein, Marcos; Stojilovic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    The project STRUCTURES, funded by the European Union, started in July 2012 to study problems related to the emerging threats of electromagnetic attacks to critical infrastructures. Partners of the team have worked to list possible threats, identify the main characteristics of the critical infrastruc

  1. Phonons as building blocks in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a nuclear system in terms of eigenmodes (phonons) of subsystems is investigated in three different approaches. In the frame of nuclear field theory the three identical particle system is analysed and the elimination of spurious states due to the violation of the Pauli principle is emphasized. In terms of weak coupling, a new approach of the shell model is proposed which is shown to be rapidly convergent with the number of basis vectors. Applications of three particle systems in the lead region are made. Lastly, a microscopic multiphonon theorie of collective K=0 states in deformed nuclei based on a Tamm Dancoff phonon is developed. The role of the Pauli principle as well as comparisons with boson expansion methods are deeply analysed

  2. Nuclear structure calculations for astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present calculated results on such diverse properties as nuclear energy levels, ground-state masses and shapes, β-decay properties and fission-barrier heights. Our approach to these calculations is to use a unified theoretical framework within which the above properties can all be studied. The results are obtained in the macroscopic-microscopic approach in which a microscopic nuclear-structure single-particle model with extensions is combined with a macroscopic model, such as the liquid drop model. In this model the total potential energy of the nucleus may be calculated as a function of shape. The maxima and minima in this function correspond to such features as the ground state, fission saddle points and shape-isomeric states. Various transition rate matrix elements are determined from wave-functions calculated in the single-particle model with pairing and other relevant residual interactions taken into account

  3. Canada's nuclear industry: Maturity, confidence and a continuing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the CANDU system, based on heavy water and natural uranium, Canada has developed an integrated high-technology product that is world scale in concept and that competes successfully in the international arena. This is a great achievement by any standard. The joint effort over many decades by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Onatario Hydro and others, has brought a remarkable record of safe, reliable and cost-effective nuclear generation. Electricity is a Canadian advantage, as the country has abundant hydro, coal and nuclear supplies, and its costs are the lowest among the major Western industrial countries. It is also significant that its nuclear electricity costs are among the lowest in the world

  4. The Challenges and Countermeasures of Human Resources on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper addresses the situations of nuclear power development and nuclear industry human resources and points out that the development and supply of human resources are becoming the big challenges in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power. At the same time, the paper analyzes the root causes of human resources shortage and recommends several countermeasures to confront human resources problems. At last, the paper introduces what SNPTC and SNERDI do to overcome the human resources problem and give conclusions. (author)

  5. IAEA activities in manpower development for nuclear power - moving to meet challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Need for excellence in human performance in all activities involved in nuclear power - The challenge of providing qualified manpower when required - Planning and preparing nuclear power programmes and projects - Design, construction and commissioning of nuclear power plants - Operation and maintenance, plant performance - Safe, reliable and economic operation - the national manpower development effort - Role of foreign assistance and of the IAEA - The Agency's comprehensive programme, objectives, means - Experience - Training courses, guidebooks, standards - Current trends - Examples. (orig.)

  6. Multilateral Approaches to the Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Challenges and Possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle have been proposed in order to suppress the expansion of sensitive fuel cycle technology. In order to prepare for the future multilaterallization of the nuclear fuel cycle, existing multilateral spent fuel management programs are analyzed. A trial multilateralization of a domestic R and D facility for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle is proposed and its challenges, possibilities and implementation strategy are discussed

  7. Progress and challenges of nuclear power plant radioactive waste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the status of nuclear power plant radioactive waste management in China is analyzed. Challenges facing the nuclear power plant radioactive waste management are pointed out. And countermeasures for strengthening radioactive waste management are put forward, including further improving relevant codes and standards, improving radiation management system, strengthening the radioactive waste management of nuclear power plant fleet, encouraging technological innovation and combination of production, education and research. (authors)

  8. Evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India: Addressing the present day challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenously developed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) that form the backbone of current stage of nuclear power development in India have seen continuous evolution of their containment systems. This evolution that has taken place over implementation of 18 PHWRs (200/220/540 MWe) has encompassed all aspects of containment design, viz. the structural system, energy management system, radio-activity management and hydrogen management system. As a part of ongoing efforts toward strengthening of safety performance, India is also ready with the design of Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), which represents a technology demonstrator for advanced reactor systems and for thorium utilization. This reactor has a number of improved passive safety features and it is capable of meeting the demanding safety challenges that future reactor system would be expected to meet as a result of emerging expectations in the background of accidents over the past three decades viz. those at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and most recently at Fukushima (2011). In this lecture I shall focus on the evolution of nuclear reactor containments in India and highlight the design, associated structural and thermal hydraulics safety assessment made over the years for the improvement of containment performance

  9. The challenge and countermeasures for human resources development on nuclear power in 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Most IAEA member states have set up nuclear power development program as national policy and energy strategy with the technical progress and successful demonstration of nuclear power to be a safe clean, ecological and economic energy. The development and supply of Human Resources (HR) is becoming the big challenge in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power as all countries in the world are in short of professional nuclear engineers and skilled technician at present. The problem is resulting from firstly many universities have closed or reduced nuclear power related faculty after two main severe nuclear power accidents, secondly the existing nuclear power engineers and technicians are going to retire and we have difficulties in finding replacement timely, thirdly the training period for nuclear power professionals is much longer than those of the other industries. The HR bottleneck situation should be seriously considered for the safe and economic development of nuclear power. How to confront and find a practical solution to the challenge? I suggest member states firstly to formulate an appropriate HR training program before drawing up any nuclear power development plan; secondly to make nuclear power technology education network or set up nuclear power university in different stages and regions thus to provide distance learning and further study for the existing professional and skilled technician; thirdly to promote international cooperation for nuclear power peaceful utilization in a win-win strategy; fourthly to organize international nuclear expert forum and communication platform to maximize their talent and speed up the development in nuclear power manpower supply as well as establish a world-wide nuclear power HR foundation. SNERDI/SNPTC of China has adopted various countermeasures to face the challenge of nuclear power manpower by establishing and implementing the nuclear power human resource program. The main points are as

  10. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  11. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Coraggio, L; Holt, J W; Itaco, N; Machleidt, R; Marcucci, L E; Sammarruca, F

    2016-01-01

    Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  12. Opportunities and challenges for nuclear power development: the IAEA view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than fifty years ago, the International Atomic Energy Agency was established with the mission to accelerate and enlarge the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to ensure that it was not used for military purposes. Dr. Homi Bhabha, who chaired the preparatory meetings of the IAEA, shaped a carefully balanced mandate for the IAEA in 1956. Security and development were brought together as two aspects of the same ideal: 'Atoms for Peace'. However, not only 50 years ago, but even today humanity still faces the pressing need for development and the desire for a more effective system of international security. Energy is essential for development. Every aspect of development, such as poverty, hunger, health care and environment, requires energy. When these needs remain unaddressed, conflicts, violence, regional and global insecurity can occur.Technological innovation as a key factor in ensuring the long term sustainability of nuclear power has to be considered in conjunction with the institutional innovations that can help nuclear power introduction in developing countries. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) works to ensure that the future needs of all countries and developing countries in particular-are understood and taken into account when innovative nuclear systems such as small and medium-size reactor designs are evaluated and developed. These designs allow a more incremental investment and provide a better match to grid capacity and easily adapted to applications such as district heating and seawater desalination. Innovations in institutional area like regional cooperation in construction and operation, and new approaches as leasing, financing, taking-back policy, build-own-operate, need to be addressed

  13. Isomeric target for nuclear structure studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maunoury, L; Aubert, P; Aupiais, J; Baudin, M; Blier, G; Bonnereau, B; Boulin, Y; Pointurier, F; Sauvestre, J E; Sigaud, J; Szmigiel, M

    2002-01-01

    The experimental studies on nuclear structure and reactions dealing with nuclei in their isomeric state are, actually, mainly constrained by the difficulty of producing isomeric targets. The CEA/Bruyeres-le-Chatel laboratory has initiated the production of a sup 1 sup 7 sup 7 Lu sup m isomeric target. We plan to reach a 45% isomeric purity associated with a number of isomeric nuclei about 10 sup 1 sup 5. This target will be available for experiments at the end of the year 2000. The method performed to produce such targets will be discussed.

  14. Meeting the challenges to nuclear safety of phasing out the commercial use of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision of the German Government to phase out nuclear power is based on the nuclear and radiation risks that inevitably are associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. These risks are socially not accepted. The nuclear sector in Germany has therefore been affected since more than a decade by the erosion of the staffing, technical and knowledge bases. The consensus based phase out policy is an efficient approach to cope with these and other internationally discussed external factors challenging nuclear safety. The further use of nuclear power is limited and can be adapted to the availability of needed infrastructure. During phasing out, safety has to be maintained and improved in accordance with the law. To this end, the German nuclear regulatory body has taken the following actions that are also described in the paper: (i) regulatory approaches to power operators' organizational changes and staff development; (ii) establishment of a safety culture, safety management systems and performance indicators; (iii) modernization of the safety related regulations to the current state of the art in science and technology; (iv) maintenance of strong nuclear regulatory supervision and effective periodic safety reviews; (v) measures to preserve competence and infrastructure for the plants' residual operating lives and for overcoming the consequences of the use of nuclear power. (author)

  15. Risks and challenges associated with the design and construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a nuclear power plant project, considering the period prior to the operation of the plant, requires a very strict risk control to ensure compliance with a series of challenges. The present paper identifying the most important challenges facing the construct ability and license requirements of the process, identifying the interfaces and proposing a methodology of construction to meet the challenge of a construction process in 5 years.

  16. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  17. Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  18. Organizing the Canadian nuclear industry to meet the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor is struggling for a share of the dwindling reactor market against formidable and well-established competition. The Canadian nuclear industry has historically depended upon two crown corporations, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and Ontario Hydro, which have taken the lead in designing and engineering the reactor. Crown corporations are not notably successful in marketing, however, and the time has come for the industry to organize itself in preparation for an aggressive export drive

  19. An ecological challenge to nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of fossil fuels have led to world-wide ecological problems making limiting measures necessary, especially for CO2 emissions. In the future, CO2 free fuels must be given a growing priority because, from an economical point of view, it is not possible to eliminate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants. The limits of economically usable water power and other regenerable sources of energy, such as solar and wind power which are as yet and in the foreseeable future uneconomical, make it impossible to abstain from the use of nuclear energy now and in the future. The present nuclear acceptance problem, especially through loss of trust after the Chernobyl accident, makes it necessary to improve the world-wide safety standards of a coming reactor generation so that consequences of an accident for the population can be avoided. To this end, the safety concepts of two water reactors are described, namely the 'revolutionary' version of the AP-600 and the 'evolutionary' new developments of well-tested light water reactors. Both developments have the purpose of making hypothetical accidents even less probable and, by means of accident management measures, of limiting the effects of such events to the power plant. On this basis, the energy-political consensus must be won which is necessary to enable nuclear energy to adequately meet future ecological demands. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs

  20. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness

  1. Microscopic Approaches to Nuclear Structure: Configuration Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, W E

    2007-09-21

    The configuration interaction (CI) approach to solving the nuclear many-body problem, also known as the interacting shell model, has proven to be powerful tool in understanding the structure of nuclei. The principal criticism of past applications of the shell model is the reliance on empirical tuning to interaction matrix elements. If an accurate description of nuclei far from the valley of stability, where little or no data is available, a more fundamental approach is needed. This starts with recent ab initio approaches with effective interactions in the no-core shell model (NCSM). Using effective-field theory for guidance, fully ab initio descriptions of nuclei up to {sup 16}O with QCD based NN, NNN, and NNNN interactions will be possible within the next five years. An important task is then to determine how to use these NCSM results to develop effective interactions to describe heavier nuclei without the need to resort to an empirical retuning with every model space. Thus, it is likely that more traditional CI applications utilizing direct diagonalization and more fundamental interactions will be applicable to nuclei with perhaps up to one hundred constituents. But, these direct diagonalization CI applications will always be computationally limited due to the rapid increase in the number of configurations with particle number. Very recently, the shifted-contour method has been applied to the Auxiliary-field Monte Carlo approach to the Shell Model (AFMCSM), and preliminary applications exhibit a remarkable taming of the notorious sign problem. If the mitigation of the sign problem holds true, the AFMCSM will offer a method to compute quantum correlations to mean-field applications for just about all nuclei; giving exact results for CI model spaces that can approach 10{sup 20-25}. In these lectures, I will discuss modern applications of CI to the nuclear many-body problem that have the potential to guide nuclear structure theory into the next decade.

  2. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs

  3. International conference: Features of nuclear excitation states and mechanisms of nuclear reactions. 51. Meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure. The book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the LI Meeting on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Nuclear Structure are presented. Properties of excited states of atomic nuclei and mechanisms of nuclear reactions are considered. Studies on the theory of nucleus and fundamental interactions pertinent to experimental study of nuclei properties and mechanisms of nuclear reactions, technique and methods of experiment, application of nuclear-physical method, are provided

  4. Technical Session: China. Seizing Opportunities to Meet the Challenges and Promote the Healthy Development of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 30 years of reform and opening, China has made outstanding achievements in its fast- growing economy and society. But at the same time, China's environmental problems have become increasingly prominent, especially as a result of the irrational energy structure. In order to promote the coordinated and sustainable development of the economy, society and the environment, and to build a resource-saving and environmentally friendly society, there is an urgent need for China to strengthen its environmental protection measures, implement energy saving and emission reduction measures, and vigorously develop and use clean energy. To this end, China has adopted a policy of actively pursuing the construction of nuclear power infrastructure and has recently initiated or is about to initiate the construction of a series of nuclear power plants, which will lead to the swift and vigorous development of nuclear power. Under these circumstances, what challenges will China face during the further development of its nuclear power infrastructure? And what actions will China need to take in response to these challenges? These are questions that require serious consideration. Nuclear power is the logical choice for China to strengthen environmental protection and build an ecological civilization. In order to effectively protect public life and health, take better care of the Earth, which is the common home for mankind, and achieve sustainable development, the Chinese Government has adopted environmental protection as a basic national policy and will energetically promote the building of an ecological civilization by forming an industry structure and a growth and consumption pattern that saves energy resources and protects the environment. Nuclear power is a safe, economical and clean form of energy, and is the most realistic alternative source of energy that can currently be developed on a large scale. There is no doubt as to the importance and necessity of developing

  5. Institutional Strain and Precarious Values in Meeting Future Nuclear Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Matthews; Todd R. LaPorte

    1998-11-01

    This paper explores the implications of moderately expanding plutonium "pit" production capability within the strongly R&D culture of Los Alamos National Laboratory, especially in terms of the lab's current capacity or "fitness for the future" in which institutional stewardship of the nation's nuclear deterrent capability becomes a primary objective. The institutional properties needed to assure "future fitness" includes the organizational requisites highly reliable operations and sustained institutional constancy in a manner that evokes deep public trust and confidence. Estimates are made of the degree to which the key Division and most relevant Program office in this evolution already exhibits them.

  6. Ab initio nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several ab initio methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The ab initio no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds 1010 and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving this large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem. We also outline the challenges that lie ahead for achieving further breakthroughs in fundamental nuclear theory using these ab initio approaches.

  7. Nuclear modification of structure functions in lepton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, S.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss nuclear structure functions in lepton scattering including neutrino reactions. First, the determination of nuclear parton distribution functions is explained by using the data of electron and muon deep inelastic scattering and those of Drell-Yan processes. Second, NuTeV sin^2 theta_W anomaly is discussed by focusing on nuclear corrections in the iron target. Third, we show that the HERMES effect, which indicates nuclear modification of the longitudinal-transverse structure function...

  8. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  9. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.

  10. Long term operation of nuclear power plants - economic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime extension of nuclear power plants is an open issue in a lot of countries. At the international scale, the costs of upgrading the plant equipment were assessed in 2012 to be between 500 and 1000 dollars per kWe. The post-Fukushima measures taken for increasing the safety standard of the plant reach around 15% of the bill. In almost all countries the lifetime extension strategy appears to be economical if the extension time is for 10 years at least. For France the lifetime extension strategy is also economical: a recent report of the 'French Court of Auditors' concludes that the complete cost of nuclear energy in 2013 is 59.8 euros/MWh and is estimated to reach 62 euros/MWh in the case of a lifetime extension to 50 years of operation which is still very competitive. Another advantage of the life extension strategy is to allow a smoothing of the investment needs and of the industrial loads: the replacement of reactors would take place on a broader period. (A.C.)

  11. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems

  12. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  13. From proliferation to arms race. Nuclear challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If there is a region in the world where the 21. Century will be defined, it is Asia. When the rise of powers meets with old rivalries, competition for regional leadership and pending territorial disputes, the risk of conflict resurfaces and the balance of powers shifts. With changes come new trends, and with new trends come new dynamics. The nuclear realm is one of those where the changes are the most significant, the future the most uncertain, and where ongoing evolutions warrant the most scrutiny. What are these evolutions' main characteristics and what are their consequences for security, deterrence, non-proliferation and disarmament? Five major trends are currently shaping the strategic landscape and one of them has the potential for global ramifications: the advent of a regional arms race. (author)

  14. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations

  15. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations.

  16. Spent Fuel Challenges Facing Small and New Nuclear Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ensure that the radioactive wastes in any country are managed safely, it is necessary to have an established legislative and regulatory framework and also to create the necessary organizations for implementation and for oversight of waste management operations and facility development. Guidance on these issues is given in the Joint Convention and a number of other IAEA documents. The IAEA, and also the EC, have in addition published key overarching strategic advisory documents for new nuclear programmes. These tend to imply that all nuclear programmes, however large or small, should be pressing ahead urgently towards early implementation of geological repositories. In practice, however, in small programmes there are neither economic nor technical drivers for early implementation of deep geological repositories; constructing simpler facilities for the disposal of the larger volume of low-level waste has higher priority. Nevertheless, in all countries political decisions have to be taken and policies set in place to ensure that geological disposal will implemented without unjustified delay. This paper distils out a set of key messages for small programmes. Amongst the most critical are the following. Even if disposal is far off, planning and organization should begin at the initiation of the programme; this can help with technical and economic optimization and (importantly) also with public and political acceptance. Important lessons can be learned from advanced programmes — but these must be adapted to allow for the different boundary conditions of new and small programmes. The key differences relate to the timescales involved, and the resources available. There is a range of waste management and waste disposal options open to new programmes. It is not necessary to choose definitive solutions at the outset; options can be kept open, but a minimum level of engagement is required for all open options. (author)

  17. The TRIUMF nuclear structure program and TIGRESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1 (Canada) and TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: pgarrett@physics.uoguelph.ca; Andreyev, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Simon Frasier University, Burnaby, BC, V5A1S6 (Canada); Austin, R.A.E. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada)] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The isotope separator and accelerator (ISAC) facility located at the TRIUMF laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, is one of the world's most advanced isotope separator on-line-type radioactive ion beam facilities. An extensive {gamma}-ray spectroscopy programme at ISAC is centred around two major research facilities: (i) the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray spectroscopy experiments with the low-energy beams from ISAC-I, and (ii) the next generation TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape suppressed spectrometer (TIGRESS) for in-beam experiments with the accelerated radioactive-ion beams. An overview of these facilities and recent results from the diverse programme of nuclear structure and fundamental interaction studies they support is presented.

  18. The TRIUMF nuclear structure program and TIGRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility located at the TRIUMF laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, is one of the world's most advanced ISOL-type radioactive ion beam facilities. An extensive γ-ray spectroscopy program at ISAC is centered around two major research facilities: (1) the 8π γ-ray spectrometer for β-delayed γ-ray spectroscopy experiments with the low-energy beams from ISAC-I, and (2) the next-generation TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) for in-beam experiments with the accelerated radioactive ion beams. An overview of these facilities and recent results from the diverse program of nuclear structure and fundamental interaction studies they support is presented

  19. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of 16O(e,e'p), 12C(e,e'pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in 12C(e,e'p0) and 16O(e,e'p0), comparison of the 12C(e, e'p0) and 16O(e,e'p3) reactions, quadrupole strength in the 16O(e,e'α0) reaction, quadrupole strength in the 12C(e,e'α) reaction, analysis of the 12C(e,e'p1) and 16O(e,e'p3) angular distributions, analysis of the 40Ca(e,e'x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q 12C(e,e'x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments)

  20. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam γ-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of 16O and 40Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on 10B + 16O and 12C + 14N → 26Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table

  1. Nuclear enhanced power corrections to DIS structure functions

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianwei; Zhu, Wei

    2001-01-01

    We calculate nuclear enhanced power corrections to structure functions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We find that the nuclear medium enhanced power corrections at order of $O(\\alpha_s/Q^2)$ enhance the longitudinal structure function $F_L$, and suppress the transverse structure function $F_1$. We demonstrate that strong nuclear effects in $\\sigma_A/\\sigma_D$ and $R_A/R_D$, recently observed by HERMES Collaboration, can be explained in ...

  2. The future of the civil nuclear industry: the challenge of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis first gives an overview of the nuclear waste processing and storage in France (reasons and future of this political choice, legal framework, storage means and sites, weaknesses of waste storage). Then it comments various aspects of the processing of foreign nuclear wastes in France: economy and media impact, law and contracts, waste transport, temporary storage in France

  3. Nuclear energy development in China: A study of opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rapid economic development, China faces a great challenge to meet its increasing energy demand. Currently, China's energy supply is dominated by coal consumption, while natural gas and oil are in relative short supply. At the same time, nuclear energy is a relatively clean energy without green-house gas emissions. Considering the growing cost of fossil energy and the limited resources in China, oil supply security, coal mining disasters, the domestic environment pressure, and global climate warming, nuclear energy is an inevitable strategic option. Generally speaking, nuclear energy development has a promising future in China. Its driving factors include the brisk electricity demand, environment impact pressure, oil supply security, and positive public acceptance. Meanwhile, the question still remains whether nuclear energy development in China is sustainable. Just like in other parts of the world, China is also bewildered by the problems of reactor safety, nuclear waste treatment, and risk of proliferation of weapons material. In addition, nuclear technology diversity, shortage of uranium resources, and weak market competitiveness of nuclear power in the short term are certain barriers that China's nuclear energy development also faces. There are also other worrying issues such as: whether public acceptance in the future will change? Whether the current approaches to nuclear waste disposal are still acceptable when nuclear plants gains scale? In this paper, some suggestions and recommendations are put forward on the measures to be followed to 1) enhance domestic nuclear technology development and imported technology localization; 2) reduce the cost of nuclear power and enhance its market competitiveness; 3) accelerate the process of cleanly developing nuclear technology; 4) accelerate the process of developing more efficient reactor and nuclear fuel cycle; and 5) conduct effective publicity work to uphold public acceptance.

  4. Nuclear energy development in China: A study of opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rapid economic development, China faces a great challenge to meet its increasing energy demand. Currently, China's energy supply is dominated by coal consumption, while natural gas and oil are in relative short supply. At the same time, nuclear energy is a relatively clean energy without green-house gas emissions. Considering the growing cost of fossil energy and the limited resources in China, oil supply security, coal mining disasters, the domestic environment pressure, and global climate warming, nuclear energy is an inevitable strategic option. Generally speaking, nuclear energy development has a promising future in China. Its driving factors include the brisk electricity demand, environment impact pressure, oil supply security, and positive public acceptance. Meanwhile, the question still remains whether nuclear energy development in China is sustainable. Just like in other parts of the world, China is also bewildered by the problems of reactor safety, nuclear waste treatment, and risk of proliferation of weapons material. In addition, nuclear technology diversity, shortage of uranium resources, and weak market competitiveness of nuclear power in the short term are certain barriers that China's nuclear energy development also faces. There are also other worrying issues such as: whether public acceptance in the future will change? Whether the current approaches to nuclear waste disposal are still acceptable when nuclear plants gains scale? In this paper, some suggestions and recommendations are put forward on the measures to be followed to 1) enhance domestic nuclear technology development and imported technology localization; 2) reduce the cost of nuclear power and enhance its market competitiveness; 3) accelerate the process of cleanly developing nuclear technology; 4) accelerate the process of developing more efficient reactor and nuclear fuel cycle; and 5) conduct effective publicity work to uphold public acceptance. (author)

  5. After a nuclear year of mixed fortunes, let's embrace the challenges of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    As we usher in the new year, it is worth taking time to reflect on the key developments for the world's nuclear energy industry in 2015. The past year was certainly one of mixed fortunes for the industry. Looking ahead into 2016, key challenges will include the need to recruit and train the skilled workforce that will be needed to support extended operations of nuclear plants, in addition to new-build and decommissioning projects.

  6. After a nuclear year of mixed fortunes, let's embrace the challenges of 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we usher in the new year, it is worth taking time to reflect on the key developments for the world's nuclear energy industry in 2015. The past year was certainly one of mixed fortunes for the industry. Looking ahead into 2016, key challenges will include the need to recruit and train the skilled workforce that will be needed to support extended operations of nuclear plants, in addition to new-build and decommissioning projects.

  7. Tornado-resistance design for the nuclear safety structure of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary design consideration of anti-tornado of the nuclear safety structure of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is briefly presented. It mainly includes estimating the probability of tornado arising in the site, ascertaining the design requirments of the anti-tornado structures and deciding the tornado load acted on the structures

  8. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely there will

  9. Regulatory challenges for independent organization and licensing procedures for Egypt first nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2010 the Government of Egypt issued an Ordinance creating an independent regulatory body the Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA) reporting directly to the Prime Minister and responsible for matters dealing with protection of the radiation worker, public and environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. A little more than 2 years have elapsed since this date. Some of the challenges faced by NRRA to its regulatory independence are given below. This paper will discuss the major challenges relating to Egyptian nuclear power program and specially the regulatory effectiveness and licensing procedures compared to international comparison.

  10. [Studies of nuclear structure using neutrons and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief discussions on nuclear research done at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The major categories covered are: Fundamental symmetries in the nucleus; Dynamics in very light nuclei; D states in light nuclei; Nucleon-nucleus interactions; Nuclear structure and reactions; and Instrumentation and development

  11. Aging of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), had the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant structures for continued service. The program consists of three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued service determinations. Major accomplishments under the SAG Program during the first two years of its planned five-year duration have included: development of a Structural Materials Information Center and formulation of a Structural Aging Assessment Methodology for Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants. 9 refs

  12. Challenges in developing human resources for nuclear safety in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenges in developing Human Resources for nuclear safety in South Africa ESKOM Holding Limited which is the South African Government owned utility, operates over 10 power stations. The total installed is about 40 GW, and nuclear contributes only 6 percent. The existing nuclear power station, Koeberg NPP, is comprised of two 900 MW(e) units at the South African west coast near Cape Town. The South African Government has a policy to increase the share of nuclear in the generation mix from 6 percent to 15 percent before the year 2020. The challenge is that there have been a 'greying' of nuclear experts and a shrinking of nuclear engineering and science departments. As a consequence of this, ESKOM has realized that a large number of young engineers and scientists would have to be recruited and then trained in South Africa and abroad. Some people, especially high performers in the industry are continually looking for new challenges and opportunities and though it is important in the nuclear industry to retain these key staff members it have proved to be a serious challenge. The nuclear industry had to consider their national training infrastructures and the South African government in partnership with ESKOM, NECSA and PBMR has started a process of funding university chairs in reactor engineering and allied subjects. These departments undertake research and provide training for the South African nuclear industry. The recruitment process has initially involved the transfer of personnel from ESKOM, NECSA as well as direct recruitment from the market. The primary recruitment process going forward will be from universities and other Further Education Training (FET) institutions with a focus on ESKOM and PBMR providing the specific nuclear training. In this regard, both ESKOM and PBMR provide bursaries, project work and other assistance to selected candidates. Upon completion of studies, the specific training is provided both in-house and with partner national and

  13. Covariant Effective Field Theory for Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Serot, B D

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in Lorentz-covariant quantum field theories of the nuclear many-body problem (quantum hadrodynamics or QHD) is discussed. The effective field theory studied here contains nucleons, pions, isoscalar scalar (\\sigma) and vector (\\omega) fields, and isovector vector (\\rho) fields. The theory exhibits a nonlinear realization of spontaneously broken SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R chiral symmetry and has three desirable features: it uses the same degrees of freedom to describe the nuclear currents and the strong-interaction dynamics, it satisfies the symmetries of the underlying theory of QCD, and its parameters can be calibrated using strong-interaction phenomena, like hadron scattering or the empirical properties of finite nuclei. Moreover, it has recently been verified that for normal nuclear systems, it is possible to expand the effective Lagrangian systematically in powers of the meson fields (and their derivatives) and to truncate the expansion reliably after the first few orders. Using a mean-field ve...

  14. A Structured Career Intervention Program for Academically Challenged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Abdullah, Syed Mohamad; Mahmud, Zuria; Ghavifekr, Simin; Ishak, Noriah

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out to test the effects of a 2-week structured intervention program on academically challenged students' career development. A quasi-experimental study was designed using pre-tests, post-tests, and a control group approach to examine the effects of the intervention program. Data were collected from both the experimental…

  15. Structural Engineering Managers - Innovation Challenges for their Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkeschová, D.; Tichá, A.

    2015-11-01

    The profession of a structural engineer is highly responsible, because the consequences of a structural engineer's errors result not only in economic damage to the property and often irreversible damage to the environment, they can also lead to direct loss of lives. In the current turbulent, dynamically developing society the managerial methods of structural engineers should not stagnate at the level of the last century applications. This paper deals with the challenges which the ongoing century poses to structural engineers and managers. It compares the results of research regarding the current state of managerial skills of structural engineers in Czech building companies to the defined skills of the 21st century's managers according to the global research programme ITL Research and according to the Vision for the Future of Structural Engineering, drawn up by Structural Engineering Institute - SEI ASCE.

  16. Nuclear test - The French nuclear strike force in the 21. century: challenges, ambitions and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author, after having recalled the history of the French nuclear force since the first nuclear test in 1960, and outlined the fact that France has been living under the protection of its own nuclear deterrence force since that date, presents the components of this nuclear strike force with its four nuclear submarines equipped to launch new generation missiles, its fifty fighter bomber aircraft equipped with the ASMP-A missile. He presents and discusses the mission of this nuclear force, discusses the relevancy of the deterrence strategy in the present context, and the significance of such a strategy for a European country like France. He wanders whether this strike force is still affordable for our country, which can be its benefits, whether this arsenal remains useful as it has been designed in the Cold War context. He also discusses the disarmament perspectives in an unsteady international environment where power and arms race logics prevail again

  17. Regulatory challenges in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK nuclear industry has, since the 1940s, worked extensively on the development of nuclear technology, both civil and military, and this activity has left a significant legacy of ageing nuclear liabilities for the present generation of operators to manage safely. On the older nuclear sites these liabilities include hazardous quantities of radioactive waste, and other material, stored within a decaying building infrastructure. As time passes more of the older commercial nuclear power stations are ending production and adding to the overall decommissioning task. The safe decommissioning of this historic legacy is presenting a unique challenge to operators and regulators alike. The Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is responsible for the regulation of safety and radioactive waste management for the UK's 40 licensed nuclear sites. The nuclear licences the NII grants place responsibilities on the operators that continue, throughout operation and decommissioning, until a site is cleaned up to the extent that it can be delicensed and released for unrestricted use. In the last few months the UK Government has outlined its intention to make radical changes to current arrangements through the formation of a new body, the Liabilities Management Authority, which will take ownership of the bulk of the UK's nuclear liabilities and manage the decommissioning programme. The programme for decommissioning will run for more than 50 years and will need the provision of a very large amount of public money. It will also require effective strategic planning and project management if it is to be carried out successfully. At the same time there will be changes in the industry's organization and workforce, and different skills will be needed. The paper describes the nature of the challenge these changes are presenting to the NII, and how it is responding. Above all the NII recognizes that it must work together with the other organizations, and

  18. From nuclear stagnation to renaissance: The challenge of transferring regulatory knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Around 20 years ago there was a de facto nuclear stagnation of the peaceful uses of atomic energy in the West. At the time, governmental institutions for nuclear research and regulation, as well as the nuclear industry, had a nuclear 'intelligentsia' and many well qualified specialists available. Moreover, universities were ready and able to educate the next generation of professionals. The decline of the nuclear industry was therefore damaging both for individuals and the schools educating them. The options were few: for the workers, to restart a working life in other industries or to try to hang on until retirement; for the educational institutions, to abandon researching and teaching nuclear subjects. Now, however, an emerging energy crisis and growing environmental concerns about the burning of fossil fuels are inducing Western politicians to rethink the soundness of the decision to curtail the nuclear power industry. It therefore seems that there will be a nuclear renaissance, but that the qualified personnel to carry this out are no longer available, since in the intervening years they have changed jobs, retired or died. Put simply, the plentiful workforce responsible for last century's nuclear miracle is no longer there. Moreover, a cultural gap exists between the past and present generations, and such a lack of cultural continuity creates a difficult challenge for the traditional inter-generational knowledge transfer that has enabled development in the past. There are many reasons for this situation, and it will be for historians to explain them, but it is obvious that the Chernobyl accident and the public belief that nuclear installations were not safely regulated played a crucial role. At the time, nuclear regulatory authorities were less demanding, and in many countries they simply did not exist. Concepts such as regulatory independence and strengthening and safety culture are generally post-Chernobyl phenomena. Moreover, over the past decades

  19. Nuclear data newsletter. No. 20. Nuclear structure and decay data network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This special issue of the Nuclear Data Newsletter dated November 1994 gives information on the Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Network established in 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA and comprising 17 laboratories and universities in 10 countries. The procedures for online access to US National Nuclear Data Center, NEA Data Bank in Paris and IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna are presented

  20. Challenges for the nuclear safety of the deregulation of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurosafe 2000 was organised around two round tables on the first day and four seminars on the second day. The first round table dealt with general aspects of deregulation including the economic constraints and the special challenges arising during transition from regulated to deregulated structures. The second round table focussed on technical and organisational safety issues which are directly or indirectly related to the changes introduced by deregulation. The four seminars hold in order to provide opportunities for comparing experiences and learning about recent activities of IPSN, GRS and their partners in the European Union and Eastern Europe: Seminar 1 (Nuclear installation safety, assessment and analysis): assessment of the flooding incident at the Blayais nuclear power plant; PSA data base, comparison of the French and German approach; assessment of the Balakovo fire probabilistic study and elaboration of a guide for reviewing fire PSA; comprehensive technical assessment of an advanced German PWR by PSA - objectives and main results; PSA approach for the safety assessment of low-power and shutdown states; correlation of initiating events with the PSA level-2 results; safety assessment for fission products tests in the Phebus reactor; use of NPP simulators for applied human factor studies; assessment of the 'deterministic realistic method' applied to large LOCA analysis; assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling operation of units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant. Seminar 2 (nuclear installation safety, research): PHEBUS 2K project on severe accidents; current status of the COCOSYS development; fission product modeling in ASTEC; Euratom Framework Programme (FP) research in reactor safety: main achievements of FP- 4 (1994-1998), some preliminary results of FP-5 (1998-2002) and prospects for beyond 2002; development of coupled systems of 3D neutronics and fluid-dynamic system codes and their application for safety analyses

  1. Nuclear structure research. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most significant development this year has been the realization of a method for estimating EO transition strength in nuclei and the prediction that the de-excitation (draining) of superdeformed bands must take place, at least in some cases, by strong EO transitions. A considerable effort has been devoted to planning the nuclear structure physics that will be pursued using the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge. A significant effort has been devoted to HRIBF target development. This is a critical component of the HRIBF project. Exhaustive literature searches have been made for a variety of target materials with emphasis on thermodynamic properties. Vapor pressure measurements have been carried out. Experimental data sets for radioactive decays in the very neutron-deficient Pr-Eu and Ir-Tl regions have been under analysis. These decay schemes constitute parts of student Ph.D. theses. These studies are aimed at elucidating the onset of deformation in the Pr-Sm region and the characteristics of shape coexistence in the Ir-Bi region. Further experiments on shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Ir-Bi region are planned using α decay studies at the FMA at ATLAS. The first experiment is scheduled for later this year

  2. Structural integrity of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, John F.

    2013-09-01

    The paper starts from concerns expressed by Sir Alan Cottrell, in the early 1970s, related to the safety of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) proposed at that time for the next phase of electrical power generation. It proceeds to describe the design and operation of nuclear generation plant and gives details of the manufacture of PWR reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). Attention is paid to stress-relief cracking and under-clad cracking, experienced with early RPVs, explaining the mechanisms for these forms of cracking and the means taken to avoid them. Particular note is made of the contribution of non-destructive inspection to structural integrity. Factors affecting brittle fracture in RPV steels are described: in particular, effects of neutron irradiation. The use of fracture mechanics to assess defect tolerance is explained, together with the failure assessment diagram embodied in the R6 procedure. There is discussion of the Master Curve and how it incorporates effects of irradiation on fracture toughness. Dangers associated with extrapolation of data to low probabilities are illustrated. The treatment of fatigue-crack growth is described, in the context of transients that may be experienced in the operation of PWR plant. Detailed attention is paid to the thermal shock associated with a large loss-of-coolant accident. The final section reviews the arguments advanced to justify 'Incredibility of Failure' and how these are incorporated in assessments of the integrity of existing plant and proposed 'new build' PWR pressure vessels.

  3. Future challenges for nuclear power plant development research, and for radiological protection sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The promise of the future shines brightly for nuclear energy technology and production, yet also holds many challenges. Focus on new reactor designs is currently aiming at what is termed the fourth generation of reactors, which will come into operation after 2030. The 10 countries participating in the Generation-IV International Forum to develop the new generation of reactors have designated six reactor designs that will be studied. This paper will briefly discuss some of these challenges in new reactor designs in general. In addition to the challenges posed by new reactor designs, radiation protection is also faced with a series of challenges for the future. These are borne from experience with the implementation of the current system of radiological protection, from the evolution of radiation biological research, and from changes in society in the area of radiological risk assessment and management. This paper will address all of these emerging challenges, and point towards approaches to resolve them in the future.

  4. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Mahzoon, M H; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus ${}^{40}$Ca is generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. The introduction of nonlocality in the absorptive potentials yields equivalent elastic differential cross sections as compared to local versions but changes the absorption profile as a function of angular momentum suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential to allow for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by $(e,e'p)$ and $(p,2p)$ reactions are correctly incorporated, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum nucleons, as experimentally determined by data from Jefferson Lab. These high-momentum nucleons provide a substantial contribution to the energy of the ground state, indicating a residua...

  5. Challenge of sustainable development in the nuclear field: Research as a vital component of nuclear safety and radioprotection policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge of sustainable development also applies to the nuclear field: the careful management of natural resources, the preservation of the environment, and the response to society's expectations for increased transparency, and for the efficient control of risks associated with nuclear technologies are certainly key issues for this sector. Risk oriented R and D and associated scientific expertise are a key element of defence in depth for optimal nuclear safety and radioprotection. As such, a capacity to maintain worldwide the critical mass of research needed to address the main security related issues in support of public policies is vital for the continuing acceptance of nuclear activities, and of their development where needed. These issues concern both existing and future technologies. They are related to operational safety and radioprotection, to environmental protection and to public health issues, particularly with respect to nuclear waste management. They also concern security, at a time when the risk of terrorism in all its potential forms must be addressed. Nuclear and radiological R and D is characterized by the high cost and sophistication of experimental facilities, and by the high degree of knowledge and experience required to run such research programmes. Pooling of resources at the international and European level, and increasing cooperation between research organizations on the basis of an active policy towards scientific excellence and exemplary human resource management are essential, because research resources are growing scarce, in order to keep risk related research abreast of evolving technologies and industry practice, and of society's expectations for the control of nuclear and radiological risks. This is particularly true for the maintaining of key reference experimental platforms, such as safety dedicated research reactors, and for the development of complex safety related computer codes. The 'networks of excellence' promoted through

  6. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Connie C W; Hyde, Dallas M; Weibel, Ewald R

    2016-03-15

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints.

  7. Nuclear weapons, scientists, and the post-Cold War challenge selected papers on arms control

    CERN Document Server

    Drell, Sidney D

    2007-01-01

    This volume includes a representative selection of Sidney Drell's recent writings and speeches (circa 1993 to the present) on public policy issues with substantial scientific components. Most of the writings deal with national security, nuclear weapons, and arms control and reflect the author's personal involvement in such issues dating back to 1960. Fifteen years after the demise of the Soviet Union, the gravest danger presented by nuclear weapons is the spread of advanced technology that may result in the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Of most concern would be their acquisition by hostile governments and terrorists who are unconstrained by accepted norms of civilized behavior. The current challenges are to prevent this from happening and, at the same time, to pursue aggressively the opportunity to escape from an outdated nuclear deterrence trap.

  8. QSAR modeling of Tox21 challenge stress response and nuclear receptor signaling toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Capuzzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine which environmental chemicals pose the greatest potential threats to human health remains one of the major concerns in regulatory toxicology. Computation methods that can accurately predict the chemicals’ toxic potential in silico are increasingly sought-after to replace in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS as well as controversial and costly in vivo animal studies. To this end, we have built Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models of twelve (12 stress response and nuclear receptor signaling pathways toxicity assays as part of the 2014 Tox21 Challenge. Our models were built using the Random Forest, Deep Neural Networks and various combinations of descriptors and balancing protocols. All of our models were statistically significant for each of the 12 assays with the balanced accuracy in the range between 0.58 and 0.82. Our results also show that models built with Deep Neural Networks had high accuracy than those developed with simple machine learning algorithms and that dataset balancing led to a significant accuracy decrease.

  9. Meeting the challenge of competition through structured entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, N R

    1987-01-01

    The growth of the health care industry within the last several decades has changed the very nature of health care facilities. Where once these facilities were only concerned with health-related issues, they are now concerned with their status as businesses. These facilities now utilize business functions such as marketing, advertising, sales, and strategic planning. This article explains how health care facilities can use structural entrepreneurship in order to meet the business-related challenges of the future. PMID:10285382

  10. CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 14 - Nuclear Licensee Organisational Structures, Resources and Competencies: Determining their Suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way in which nuclear licensees' organisations are structured and resourced clearly has a potential impact on nuclear safety. As experience has continually demonstrated, operating organisations with a strong training programme for personnel, adequate resourcing and overall effective leadership and management perform more effectively in times of crisis than those lacking in one or more of these areas. In parallel, the nuclear industry is developing new resource deployment strategies which are making increased use of contractors and leading to changes in organisational structure, which in turn create challenges for the continued safe operation of nuclear facilities. This technical opinion paper represents the consensus among human and organisational factor specialists in NEA member and associated countries on the methods, approaches and good practices to be followed in designing an organisation with a strong safety focus while meeting business needs. It also considers some of the attributes that an organisation which is effectively managing its resources and capabilities might demonstrate

  11. An overlook of the new global nuclear scenario and the emergent challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to make a short overlook of the world nuclear renaissance and point out some emergent challenges. The presentation covers different subjects in which the nuclear energy shows great advantage to face concerns about climate change, energy demand growth, and relative cost of competing technologies in a global scenario. Additionally nuclear technology can deploy in a middle term an important potential development oriented to improve even more that nuclear design, safety, environment protection, economic and sustainability of the present nuclear reactors generation. The world nuclear energy scenario reveals a renaissance after a long period of lethargy. Now is the focus of considerable attention and debate about the risks and benefits of its expansion. Many countries are again planning ambitious nuclear programs. In the case of Argentina, a decision was taken to end the construction of Atucha 750 MWe power plant (NPP) and to begin the construction of another two NPP in the next decade. In the middle term and expansion of 60 % of the present world nuclear capabilities is foreseen. For the long term there could be much more if today's performance data is maintained or improved. It would require the nuclear industry to return immediately to the most rapid period of growth experienced in the past. The training of the young people is also an important challenge. But some countries are still reluctant due to the adverse local public opinion. In spite of the great accessibility and availability of the NPP confirmed by the global experience of the 350 operating nuclear power plants, the public acceptability is not confirmed. Some sectors of the society -with the support in some case of the media- are against the use of the nuclear energy. In this paper some reasons of the public concerns is explained and actions are mentioned to change its perceptions. At the end, the global society in front of the real means available to fulfill the growing energy

  12. Reinforcement course 2013. Challenges at the operation end of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reinforcement course 2013 of the Nuclear Forum in Switzerland dedicated itself to the question, of which challenges are implicated by decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. The course has been divided into 4 blocks, discussing concepts regarding decommissioning, special points such as organisational or psychological aspects as well as juridical and practical questions. Around 140 persons accepted the invitation of the committee for educational questions under the patronage of Urs Weidmann, head of the nuclear power plant Beznau. Altogether 17 presentations dealt with the following topics: 'Strategies and Steps of Decommissioning' by Roger Lundmark, 'Decommissioning from the Perspective of the Swiss Regulatory Authority' by Hannes Haenggi, 'Operating Period Management Using the Example of the Nuclear Power Plant Leibstadt' by Johannis Noeggerath, 'Questions and Concepts from the Perspective of a Nuclear Power Plant Operator' by Roland Schmidiger, 'Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK' by Andrew Munro, 'Practical experiences of transferring nuclear power plants from operating to out of operation' by Gerd Reinstrom, 'Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities: From the Pilot Scheme to Industrialized Disassembling' by Anke Traichel and Thomas Seipolt, 'Organisational challenges: From Decommissioning Strategy to Decommissioning Targets' by Michael Kruse, Anton von Gunten, Julia Heizinger, Joerg Sokoll, 'Knowing That and Knowing How - Motivational Aspects of Safety-Related Knowledge Management for the Post-Operational phase and dismantling' by Frank Ritz, 'The Juridical Frame of Decommissioning' by Peter Koch, 'The Path to the Decommissioning Order and its Guidelines Ensi-G17' by Torsten Krietsch, 'Requirements for a Safe and Economical Decommissioning From the Perspective of the Operator' by Anton Von Gunten, Michael Kruse, Thomas Herren, Erwin Neukaeter, Mario Radke and Anton Schegg, 'Evaluation of Activation Distribution in a Nuclear Power Plant

  13. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  14. Challenges in education and qualification of human resources for next nuclear generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general goal of this paper is to present an overview of Higher Education and personnel qualification for Nuclear Field by the perspective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), also by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). On the other hand to present the challenge of the Brazilian Government in redesigning, since 2003, the role of the state in order to make it active for younger generations, while promoting growth and social justice, has guided in all actions carried out under the Policy of Human Resources Management of public personnel. The government should be able to formulate and implement public policies and decide among various options, what is the most appropriate for its Human Resources. For this, they require the strengthening of strategic intelligence and government adoption of new ways of interaction and participation. The role played by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) in looking forward to replace and qualify its nuclear staff, as soon as up, since that the qualification of a human resource in this field demands more than one decade. Last but not least the proactive work of IPEN-CNEN/SP to encourage young generation to enter nuclear area, and the efforts of the Brazilian government to implement an integrated Nuclear Programme to form human resources, to attract and retain students in nuclear engineering and related specialized fields, and how this problem should attract the attention of the entire nuclear community, government and industry. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Minoru, E-mail: okamoto@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki, E-mail: maruyama.toshiki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yabana, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yabana@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Center of Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka, E-mail: tatsumi@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  16. Three dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Minoru; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2011-01-01

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  17. Nuclear security towards the adequate answers to the new challenge of nuclear and radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization phenomenon and the process of regional integration have generated new and defiant characteristics in the criminal activation, the one that has acquired growing trans national dimension. After September 11, 2001 it should to have bigger international initiative to reinforce the safety of materials and facilities in the entire world and to apply the international recommendations for to assure that all the nuclear materials of not used bombs are registered and secure of sabotage. Thousands of radioactive sources exist in the world. Possibility that the terrorists use radioactive sources as attack instruments since its are more easily available and its are more easy too to obtain in comparison with the uranium or plutonium classified for weapons. Dirty bomb. Effects of the Radiations. The Goiania accident. 'Orphans' sources Illicit traffic of radioactive material. Security. Measures of Physical Protection. Security of the radioactive sources. Role of the IAEA and other international organisms and regional CAN-MERCOSUR. Nuclear security and Legal frame. International and national instruments against the nuclear and radiological terrorism. Study from a proposal to Pan-American level to make in front of the problem. (Author)

  18. Changes in attitude structure toward nuclear power in the nuclear power plant locations of Tohoku district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey was examined the changes in structure of attitude toward nuclear power and the influence of environmental value on the attitude structure before and after the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. With residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures as participants, we conducted online surveys in November 2009 and October 2011. Comparing the results before and after the accident, we found that trust in the management of nuclear power plants had a stronger influence on the perceived risk and benefit regarding nuclear power after the accident than before the accident. The value of concern about environmental destruction resulted in reduced trust in the management. (author)

  19. The Structural Engineering Challenges Following the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRUNDY Paul

    2009-01-01

    Ihe 5 · 12 Wenchuan Larthquake presents two challenges-reconstruction of the devastated areas and building adequate seismic resistance into the rest of China. The stages in recovery include structural condition assessment , identification of seismic weaknesses, appreciation of the variable seismicity of PR China, the development of a seismic performance index to aid the decision to relocate, rebuild or retrofit, development and application of the principles of retrofitting which recycles rubble and waste from Wenchuan "5 ? 12" , with an emphasis on integrating masonry construction into seismic resistance. The recovery and resilience achieved through structural engineering must be integrated into a broader community involvement in disaster risk reduction.

  20. Experimental test of nuclear magnetization distribution and nuclear structure models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beirsdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lopez-Urrutia, J Crespo R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Utter, S. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-26

    Models exist that ascribe the nuclear magnetic fields to the presence of a single nucleon whose spin is not neutralized by pairing it up with that of another nucleon; other models assume that the generation of the magnetic field is shared among some or all nucleons throughout the nucleus. All models predict the same magnetic field external to the nucleus since this is an anchor provided by experiments. The models differ, however, in their predictions of the magnetic field arrangement within the nucleus for which no data exist. The only way to distinguish which model gives the correct description of the nucleus would be to use a probe inserted into the nucleus. The goal of our project was to develop exactly such a probe and to use it to measure fundamental nuclear quantities that have eluded experimental scrutiny. The need for accurately knowing such quantities extends far beyond nuclear physics and has ramifications in parity violation experiments on atomic traps and the testing of the standard model in elementary particle physics. Unlike scattering experiments that employ streams of free particles, our technique to probe the internal magnetic field distribution of the nucleus rests on using a single bound electron. Quantum mechanics shows that an electron in the innermost orbital surrounding the nucleus constantly dives into the nucleus and thus samples the fields that exist inside. This sampling of the nucleus usually results in only minute shifts in the electron' s average orbital, which would be difficult to detect. By studying two particular energy states of the electron, we can, however, dramatically enhance the effects of the distribution of the magnetic fields in the nucleus. In fact about 2% of the energy difference between the two states, dubbed the hyperfine splitting, is determined by the effects related to the distribution of magnetic fields in the nucleus, A precise measurement of this energy difference (better than 0.01%) would then allow us to

  1. Experimental test of nuclear magnetization distribution and nuclear structure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models exist that ascribe the nuclear magnetic fields to the presence of a single nucleon whose spin is not neutralized by pairing it up with that of another nucleon; other models assume that the generation of the magnetic field is shared among some or all nucleons throughout the nucleus. All models predict the same magnetic field external to the nucleus since this is an anchor provided by experiments. The models differ, however, in their predictions of the magnetic field arrangement within the nucleus for which no data exist. The only way to distinguish which model gives the correct description of the nucleus would be to use a probe inserted into the nucleus. The goal of our project was to develop exactly such a probe and to use it to measure fundamental nuclear quantities that have eluded experimental scrutiny. The need for accurately knowing such quantities extends far beyond nuclear physics and has ramifications in parity violation experiments on atomic traps and the testing of the standard model in elementary particle physics. Unlike scattering experiments that employ streams of free particles, our technique to probe the internal magnetic field distribution of the nucleus rests on using a single bound electron. Quantum mechanics shows that an electron in the innermost orbital surrounding the nucleus constantly dives into the nucleus and thus samples the fields that exist inside. This sampling of the nucleus usually results in only minute shifts in the electron s average orbital, which would be difficult to detect. By studying two particular energy states of the electron, we can, however, dramatically enhance the effects of the distribution of the magnetic fields in the nucleus. In fact about 2% of the energy difference between the two states, dubbed the hyperfine splitting, is determined by the effects related to the distribution of magnetic fields in the nucleus, A precise measurement of this energy difference (better than 0.01%) would then allow us to place

  2. Nuclear structure research at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of fundamental symmetries by the TRIPLE collaboration using the unique capabilities at LAMTF have found unexpected systematics in the parity-violating amplitudes for epithermal-neutron scattering. Tests to lower the present limits on time-reversal-invariance violation in the strong interaction are being made at in experiments on the scattering of polarized fast neutrons from aligned holmium targets. Studies of few-nucleon systems have received increasing emphasis over the past year, involving a broad program for testing the low- to medium-energy internucleon interactions, from the tensor component in n-p scattering and the n-n scattering lengths, through three-nucleon systems and the alpha particle, on up to 8Be. Of particular interest are three-nucleon systems, both in elastic scattering and in three-body breakup. Beam requirements range from production of intense and highly-polarized neutron beams to tensor-polarized beams for measurements at both very low energies (25--80 keV) and at tandem energies for definitive measurements of D-state components of the triton, 3He, and 4He obtained from transfer reactions. The program in nuclear astrophysics expanded during 1991--1992. Several facets of the nuclear many-body problem and of excitation mechanisms of the nucleus are being elucidated, including measurements and analyses to elucidate the neutron--nucleus elastic-scattering interaction over a wide range of nuclei and energies. Several projects involved developments in electronuclear physics, instrumentation, rf-transition units, and low-temperature bolometric particle detectors

  3. Coulomb screening effect on the nuclear-pasta structure

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Voskresensky, Dmitri N.; Tanigawa, Tomonori; Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Tomoyuki

    2004-01-01

    Using the density functional theory (DFT) with the relativistic mean field (RMF) model, we study the non-uniform state of nuclear matter, ``nuclear pasta''. We self-consistently include the Coulomb interaction together with other interactions. It is found that the Coulomb screening effect is significant for each pasta structure but not for the bulk equation of state (EOS) of the nuclear pasta phase.

  4. Procedures manual for the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is a collection of various notes, memoranda and instructions on procedures for the evaluation of data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). They were distributed at different times over the past few years to the evaluators of nuclear structure data and some of them were not readily avaialble. Hence, they have been collected in this manual for ease of reference by the evaluators of the international Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) network contribute mass-chains to the ENSDF. Some new articles were written specifically for this manual and others are reivsions of earlier versions

  5. Nuclear shell structures in terms of classical periodic orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Ken-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Semiclassical periodic-orbit theory (POT) is applied to the physics of nuclear structures, with the use of a realistic nuclear mean-field model given by the radial power-law potential. Evolution of deformed shell structures, which are responsible for various nuclear deformations, are clearly understood from the contribution of short classical periodic orbits (POs). Bifurcations of short POs, which imply underlying local dynamical symmetry, play significant role there. The effect of the spin degree of freedom is also investigated in relevance to the pseudospin symmetry in spherical nuclei and the prolate-oblate asymmetry in shell structures of nuclei with quadrupole-type deformations.

  6. Nuclear shell structures in terms of classical periodic orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Ken-ichiro

    2016-06-01

    Semiclassical periodic-orbit theory (POT) theory is applied to the physics of nuclear structures, with the use of a realistic nuclear mean-field model given by the radial power-law potential. Evolution of deformed shell structures, which are responsible for various nuclear deformations, are clearly understood from the contribution of short classical periodic orbits (POs). Bifurcations of short POs, which imply underlying local dynamical symmetry, play significant role there. The effect of the spin degree of freedom is also investigated in relevance to the pseudospin symmetry in spherical nuclei and the prolate–oblate asymmetry in shell structures of nuclei with quadrupole-type deformations.

  7. Regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication and nuclear structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIARUI

    1999-01-01

    In eukaryote,nuclear structure is a key component for the functions of eukaryotic cells.More and more evidences show that the nuclear structure plays important role in regulating DNA replication.The nuclear structure provides a physical barrier for the replication licensing,participates in the decision where DNA replication initiates,and organizes replication proteins as replication factory for DNA replication.Through these works,new concepts on the regulation of DNA replication have emerged,which will be discussed in this minireview.

  8. Particle production from nuclear targets and the structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production processes from nuclear targets allow studying interactions of elementary hadronic constituents in nuclear matter. The information thus obtained on the structure of hadrons and on the properties of hadronic constituents is presented. Both soft (low momentum transfer) and hard (high momentum transfer) processes are discussed. (author)

  9. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, research in theoretical nuclear physics at the University of Maryland attained a number of exciting and important results. These are described in some detail throughout the report, but some of the highlights are as follows: large Nc QCD has been shown to place strong constraints on vacuum effects of hadronic field theories; color dielectric models of hadrons have been understood in terms of lattice QCD; we have completed a relativistic analysis of proton scattering to test virtual pair contributions; we have also re-derived the Mandelzweig-Wallace two-body Dirac equation in covariant form, and applied it to the atomic two-body bound states: hydrogen, muonium and positronium; we have carried out the first calculation of the triton binding energy with a realistic quark-based nucleon-nucleon interaction and have learned that new kinds of nonlocalities in the tensor force may produce unexpected results; and we have shown that the Quadronium Conjecture can lead to spontaneous creation of the atom with low momentum as required by the observations, and are constructing a model to quantify the Quadronium phenomenology of the e+e- Puzzle

  10. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Connie C W; Hyde, Dallas M; Weibel, Ewald R

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional complexities of the mammalian lung evolved to meet a unique set of challenges, namely, the provision of efficient delivery of inspired air to all lung units within a confined thoracic space, to build a large gas exchange surface associated with minimal barrier thickness and a microvascular network to accommodate the entire right ventricular cardiac output while withstanding cyclic mechanical stresses that increase several folds from rest to exercise. Intricate regulatory mechanisms at every level ensure that the dynamic capacities of ventilation, perfusion, diffusion, and chemical binding to hemoglobin are commensurate with usual metabolic demands and periodic extreme needs for activity and survival. This article reviews the structural design of mammalian and human lung, its functional challenges, limitations, and potential for adaptation. We discuss (i) the evolutionary origin of alveolar lungs and its advantages and compromises, (ii) structural determinants of alveolar gas exchange, including architecture of conducting bronchovascular trees that converge in gas exchange units, (iii) the challenges of matching ventilation, perfusion, and diffusion and tissue-erythrocyte and thoracopulmonary interactions. The notion of erythrocytes as an integral component of the gas exchanger is emphasized. We further discuss the signals, sources, and limits of structural plasticity of the lung in alveolar hypoxia and following a loss of lung units, and the promise and caveats of interventions aimed at augmenting endogenous adaptive responses. Our objective is to understand how individual components are matched at multiple levels to optimize organ function in the face of physiological demands or pathological constraints. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:827-895, 2016. PMID:27065169

  11. Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the local Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding the most general form of the Skyrme energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body local density. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable wi...

  12. Structural plasticity of the nuclear envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheval E. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure, continuous with endoplasmic reticulum, and the morphological organization of both these structures is quite conservative. However, nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum demonstrate distinct structural plasticity, i. e., based on common organization, cells may form various non-canonical membrane structures that are observed only in specialized types of cells or appear in different pathologies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms of the biogenesis of such non-canonical structures, and the possible role of this plasticity in the development of pathological processes.

  13. Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Hybrid Methods to Structure Determination of Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prischi, Filippo; Pastore, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The current main challenge of Structural Biology is to undertake the structure determination of increasingly complex systems in the attempt to better understand their biological function. As systems become more challenging, however, there is an increasing demand for the parallel use of more than one independent technique to allow pushing the frontiers of structure determination and, at the same time, obtaining independent structural validation. The combination of different Structural Biology methods has been named hybrid approaches. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the most recent examples and new developments that have allowed structure determination or experimentally-based modelling of various molecular complexes selecting them among those that combine the use of nuclear magnetic resonance and small angle scattering techniques. We provide a selective but focused account of some of the most exciting recent approaches and discuss their possible further developments.

  14. Nuclear effects in the deuteron structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Sassot, R. (Lab. de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Nacional de La Plata (Argentina))

    1992-08-06

    An analysis of nuclear effects in the deuteron quark distributions is carried out in connection with the Gottfried sum rule (GSR), the Drell-Yan proton-neutron asymmetry and the Bjorken sum rule (BSR). It is shown that the small amount of nuclear effects necessary to saturate the GSR experimental data modifies the Drell-Yan asymmetry in an entirely different way as an asymmetric sea does. These effects are of little consequence in the convergence of the BSR to the expected value. (orig.).

  15. When the weak challenge the strong: the North Korean nuclear crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Jaeho

    1996-01-01

    This thesis examines the political behavior of weak states in crises through a detailed case study of the recent North Korean nuclear crisis. In the early 1990s, North Korea initiated a politcal challenge that threatened both U.S. nonproliferaiton and South Korean defense interests. North Korea manipulated the shared risks of the ensuing crisis to achieve political objectives rather than military victory, which was unobtainable due to U.S. and South korean defense efforts. It is puzzling how ...

  16. The b1 structure function and nuclear pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The b1 structure function is measurable in deep inelastic scattering from polarized nuclei with unpolarized beams. The contributions of nuclear pions are evaluated and found to be small, about 2%. 8 refs

  17. Nuclear structure studies utilizing LAMPF. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, C.W.; Greenwood, R.C.; Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.; Heath, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of work carried out during Fiscal Year 1976 and the associated Transition Quarter under the program Nuclear Structure Studies Utilizing LAMPF. Separate abstracts appear in ERA for three of the sections herein.

  18. Radii and Binding Energies in Oxygen Isotopes: A Challenge for Nuclear Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapoux, V; Somà, V; Barbieri, C; Hergert, H; Holt, J D; Stroberg, S R

    2016-07-29

    We present a systematic study of both nuclear radii and binding energies in (even) oxygen isotopes from the valley of stability to the neutron drip line. Both charge and matter radii are compared to state-of-the-art ab initio calculations along with binding energy systematics. Experimental matter radii are obtained through a complete evaluation of the available elastic proton scattering data of oxygen isotopes. We show that, in spite of a good reproduction of binding energies, ab initio calculations with conventional nuclear interactions derived within chiral effective field theory fail to provide a realistic description of charge and matter radii. A novel version of two- and three-nucleon forces leads to considerable improvement of the simultaneous description of the three observables for stable isotopes but shows deficiencies for the most neutron-rich systems. Thus, crucial challenges related to the development of nuclear interactions remain.

  19. Emergency response to nuclear, biological and chemical incidents:challenges and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Li; Wen-Jun Tang; Ya-Kun Ma; Ji-Min Jia; Rong-Li Dang; Er-Chen Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Given the multiple terrorist attacks that have occurred in recent years in China, medical rescue teams and specialized incident assessment teams have been established by the government; however, medical rescue after nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents remains challenging and is often inefficient. In the present article, problems were analyzed regarding the assessment of responder countermeasures, training of professionals and the management of emergency medical incidents related to nuclear, biological and chemical attacks. Countermeasures, the establishment of response coordination, public education, practical training and exercise, and a professional consultant team or system should be the focus of emergency medical response facilities. Moreover, the government was offered professionals who are involved in managing nuclear, biological and chemical incidents.

  20. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 3 report, Institutional challenges: Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institutional Challenges Subpanel of the Energy Research Advisory Board's Civilian Nuclear Power Panel was charged with the task of addressing the institutional issues that affect the future of nuclear power in the United States. Barriers created by non-technical issues are generally considered to be primary obstacles to revitalizing the nuclear fission option as part of a robust supply for future electrical generation. The Subpanel examined the following categories of institutional issues: (1) Administration Policy and Leadership, (2) Licensing Reform, (3) Standardized Designs, (4) Shared Financial Risk, (5) State and Economic Regulation, (6) Waste Disposal, and (7) Public Perception. The Subpanel concluded that the Administration and Congress have the opportunity and responsibility to provide leadership in resolving these difficulties. The main report provides information on the background and current situation for each institutional issue and concludes with the set of recommendations for action

  1. Radii and Binding Energies in Oxygen Isotopes: A Challenge for Nuclear Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapoux, V; Somà, V; Barbieri, C; Hergert, H; Holt, J D; Stroberg, S R

    2016-07-29

    We present a systematic study of both nuclear radii and binding energies in (even) oxygen isotopes from the valley of stability to the neutron drip line. Both charge and matter radii are compared to state-of-the-art ab initio calculations along with binding energy systematics. Experimental matter radii are obtained through a complete evaluation of the available elastic proton scattering data of oxygen isotopes. We show that, in spite of a good reproduction of binding energies, ab initio calculations with conventional nuclear interactions derived within chiral effective field theory fail to provide a realistic description of charge and matter radii. A novel version of two- and three-nucleon forces leads to considerable improvement of the simultaneous description of the three observables for stable isotopes but shows deficiencies for the most neutron-rich systems. Thus, crucial challenges related to the development of nuclear interactions remain. PMID:27517768

  2. Growing from a local into an international nuclear services provider - challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from nuclear power plants' (NPPs) internally staffed expert resources, the support of qualified external nuclear maintenance and modification services providers (NSPs) is extremely important. The postponement of the nuclear power renaissance along with an aging workforce is pushing the industry to search for different approaches to maintain and improve the required level of expertise and quality. Operating in a domestic market with only one NPP unit, the leading Slovenian NSP has been partnering with complimentary companies to jointly satisfy the needs of the domestic, US and EU customers. By remaining competitive in quality and price and sharing resources, global experience and good practices, results in added value to all of the interested parties is achieved. In addition to supporting peak outage season shortages of qualified resources, the concept also aids in load-levelling the resource needs throughout the year. The challenges and the opportunities related to the concept are discussed in the paper. (authors)

  3. A New Light Weight Structural Material for Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiei, Afsaneh [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Radiation shielding materials are commonly used in nuclear facilities to attenuate the background ionization radiations to a minimum level for creating a safer workplace, meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining high quality performance. The conventional radiation shielding materials have a number of drawbacks: heavy concrete contains a high amount of elements that are not desirable for an effective shielding such as oxygen, silicon, and calcium; a well known limitation of lead is its low machinability and toxicity, which is causing a major environmental concern. Therefore, an effective and environmentally friendly shielding material with increased attenuation and low mass density is desirable. Close-cell composite metal foams (CMFs) and open-cell Al foam with fillers are light-weight candidate materials that we have studied in this project. Close-cell CMFs possess several suitable properties that are unattainable by conventional radiation shielding materials such as low density and high strength for structural applications, high surface area to volume ratio for excellent thermal isolation with an extraordinary energy absorption capability. Open-cell foam is made up of a network of interconnected solid struts, which allows gas or fluid media to pass through it. This unique structure provided a further motive to investigate its application as radiation shields by infiltrating original empty pores with high hydrogen or boron compounds, which are well known for their excellent neutron shielding capability. The resulting open-cell foam with fillers will not only exhibit light weight and high specific surface area, but also possess excellent radiation shielding capability and good processability. In this study, all the foams were investigated for their radiation shielding efficiency in terms of X-ray, gamma ray and neutron. X-ray transmission measurements were carried out on a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (microCT) system. Gamma-emitting sources: 3.0m

  4. A New Light Weight Structural Material for Nuclear Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation shielding materials are commonly used in nuclear facilities to attenuate the background ionization radiations to a minimum level for creating a safer workplace, meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining high quality performance. The conventional radiation shielding materials have a number of drawbacks: heavy concrete contains a high amount of elements that are not desirable for an effective shielding such as oxygen, silicon, and calcium; a well known limitation of lead is its low machinability and toxicity, which is causing a major environmental concern. Therefore, an effective and environmentally friendly shielding material with increased attenuation and low mass density is desirable. Close-cell composite metal foams (CMFs) and open-cell Al foam with fillers are light-weight candidate materials that we have studied in this project. Close-cell CMFs possess several suitable properties that are unattainable by conventional radiation shielding materials such as low density and high strength for structural applications, high surface area to volume ratio for excellent thermal isolation with an extraordinary energy absorption capability. Open-cell foam is made up of a network of interconnected solid struts, which allows gas or fluid media to pass through it. This unique structure provided a further motive to investigate its application as radiation shields by infiltrating original empty pores with high hydrogen or boron compounds, which are well known for their excellent neutron shielding capability. The resulting open-cell foam with fillers will not only exhibit light weight and high specific surface area, but also possess excellent radiation shielding capability and good processability. In this study, all the foams were investigated for their radiation shielding efficiency in terms of X-ray, gamma ray and neutron. X-ray transmission measurements were carried out on a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (microCT) system. Gamma-emitting sources: 3.0m

  5. Nuclear "pasta" structures in low-density nuclear matter and neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Minoru; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2013-01-01

    In neutron star crust, non-uniform structure of nuclear matter is expected, which is called the "pasta" structure. From the recent studies of giant flares in magnetars, these structures might be related to some observables and physical quantities of the neutron star crust. To investigate the above quantities, we numerically explore the pasta structures with a fully threedimensional geometry and study the properties of low-density nuclear matter, based on the relativistic mean-field model and the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We observe typical pasta structures for fixed proton number-fraction and two of them for cold catalyzed matter. We also discuss the crystalline configuration of "pasta".

  6. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings of the third international seminar on interaction of neutrons with nuclei are given. The special attention is paid to study of fundamental properties of the neutron and fundamental interactions and symmetries in neutron induced reactions. Properties of nuclear excited states and fission are considered

  7. International Nuclear Conference: a new era in Nuclear Science and Technology - the challenge of the 21st century: welcoming speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The address discusses the following issues: Globalisation and the advent of new technologies and knowledge necessitate countries to depend on one another for progress and development; the need for international co-operation ; roles of nuclear science and technology in facing the challenges of the 2l st Century; food and energy supply as the greatest challenges facing many countries in the future, along with the provision of cheap and good health care, safe industrial development, and clean environment; the contribution of nuclear science and technology i.e In food production, techniques using radiation and isotopes are used to improve crop and animal production through soil fertilisation, plant and animal breeding, insect and pest control, and food preservation; In health and medical care, the use of radiation and isotopes for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes; In industry, activities in radiography, nondestructive testing, control systems and radioactive tracers, analytical techniques and quality control, radiation processing to enhance the properties of materials; In the environmental sector, the use of isotopes and the development of analytical tools, including radioactive tracer methods, neutron activation analysis, x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption in the investigation and detection of environmental pollutants such as pesticides and toxic materials. Other issues also discussed were safety ; public awareness and acceptance of the technology

  8. Nuclear data for radiation damage estimates for reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Consultants' Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Estimates for Reactor Structural Materials was convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA from 20-22 May 1985. The meeting was attended by 17 participants from 10 countries and 2 international organizations. The main objectives of the meeting were to review the status of displacement cross sections and the requirements for nuclear data needed for radiation damage estimates in reactor structural materials, and to develop recommendations for future activities in this field. This publication contains the text of all the papers prepared especially for this meeting including the conclusions and recommendations worked out during the meeting

  9. Towards new horizons in ab initio nuclear structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent advances in ab initio nuclear structure theory, which have changed the horizons of this field. Starting from chiral effective field theory to construct the nuclear Hamiltonian and the similarity renormalization group to further soften it, we address several many-body approaches that have seen major developments over the past few years. We show that the domain of ab initio nuclear structure theory has been pushed well beyond the p-shell and that quantitative QCD-based predictions are becoming possible all the way from the proton to the neutron drip line up into the medium-mass regime. (authors)

  10. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs

  12. Nuclear microscopy of sperm cell elemental structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theories suggest there is a link between protamine concentrations in individual sperm and male fertility. Previously, biochemical analyses have used pooled samples containing millions of sperm to determine protamine concentrations. These methods have not been able to determine what percentage of morphologically normal sperm are biochemically defective and potentially infertile. Nuclear microscopy has been utilized to measure elemental profiles at the single sperm level. By measuring the amount of phosphorus and sulfur, the total DNA and protamine content in individual sperm from fertile bull and mouse semen have been determined. These values agree with results obtained from other biochemical analyses. Nuclear microscopy shows promise for measuring elemental profiles in the chromatin of individual sperm. The technique may be able to resolve theories regarding the importance of protamines to male fertility and identify biochemical defects responsible for certain types of male infertility. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear structure investigations on spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: electron scattering studies on spherical nuclei; electron scattering from collective states in deformed nuclei; proton and pion scattering studies; 12C(e,e'p) and 16O(e,e'p); 12C(e,e'α) and 16O(e,e'α); studies at high q at Bates; measurements with rvec e at Bates; 12C(γ,p); future directions in giant resonance studies; proton knockout from 16O; quasielastic studies at Bates; triple coincidence studies of nuclear correlations; contributions to (e,e'2p) at KIKHEF; contributions to instrumentation at CEBAF; instrumentation development at UNH; the Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid; shell model and core polarization calculations; and the relativistic nuclear model

  14. The RA nuclear research reactor at VINCA Institute as an engineering and scientific challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RA nuclear research at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is the largest nuclear research facility in Yugoslavia and belongs to that generation of research reactors which have had an important contribution to nuclear technology development. As these older reactors were generally not built to specific nuclear standards, new safety systems had to be installed at the RA reactor for a renewal of its operating licence in 1984 and it was shut down, after 25 years of operation. Although all the required and several additional systems were built for the restart of the RA reactor, a disruption of foreign delivery of new control equipment caused its conversion to a 'dormant' facility, and it is still out of operation. Therefore, the future status of the RA reactor presents an engineering and scientific challenge to the engineers and scientists from Yugoslavia and other countries that may be interested to participate. To attract their attention on the subject, principal features of the RA reactor and its present status are described in detail, based on a recent engineering economic and safety evaluation. A comparative review of the world research reactors is also presented.(author)

  15. A challenging interpretation of a hexagonally layered protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Michael C.; Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe the structure determination of a hexagonally layered protein structure that suffered from a complicated combination of translational non-crystallographic symmetry and hemihedral twinning. This case serves as a reminder that broken crystallographic symmetry resulting from doubling of a unit-cell axis often requires a new choice of origin. The carboxysome is a giant protein complex that acts as a metabolic organelle in cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophs. Its outer structure is formed by the assembly of thousands of copies of hexameric shell protein subunits into a molecular layer. The structure determination of a CcmK1 shell protein mutant (L11K) from the β-carboxysome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 led to challenges in structure determination. Twinning, noncrystallographic symmetry and packing of hexameric units in a special arrangement led to initial difficulties in space-group assignment. The correct space group was clarified after initial model refinement revealed additional symmetry. This study provides an instructive example in which broken symmetry requires a new choice of unit-cell origin in order to identify the highest symmetry space group. An additional observation related to the packing arrangement of molecules in this crystal suggests that these hexameric shell proteins might have lower internal symmetry than previously believed.

  16. Computational challenges of structure-based approaches applied to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forli, Stefano; Olson, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review some of the opportunities and challenges that we face in computational modeling of HIV therapeutic targets and structural biology, both in terms of methodology development and structure-based drug design (SBDD). Computational methods have provided fundamental support to HIV research since the initial structural studies, helping to unravel details of HIV biology. Computational models have proved to be a powerful tool to analyze and understand the impact of mutations and to overcome their structural and functional influence in drug resistance. With the availability of structural data, in silico experiments have been instrumental in exploiting and improving interactions between drugs and viral targets, such as HIV protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase. Issues such as viral target dynamics and mutational variability, as well as the role of water and estimates of binding free energy in characterizing ligand interactions, are areas of active computational research. Ever-increasing computational resources and theoretical and algorithmic advances have played a significant role in progress to date, and we envision a continually expanding role for computational methods in our understanding of HIV biology and SBDD in the future.

  17. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  18. Adhesive bonding of composite aircraft structures: Challenges and recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelakis, Sp.; Tserpes, K. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper, the challenges and some recent developments of adhesive bonding technology in composite aircraft structures are discussed. The durability of bonded joints is defined and presented for parameters that may influence bonding quality. Presented is also, a numerical design approach for composite joining profiles used to realize adhesive bonding. It is shown that environmental ageing and pre-bond contamination of bonding surfaces may degrade significantly fracture toughness of bonded joints. Moreover, it is obvious that additional research is needed in order to design joining profiles that will enable load transfer through shearing of the bondline. These findings, together with the limited capabilities of existing non-destructive testing techniques, can partially explain the confined use of adhesive bonding in primary composite aircraft structural parts.

  19. The nuclear structure and low-energy reactions (NSLER) collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D. J.; NSLER Collaboration

    2006-09-01

    The long-term vision of the Nuclear Structure and Low-Energy Reactions (NSLER) collaboration is to arrive at a comprehensive and unified description of nuclei and their reactions that is grounded in the interactions between the constituent nucleons. For this purpose, we will develop a universal energy density functional for nuclei and replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that will deliver maximum predictive power with minimal uncertainties that are well quantified. Nuclear structure and reactions play an essential role in the science to be investigated at rare isotope facilities, and in nuclear physics applications to the Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship Program, next-generation reactors, and threat reduction. We anticipate an expansion of the computational techniques and methods we currently employ, and developments of new treatments, to take advantage of petascale architectures and demonstrate the capability of the leadership class machines to deliver new science heretofore impossible.

  20. Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    events illustrate some of the challenges facing the world of insurance following the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime: - Will the insurance industry be able to find funds corresponding to the new amounts that have been set? - Do the additional damages covered by the revised conventions provide adequate cover for existing risks and will private insurance be able and willing to cover such risks? Nevertheless, the insurance world has changed a great deal since 2004 and there are many additional issues that have arisen since that time. For example, the economic crisis and the introduction of the European Solvency II Directive require insurers to take a more stringent line with their commitments. Moreover, after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a number of questions have resurfaced: are the new insurance amounts sufficient? The age of 'nuclear renaissance' has long gone and some countries are distancing themselves from nuclear power in light of its questionable costs; are operators paying a fair price in light of the risks incurred? Finally, Europe is keen to play its part and impose its own rules; what will be the consequences of this development? This article reconsiders these challenges in light of the 2004 Protocol (which has not entered into force), by focusing in particular on the situation in Europe. Section I looks back at the history behind the conventions and the key principles they set down. Section II highlights the changes made to the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol and the problems facing the insurance industry. Section III provides an overview of the various actors involved in the insurance industry and redefines the necessary insurance foundations to cover the challenges described in Section IV. Finally, Section IV covers all the challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime. (author)

  1. ICNC2003: Proceedings of the seventh international conference on nuclear criticality safety. Challenges in the pursuit of global nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contain (technical, oral and poster papers) presented papers at the Seventh International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety ICNC2003 held on 20-24 October 2003, in Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan, following ICNC'99 in Versailles, France. The theme of this conference is 'Challenges in the Pursuit of Global Nuclear Criticality Safety'. This proceedings represent the current status of nuclear criticality safety research throughout the world. The 79 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. ICNC2003: Proceedings of the seventh international conference on nuclear criticality safety. Challenges in the pursuit of global nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contain (technical, oral and poster papers) presented papers at the Seventh International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety ICNC2003 held on 20-24 October 2003, in Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan, following ICNC'99 in Versailles, France. The theme of this conference is 'Challenges in the Pursuit of Global Nuclear Criticality Safety'. This proceedings represent the current status of nuclear criticality safety research throughout the world. The 81 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Structural Design Challenges in Design Certification Applications for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.; Braverman, J.; Wei, X.; Hofmayer, C.; Xu, J.

    2011-07-17

    The licensing framework established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 52, “Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants,” provides requirements for standard design certifications (DCs) and combined license (COL) applications. The intent of this process is the early reso- lution of safety issues at the DC application stage. Subsequent COL applications may incorporate a DC by reference. Thus, the COL review will not reconsider safety issues resolved during the DC process. However, a COL application that incorporates a DC by reference must demonstrate that relevant site-specific de- sign parameters are confined within the bounds postulated by the DC, and any departures from the DC need to be justified. This paper provides an overview of structural design chal- lenges encountered in recent DC applications under the 10 CFR Part 52 process, in which the authors have participated as part of the safety review effort.

  4. International symposium on exotic nuclear structures. Book of abstracst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were discussed at the meeting: Physics of weakly bound nuclei, neutron skin and halo; Evolution of shell structures for neutron-rich nuclei; Collective excitations in nuclei with exotic nuclear shapes; Cluster structures; Super- and hyperdeformed nuclei, exotic structures in the actinides; Superheavy elements; Towards understanding the structure of nucleons; New experimental techniques, facilities for radioactive beams. All abstracts (75 items) were submitted as full text to the INIS database. (R.P.)

  5. Study on lifting of large structure module in AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Modularization is one of characteristics of AP1000 nuclear power plant, however, the challenge of large module lifting should be met. Purpose: An analysis method for large module lifting has been studied in this paper: Methods: Based on ANSYS software and steel design code of America, the finite element analysis of CA01 structure module in AP1000 nuclear power plant was conducted. Results: The analysis results show that stress and deformation meet the requirements of codes and construction when the temporary brace is properly set in CA01 module. The maximum stress can be found in the juncture of wall, and maximum deformation occurs at the corner of CA01 module. Conclusions: Proper temporary brace is important to the lifting of structure and maximum stress or deformation usually occurs at irregular locations of structure. And it is necessary to perform detail analysis before structure lifted. (authors)

  6. Hollow fiber membrane based technology and pressure driven membrane processes in nuclear fuel cycle: current status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major challenges in the nuclear energy programme has, however, been the radioactive waste management in a manner which allays apprehension about its adverse impact on the environment. Innovative approaches are being devised internationally to treat spent nuclear fuel as a source of valuables. Separation of long-lived radionuclides such as actinides and fission products from high level radioactive waste is a challenging task for the chemists and engineers working on the nuclear spent fuel reprocessing and subsequent waste management processes involved at the tail end of nuclear fuel cycle. The nuclear engineering community is already paying significant attention to the quest for technologies that would lead us to the goal of technological sustainability. The growth of membrane science is largely due to the impressive developments in the field of membrane material science and the evolution of different membrane related equipments. Amongst the various separation techniques, membrane based separation methods are getting increasingly popular due to factors such as high efficiency, low power consumption and easy scale-up due to a compact design etc. Also, membrane contactors have proved to be efficient contacting devices, due to their high area per unit volume that results in high mass transfer rates. They are not only compact but also eliminate several of the problems faced in conventional processes such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. Membrane contactor processes, in which phase contacting is performed or facilitated by the structure and shape of the porous membrane, provide a new dimension to the growth of membrane science and technology and also satisfy the requirements for process intensification. In the field of analytical applications, these techniques exhibit high selectivity, and they concentrate analytes during the separation process. For this reason, these techniques have undergone significant development in the last decade

  7. Dealing with the regional challenge of physical protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The problem of protecting sensitive fissile and fissionable nuclear materials of misuses by governments has been the subject of the convention on physical protection of nuclear material (CPPNM), which entered into force on February 8, 1987. However, in May 2001 the final report of the expert meeting had already recognized 'a clear need to strengthen the international physical protection regime'. The board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided then to convene a group, which would meet in Vienna from 3 to 7 December 2001, to draft on amendment to the CPPNM. The tragic occurrences of September 11, 2001, however, changed the then generally accepted view on the problem of physical protection, because nuclear materials had to be protected from falling into the hands of terrorists rather than of governments thirst of nuclear sensitive materials. Moreover, crude explosive devices could be made by terrorists, or hired scientists, using readily available radioactive materials, like 226Ra or 137Cs to inflict damage to civilians. Thus physical protection of those and other radioactive materials became an instant challenge for national and international authorities to prevent the use of such materials in terrorist actions. The prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials is now in the priority list of these authorities. Fortunately; an international conference on 'Measures to Detect, Intercept and Respond to the Illicit Uses of Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources' was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 2001. An IAEA document - GOV/2001/37-GC(45)/20 - recommended in its plan of activities a series of projects to be implemented between 2002 and 2005, which included developing and providing assistance for the application of: (i) standards for physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities in member states; (ii) norms and guidelines for nuclear material accounting and control in member states; (iii

  8. Probing nuclear bubble structure via neutron star asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Sotani, Hajime; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We consider torsional oscillations that are trapped in a layer of spherical-hole (bubble) nuclear structure, which is expected to occur in the deepest region of the inner crust of a neutron star. Because this layer intervenes between the phase of slab nuclei and the outer core of uniform nuclear matter, torsional oscillations in the bubble phase can be excited separately from usual crustal torsional oscillations. We find from eigenmode analyses for various models of the equation of state of uniform nuclear matter that the fundamental frequencies of such oscillations are almost independent of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, but strongly depend on the slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy $L$. Although the frequencies are also sensitive to the entrainment effect, i.e., what portion of nucleons outside bubbles contribute to the oscillations, by having such a portion fixed, we can successfully fit the calculated fundamental frequencies of torsional oscillations in the bubble phase insi...

  9. QCD and a new paradigm for nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A. W.

    2016-09-01

    We review the reasons why one might choose to seriously re-examine the traditional approach to nuclear theory where nucleons are treated as immutable. This examination leads us to argue that the modification of the structure of the nucleon when immersed in a nuclear medium is fundamental to how atomic nuclei are built. Consistent with this approach we suggest key experiments which should tell us unambiguously whether there is such a change in the structure of a bound nucleon. We also briefly report on extremely promising recent calculations of the structure of nuclei across the periodic table based upon this idea.

  10. QCD and a New Paradigm for Nuclear Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, A W

    2016-01-01

    We review the reasons why one might choose to seriously re-examine the traditional approach to nuclear theory where nucleons are treated as immutable. This examination leads us to argue that the modification of the structure of the nucleon when immersed in a nuclear medium is fundamental to how atomic nuclei are built. Consistent with this approach we suggest key experiments which should tell us unambiguously whether there is such a change in the structure of a bound nucleon. We also briefly report on extremely promising recent calculations of the structure of nuclei across the periodic table based upon this idea.

  11. PREFACE: Structure of Exotic Nuclei and Nuclear Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Michio; Otsuka, Takaharu; Aoi, Nori

    2006-11-01

    The International Symposium on `Structure of Exotic Nuclei and Nuclear Forces' was held at The Koshiba Hall, University of Tokyo, on 9 - 12 March 2006. This symposium was organized as an activity of the Grant-in-Aid for the specially promoted area `Monte Carlo Shell Model' from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) of Japan. The symposium was sponsored by the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) and by RIKEN. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss theoretical and experimental developments in the study of the structure of exotic nuclei and its relationship with nuclear forces. There has been much progress recently in our understanding of what the structure of exotic nuclei is and how it can be linked to nuclear forces, with emerging intriguing perspectives. The following subjects were covered in this symposium Present status and future of the shell model Effective interaction theories Experimental results and perspectives Few-body methods including ab initio calculations Advancements of mean-fieeld models Transition between shell and cluster structure Nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure Particle physics and the shell model Emphasis was placed on the interplay between many-body structures and nuclear forces, and on the experimental clarification of these topics. Around 80 participants attended the symposium and we enjoyed 34 excellent and lively invited talks and 26 oral presentations. The organizing committee consisted of B A Brown (MSU), S Fujii (CNS), M Honma (Aizu), T Kajino (NAO), T Mizusaki (Senshu), T Motobayashi (RIKEN), K Muto (TIT), T Otsuka (Chair, Tokyo/CNS/RIKEN), P Ring (TMU), N Shimizu (Scientific Secretary, Tokyo), S Shimoura (CNS), Y Utsuno (Scientific Secretary, JAEA). Finally, we would like to thank all the speakers and the participants as well as the other organizers for their contributions which made the symposium so successful.

  12. ISINN-2. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Second International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-2) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1994. Over 120 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Holland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, US and about 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The main problems discussed are the following: P-odd and P-even angular correlation and T-reversal invariance in neutron reactions, nuclear structure investigations by neutron capture, the mechanism of neutron reactions, nuclear fission processes, as well as neutron data for nuclear astrophysics

  13. Structural integrity of materials in nuclear service: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 679 abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) computer file dated 1973 through 1976 covering material properties with respect to structural integrity. All materials important to the nuclear industry (except concrete) are covered for mechanical properties, chemical properties, corrosion, fracture or failure, radiation damage, creep, cracking, and swelling. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for the convenience of the user

  14. Nuclear structure studies with RI beams and cooler rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected topics in present days nuclear structure physics studied by reactions of RI beams are presented. They are change in nuclear radii, single particle orbitals, and shapes. Dynamical changes are shown for nuclei far from the stability line in particular in p-sd shell. Among the future reaction study, a thick target method for a storage ring is presented. A possibility to obtain the highest luminosity for an internal target experiment is proposed

  15. Analysis of statistical model properties from discrete nuclear structure data

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental M1, E1, and E2 photon strengths have been compiled from experimental data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF). Over 20,000 Weisskopf reduced transition probabilities were recovered from the ENSDF and EGAF databases. These transition strengths have been analyzed for their dependence on transition energies, initial and final level energies, spin/parity dependence, and nuclear deformation. ENSDF BE1W values were fou...

  16. Structural integrity of materials in nuclear service: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1977-06-07

    This report contains 679 abstracts from the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) computer file dated 1973 through 1976 covering material properties with respect to structural integrity. All materials important to the nuclear industry (except concrete) are covered for mechanical properties, chemical properties, corrosion, fracture or failure, radiation damage, creep, cracking, and swelling. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for the convenience of the user.

  17. Nuclear medium modification of the F2 structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We study the nuclear effects in the electromagnetic structure function $F_{2}(x, Q^2)$ in nuclei in the deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering process by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. The ratios $R_{F2}^A(x,Q^2)=\\frac{2F_2^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2}^{Deut}(x,Q^2)}$ are obtained and compared with the recent JLAB results for light nuclei that show a non trivial A dependence.

  18. The Structure of Communication as a Challenge for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Soukup

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Even more than any content of communication, its structures influence theology by forming the framework for thinking about and sharing reflections on religious experience. This essay examines three characteristic, but often overlooked, communication structures: oral vs. written and printed communication and the contemporary move to "secondary oral" styles; communication technology's sense of place; and the uses of visual space as guides to the interpretation of experience. Since each of these structures shapes theology, a more conscious awareness of them challenges theology to take the role of communication more seriously.Aun más que cualquier contenido de la comunicación, sus estructuras influyen en la teología puesto que proporcionan el marco para el pensamiento y la reflexión de la experiencia religiosa. Este ensayo examina tres estructuras características de la comunicacion, que son a menudo pasadas por alto: la comunicación oral v/s la escrita e impresa y la tendencia contemporánea hacia los estilos "orales secundarios"; el sentido del lugar en la comunicación tecnológica; y los usos de espacio visual como guías de la interpretación de la experiencia. Puesto que cada una de estas estructuras moldean la teología, esta debiera asumir el desafío de tomar mayor conciencia de ellas y asumir el rol de la comunicación más seriamente.

  19. Nuclear structure studies at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: inelastic scattering of 650 MeV protons from 194,196Pt; search for recoil free Δ-production in the (p,3He) reaction at 650 MeV; search for low lying magnetic states in 48Ti; E451 inelastic proton cross sections-low spin states in 28Si; E601, collective form factor analysis of 208Pb(π,π') at Tπ = 180 MeV; E855, collective form factor analysis of 206,207,208Pb(p,p') at Tp = 650 MeV; proton-nucleus scattering and swelling of nucleons in nuclei; strength of tensor force in medium and mixing of high spin stretched states; Fermilab E581, Coulomb-nuclear polarimeter; Fermilab E704, p + p and bar p + p spin parameters; and density dependent interaction applied to low multipole (p,p') and (p,n) transitions in light nuclei

  20. From nuclear structure to neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in quantum Monte-Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. As a demonstration, we show that the agreement between theoretical calculations of the charge form factor of 12C and the experimental data is excellent. Applying similar methods to isospin-asymmetric systems allows one to describe neutrons confined in an external potential and homogeneous neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy. (authors)

  1. RATU - Nuclear power plant structural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation group is of the opinion that the work performed under the RATU programme is generally of high quality, in some areas, especially those related to water chemistry of excellent quality. The personnel gives the impression of being dedicated and enthusiastic, and the administration seems to be very effective. It is obvious that the RATU programme has taken advantage of related contracts and projects funded by different sources. It is the opinion of the valuation group that the investment and human capital have been brought to work very efficiently in all projects. The objectives of the programme and the different projects are formulated in a broad sense. The areas selected for work are however of high relevance to nuclear safety. In some projects not all aspects are addressed by the ongoing work, and further activities may be necessary to meet with the requirements of the authorities. (orig.)

  2. From nuclear structure to neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. As a demonstration, we show that the agreement between theoretical calculations of the charge form factor of 12C and the experimental data is excellent. Applying similar methods to isospin-asymmetric systems allows one to describe neutrons confined in an external potential and homogeneous neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  3. 3D Structure and Nuclear Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Dupré, R

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical ideas are laying the ground for a new era in the knowledge of the parton structure of nuclei. We report on two promising directions beyond inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments, aimed at, among other goals, unveiling the three dimensional structure of the bound nucleon. The 3D structure in coordinate space can be accessed through deep exclusive processes, whose non-perturbative content is parametrized in terms of generalized parton distributions. In this way the distribution of partons in the transverse plane will be obtained, providing a pictorial view of the realization of the European Muon Collaboration effect. In particular, we show how, through the generalized parton distribution framework, non nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei can be unveiled. Analogously, the momentum space 3D structure can be accessed by studying transverse momentum dependent parton distributions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes. The status of measurements is also...

  4. Operational Challenges of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain used fuel repository program and a continuing climate of uncertainty in the national policy for nuclear fuel disposition, the likelihood has increased that extended storage, defined as more than 60 years, and subsequent transportation of used nuclear fuel after periods of extended storage may become necessary. Whether at the nation's 104 nuclear energy facilities, or at one or more consolidated interim storage facilities, the operational challenges of extended storage and transportation will depend upon the future US policy for Used Fuel Management and the future Regulatory Framework for EST, both of which should be developed with consideration of their operational impacts. Risk insights into the regulatory framework may conclude that dry storage and transportation operations should focus primarily on ensuring canister integrity. Assurance of cladding integrity may not be beneficial from an overall risk perspective. If assurance of canister integrity becomes more important, then mitigation techniques for potential canister degradation mechanisms will be the primary source of operational focus. If cladding integrity remains as an important focus, then operational challenges to assure it would require much more effort. Fundamental shifts in the approach to design a repository and optimize the back-end of the fuel cycle will need to occur in order to address the realities of the changes that have taken place over the last 30 years. Direct disposal of existing dual purpose storage and transportation casks will be essential to optimizing the back end of the fuel cycle. The federal used fuel management should focus on siting and designing a repository that meets this objective along with the development of CIS, and possibly recycling. An integrated approach to developing US policy and the regulatory framework must consider the potential operational challenges that they would create. Therefore, it should be integral to

  5. The policy structure of the Dutch nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study has been to indicate the principle structures through which much of governmental nuclear policy is formed and to develop a model for the analysis of policy communication networks. The first chapter begins with a general outline of the international development of nuclear energy and gives an impression of the Dutch nuclear energy sector with special emphasis on the institutional aspects. In chapter II the author elaborates on the place of structural analysis in public policy analysis and argues that it is one of the indispensable elements of public policy analysis. Relations are treated in chapter III. Personal interlocks are given special attention because these are interrelated with financial, informational and other dependency relations and have a special communicative function in public policy-making. The different functions of the interlocks are 'translated' in graph theoretical concepts. Chapter IV introduces a method derived from graph analysis to analyse public policy networks. Several structural configurations are distinguished. In the same chapter an outline of the empirical research on the nuclear energy network will be given. In chapters V and VI the nuclear energy network is analysed, and in chapter VII the decision-making concerning some nuclear items is described in a general way. (Auth.)

  6. The Challenge and Countermeasure of Human Resources on Nuclear Power for China in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper addresses the situations of nuclear power development and nuclear industry human resources and points out that the development and supply of human resources are becoming the big challenges in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power. At the same time, the paper analyzes the root causes of human resources shortage and recommends several countermeasures to confront human resources problems. At last, the paper introduces what SNPTC and SNERDI do to overcome the human resources problem and give conclusions. (author)

  7. Nuclear power plant life management - Challenges and proposals for a unified model integrating safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    systems calls for a research effort 'to underpin the continued safe operation of all relevant types of existing reactor systems (including fuel cycle facilities), taking into account new challenges such as life-time extension and development of new advanced safety assessment methodologies (both the technical and human element)'. The need for harmonised PLIM models at least at the European level (where the energy market is rather unified and regulated by general rules) has been recently raised, supported by two main reasons: A reliable PLIM model needs to be supported by a consistent analysis of feedback from plant operation, which could be available only at over-national scale (only exceptions are the large nuclear energy suppliers); Effective PLIM models need sharing of resources, suppliers, spare parts, O and M techniques among different plants, which therefore must have the same or very similar characteristics to foster such exchanges. The program structure described in the paper is shown, where the integration of the existing programs at the plant is highlighted. This paper provides a short summary of selected results obtained at the JRC/IE in the development of a UE model for PLIM, explicitly addressing program management issues (organisation, contractor management, and program indicators), maintenance optimisation issues, ageing management of selected components and structures, and human reliability issues, as suggested by the review of some examples of PLIM programs in the EU

  8. Tagged nuclear structure functions with $HERMES$

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano SimulaINFN - Sezione Sanita'

    2014-01-01

    The production of slow nucleons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off nuclei, $A(e, e'N)X$, is analyzed for kinematical conditions accessible at $HERA$ with the $HERMES$ detector. The sensitivity of the semi-inclusive cross section to possible medium-dependent modifications of the nucleon structure function is illustrated.

  9. You Can't be Too Careful: The Challenges of Cybersecurity in the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of computers people use and interact with is growing every year, creating more opportunities for cyberattacks. For example, contemporary automobiles contain no fewer than 12 digital input/output channels to control the engine, transmission, radio, antilock braking, keyless entry, anti-theft, telematics, etc. All of these potentially contain vulnerabilities susceptible to being 'hacked'. Computer and information technology are evolving very quickly, at times outpacing our awareness of possible sources of cyber-vulnerabilities and ultimate attack. Additionally, cyberattacks are not limited to the workplace, but can also target the private lives of individuals. One of the IAEA's main aims in improving cybersecurity is to enhance nuclear security culture, to change how people think, and change how they evaluate not just the adoption, but also the use, of technology. ''If nuclear professionals and their families are more aware of not just their physical space, but their digital space, they will be more cautious with regard to online information sharing and the use of technology. Information that seems innocuous can be combined with other information found elsewhere online and can prove to be very damaging. Google and similar Internet search engines are often the first tool hackers use in developing an attack plan,'' says Dudenhoeffer. Project Officer for the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism and Security of the Netherlands, Ben Govers says, understanding of the threat is slowly permeating the nuclear industry. ''The nuclear industry is facing the challenge of having to both broaden and deepen its existing defences in computer and information networks set against cyberthreats. The industry is - more or less - at the starting point of developing, implementing and expanding robust measures for protecting the information and control systems of nuclear facilities''. ''The IAEA can play a leading role in this dynamic development,'' says Govers

  10. Metrology challenges for high-rate nanomanufacturing of polymer structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; Busnaina, Ahmed; Isaacs, Jacqueline

    2012-10-01

    The transfer of nanoscience accomplishments into commercial products is hindered by the lack of understanding of barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. We have developed a number of nanomanufacturing processes that leverage available high-rate plastics fabrication technologies. These processes include directed assembly of a variety of nanoelements, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, which are then transferred onto a polymer substrate for the fabrication of conformal/flexible electronic materials, among other applications. These assembly processes utilize both electric fields and/or chemical functionalization. Conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes have been successfully transferred to a polymer substrate in times less than 5 minutes, which is commercially relevant and can be utilized in a continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) process. Other processes include continuous high volume mixing of nanoelements (CNTs, etc) into polymers, multi-layer extrusion and 3D injection molding of polymer structures. These nanomanufacturing processes can be used for wide range of applications, including EMI shielding, flexible electronics, structural materials, and novel sensors (specifically for chem/bio detection). Current techniques to characterize the quality and efficacy of the processes are quite slow. Moreover, the instrumentation and metrology needs for these manufacturing processes are varied and challenging. Novel, rapid, in-line metrology to enable the commercialization of these processes is critically needed. This talk will explore the necessary measurement needs for polymer based nanomanufacturing processes for both step and continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) processes.

  11. Development of deterioration models and tests of structural materials for nuclear containment structures(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung Hwan [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The nuclear containment structures are very important infrastructures which require much cost for construction and maintenance. If these structures lose their functions and do not ensure their safety, great losses of human lives and properties will result. Therefore, the nuclear containment structures should secure appropriate safety and functions during these service lives. The nuclear concrete structures start to experience deterioration due to severe environmental condition, even though the concrete structures exhibit generally superior durability. It is, therefore, necessary to take appropriate actions at each stage of planning, design and construction to secure safety and functionability. Thorough examination of deterioration mechanism and comprehensive tests have been conducted to explore the durability characteristics of nuclear concrete structures. 88 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  12. Development of advanced nuclear fuels in the Indian context: advantages and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever increasing demand on power requirement in the country has opened up need for exploring use of nuclear fuels that could meet such demands. This makes the mission of the department to shift from the first stage of nuclear programme employing natural uranium in PHWRs to the second stage of deploying a large number of fast reactors with plutonium based fuels capable of realising high breeding ratios in addition to energy production. The transition to fast reactors with advanced fuels, capable of higher breeding ratio, opens up a number of scientific and technological challenges in design and operation of such fast reactors. In the Indian context, after successful demonstration of natural uranium based PHWRs, the performance of U-Pu based carbide fuel, as a unique experience in the world, has been demonstrated in FBTR at Kalpakkam. This paper deals with the performance of carbide fuel in FBTR and the programme on development of metallic fuels with appreciably high breeding ratio that would result in considerable reduction in doubling time thereby addressing the increasing demands of power production as well as pave way for introduction of a large number of such fast reactors to provide energy security to the country. The advantages of introduction of metallic fuels as well as the scientific and technological challenges to be faced in doing so and the ongoing efforts towards metallic fuel development are also described in the paper. (author)

  13. Computer Automation for Structural Design of Domestic Nuclear Shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural design of nuclear shelters is different according to the types of these shelters (domestic or public-above ground or underground – shallow buried or deeply buried-reinforced concrete or glass reinforced plastic or thin metal sheets... etc.). UK and USA performed a calculation using a manual method to calculate the structural design for any domestic nuclear shelter, which may protect the people in it from air blast, thermal and nuclear radiation (gamma rays emanating from fall-out). The manual calculation method is very complex which is very difficult to use, in the present work, a simplified method is prepared, this involves a visual basic computer program to calculate the structural designs for the different domestic nuclear shelters. The program aims to provide the missing time in the calculation processes to calculate the structural design for any domestic shelter through entering specifications data for any domestic shelter. The program will calculate the structural design in a very short time which will save the effort and time in comparison with the manual calculation. Also, the computer program gives more accurate results than the manual method

  14. Structure Determination of the Nuclear Pore Complex with Three-Dimensional Cryo electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Appen, Alexander; Beck, Martin

    2016-05-22

    Determining the structure of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) imposes an enormous challenge due to its size, intricate composition and membrane-embedded nature. In vertebrates, about 1000 protein building blocks assemble into a 110-MDa complex that fuses the inner and outer membranes of a cell's nucleus. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the in situ architecture of the NPC with a specific focus on approaches using three-dimensional cryo electron microscopy. We discuss technological benefits and limitations and give an outlook toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of the NPC. PMID:26791760

  15. Nuclear Structure of the Heaviest Elements – Investigated at SHIP-GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heßberger Fritz Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations has been started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by α-decay as investigation of two- or fourquasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162.

  16. Nuclear structure of the heaviest elements - investigated at SHIP-GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons) and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt, an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by a-decay as investigation of two- or four-quasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed us to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162. (authors)

  17. Talking my language [As the nuclear industry goes global, communication becomes a bigger challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    future and existing managers to improve their cross-cultural competence, while learning about the various facets of nuclear energy, is to participate in one of the World Nuclear University (WNU) programmes. For example, the six week Summer Institute (SI) in Daejeon, South Korea in July- August 2007 will be attended by over a hundred young nuclear professionals and graduate students from over 35 countries. This is in addition to the 163 WNU 'Fellows' from 40 countries who have attended previous institutes in Idaho Falls and Stockholm. The WNU-SI comprises lectures by some of the world's foremost experts from the IAEA and industry, along with challenging leadership development tasks and technical tours. Other events being organized by the WNU Coordinating Centre in London for 2007 and 2008 also emphasize participation by a wide cross-section of learners from both developed and developing countries. They include forums for nuclear policy-makers and scientific advisers, and induction courses for executives joining the nuclear industry from other areas

  18. Nuclear structure of quasars at 329 megahertz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents studies of compact quasars using Very Long Baseline Interferometry at 329 MHz. Chapter 1 presents hybrid maps of 3C147 and 3C286, made at 329 MHz from VLBI observations taken in 1975 with three stations. These are the first maps of compact radio structure at this frequency. Both objects have an unresolved core; an extended, asymmetric jet; and an even larger, completely resolved halo. For 3C147 it is possible to decompose the spectrum into individual component spectra; at 329 MHz the core of 3C147 is self-absorbed. For both sources the spectral index decreases monotonically from core to jet to halo. Chapter 2 presents further 329 MHz VLBI observations. Seven stations were used to map the quasars 3C48, 3C147, 3C309.1, 3C380, and 3C454.3. These are the first reliable, high dynamic range maps at this frequency, and reveal complex structure in four of these sources. All five quasars are seen to have asymmetric structure that can be interpreted in the ''core-jet'' picture of compact extragalactic radio sources. Chapter 3 analyzes the two maps of 3C147 presented in chapters 1 and 2. Those maps reveal that the core of 3C147 is a low-frequency variable radio source which has brightened by a factor of two in six years. In combination with X-ray observations, this is used to demonstrate that bulk relativistic motion is taking place within the core, and leads the prediction that 3C147 is a ''superluminal'' radio source. In chapter 4, the observations presented in chapter 2 are analyzed using standard synchrotron theory to discover conditions occurring in these objects

  19. ICT as an enabler in supporting Knowledge Management in Nuclear Malaysia: Issues, challenges and best practises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the notion that ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is an enabler to KM (Knowledge Management) and how ICT can help to support KMS (KM Systems) in the context of Nuclear Malaysia. It starts by taking an academic tour and looking at the meanings and definitions of ICT and KM or KMS from various perspectives. Coincidently, ICT and KM carries a variety of meanings when view from different angles by different groups of people, as described in the following sections. The paper also discusses the issues and challenges in building ICT systems and applications such as that for the KMS. It also provides strategies, actions plans or best practises done by various sectors of the ICT industry that can also be applied to Nuclear Malaysia in its pursuit of building a KMS. As an R and D organization in which knowledge creation, preservation, storage and retrieval are its daily diet, a KMS is something that Nuclear Malaysia cannot afford to live without. (Author)

  20. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A ≅ 182 region, structure of 182Hg and 182Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in 136Pm and the anomalous h11/2 proton crossing in the A∼135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier α particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative 209Bi + 136Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4π channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector)

  1. Nuclear structure from radioactive decay: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary focus this year has been the continuing studies of intruder states and shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Z /approximately/ 82 region. Most notably, an extensive region of odd-mass nuclei is emerging within which low-lying low-energy electric monopole (EO) transitions occur. This is a completely new nuclear structure phenomenon. The empirical results are based on on-line decay scheme spectroscopy of mass-separated isotopes at UNISOR. In particular, many transition multipolarities are determined from conversion electron subshell ratios observed in γ-gated electron coincidence spectra. This is a completely new nuclear spectroscopic technique. To cite a specific example: our studies of the 185Au → 185Pt decay scheme reveal at least 11 transitions with EO components. This is unprecedented in nuclear structure. The role of EO transitions is being pursued in the larger framework of a signature of shape coexistence in nuclei

  2. A-dependence of weak nuclear structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Simo, I. Ruiz [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli studi di Trento Via Sommarive 14, Povo (Trento) I-38123 (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Effect of nuclear medium on the weak structure functions F{sub 2}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) and F{sub 3}{sup A}(x, Q{sup 2}) have been studied using charged current (anti)neutrino deep inelastic scattering on various nuclear targets. Relativistic nuclear spectral function which incorporate Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations are used for the calculations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. Using these structure functions, F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup proton} and F{sub i}{sup A}/F{sub i}{sup deuteron}(i=2,3, A={sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, CH and H{sub 2}O) are obtained.

  3. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  4. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  5. Interacting boson models of nuclear and nucleon structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    1998-01-01

    Interacting boson models provide an elegant and powerful method to describe collective excitations of complex systems by introducing a set of effective degrees of freedom. We review the interacting boson model of nuclear structure and discuss a recent extension to the nucleon and its excited states.

  6. Nuclear Many-Body Physics Where Structure And Reactions Meet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Naureen; Volya, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The path from understanding a simple reaction problem of scattering or tunneling to contemplating the quantum nuclear many-body system, where structure and continuum of reaction-states meet, overlap and coexist, is a complex and nontrivial one. In this presentation we discuss some of the intriguing aspects of this route.

  7. Spin-Orbit Interaction of Nuclear Shell Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Zhengda; Wang, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Single particle spin-orbit interaction energy problem in nuclear shell structure is solved through negative harmonic oscillator in the self-similar-structure shell model (SSM) [4] and considering quarks' contributions on single particle spin and orbit momentum. The paper demonstrates that single particle motion in normal nuclei is described better by SSM negative harmonic oscillator than conventional shell model positive harmonic oscillator[1][2][3]. The proposed theoretical formula for spin ...

  8. The challenges and importance of structural variation detection in livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M Bickhart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to Copy Number Variations (CNVs in cattle, sheep and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the ASIP gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection.

  9. Nuclear power for future electricity generation in Ghana: Issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA TC project GHA/0/011: 'Evaluating the Role of Nuclear Power in Future Options for Electricity Generation' which commenced in 2009. The question is, what are the challenges facing Ghana's Nuclear Power Programme? (author)

  10. Facing the challenge of stakeholders involvement: the Argentine nuclear regulatory case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina (ARN) is an autonomous body reporting to the Presidency of Argentina, empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regards to radiation and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. Under the executive decree 1172/2003, which makes reference to the accessibility of public information to increase transparency of government actions and specially to promote public involvement, ARN has the legal obligation to inform of its activities in an accurate, comprehensive and understandable manner. The re-launching of the nuclear plan in 2006 and the repercussions this provoked on society highlighted the need to reinforce the legitimacy of the regulatory role and the promotion of confidence on its works to ensure the safety of the people. Therefore it was considered necessary to involve the society further in this programme by achieving greater public understanding and awareness of the nuclear regulatory activities. The more the public is conscious of the role of the regulator, conceiving it as a trustworthy and autonomous authority, the easier it is for the regulator to fulfil its obligations. As ARN has a strong commitment with society and considering that communication with the general public, as an external stakeholder, is a means to establishing and maintaining public trust and confidence, the implementation of a new communication programme became a key issue. In this scenario, ARN faced a challenge it was not prepared to handle and thus created a Division to deal with institutional communication and allow and ease the interaction with society. Within this Division, one of the methods chosen to achieve a better interaction with society was the use of a technological tool to attend possible inquiries, increasing and facilitating a greater involvement of the stakeholders. With this in mind a 'Mail-Info' was established because it allows a fast, accessible, easy and informal way of

  11. RATU - Nuclear power plant structural safety research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the structural materials in nuclear power plants create the experimental data and background information necessary for the structural integrity assessments of mechanical components. The research is carried out by developing experimental fracture mechanics methods including statistical analysis methods of materials property data, and by studying material ageing and, in particular, mechanisms of material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry. Besides material studies, new testing methods and sensors for measurement of loading and water chemistry parameters have been developed. The monitoring data obtained in real power plants has been used to simulate more precisely the real environment during laboratory tests. The research on structural analysis has focused on extending and verifying the analysis capabilities for structural assessments of nuclear power plants. A widely applicable system including various computational fracture assessment methods has been created with which different structural problems can be solved reliably and effectively. Research on reliability assessment of maintenance in nuclear power plants is directed to practical case studies on components and structures of safety importance, and to the development of models for maintenance related decision support. A systematic analysis of motor-operated valve has been performed

  12. Effective nuclear regulatory systems: Facing safety and security challenges. Proceedings of an international conference. Contributed papers and presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 16 years, the IAEA has conducted a series of major conferences that have addressed topical issues and strategies critical to nuclear safety, for consideration by the world's nuclear regulators. This series was initiated in 1991 with the International Conference on the Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future. The conference marked the beginning of a global safety regime based on international conventions and legal instruments that was supported by a set of nuclear and radiation safety standards and related review services. The very successful Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) resulted from this effort and now has 56 Contracting Parties. Currently, regulatory authorities and the nuclear industry are facing significant new challenges, which require new strategies and oversight. The key challenges are the result of the following factors: Renewed global interest in the use of nuclear energy for electricity generation and, consequently, its likely expansion; - Increased threats to the security of nuclear installations and the need to link closely security and safety issues and response capabilities; - Increased global use of radioactive materials and the need to ensure their safety and security, similar to the issues faced with the use of nuclear energy; - New safety and security challenges from existing nuclear facilities associated with ageing and extensions of their operating lifetimes. To address these challenges, the International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Facing Safety and Security Challenges, was held in Moscow, Russian Federation, from 27 February to 3 March 2006. The IAEA invited global leaders to this conference, including both government regulators and industry representatives, to share their perspectives and experience in addressing these challenges that transcend national boundaries. Participants were asked to make their contributions in the context of global safety and security standards and methods by which

  13. Nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments for nuclear structure research on exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Neyens, G

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in current nuclear physics research is to investigate the properties of so-called 'exotic nuclei' and of 'exotic nuclear structures'. Exotic nuclei are nuclei with a proton-to-neutron ratio that is very different from the proton-to-neutron ratio in stable nuclei (a technical term related to this ratio is the 'isospin'). We define exotic nuclear structures as excitation modes of nuclei that have a very different structure than the structure (or shape) of the nuclear ground state. By putting the nucleons in a nucleus to extreme conditions of isospin and excitation energy one can investigate details of one of the four basic forces in nature: the strong force which binds the nucleons together to form a bound nucleus. While the basic properties of the strong nucleon-nucleon interaction are known from investigating the properties of nuclei near the 'valley of stability', recent developments in the study of exotic nuclei have demonstrated that specific properties of the strong interaction, such...

  14. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism. Vienna, 29 October 2001. Statement to the symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main topics dealt with the ensuring of an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation, namely as follows: Effectiveness of the system; Participation in the system ; Financing of the system; Making Progress in Nuclear Arms Control; Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism. In the Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 2000, the Agency was able to conclude that for all 140 states with safeguards agreements in place the nuclear material and other items placed under safeguards remained in peaceful nuclear activities or were otherwise adequately accounted for. The Agency currently safeguards over 900 facilities in 70 countries on a regular safeguards budget of approximately US $80 million per year. Turning to the major recent challenge, protection against nuclear terrorism, the IAEA has long been active in encouraging States to make security an integral part of the management of their nuclear programmes. The recent attacks in the United States were, however, a wake-up call to all that more can and must be done. In the week immediately following the tragedy, the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution which requested a thorough review of Agency activities and programmes relevant to preventing acts of nuclear terrorism

  15. Nuclear energy in the United States: meeting the challenge in a more competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, major policy and structural changes have been occurring in the U.S. electric utility industry. These changes are moving the industry from a regulated monopoly to a more open and competitive market for electricity services. These changes have potentially significant implications for all existing generating plants, particularly nuclear plants. Even before the current trend towards competition, the operators of nuclear plants in the United States were acting to reduce their operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, and improve their overall economic performance. These efforts have already resulted in significantly shorter refuelling outages - with a median refuelling outage duration of 55 days in 1994, as compared to 78 days in 1990, and a corresponding increase in average capacity factor from 67.5% in 1990 to 75.1% in 1994. During the period 1988 through 1993, O and M costs at U.S. nuclear plants increased on average less than 0.1% above inflation. As a result of both the increased capacity factors and the decrease in growth rate of O and M expenditures, nuclear production costs fell from 2.21 cents/kWh in 1988 to 2.15 cents/kWh in 1993. Additionally, analysis of industry performance indicates that the best performing plants from the perspectives of safety performance, NRC assessments and INPO evaluations, are also the most cost-efficient plants. These plants spend on average about $30 million less per year on O and M than the plants in the most expensive quartile. This paper will discuss these favourable economic and performance trends, and the breadth of activities being implemented by the industry as part of its 'Strategic Plan for Improved Economic Performance.' It will relate the performance improvements being achieved, an the goals of the nuclear industry to the growing competitive environment that the U.S. electricity business is tending towards. (author) 15 figs

  16. Challenges and Prospects of Equipment Health Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) system can offer tremendous benefits to equipment condition monitoring in newly-constructed and/or refurbished nuclear power plants (NPPs). However, it has not been widely accepted so far because of the following requirements by the NPP operators ectromagnetic (EM) emissions from the wireless transceivers must not interfere with the functionalities of the sensitive safety and protection systems in the plant, WSN must perform reliably in the presence of high levels of EM interference from devices such as relays and motor driven pumps, and ionizing radiation sources, dependable WSN performance in harsh industrial environments that are cluttered with cable trays, piping, valves, pumps, motors, and concrete and steel structures, and trict compliance with nuclear regulatory guidelines on EM emissions by the wireless devices. This paper will review the key issues associated with the deployment of WSN for equipment condition monitoring in NPPs. Some promising WSN technologies that can be used in NPP applications are also discussed

  17. Challenges and Prospects of Equipment Health Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyi [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Jin; Bari, Ataul; Wang, Quan [University of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada); Hashemian, Hash-M. [AMS Technology Center Knoxville (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) system can offer tremendous benefits to equipment condition monitoring in newly-constructed and/or refurbished nuclear power plants (NPPs). However, it has not been widely accepted so far because of the following requirements by the NPP operators ectromagnetic (EM) emissions from the wireless transceivers must not interfere with the functionalities of the sensitive safety and protection systems in the plant, WSN must perform reliably in the presence of high levels of EM interference from devices such as relays and motor driven pumps, and ionizing radiation sources, dependable WSN performance in harsh industrial environments that are cluttered with cable trays, piping, valves, pumps, motors, and concrete and steel structures, and trict compliance with nuclear regulatory guidelines on EM emissions by the wireless devices. This paper will review the key issues associated with the deployment of WSN for equipment condition monitoring in NPPs. Some promising WSN technologies that can be used in NPP applications are also discussed.

  18. Considerations about soil-structures interaction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the soil-structure interaction for nuclear power plant are presented as they resulted from conservations that the author carried out at the Berkeley (California) University, at the California Institute of Technology and at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington (Dec 1975). The complete and inertial interaction approaches of analysis are discussed. The complete approach by the use of finite element technique as suggested by the U.S.N.R.C. Standard Review Plan 3.7.1. (June 1975) is finally described. (author)

  19. Manifestation of nuclear cluster structure in Coulomb sums

    CERN Document Server

    Buki, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Experimental Coulomb sum values of 6^Li and 7^Li nuclei have been obtained, extending the earlier reported momentum transfer range of Coulomb sums for these nuclei up to q = 0.750 ... 1.625 fm^-1. The dependence of the Coulomb sums on the momentum transfers of 6^Li and 7^Li is shown to differ substantially from similar dependences for all the other nuclei investigated. Relationship between the nuclear cluster structure and Coulomb sums has been considered. The momentum transfer value, above which the Coulomb sum becomes constant, is found to be related to the cluster isolation parameter x, which characterizes the degree of nuclear clusterization.

  20. Direct Reactions with Exotic Nuclei, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, G

    2006-01-01

    Intermediate energy Coulomb excitation and dissociation is a useful tool for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies. Low-lying strength in nuclei far from stability was discovered by this method. The effective range theory for low-lying strength in one-neutron halo nuclei is summarized and extended to two-neutron halo nuclei. This is of special interest in view of recent rather accurate experimental results on the low-lying electric dipole strength in $^{11}$Li. Another indirect approach to nuclear astrophysics is the Trojan horse method. It is pointed out that it is a suitable tool to investigate subthreshold resonances.

  1. Storage ring mass spectrometry for nuclear structure and astrophysics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Uesaka, T.; Xu, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    In the last two and a half decades ion storage rings have proven to be powerful tools for precision experiments with unstable nuclides in the realm of nuclear structure and astrophysics. There are presently three storage ring facilities in the world at which experiments with stored radioactive ions are possible. These are the ESR in GSI, Darmstadt/Germany, the CSRe in IMP, Lanzhou/China, and the R3 storage ring in RIKEN, Saitama/Japan. In this work, an introduction to the facilities is given. Selected characteristic experimental results and their impact in nuclear physics and astrophysics are presented. Planned technical developments and the envisioned future experiments are outlined.

  2. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). □ SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure · Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC · SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action □ Benefits of SC Structure · Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works · Minimize Site Labors · Improve the Construction Quality · Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean □ SC Modularization · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules · Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization □ Project Overview · Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP · Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) · Duration: Sep. 2005 ∼ Aug. 2008 (36 Months) · Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design: Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) - Development of Construction Techniques for SC Modularization: KHNP, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), KOPEC □ Performance

  3. Changes in Business Structures: Challenges for Management of Libyan Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abouazoum, Alafi; Bruijn, de Erik J.; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2008-01-01

    Libya has become a transition economy due to global industrial and political changes in the past decades. Being for long time under government control has created a number of challenges for the management of the SOEs. The most challenging aspect is firm performance improvement. Based on a pilot stud

  4. Correlating structure and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes: progress and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric F; Connick, J Patrick; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L; Desai, Manoj C; Xu, Lianhong; Estrada, D Fernando; Laurence, Jennifer S; Scott, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches.

  5. Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotani, Hajime [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-11-12

    We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called 'pasta'. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.

  6. Crystal Structure of the Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress Complex Provides Insights into Inner Nuclear Membrane Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzviya Zeev-Ben-Mordehai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is typically mediated through nuclear pore complexes, herpesvirus capsids exit the nucleus via a unique vesicular pathway. Together, the conserved herpesvirus proteins pUL31 and pUL34 form the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (NEC, which, in turn, mediates the formation of tight-fitting membrane vesicles around capsids at the inner nuclear membrane. Here, we present the crystal structure of the pseudorabies virus NEC. The structure revealed that a zinc finger motif in pUL31 and an extensive interaction network between the two proteins stabilize the complex. Comprehensive mutational analyses, characterized both in situ and in vitro, indicated that the interaction network is not redundant but rather complementary. Fitting of the NEC crystal structure into the recently determined cryoEM-derived hexagonal lattice, formed in situ by pUL31 and pUL34, provided details on the molecular basis of NEC coat formation and inner nuclear membrane remodeling.

  7. Nuclear structure studies for the astrophysical r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, B; Thielemann, F K; Walters, W B

    2001-01-01

    The production of the heaviest elements in nature occurs via the r-process, i.e. a combination of rapid neutron captures, the inverse photodisintegrations, and slower beta sup - -decays, beta-delayed processes as well as fission and possibly interactions with intense neutrino fluxes. A correct understanding and modeling requires the knowledge of nuclear properties far from stability and a detailed prescription of the astrophysical environment. Experiments at radioactive ion beam facilities have played a pioneering role in exploring the characteristics of nuclear structure in terms of masses and beta-decay properties. Initial examinations paid attention to highly unstable nuclei with magic neutron numbers and their beta-decay properties, related to the location and height of r-process peaks, while recent activities focus on the evolution of shell effects at large distances from the valley of stability. We show in site-independent applications the effect of both types of nuclear properties on r-process abundanc...

  8. Final Technical Report: Investigation of Nuclear Partonic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Henry J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Our research program had two primary goals during the period of this grant, to search for new and rare particles produced in high-energy nuclear collisions and to understand the internal structure of nuclear matter. We have developed electronics to pursue these goals at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment and the AnDY experiment. Our results include discovery of the anti-hyper-triton, anti- 3Λ-barH, which opened a new branch on the chart of the nuclides, and the anti-alpha, anti- 4He, the heaviest form of anti-matter yet seen, as well as uncovering hints of gluon saturation in cold nuclear matter and observation of jets in polarized proton-proton collisions that will be used to probe orbital motion inside protons.

  9. Online Monitoring of Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, and many of these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code-based design margins of safety. Structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. The online monitoring of concrete structures project conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is seeking to develop and demonstrate capabilities for concrete structures health monitoring. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University propose to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes the integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses activities in this project during October-December, 2014. The most significant activity during this period was the organizing of a two-day workshop on research needs in online monitoring of concrete structures, hosted by Vanderbilt University in November 2014. Thirty invitees from academia, industry and government participated in the workshop. The presentations and discussions at the workshop surveyed current activities related to concrete structures deterioration modeling and monitoring, and identified the challenges, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for advancing the state of the art; these

  10. Regulatory challenges related to the licensing of a new nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuring the safety and security of nuclear power plants is recognized world-wide as a challenge for all stakeholders. Particular attention goes to plants planned to be built in countries with not sufficiently developed industrial and regulatory infrastructure and experience. A construction and commissioning project, which is usually an international undertaking, gives opportunities to all national stakeholders to develop further their organisations and competences. In the present paper the duties of a regulatory body are recalled as well as the human resources and competences needed for the licensing of a new nuclear power plant. The regulatory body and its technical safety organization(s) should be strengthened and the international cooperation should contribute to this in a systematic and coordinated way. In particular, the donor country should support the necessary development of the regulatory competences and of an effective safety assessment process supporting the national licensing process. Appropriate support can be provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and through other bi-lateral or multi-lateral programmes

  11. Contaminated water issues at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Its geological background and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contaminated water issues at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, Incorporated (TEPCO) have not been solved yet even after 4 years since the severe nuclear accident triggered by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The issues are crucial for the safe decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS, however there have been many problems related to the contaminated water. The groundwater bypass, that has been employed as one of the countermeasures to reduce the ingress of groundwater into the reactor and turbine buildings is not effective as expected. These are due to the lack of investigations and understanding on the complex geology and hydrogeology at the site. The hydrogeological profiles and subsequent groundwater simulation models prepared by the TEPCO and the Government of Japan are very simple. Although the disclosed columnar sections in the NPS site are limited, it was revealed that the facies of the D4 unit of the Dainenji Formation, which is mainly composed of mudstone and sandstone, significantly changes even in a local scale. In this paper, the author reviewed the geological background of the NPS site, brief history of the contaminated water issues, subsurface ground conditions below the contaminated water tanks, and problems on geological and hydrogeological data with subsequent groundwater modeling analysis. The author also pointed out the geological challenges of the on-going measures to reduce groundwater ingress, such as groundwater bypass, frozen (ice) wall, and the activating of the subdrain system in the NPS. (author)

  12. Transfer of nuclear engineering knowledge at Hanoi University of Technology: Lessons learned and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    important guarantee for success of the Programme. 2. To find out close relation between the courses to be studied and the above-mentioned demands of the country is a very important guarantee for success of the Programme. 3. To train up teaching staffs of high consciousness of responsibility and of a quality as high as possible is a key guarantee for success of the Programme. 4. To adapt the Programme for providing student knowledge which should be of a)- Wide enough profile (for heightening capacities of seeking jobs of graduated students in today labor market in the country), and b)- High enough quality (fore better integration and successful co-operation) is a necessary factor to attract students to the Programme. 5. To develop close contacts and cooperations with the related institutions in the country in order to make the Programme suitable and more attractive as well as to get a practical plan of using the young people trained-up by the Programme is another necessary factor for its success. 6. To establish and develop effective international co-operations is of extremely high importance in heightening level of teaching staffs and strengthening technical base for rapid and considerable improvement of the Programme quality. In the present period, especially after the Vietnam Prime-Minister signed in the beginning of the year 2006 to approve the strategy for development of peaceful uses of atomic energy in the country up to the year 2020, HUT's DONEEP has to face a number of challenges on its way to contribute considerably to meeting new demands of the country. The big challenges may be listed as follows: 1. Lack of suitable NEEP; 2. Lack of sufficient knowledge on nuclear power engineering and nuclear power safety; 3. Lack of experienced educators for running the NEEP; and 4. Lack of sufficient incentive to involve and to keep people to work for the Programme. For overcoming such serious challenges, the HUT is trying to make the following efforts: 1. Setting up a new

  13. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we've been and challenges ahead - Views of an engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ''dual-use'' controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective

  14. Probing nuclear bubble structure via neutron star asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotani, Hajime; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We consider torsional oscillations that are trapped in a layer of spherical-hole (bubble) nuclear structure, which is expected to occur in the deepest region of the inner crust of a neutron star. Because this layer intervenes between the phase of slab nuclei and the outer core of uniform nuclear matter, torsional oscillations in the bubble phase can be excited separately from usual crustal torsional oscillations. We find from eigenmode analyses for various models of the equation of state of uniform nuclear matter that the fundamental frequencies of such oscillations are almost independent of the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter, but strongly depend on the slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy L. Although the frequencies are also sensitive to the entrainment effect, i.e., what portion of nucleons outside bubbles contribute to the oscillations, by having such a portion fixed, we can successfully fit the calculated fundamental frequencies of torsional oscillations in the bubble phase inside a star of specific mass and radius as a function of L. By comparing the resultant fitting formula to the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed from the soft-gamma repeaters, we find that each of the observed low-frequency QPOs can be identified either as a torsional oscillation in the bubble phase or as a usual crustal oscillation, given generally accepted values of L for all the stellar models considered here.

  15. Nuclear structure investigations with inclusion of continuum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the continuum on the properties of discrete nuclear states is reviewed. It is described on the basis of a continuum shell model. The coupling of the discrete states to the continuum results in an additional term to the Hamiltonian, commonly used in the study of nuclear structure, and an additional term to the wavefunction of the discrete state. These additional terms characterise finite nuclei in contrast to nuclear matter. They result in some symmetry violation of the residual nuclear interaction such as charge symmetry violation, and describe the nuclear surface, respectively. The energies and widths of resonance states result from the complex eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. The partial widths are shown to be factorisable into a spectroscopic factor and into a penetration factor if the spectroscopic factor is large. An expression for the S-matrix is derived in which instead of the so-called resonance parameters, functions appear which are calculated in the framework of the model. The line shape of resonances is also influenced by these functions. As an extreme case, a resonance may have the appearance of a cusp. The conclusions drawn are supported by the results of numerical calculations performed in the continuum shell model for light nuclei with realistic shell model wavefunctions. (author)

  16. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion: Materials Challenges for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Mike

    2008-01-01

    The current focus of NASA s space fission effort is Fission Surface Power (FSP). FSP systems could be used to provide power anytime, anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars. FSP systems could be used at locations away from the lunar poles or in permanently shaded regions, with no performance penalty. A potential reference 40 kWe option has been devised that is cost-competitive with alternatives while providing more power for less mass. The potential reference system is readily extensible for use on Mars. At Mars the system could be capable of operating through global dust storms and providing year-round power at any Martian latitude. To ensure affordability, the potential near-term, 40 kWe reference concept is designed to use only well established materials and fuels. However, if various materials challenges could be overcome, extremely high performance fission systems could be devised. These include high power, low mass fission surface power systems; in-space systems with high specific power; and high performance nuclear thermal propulsion systems. This tutorial will provide a brief overview of space fission systems and will focus on materials challenges that, if overcome, could help enable advanced exploration and utilization of the solar system.

  17. Theory of Nuclear Structure: Trieste Lectures 1969. Lectures Presented at an International Course on Nuclear Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics has maintained an interdisciplinary character in its research and training program so far as different branches of theoretical physics are concerned. In pursuance of this aim the Centre has organized extended research courses with a comprehensive and synoptic coverage in varying disciplines. The first of these — on Plasma Physics — was held in 1964; the second in 1965 was concerned with the physics of particles; the third in 1966 covered nuclear theory; the fourth in 1967 dealt with condensed matter. The proceedings of all these courses were published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The present volume records the proceedings of the fifth course, held from 7 January to 31 March 1969, which was concerned with the study of microscopic nuclear structure and the many-body approaches to nuclear theory

  18. Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Calci, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Be {({{p}},γ )}8{{B}} radiative capture. Finally, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H{({{d}},{{n}})}4He fusion.

  19. Ministerial Presentation: Jordan. Why Nuclear? [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , with excess production to be made available for export. Jordan has been seriously exploring nuclear power as a long-term alternative for electricity generation, water desalination, and as insurance for both energy security and future volatility of oil and natural gas prices. Nuclear energy is an important alternative to fossil fuels and is a particularly important component in a low-carbon energy strategy. In this regard, I urge this Conference to call for the inclusion of nuclear energy in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of any future climate change negotiations. Nuclear power also maximizes and leverages Jordan's indigenous uranium resources. The Kingdom is endowed with rich uranium resources which have not been fully explored, with estimated reasonably assured resources of about 70,000 metric tons of uranium oxide in Central Jordan with additional quantities that could be extracted as byproduct of phosphoric acid production. There are, however, many challenges standing in the way of introducing nuclear power in Jordan such as the high investment cost, the need for skilled engineers and technicians, the limited suitable sites for power plants, the lack of adequate water sources for cooling, and the volatile regional political climate. Since 2001, Jordan has been developing a national strategy for civilian nuclear power. But only in January 2008, that Jordan's parliament empowered the Jordan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) to lead the national effort and implement the Kingdom's nuclear strategy ---to be the Nuclear Power Implementation Organization (NEPIO) for the country. Furthermore and In compliance with the best of international practices, the parliament established an independent Jordan Nuclear Regulatory Commission (JNRC), to promulgate the needed legal, regulatory, and security framework for the introduction of nuclear power. JAEC has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with France, China, South Korea, Canada, and will conclude two soon with Russia

  20. Deterioration of Safety Related Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Suh, Young Pyue; Jung, Hyung Jin; Pang, Gi Sung [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa; Kim, Keung Hwan; Park, Heung Seik; You, Young Chan; Kim, Do Gyeum; Jeong, Youn Ju; Lee, Jong Suk [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    In general, the Safety Related Concrete Structures(SRCS) in nuclear power plants are progressively deteriorated as the total service life is increased. The deterioration of SRCS becomes major concern in the maintenance of the nuclear power plants since the failure of SRCS can cause safety problems. To ensure safety of SRCS, the maintenance of SRCS should be conducted according to the reliable maintenance techniques. For this reason, this study to evaluate the soundness of the existing SRCS and to develop an advanced maintenance technique which is named Structural Aging Maintenance System(SAMS), especially for the efficient treatment of deteriorated SRCS. SAMS can handle input/output and search/control of the results, detection of deterioration causes by using Deterioration Diagnosis System(DDS), and establishment of the maintenance plan which including repairs and retrofit. (author). 82 refs., 46 figs.

  1. Fracture energy and size effect studies for nuclear concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, analysis and testing of large size nuclear concrete structures pose problems due to varying sizes of the test specimens, models and prototype structures and exhibit the structural size effect. In this paper the structural size effect law for such structures is revisited and is explained through nonlinear fracture mechanics description. The new experimental programme of material characterization for softening behavior of concrete in compression and tension are described. The fracture energy evaluation on notched/unnotched, plain and reinforced Three Point Bend (TPB) beam specimens using conventional instrumentation, acoustic b-value analysis and high resolution image processing systems is presented. Further, a few case studies are presented with numerical finite element cohesive crack and crack band models to illustrate the issues of mesh sensitivity as observed in the classical strength/strain based non-linear finite element theories

  2. Dismantling of nuclear facilities. From a structural engineering perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes some important aspects, requirements and technical boundary conditions that need to be considered in dismantling projects in the nuclear sector from a structural engineering perspective. Besides general requirements regarding radiation protection, occupational safety, efficiency and cost effectiveness it is important to take into account other conditions which have a direct impact on technical details and the structural assessment of the dismantling project. These are the main aspects highlighted in this paper: - The structural assessment of dismantling projects has to be based on the as-built situation. - The limitations in terms of available equipment and space have to be taken into account. - The structural assessments are often non-standardized engineering evaluations. A selection of five dismantling projects illustrates the various structural aspects. (orig.)

  3. EVALUATED NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATA FILE. A MANUAL FOR PREPARATION OF DATA SETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the organization and structure of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). This computer-based file is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the international Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network. For every mass number (presently, A ≤ 293), the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains evaluated structure information. For masses A ≥ 44, this information is published in the Nuclear Data Sheets; for A < 44, ENSDF is based on compilations published in the journal Nuclear Physics. The information in ENSDF is updated by mass chain or by nuclide with a varying cycle time dependent on the availability of new information

  4. EVALUATED NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATA FILE -- A MANUAL FOR PREPARATION OF DATA SETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TULI, J.K.

    2001-02-01

    This manual describes the organization and structure of the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). This computer-based file is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the international Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network. For every mass number (presently, A {le} 293), the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) contains evaluated structure information. For masses A {ge} 44, this information is published in the Nuclear Data Sheets; for A < 44, ENSDF is based on compilations published in the journal Nuclear Physics. The information in ENSDF is updated by mass chain or by nuclide with a varying cycle time dependent on the availability of new information.

  5. Shock absorber in combination with a nuclear reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the provision of shock absorbers for use in blind control rod passages of a nuclear reactor core structure which are not subject to degradation. The shock absorber elements are made of a porous brittle carbonaceous material, a porous brittle ceramic material, or a porous brittle refractory oxide and have a void volume of between 30% and 70% of the total volume of the element for energy absorption by fracturing due to impact loading by a control rod. (UK)

  6. Advances and Challenges in the Implementation of DiD in Siting, Design, and Construction of Nuclear Installations in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam is embarking on a development of a nuclear power program. The main focus is now on the initial 1000 MWe x 2 units of the nuclear power plant in Ninh Thuan province. Now, the nuclear projects of Vietnam are in the phase of siting approval and investment projects approval. The design assessment will be performed in 2013-2014; the construction and installation will be performed from now until the operating licensing is obtained in 2020-2021. With state of development of a nuclear power program in Vietnam, this paper only focuses on advances and challenges in the implementation of Defence in Depth (DID) in siting, design, and construction of nuclear installations in Vietnam. (author)

  7. Unchanging vision of nuclear energy: nuclear power policy of the South Korean government and citizens' challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, S.-J.

    2006-07-15

    This article reports on the status and perspectives of South Korea's nuclear power policy, enabling a discussion regarding how much of South Korea's nuclear and energy policy has changed. Despite the phase-out or slowdown of nuclear industry in European countries, the Korean Government continues to maintain a traditional energy policy paradigm, expanding nuclear energy continuously in essence for the past several decades. The country ranks now sixth in the world for generating capacity from nuclear power, and a total of 36 nuclear units might be in operation by 2030. The entire country has been seething over the nuclear waste problem for many years. The government's long standing attempts to build the nuclear waste disposal facility have provoked violent resistance from citizens, awakening public awareness of nuclear problems. Under the pressure of environmental movements and climate convention the South Korean Government has taken a small step towards change in its energy policy. However, as long as the illusion of nuclear power is maintained, no change in Korea's energy policy can be effected. (author)

  8. The effect of a tornado on nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural systems of some nuclear power plants were designed on the basis of local building codes which did not contain provisions considering the effects of tornado loadings. Since the construction of these plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued Regulatory Guide 1.76, which defines a design basis tornado (DBT) accounting for the various loadings that occur during a tornado strike. Due to the concern regarding the extent to which older plants can satisfy these licensing criteria, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), initiated a study to investigate and assess the safety of existing structural designs. The paper reports the findings of the SEP study in interpretating and applying the DBT regulatory criteria. The adequacy of general structural designs, components, and details to meet current requirements is discussed. The relative importance of the various tornado loading phenomena are reviewed. The typically weak design elements are identified along with the mechanisms of failure. The paper concludes with a discussion of various special problems encountered in applying the regulatory criteria. (orig.)

  9. Anomaly in the Charge Radii and Nuclear Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-Fei; ZUO Wei; LI Jun-Qing; Soojae Im; MA Zhong-Yu; CHEN Bao-Qiu

    2006-01-01

    @@ The axially deformed relativistic mean field theory is applied to study the isotope shift of charge distributions of odd-Z Pr isotope chain. The nuclear structure associated with the shell and the isotope effect is investigated.The mechanism of the kink in the isotope shift at the neutron magic number N = 82 is revealed to be dependent on the neutron energy level structure at the Fermi energy, demonstrating that the spin-orbit coupling interaction and p-n attraction are well described by the relativistic mean field theory.

  10. The nucleolus: a raft adrift in the nuclear sea or the keystone in nuclear structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Justin M; Pai, Dave A; Cridge, Andrew G; Engelke, David R; Ganley, Austen R D

    2013-06-01

    The nucleolus is a prominent nuclear structure that is the site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, and hence ribosome biogenesis. Cellular demand for ribosomes, and hence rRNA, is tightly linked to cell growth and the rRNA makes up the majority of all the RNA within a cell. To fulfill the cellular demand for rRNA, the ribosomal RNA (rDNA) genes are amplified to high copy number and transcribed at very high rates. As such, understanding the rDNA has profound consequences for our comprehension of genome and transcriptional organization in cells. In this review, we address the question of whether the nucleolus is a raft adrift the sea of nuclear DNA, or actively contributes to genome organization. We present evidence supporting the idea that the nucleolus, and the rDNA contained therein, play more roles in the biology of the cell than simply ribosome biogenesis. We propose that the nucleolus and the rDNA are central factors in the spatial organization of the genome, and that rapid alterations in nucleolar structure in response to changing conditions manifest themselves in altered genomic structures that have functional consequences. Finally, we discuss some predictions that result from the nucleolus having a central role in nuclear organization.

  11. Mathematical analysis of compressive/tensile molecular and nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayu

    Mathematical analysis in chemistry is a fascinating and critical tool to explain experimental observations. In this dissertation, mathematical methods to present chemical bonding and other structures for many-particle systems are discussed at different levels (molecular, atomic, and nuclear). First, the tetrahedral geometry of single, double, or triple carbon-carbon bonds gives an unsatisfying demonstration of bond lengths, compared to experimental trends. To correct this, Platonic solids and Archimedean solids were evaluated as atoms in covalent carbon or nitrogen bond systems in order to find the best solids for geometric fitting. Pentagonal solids, e.g. the dodecahedron and icosidodecahedron, give the best fit with experimental bond lengths; an ideal pyramidal solid which models covalent bonds was also generated. Second, the macroscopic compression/tension architectural approach was applied to forces at the molecular level, considering atomic interactions as compressive (repulsive) and tensile (attractive) forces. Two particle interactions were considered, followed by a model of the dihydrogen molecule (H2; two protons and two electrons). Dihydrogen was evaluated as two different types of compression/tension structures: a coaxial spring model and a ring model. Using similar methods, covalent diatomic molecules (made up of C, N, O, or F) were evaluated. Finally, the compression/tension model was extended to the nuclear level, based on the observation that nuclei with certain numbers of protons/neutrons (magic numbers) have extra stability compared to other nucleon ratios. A hollow spherical model was developed that combines elements of the classic nuclear shell model and liquid drop model. Nuclear structure and the trend of the "island of stability" for the current and extended periodic table were studied.

  12. Non-empirical energy density functional for the nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy density functional (EDF) formalism is the tool of choice for large-scale low-energy nuclear structure calculations both for stable experimentally known nuclei whose properties are accurately reproduced and systems that are only theoretically predicted. We highlight in the present dissertation the capability of EDF methods to tackle exotic phenomena appearing at the very limits of stability, that is the formation of nuclear halos. We devise a new quantitative and model-independent method that characterizes the existence and properties of halos in medium- to heavy-mass nuclei, and quantifies the impact of pairing correlations and the choice of the energy functional on the formation of such systems. These results are found to be limited by the predictive power of currently-used EDFs that rely on fitting to known experimental data. In the second part of this dissertation, we initiate the construction of non-empirical EDFs that make use of the new paradigm for vacuum nucleon-nucleon interactions set by so-called low-momentum interactions generated through the application of renormalization group techniques. These soft-core vacuum potentials are used as a step-stone of a long-term strategy which connects modern many-body techniques and EDF methods. We provide guidelines for designing several non-empirical models that include in-medium many-body effects at various levels of approximation, and can be handled in state-of-the art nuclear structure codes. In the present work, the first step is initiated through the adjustment of an operator representation of low-momentum vacuum interactions using a custom-designed parallel evolutionary algorithm. The first results highlight the possibility to grasp most of the relevant physics for low-energy nuclear structure using this numerically convenient Gaussian vertex. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle bringing about opportunity for industrial structure conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three facilities of nuclear fuel cycle, that is, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing and low level radioactive waste storage and burying, are being constructed by electric power industry in Rokkasho Village, Kamikita County, Aomori Prefecture. These are the large scale project of the total investment of 1.2 trillion yen. It is expected that the promotion of this project exerts not a little effect to the social economy of the surrounding districts. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, carried out the social environment survey on the location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In this report, the outline of the economical pervasive effect due to the construction and operation of the three facilities in the report of this survey is described. The method of survey and the organization, the outline of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the economical pervasive effect, the effect to the local social structure, and the direction of arranging occupation, residence and leisure accompanying the location of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Navratil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Calci, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in {\\em ab initio} nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches - built upon the No-Core Shell Model - that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the $^6$He halo nucleus, of five- and six...

  15. Prestressed concrete nuclear reactor containment structures. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of the techniques and procedures used for the design of prestressed concrete nuclear reactor containment structures is presented. A physical description of Bechtel designed containment structures is presented. The design bases and load combinations are given for anticipated conditions of service. Reference design documents which include industry codes, specifications, AEC Regulatory Guides, Bechtel Topical Reports and additional criteria as appropriate to containment design are listed. Stepwise procedures typically followed by Bechtel for design of containments is discussed and design examples are presented. A description of currently used analytical methods and the practical application of these methods for containment design is also presented. The principal containment construction materials are identified and codes of practice pertaining to construction procedures are listed. Preoperational structural testing procedures and post-operational surveillance programs are furnished along with results of tests on completed containment structures. (U.S.)

  16. Contemporary and perspective problems in nuclear structure investigations by electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of nuclear structure studies with electron scattering at high momentum transfers is given. Cross sections for discrete states become very small but provide detailed information about nuclear structure. Also high momentum transfers tend to increase the effects of the more exotic aspects of nuclear structure. Furthermore, attention is paid to elastic and Quasi-elastic scattering

  17. Analysis of Challenges for Management Education in India Using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ritika; Agrawal, Rajat; Sharma, Vinay; Nangia, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges for management education in India and explain their nature, significance and interrelations using total interpretive structural modelling (TISM), an innovative version of Warfield's interpretive structural modelling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach: The challenges have been drawn from…

  18. Consideration on the potential increasing risk of the proliferation of nuclear materials vs. Nonproliferation challenges from nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing Proliferation Risk in the Global Expansion of Nuclear Energy, enhancing the Security and Safety for the management of Nuclear Material (NM) is of high level of importance. It is to be noted that the IAEA has proposed the nuclear fuel cycle center concept for international management aiming at decreasing the Proliferation Risk of NM. The paper will presents some specific Security and Safety aspects need in order to apply and to improve its Nuclear Security Regime (Framework), the State Nuclear Security Risk Management associated with the transport of NM since sabotage or a malicious may happen during transport and potentially can involve the intentional increasing of the proliferation risk of such material. Such actions could result in severe deterministic health effects to population. Some additional or improved measures related to Nuclear Security, efforts to secure nuclear material and other radioactive material there will be also presented. An assessment of vulnerability of possible transport routes will be approached. It is to be noted that this paper considers some results carried out under the IAEA Scientific Research Contract on The State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework), where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). (author)

  19. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession. PMID:27195385

  20. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession.

  1. Investigation of knowledge structure of nuclear data evaluation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, investigation results of knowledge structure in a nuclear data evaluation code are described. This investigation is related to the natural language processing and the knowledge base in the research theme of Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP) begun at the Computing Center of JAERI in 1987. By using a machine translation system, an attempt has been made to extract a deep knowledge from Japanese sentences which are equivalent to a FORTRAN program CASTHY for nuclear data evaluation. With the knowledge extraction method used by the authors, the verification of knowledge is more difficult than that of the prototyping method in an ordinary AI technique. In the early stage of building up a knowledge base system, it seems effective to extract and examine knowledge fragments of limited objects. (author)

  2. Nuclear structure studies with medium energy probes. [Northwestern Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, Kamal K.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the continuing program of experimental research in nuclear structure with medium-energy probes during the year 1979-1980 is reviewed, and the research activities planned for the year 1980-1981 are discussed. In the study of pion-induced reactions emphasis is placed on investigation of isovector characteristics of nuclear excitations and on double charge exchange reactions. Pion production studies form the major part of the program of experiments with proton beams of 400 to 800 MeV at LAMPF. Current emphasis is on the bearing of these investigations on di-baryon existence. The study of high-spin states and magnetic scattering constitute the main goals of the electron scattering program at Bates. Representative results are presented; completed work is reported in the usual publications. (RWR)

  3. ISINN-3. Neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure, related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain the materials presented at the Third International Seminar on Neutron-Nucleus Interactions (ISINN-3) dealing with the problems of neutron spectroscopy, nuclear structure and related topics. The Seminar took place in Dubna on April 26-28, 1995. Over 100 scientists from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA and from more than 10 Russian research institutes took part in the Seminar. The Seminar is dedicated to the memory of the founder of the Neutron Physics Laboratory of JINR, the famous soviet scientist Professor Fedor L. Shapiro, whose 80th anniversary is being observed. The main problems discussed are the following: fundamental interactions and symmetries in neutron-induced reactions, fundamental properties of the neutron, properties of excited nuclei after neutron capture and some other ones. Special emphasis is laid upon γ decay and neutron induced nuclear fission as well as upon the methodical aspects of new experiments

  4. The application of composite structures in nuclear power plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun Young [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    With the initiation of commercial operations of Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 in 1978, Korea became the 21{sup st} country to utilize nuclear power. As of the end of 2002, eighteen units are in operation and two units are under construction. A further eight units are to be built by the year 2015. The construction time of each floor of the KSNP Auxiliary Building has taken about 120 days; the installation and removal of shoring represents over 30% of this construction time. An additional problem with this was that no other work could proceed during the concrete curing. In order to reduce the capital costs of nuclear power plants and minimize uncertainty of investors, it is important to develop a method of plant construction which can increase productivity and quality. For Shin Kori NPP Unit 1 and 2, KHNP determined that composite structures (with a non-shoring method) should be used for the entire Auxiliary Building and Compound Building. With composite structures (including the non-shoring method), the requirements of a framework system, shoring installation and removal activities are not necessary. In addition, temporary shoring materials will be reduced and more construction space, useful for lay-down of material and equipment, will be available. Furthermore, the steel beams which will support the deck-plate are used as substitutes for embedded plates. The current ACI design codes do not provide a consistent design method for composite frame structures. At the present, AISC-LRFD is the single applicable code, although it is the concrete which governs the structural behavior.

  5. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, CH-4601 Olten (Switzerland); Bichsel, Thomas [BKW FMB Energie AG, NPP Muehleberg, CH-3203 Muehleberg (Switzerland); Fassbender, Andre [NPP Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Horvath, Matthias [National Emergency Operations Centre, CH-8044 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely

  6. Automatic Dismantling Challenges in the Structural Design of LCD TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Many liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs) end up in the waste stream today. The combination of hazardous materials such as mercury and liquid crystal, and the labor-intensive disassembly of LCD TVs, make the recycling process interesting to automate. However, since there are so many manufacturers the variation of LCD TVs is high, making automation a challenge. Todays most common automatic process utilizes shredders, resulting in degradation of recycled material and possible decont...

  7. Challenges in spent nuclear fuel final disposal:conceptual design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2008-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a long-standing issue in nuclear technology. Mainly, UO2 and metallic U are used as a fuel in nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel contains fission products and transuranium elements, which would remain radioactive for 104 to 108 years. In this brief communication, essential concepts and engineering elements related to high-level nuclear waste disposal are described. Conceptual design models are described and discussed considering the long-time scale activity of spent nuclear fuel or high level waste. Notions of physical and chemical barriers to contain nuclear waste are highlightened. Concerns regarding integrity, self-irradiation induced decomposition and thermal effects of decay heat on the spent nuclear fuel are also discussed. The question of retrievability of spent nuclear fuel after disposal is considered.

  8. Seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pentti Varpasuo

    2013-01-01

    The seismic design and analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) begin with the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development for the site.The following steps are needed for the seismic hazard assessment and design ground motion development:a.the development of regional seismo-tectonic model with seismic source areas within 500 km radius centered to the site; b.the development of strong motion prediction equations;c.logic three development for taking into account uncertainties and seismic hazard quantification; d.the development of uniform hazard response spectra for ground motion at the site; e.simulation of acceleration time histories compatible with uniform hazard response spectra.The following phase two in seismic design of NPP structures is the analysis of structural response for the design ground motion.This second phase of the process consists of the following steps:a.development of structural models of the plant buildings; b.development of the soil model underneath the plant buildings for soil-structure interaction response analysis; c.determination of in-structure response spectra for the plant buildings for the equipment response analysis.In the third phase of the seismic design and analysis the equipment is analyzed on the basis of in-structure response spectra.For this purpose the structural models of the mechanical components and piping in the plant are set up.In large 3D-structural models used today the heaviest equipment of the primary coolant circuit is included in the structural model of the reactor building.In the fourth phase the electrical equipment and automation and control equipment are seismically qualified with the aid of the in-structure spectra developed in the phase two using large three-axial shaking tables.For this purpose the smoothed envelope spectra for calculated in-structure spectra are constructed and acceleration time is fitted to these smoothed envelope spectra.

  9. Challenges in ensuring radiological safety and nuclear forensic for malicious acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and other radioactive materials may get smuggled into the country aimed at malicious acts. Radioactive material detected accidentally or during inspection at the entry points/national borders may indicate illicit trafficking for the purpose of nuclear/radiological terrorism. As country requires prevention and preparedness for response to these malicious acts, nuclear forensic techniques are to be developed incorporating radiological safety aspects. Nuclear forensics helps in determining the origin, intended use, legal owner and the smuggled route etc. by using fingerprinting as well as comparison with reference data. The suggested sequence of methods for analysis of radioactive material/samples will be radiological assessment, physical characterization, traditional forensic analysis, isotope analysis along with elemental/chemical analysis

  10. The challenge to keep nuclear fusion alive as a future energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    responsibility for the future strategic electric energy provision. Although they may be sympathetic to the further development of nuclear fusion research, they do not have any interest in financial support. According to utilities operating in a liberalized market, the research and development for energy technologies must be performed by the manufacturers; if these develop an interesting product, then utilities may buy it. Manufacturers in turn consider the payback time of fusion research and development investments too large to put much money into it. Public funding therefore remains the only option for the next few decades. But strangely enough, regardless of the requirements for a long-term energy policy, policy makers also concentrate on short-term returns. Everybody is blinded by the current cheapness of energy. Utilities will only buy fusion plants if they are competitive. The initial investment cost should therefore be reasonable, the construction time limited, and the availability for operation sufficiently high. Present-day cost estimates for fusion power plants carry little weight; they merely serve to indicate the weak spots in present-day designs. However, there is no doubt that the future fusion reactor must become much simpler and more robust than present-day experiments. Future competitiveness of fusion plants will largely depend on the price of other energy sources. Time works in the right direction for fusion: the other sources will become more expensive, and present-day sophisticated technologies characteristic for fusion (superconductivity, remote handling, etc) will by that time have become daily technologies at a reasonable cost. Fusion may succeed in developing a good electricity generating product for the second half of the 21st century. The major challenge consists of finding sufficient financial funding for the continued development of fusion research. (author)

  11. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed

  12. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed.

  13. Reinforcement course 2013. Challenges at the operation end of nuclear power plants; Vertiefungskurs 2013. Herausforderungen am Betriebsende von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Matthias [Nuklearforum Schweiz/Forum nucleaire suisse, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    The reinforcement course 2013 of the Nuclear Forum in Switzerland dedicated itself to the question, of which challenges are implicated by decommissioning and dismantling nuclear power plants. The course has been divided into 4 blocks, discussing concepts regarding decommissioning, special points such as organisational or psychological aspects as well as juridical and practical questions. Around 140 persons accepted the invitation of the committee for educational questions under the patronage of Urs Weidmann, head of the nuclear power plant Beznau. Altogether 17 presentations dealt with the following topics: 'Strategies and Steps of Decommissioning' by Roger Lundmark, 'Decommissioning from the Perspective of the Swiss Regulatory Authority' by Hannes Haenggi, 'Operating Period Management Using the Example of the Nuclear Power Plant Leibstadt' by Johannis Noeggerath, 'Questions and Concepts from the Perspective of a Nuclear Power Plant Operator' by Roland Schmidiger, 'Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK' by Andrew Munro, 'Practical experiences of transferring nuclear power plants from operating to out of operation' by Gerd Reinstrom, 'Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities: From the Pilot Scheme to Industrialized Disassembling' by Anke Traichel and Thomas Seipolt, 'Organisational challenges: From Decommissioning Strategy to Decommissioning Targets' by Michael Kruse, Anton von Gunten, Julia Heizinger, Joerg Sokoll, 'Knowing That and Knowing How - Motivational Aspects of Safety-Related Knowledge Management for the Post-Operational phase and dismantling' by Frank Ritz, 'The Juridical Frame of Decommissioning' by Peter Koch, 'The Path to the Decommissioning Order and its Guidelines Ensi-G17' by Torsten Krietsch, 'Requirements for a Safe and Economical Decommissioning From the Perspective of the Operator' by Anton Von Gunten, Michael Kruse, Thomas

  14. Molecular structure and biological function of proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the core component of replication complex in eukaryote.As a processive factor of DNA polymerase delta, PCNA coordinates the replication process by interacting with various replication proteins. PCNA appears to play an essential role in many cell events, such as DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, through the coordination or organization of different partners. PCNA is an essential factor in cell proliferation, and has clinical significance in tumor research. In this article we review the functional structure of PCNA, which acts as a function switch in different cell events.

  15. Grain boundary engineering for structure materials of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L.; Allen, T. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Grain boundary engineering (GBE), primarily implemented by thermomechanical processing, is an effective and economical method of enhancing the properties of polycrystalline materials. Among the factors affecting grain boundary character distribution, literature data showed definitive effect of grain size and texture. GBE is more effective for austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys compared to other structural materials of nuclear reactors, such as refractory metals, ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels, and Zr alloys. GBE has shown beneficial effects on improving the strength, creep strength, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking and oxidation of austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys.

  16. Nuclear effects in F_3 structure function of nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2007-01-01

    We study nuclear effects in the $F^A_3(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino reactions on iron by using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral functions in the nucleus. The results for the ratio $R(x,Q^2)=\\frac{F^A_3(x,Q^2)}{AF^N_3(x, Q^2)}$ and the Gross-Llewellyn Smith(GLS) integral $G(x,Q^2)=\\int_x^1 dx F^A_3(x,Q^2)$ in nuclei are discussed and compared with the recent results available in literature from theoretical and phenomenological analyses of experimental data.

  17. Welding machine and welding process for nuclear fuel assembly structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The welding device comprises a mounting jig which receives the guide tubes and the assembly supporting structures in the desired spatial orientation. It also comprises a welding head which can travel on rails along the length of the guide tubes and has at least a welding spring chuck movable in two axes and rotatable relative to the welding machine; the spring chuck can pass between two adjacent tube rows and takes a tubes where a weld is necessary. The welding spring chuck can apply spot-welding pulses. This is used for the assembly of guide tubes and bundles for water-cooled nuclear reactors

  18. Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Roles, responsibilities, crisis management and challenges in Norwegian nuclear and radiological preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Crisis Committee for Nuclear and Radiological Preparedness initiated a project to assess the current national preparedness regarding nuclear and radiological emergencies. The purpose of the project was to make recommendations on how to further develop the Norwegian nuclear and radiological preparedness. The Crisis Committee outlines in this report the most important areas in the further development of Norway's nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness. (Author)

  19. Book review: challenging the idea of ‘carbon-free’ nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The disaster at Fukushima last year reignited the nuclear debate and left many wondering if the risks involved in nuclear power were worth the benefits. What Will Work? delves even deeper into the issue by questioning the validity of nuclear power’s supposed cost-free and carbon-free advantages. Maria Carvalho thinks the book provides an illuminating analysis on a rather opaque and technocratic industry. What Will Work? Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power. Kri...

  20. Challenges predicting ligand-receptor interactions of promiscuous proteins: the nuclear receptor PXR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of some genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification and apoptosis is performed via the human pregnane X receptor (PXR which in turn is activated by structurally diverse agonists including steroid hormones. Activation of PXR has the potential to initiate adverse effects, altering drug pharmacokinetics or perturbing physiological processes. Reliable computational prediction of PXR agonists would be valuable for pharmaceutical and toxicological research. There has been limited success with structure-based modeling approaches to predict human PXR activators. Slightly better success has been achieved with ligand-based modeling methods including quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR analysis, pharmacophore modeling and machine learning. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis focused on prediction of 115 steroids for ligand binding activity towards human PXR. Six crystal structures were used as templates for docking and ligand-based modeling approaches (two-, three-, four- and five-dimensional analyses. The best success at external prediction was achieved with 5D-QSAR. Bayesian models with FCFP_6 descriptors were validated after leaving a large percentage of the dataset out and using an external test set. Docking of ligands to the PXR structure co-crystallized with hyperforin had the best statistics for this method. Sulfated steroids (which are activators were consistently predicted as non-activators while, poorly predicted steroids were docked in a reverse mode compared to 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol. Modeling of human PXR represents a complex challenge by virtue of the large, flexible ligand-binding cavity. This study emphasizes this aspect, illustrating modest success using the largest quantitative data set to date and multiple modeling approaches.

  1. Structuring diabetes care in general practices: many improvements, remaining challenges.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    2009-08-07

    BACKGROUND: For people with type 2 diabetes to enjoy improved longevity and quality of life, care needs to be organised in a systematic way. AIM: To test if processes and intermediate outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes changed with the move to structured care in general practice shared with secondary care. METHODS: An audit of process and intermediate outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes before and after the change to structured care in 10 Dublin general practices shared with secondary care four years on. RESULTS: Structured diabetes care in general practice has led to more dedicated clinics improved processes of care and increased access to multidisciplinary expertise. Improvement in blood pressure control, the use of aspirin and the use of lipid lowering agents indicate a significant decrease in absolute risk of vascular events for this population. CONCLUSIONS: Structured care in general practice improves intermediate outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes. Further improvements need to be made to reach international targets.

  2. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Nuclear fusion: sixty years of efforts, great advances and challenges. May nuclear fusion replace fossil energies? The Grail which makes start-ups dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first article proposes an overview of sixty years of researches, investments and realisations aimed at a better knowledge and control of nuclear fusion to solve the Planet's energy problems. After a brief overview of the Sun as an example, and while presenting the principle of magnetic fusion in a tokamak, some key figures illustration the development of ITER, the authors describe magnetic fusion as the royal road to nuclear fusion (challenges for the ITER project, development of Stellarator as a concurrent of tokamaks), and inertial fusion as an alternate approach (principle, military interest, plasma physics). They also indicate other approaches based on a change of energy source, a change in ignition process, or a change in fuel. In a second article, the author discusses the economic perspectives of nuclear fusion: a supposed unlimited fuel, existence of radioactive releases and pollution, operation risks and costs, technical challenges to be faced, a development to be amortised on more than a century except if more compact processes are elaborated and developed. The author also discusses issues of profitability and of proliferation. The third and last article comments the existence of many start-ups, notably financed by Silicon Valley rich companies, which invest in researches and projects on nuclear fusion. They try to develop more compact systems, and aim at manufacturing their first prototypes by 2020. On the other side, academics remain doubtful about their ability to reach their objectives

  5. The role of tacit knowledge and the challenges in transferring it in the nuclear power plant context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explicit knowledge and implementation of proper IT systems have been of concern of many organizations which recognize the importance of managing knowledge for safety operation and sustainable competitive advantage. Data and document management systems have been implemented to capture, store and distribute explicit knowledge. However, recently also awareness of the existence of tacit knowledge in organizations has arisen. What kind of role this undocumented knowledge, which the employees have acquired through their careers, plays in nuclear power plant context? This paper explores the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges related to its transfer at the two Finnish nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Biophysics and Structure to Counter Threats and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Margaris, Manolia

    2013-01-01

    This ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who span virology, biology, biophysics, chemistry, physics and engineering.  Prominent lecturers representing world renowned scientists from nine (9) different countries, and students from around the world representing eighteen (18) countries, participated in the ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU).   The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting chemical and bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments and improved energy sources, and help propel development in NATO partner countries.  At the end of the ASI students had an appreciation of how to apply each technique to their own particular research problem and to demonstrate that multifaceted approaches and new technologies are needed to solve the biological challenges of our time.  The course...

  7. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by

  8. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  9. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including

  10. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  11. Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for basic and applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and scope of the Nuclear Data Project are sketched. Then the format and contents of the computer-based Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File are reviewed. As of 1 January 1977, the data file contained 5322 data sets

  12. Asset Securitization and Structured Financing; Future Prospects and Challenges for Countries in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshman Alles

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the issues and challenges involved for institutions, policy makers, and law-makers in less developed countries in their efforts to implement asset securitization techniques in their financial markets. Challenges and issues in the areas of market development, legislation, accounting, regulation and structuring are examined in the light of recent developments in securitization techniques.

  13. Nuclear structure studies at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics using gamma detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Banerjee

    2001-07-01

    In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy, carried out at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in the recent past, using heavy-ion projectiles from the pelletron accelerator centres in the country and multi-detector arrays have yielded significant data on the structure of a large number of nuclei spanning different mass regions. The experiments included the study of two-fold -coincidence events for establishing decay schemes, directional correlation of oriented nuclei (DCO) for help in spin assignments and Doppler shift attenuation for lifetime information. The studies have led to the observation of rotational sequences of states in nuclei near closed shell in the mass = 110 region, vibrational spectra in nuclei with ∼ 60, interplay between single-particle and collective modes of excitation in the doubly-odd bromine isotopes, decoupled bands with large quadrupole deformation in 77Br, shape transition with rotational frequency within a band in 138Pm and octupole collectivity in 153Eu. Particle-rotor-model and cranked-shell-model calculations have been carried out to provide an understanding of the underlying nuclear structure

  14. The challenges of upgrading and diversifying Vietnam's industrial structure

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2010-01-01

    This research attempts to look into how the weaknesses and shortcomings in soft and hard infrastructure have been the obstacles to the upgrading and diversification of industrial structure in Viet Nam. It is important to overview the status of key industries before examining what elements of soft and hard infrastructure pose problems to firms in these industries. A survey is then conducted to determine the impacts of those elements. It is well documented that though achieving high performance...

  15. General utility computer programs for nuclear structure experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear codes package contains several theory programs which allow the calculation of many quantities needed in nuclear structure experiments. These codes were initially created to be run on Vax Machines. Therefore, many errors result at their compilation on Linux Machines. We fixed these errors and verified the result with input parameters that generate known output quantities. The following programs are available on the Linux network at the Department of Nuclear Physics: 1. BASS -Program to calculate fusion barriers and the limiting angular momentum for complete fusion of heavy ions, using the Bass model; 2. BM1BE2 -Program to calculate the ratio of the reduced transition probabilities: B(M1;I→I-1)/B(E2;I→I-2) = 2/2 and the mixing ratio of ΔI = 1 transitions: δ = 0.799· Eγ(MeV)· /. The Program uses the semi-classical formalism of Doenau and Frauendorf. The extension to multi-quasiparticle structures follows Radford's prescription; 3. CLEBSCH -Program to calculate the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients: ; 4. CLEB - Calculates only the following Clebsch-Gordan coefficients: and ; 5. DEDX - Based on an old Oak Ridge code, this program calculates stopping powers and ranges. It works with all chemical elements, plus the compounds ISOBUTANE and MYLAR; 6. EPSBET - The program makes conversion between Nilsson epsilon deformations and Warsaw betas, i.e. shape defined in terms of epsilons will be expanded in terms of betas. Originally written by W. Nazarewicz; 7. GOSTOP - This program allows the calculation of electronic and nuclear stopping powers. Data for the stopper material density are taken from the American Institute of Physics handbook; 8. QUAD - Program which extracts β2 and ε2 values from a given quadrupole moment Q0; 9. STIME Program to calculate stopping times for ions in materials; 10. WU - Program to calculate the reduced electromagnetic transition rates B(EL), B(ML) and the ratios B(EL)/B(EL)W and B(ML)/B(ML)W (in Weiskopf units). (authors)

  16. The role of tacit knowledge and the challenges in transferring it in the nuclear power plant context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In nuclear power plant context all the relevant knowledge should be in explicit (written) form and the documentation is controlled by legislation and official regulations. However, knowledge has also a tacit element, which is the know-how of individuals including mental models, crafts, skills, intuitions, hunches and feelings which may be very difficult or even impossible to articulate. In this preliminary study, the aim is to find out the role of tacit knowledge in the nuclear power plant context and the challenges related to it at the moment. Furthermore, the current methods and practices in use for transferring the tacit knowledge in power plants will also be examined. The study is conducted in the two Finnish nuclear power plants, in Olkiluoto and Loviisa. The data are collected in March and April 2004 by interviewing 8-10 key informants at each plant. The interviewees are mainly middle and top management with a broad and deep view on the subject. The study is planned to be followed by a 2-3 year project, in which the transfer of tacit knowledge will be examined in four cases, in which the role and transfer of tacit knowledge has been found critical. In these cases, methods for improving the transfer of tacit knowledge will be developed, piloted and evaluated. Based on the experiences from the cases, the methods will be finally applied also to other parts of the organizations. As a result of the data gathered so far, even though the emphasis of the knowledge in the nuclear power plant context was considered to be on explicit knowledge, also the role of tacit knowledge was considered important. The role of tacit knowledge was especially emphasized in knowledge related to e.g. the building process of the power plant (e.g. design bases and project know-how); the experience of using the power plants; finding the relevant explicit knowledge from the paper files; interpreting and evaluating the resonance of issues and situations; the know-how embedded in

  17. Theory of nuclear structure and reactions. Annual technical progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986), work focused on five main areas: (A) relativistic effects in medium-energy nuclear reactions; (B) the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear physics; (C) quantum hadrodynamics and relativistic nuclear structure theory; (D) structure and reaction effects in intermediate-energy nuclear reactions; and (E) weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei. Results and publications in these areas are summarized

  18. [Nuclear Structure Research] at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory: Annual report No. 27, 1 September 1987--31 August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers in the following topics: Fundamental symmetries in the nucleus; Dynamics of few-nucleon systems; Tensor forces in light nuclei; nucleon-nucleus interactions mechanisms; Nuclear structure and reactions; and Development and instrumentation

  19. An Analysis of Malaysia’s Regulatory Framework and Challenges in the Structured Product Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Eu Meng

    2008-01-01

    Structured products are becoming increasingly popular and important to the development of Malaysia’s capital market and had experience impressive growth over the last few years after it was first introduced to the Malaysian market in 2004. Like any industry in its early stage, issues and challenges are expected but for structured products, such challenges require more attention due to the complexity inherent in these instruments. This study uses a qualitative research approach in an attempt t...

  20. Data structure and software engineering challenges and improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakos, James L

    2011-01-01

    Data structure and software engineering is an integral part of computer science. This volume presents new approaches and methods to knowledge sharing, brain mapping, data integration, and data storage. The author describes how to manage an organization's business process and domain data and presents new software and hardware testing methods. The book introduces a game development framework used as a learning aid in a software engineering at the university level. It also features a review of social software engineering metrics and methods for processing business information. It explains how to

  1. Cost - The challenge for advanced materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John G., Jr.; Freeman, William T., Jr.; Siddiqi, Shahid

    1992-01-01

    Information is presented on the cost of various aircraft structures, together with methods for predicting and reducing cost. The need for the development of cost models, and of a comparative cost algorithm which could function as an engineering design tool to evaluate different design concepts, is emphasized. Efforts are underway to develop cost models that establish building-block unit cell elements that represent different material forms, geometric shapes, fabrication processes, and methods of assembly, with the purpose of expressing cost per pound or labor per pound data, with physical design and manufacture variables that a designer can visualize.

  2. A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)

  3. Direct laser writing of auxetic structures: present capabilities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxetic materials (or metamaterials) are those with a negative Poisson ratio (NPR) and that display the unexpected property of lateral expansion when stretched, as well as an equal and opposing densification when compressed. Such geometries are being progressively employed in the development of novel products, especially in the fields of intelligent expandable actuators, shape morphing structures and minimally invasive implantable devices. Although several micromanufacturing technologies have already been applied to the development of auxetic geometries and devices, additional precision is needed to take full advantage of their special mechanical properties. In this study we present a very promising approach for the development of auxetic metamaterials and devices based on the use of direct laser writing. The process stands out for its precision and complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries attainable without the need of supporting structures. To our knowledge it represents one of the first examples of the application of this technology to the manufacture of auxetic geometries and mechanical metamaterials, with details even more remarkable than those shown in very recent studies, almost reaching the current limit of this additive manufacturing technology. We have used some special 3D auxetic designs whose remarkable NPR has been previously highlighted. (paper)

  4. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draayer, Jerry P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  5. Pseudospin symmetry in nuclear structure and its supersymmetric representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-degeneracy between the single-particle states (n,l,j=l+1/2) and (n-1,l+2,j=l+3/2) indicates a special and hidden symmetry in atomic nuclei—the so-called pseudospin symmetry (PSS)—which is an important concept in both spherical and deformed nuclei. A number of phenomena in nuclear structure have been successfully interpreted directly or implicitly by this symmetry, including nuclear superdeformed configurations, identical bands, quantized alignment, pseudospin partner bands, and so on. Since the PSS was recognized as a relativistic symmetry in 1990s, there have been comprehensive efforts to understand its properties in various systems and potentials. In this review, we mainly focus on the latest progress on the supersymmetric (SUSY) representation of PSS, and one of the key targets is to understand its symmetry-breaking mechanism in realistic nuclei in a quantitative and perturbative way. The SUSY quantum mechanics and its applications to the SU(2) and U(3) symmetries of the Dirac Hamiltonian are discussed in detail. It is shown that the origin of PSS and its symmetry-breaking mechanism, which are deeply hidden in the origin Hamiltonian, can be traced by its SUSY partner Hamiltonian. Essential open questions, such as the SUSY representation of PSS in the deformed system, are pointed out.

  6. Pseudospin symmetry in nuclear structure and its supersymmetric representation

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Haozhao

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-degeneracy between the single-particle states $(n,\\,l,\\,j=l+1/2)$ and $(n-1,\\,l+2,\\,j=l+3/2)$ indicates a special and hidden symmetry in atomic nuclei---the so-called pseudospin symmetry (PSS)---which is an important concept in both spherical and deformed nuclei. A number of phenomena in nuclear structure have been successfully interpreted directly or implicitly by this symmetry, including nuclear superdeformed configurations, identical bands, quantized alignment, pseudospin partner bands, and so on. Since the PSS was recognized as a relativistic symmetry in 1990s, there have been comprehensive efforts to understand its properties in various systems and potentials. In this Review, we mainly focus on the latest progress on the supersymmetric (SUSY) representation of PSS, and one of the key targets is to understand its symmetry-breaking mechanism in realistic nuclei in a quantitative and perturbative way. The SUSY quantum mechanics and its applications to the SU(2) and U(3) symmetries of the Dirac Ham...

  7. Nuclear Safety at the Ignalina NPP. Achievements and challenges. Proceedings of the international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference was held on 8-9 April, 1999 in Vilnius. The aim of this conference - to offers specialists an excellent chance to get acquainted with Lithuania's experience and the work it has done in the area of nuclear safety. Also this conference will help to depoliticize the discussion of nuclear power plants

  8. Challenges faced by engineering services group in meeting nuclear power project targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) is an organisation building and operating nuclear power stations for which a number of different types of engineering services/activities are necessary. All these services are provided by Engineering Services Group of NPCIL. The activities and responsibilities of the group are discussed

  9. The nuclear power challenge: the role of the new Framatome ANP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power will contribute a decisive share to the future electricity supply. It meets sustainability requirements in terms of continuity of supply, resource conservation and climate protection, and recent developments in the United States are revealing clearcut economic benefits. In response to trends on the market, the merger of the nuclear activities of Framatome and Siemens to Framatome ANP early this year has created a global company. It is active in all nuclear markets, such as construction projects, upgrading, nuclear fuels and service. Three regional companies in France, Germany, and USA offer services worldwide of the four corporate divisions, i.e. Projects and Engineering, Nuclear Service, Nuclear Fuel, and Mechanical Components. The German regional company, Framatome ANP GmbH, has its head office in Erlangen and, through its subsidiaries Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH (ANF), has expertise in fuel fabrication and, through intelligeNDT Systems and Services GmbH and Co. KG, in non-destructive testing in nuclear technology and HiTec industries. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear density empirical formula of the nucleus and the nuclear effect of the nucleon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors presented a nuclear density empirical formula of the nucleus, where authors have established the connection between the nuclear density and the mean binding energy in nucleus. By using the formula, authors can get the nuclear density for various nuclei with A≥12. By means of the nuclear density model, authors calculate the nuclear effect function RA1/A2 (x, Q2). The calculated results are in good agreement with EMC experimental data

  11. The future of nuclear energy in an era of environmental crisis and terrorist challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of nuclear renaissance arose in the late 1990's against a backdrop of doubt as to whether there was any future at all for a technology once heralded as the energy of tomorrow. This pessimism was centred in Western Europe and North America, where nuclear power originated but where nuclear construction has been curtailed for two decades. On analysis, the actual cause of this hiatus has been mainly economic, market saturation and the availability of cheap fossil alternatives in an extended era of environmental laissez-faire. But, in common perception, the problem has been public acceptance. Public attitudes have, for certain, been a problem. If in America nuclear energy has faced scepticism, in Western Europe the anti-nuclear movement has become entrenched and quasi-religious. The advent of new build in America would surely have trend-setting implications for nuclear energy worldwide. But nuclear power has already been advancing, more than is generally realized, on a broad-based global plane. This distance between perception and reality bears emphasis. Western journalists and policymakers tend to assume that nuclear power has been in widespread decline. But ethno-centricity creates illusion. While people in Europe and America often debate nuclear power as if their decisions will determine the global future, nuclear energy has been expanding worldwide through the work of decision-makers elsewhere who could hardly care less about the theologies flitting through the mind of a green energy minister in Brussels or Berlin. As evidence for this broader trend, several facts and factors may be cited: Positive Trends in Consumption; Widespread Construction; Action on Waste Disposal; A Useful Political Debate; A Better-Organized Market; An Improved Context for Affirmative Decision; Constructive Integration of Environmental and Energy Policy. These favourable factors do not preclude some difficulty for nuclear power in the years ahead. These battles must be fought, for

  12. Study of the nuclear structure of 155Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 155Eu nuclide was investigated by the directional angular correlation technique following the β decay of 155Sm. The angular correlation measurements were carried out using a setup with 4 Ge detectors and a multi parametric data acquisition system. To perform the data analysis a new methodology was developed . The multipole mixing ratios of twenty sixty γ- transitions were determined. Seven of them agreed with the results of earlier angular correlation studies and nineteen obtained for the first time confirmed the multipolarity suggested in earlier electron capture studies. Besides, the spin of the level at 1106.83 keV as well as the parity of the level at 1301.41 keV have also been suggested. The nuclear structure of 155Eu was discussed successfully in terms of the single particle model using a deformed Woods-Saxon potential plus residual pairing interaction permitting the description of the rotational quasi-proton band heads. (author)

  13. Structure of nuclear transition matrix elements for neutrinoless double- decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Rath

    2010-08-01

    The structure of nuclear transition matrix elements (NTMEs) required for the study of neutrinoless double- decay within light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism is disassembled in the PHFB model. The NTMEs are calculated using a set of HFB intrinsic wave functions, the reliability of which has been previously established by obtaining an overall agreement between the theoretically calculated spectroscopic properties and the available experimental data. Presently, we study the role of short-range correlations, radial evolution of NTMEs and deformation effects due to quadrupolar correlations. In addition, limits on effective light neutrino mass $\\langle m_{} \\rangle$ are extracted from the observed limits on half-lives $T_{1/2}^{0}$ of neutrinoless double- decay.

  14. Nuclear structure of 216Ra at high spin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Muralithar; G Rodrigues; R P Singh; R K Bhowmik; P Mukherjee; B Sethi; I Mukherjee

    2012-09-01

    High-spin states of 216Ra ( = 88, = 128) have been investigated through 209Bi(10B, 3n) reaction at an incident beam energy of 55 MeV and 209Bi(11B, 4n) reaction at incident beam energies ranging from 65 to 78 MeV. Based on coincidence data, the level scheme for 216Ra has been considerably extended up to $∼ 33\\hbar$ spin and 7.2 MeV excitation energy in the present experiment with placement of 28 new -transitions over what has been reported earlier. Tentative spin-parity assignments are done for the newly proposed levels on the basis of the DCO ratios corresponding to strong gates. Empirical shell model calculations were carried out to provide an understanding of the underlying nuclear structure.

  15. Nuclear Structure of N $\\simeq$ 56 Krypton Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In view of the strong overlap in subject matter, the proposals IP-39 and 40 were considered together by the ISOLDE-Committee, and a combined investigation was suggested to be presented to the PSCC.\\\\ \\\\ First results on $\\beta$-decay properties of very neutron-rich Br isotopes (Z=35) indicate a rather smooth onset of deformation already below N=60 and the existence of a deformed N=56 subshell gap. This behaviour is in contrast to earlier observations of a sudden onset of strong deformations at N=60 for $ \\% Z ge $ 37 nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ We propose to study at CERN-ISOLDE nuclear structure properties of N=55 - 57 Kr isotopes from $\\beta$-decay of $^9

  16. Nuclear structure studies. Progress report, [1988--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.B.

    1993-07-31

    In this report, newly initiated work at the FMA is described where the use of double-sided strip detectors for charged particle spectroscopy on nuclides near the proton drip line has been investigated. Half lives for proton emitting nuclides have been determined with improved uncertainties. Several sections report on the results of studies of model parameters in the Z = 50 region for even-even nuclides, for odd-mass nuclides and for odd-odd nuclides. Other studies are reported for nuclear orientation in Br and for structure of Pr-147 which lies in a transition zone between reflection-asymmetric, spherical, and prolate nuclides. And there is a section in which the positions of the single Particle levels in the A = 100 region are discussed.

  17. Technology standards for structure, etc. concerning nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the order on technology standards for structure, etc. concerning nuclear power generating facilities. Vessels hereunder are classified into 4 kinds and tubes 3 kinds. The 1st kind of vessel includes pressure vessel, pressurizer, steam generator of reactors and others, and the 2nd kind-container and its connected vessels of reactors. The 3rd and 4th kinds contain other vessels. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th vessel; the 1st, 2nd and 3rd tube; intensity of stress; film stress; bending stress; primary stress; secondary stress; primary general film stress; primary partial film stress; peak stress; intensity of peak stress and intensity of repeated peak stress. Materials, standards of materials, examinations including drop, shock, non-breaking, supersonic waves tests, etc., structure, intensity of stress, size and others of each kind of vessels are stipulated with various graphs and tables attached. Materials, standards, structure, thickness, welding of joint, hole, flange, joint and dimension, etc. of each kind of tubes are prescribed as well. Standards and calculation of capacity of safety valves are described in detail. Pressure tests and test pieces for inspection are specified particularly. (Okada, K.)

  18. Production of photofission fragments and study of their nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission fragments of heavy nuclei (Z > 90) are neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from Zn (Z = 30) to Nd (Z = 60) with a neutron number of 45 - 90. The large neutron excess in the fission fragments under study could lead to the essential change in their structure and radioactive decay characteristics. This change will manifest itself in the appearance of new magic numbers of protons or neutrons, new regions of deformation, of new islands of isomerism. The high energy of β-decay can result in the new, much rarer, modes of radioactive decay (for example, β2n or βα). Study of the nuclear structure of fission fragments is one of the main directions of the DRIBs project, being developed in the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. The aim of this project is the production of the intense beams of accelerated radioactive nuclei in a wide range of Z and A and the study of their properties. The neutron-rich nuclei of medium mass numbers will be produced in the photofission reactions on the electron accelerator microtron MT-25. The parameters of this microtron allow to produce the high yield of photofission fragments (up to 1011s-1 at the irradiation of thick uranium target by Bremsstrahlung. The first experiments using photofission fragments were performed. The independent yields of Kr (A = 87 - 93) and Xe (A = 137 - 143) fragments at the photofission of different heavy nuclei 232 Th, 238 U, 237 Np, 244 Pu were measured. These data allows to refer about yields of the most neutron-rich isotopes. The rare mode decay, emission of delayed neutron pair (β2n), was observed at the photofission of 238 U. It is, probably, 136 Sb, the intensity of β 2n branch is about 10-3. Other experiments using neutron, gamma and laser spectroscopy methods are planned. (authors)

  19. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus

  20. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. [Summaries of research activities at Washington Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental research on nuclear structure and reactions both published and in progress is summarized. Included are fusion reactions, strongly damped heavy ion collisions, and nuclear structure at high angular momentum. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  1. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Moshe [LNS at Avery Point, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340-6097, USA and Wright Lab, Dept. of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8124 and the Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) of the Technical Design Report (TDR) (United States)

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  2. Regulatory Challenges (and Opportunities) for Countries Launching a New Nuclear Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is embarking on an ambitious programme to build four nuclear power plants to meet its future energy needs, with the first to come on line in 2017. This decision was based on a study commissioned by the UAE Government that took into account projected energy growth, impact on the environment, cost, and sustainability of energy supplies. In preparation for this project, the UAE Government worked closely with international partners and the International Atomic Energy Agency, clearly stating that the nuclear power programme is peaceful and accedes to all international instruments governing the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA milestones publication provides valuable guidance for new entrants on how to prepare for launching a new nuclear programme. Over the past year and a half, the UAE established its nuclear law and an independent nuclear regulatory body, which is currently developing regulations that govern the design, construction, commission, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, radiation protection and safeguards. The Authority is also involved in recruiting efforts to hire national and international experts to ensure adequate resources to carry out its mission. (author)

  3. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  4. Particle accelerators and nuclear energy: the challenge of reliability; Acceleradores de particulas y energia nuclear: el desafio de la fiabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucker, R.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2011-07-01

    High energy particle accelerators, that used to serve a purpose only in fundamental research, will soon be used in industrial applications of nuclear energy. In this context, they will be submitted to unprecedented (as far as such machines are concerned) reliability requirements. In order to meet them, reliability studies need to be carried out. This article describes the experience gained by Empresarios Agrupados in that field (with the Eurotrans and Ifmif projects) and presents their future activities in the framework of the Myrrha project, that is aimed at building the first ADS reactor in the world. (Author)

  5. Nuclear energy is part of the solution to meet the challenge of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published at the initiative of three scientific associations (the French, American, and European Nuclear Society), this report outlines that all low carbon energies, nuclear energy included, will be needed to struggle against climate change and to ensure the development of emerging countries. It also outlines that urgent measures are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and that nuclear energy is a proven low carbon solution which is now available at large scale. It finally outlines that every country has the right to access the largest possible portfolio of low carbon technologies to reduce CO2 emissions while reaching its objectives in terms of energy and development

  6. Structural Overview of the Nuclear Receptor Superfamily: Insights into Physiology and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pengxiang; Chandra, Vikas; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2013-01-01

    As ligand-regulated transcription factors, the nuclear hormone receptors are nearly ideal drug targets, with internal pockets that bind to hydrophobic, drug-like molecules and well-characterized ligand-induced conformational changes that recruit transcriptional coregulators to promoter elements. Yet, due to the multitude of genes under the control of a single receptor, the major challenge has been the identification of ligands with gene-selective actions, impacting disease outcomes through a narrow subset of target genes and not across their entire gene-regulatory repertoire. Here, we summarize the concepts and work to date underlying the development of steroidal and nonsteroidal receptor ligands, including the use of crystal structures, high-throughput screens, and rational design approaches for finding useful therapeutic molecules. Difficulties in finding selective receptor modulators require a more complete understanding of receptor interdomain communications, posttranslational modifications, and receptor-protein interactions that could be exploited for target gene selectivity. PMID:20148675

  7. {\\it Ab initio} nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem

    CERN Document Server

    Vary, James P; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Sosonkina, Masha

    2009-01-01

    The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several {\\it ab initio} methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The {\\it ab initio} no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds $10^{10}$ and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving t...

  8. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Chen; Dinur, Nir Nevo; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  9. Import to the inner nuclear membrane : a structural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hapsari, Rizqiya Astri

    2016-01-01

    In all eukaryotic cell, form yeast to humans, the Nuclear Pore Complexes provide the main gateway to the nuclear interior. While the transport of soluble cargo’s in and out of the nucleus is relatively well understood, the transport of membrane proteins that reside in the membranes of the nuclear en

  10. Summary. “Materials Challenges in Nuclear Energy,” S.J. Zinkle, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestovich, Kimberly Shay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Nuclear energy continues to grow in abundance and importance. It offers a future electric grid based entirely off of green energy, and it has numerous applications. Nuclear power has capabilities to desalinate water, deliver process heat or steam, affordably crack hydrogen from water, and extract unconventional fossil fuel sources. Current light water reactors demonstrate high reliability under normal operating conditions. Researchers have shown significant interest and investigating how to extend reactor lifespans and into other possible reactor designs. Further understanding of mechanisms responsible for corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, radiation hardening and degradation, and nuclear fuels innovations can lead to safer, more reliable, and cost-effective water-cooled nuclear reactors for electricity production.

  11. Nuclear technology - challenges in the 21st century. V.1: contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume covers the entire spectrum of activities in nuclear science and technology with a futuristic approach. Emphasis is given to advanced technologies under development in this field. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Opening Statement - Angel Gurria [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China. Our organization is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an ?enhanced engagement? process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come, namely, security, financing and development of nuclear energy

  13. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  14. Assessment of soil/structure interaction analysis procedures for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an assessment of two state-of-the-art soil/structure interaction analysis procedures that are frequently used to provide seismic analyses of nuclear power plant structures. The advantages of large three-dimensional, elastic, discrete mass models and two-dimensional finite element models are compared. The discrete mass models can provide three-dimensional response capability with economical computer costs but only fair soil/structure interaction representation. The two-dimensional finite element models provide good soil/structure interaction representation, but cannot provide out-of-plane response. Three-dimensional finite element models would provide the most informative and complete analyses. For this model, computer costs would be much greater, but modeling costs would be approximately the same as those required for three-dimensional discrete mass models

  15. Fragment-Based Electronic Structure Approach for Computing Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shifts in Molecular Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Joshua D; Beran, Gregory J O

    2014-11-11

    First-principles chemical shielding tensor predictions play a critical role in studying molecular crystal structures using nuclear magnetic resonance. Fragment-based electronic structure methods have dramatically improved the ability to model molecular crystal structures and energetics using high-level electronic structure methods. Here, a many-body expansion fragment approach is applied to the calculation of chemical shielding tensors in molecular crystals. First, the impact of truncating the many-body expansion at different orders and the role of electrostatic embedding are examined on a series of molecular clusters extracted from molecular crystals. Second, the ability of these techniques to assign three polymorphic forms of the drug sulfanilamide to the corresponding experimental (13)C spectra is assessed. This challenging example requires discriminating among spectra whose (13)C chemical shifts differ by only a few parts per million (ppm) across the different polymorphs. Fragment-based PBE0/6-311+G(2d,p) level chemical shielding predictions correctly assign these three polymorphs and reproduce the sulfanilamide experimental (13)C chemical shifts with 1 ppm accuracy. The results demonstrate that fragment approaches are competitive with the widely used gauge-invariant projector augmented wave (GIPAW) periodic density functional theory calculations. PMID:26584373

  16. Future challenges of regulatory bodies in sustaining the progress in nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development prospects of the nuclear industry are an important issue for all of us. The priorities of the nuclear sector change over time. Development in the field of the use of atomic energy is not possible today without appropriate measures to prevent uncontrolled use and proliferation of radioactive material, and measures for the physical protection of facilities posing a nuclear or radiation risk. At one of the early stages, considerations of State security were resolved by creating nuclear weapons. In the ensuing political confrontation, as technology evolved in the industrially developed countries, issues of secrecy and confidentiality of information became a priority. In modern society, the rights of the individual have indisputable priority, and one of the most important is an individual's right to health and to live in a safe world. Achieving this is impossible without taking measures to forestall the threat of accidents at facilities posing a nuclear or radiation risk and to prevent uncontrolled use and proliferation of radioactive material and nuclear technology. Progress in the use of atomic energy in our modern high technology society will depend to a large degree on the extent of public trust in the activities of the organizations, specialists, politicians and officials whose responsibility it is to take decisions in this area. The development of the mass media and the rise in educational standards make safety and security issues, which were previously the preserve of a narrow circle of specialists and politicians, accessible to a wide circle of people. Currently, nuclear and radiation safety and the security of nuclear material and radioactive substances (achieved using accounting, control and physical protection measures) are viewed as independent factors at a facility to prevent an accident or to contain the consequences of an accident. This differentiation is based on the difference between the means for ensuring nuclear and radiation safety

  17. Meeting the manpower challenge in the transfer of nuclear power to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the constraints to meeting projections of nuclear power's share of energy needs in the United States has been the various manpower problems, ranging from idling of construction manpower because of disruptions in the flow of materials and construction scheduling to the comptetition between various segments of the nuclear industry, government, and educational institutions for the available supply of experienced nuclear-oriented engineering personnel. Similar problems have been encountered in other countries which are presently partially dependent upon nuclear power for energy, and the competition for qualified personnel has become international in scope with considerable migrating of engineers among these nations. The global needs for staffing personnel of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities to 1990 indicate continued stress on the international technical manpower supply. When considering the manpower and training necessary for the execution of a country's first nuclear project, the burden imposed on the purchaser's organization needs to be clearly understood. The work load and the responsibilities that cannot be transferred to other organizations is usually underestimated. In assessing the magnitude of the workload, four important points should be emphasized: (1) The responsibility for the ultimate success or failure of the nuclear project must be borne by the purchaser's organization. Contractors can assume responsibility for the performance of specific tasks but not for the entire project; (2) Even in a turnkey contact, the prime contractor normally will not assume financial responsibility for the performance of the local subcontractors, whose performance must be monitored and controlled by the purchaser's organization; (3) Many areas of a nuclear project involving domestic bureaucracy, politics, regulations, etc., can be dealt with effectively only by nationals. Examples of such areas are customs clearances and import licenses, visas, housing

  18. Management of legacy spent nuclear fuel wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: the challenges and innovative solutions implemented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has operated research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site since 1947, for the purpose of nuclear energy and scientific research and for the production of radioisotopes. During the 1950s and 60s, a variety of spent nuclear fuel wastes were produced by irradiating metallic uranium and other prototype fuels. These legacy waste fuels were initially stored in water-filled fuel storage bays for a period of several years before being placed in storage containers and transferred to the CRL Waste Management Areas (WMAs), where they have been stored in below-grade, vertical cylindrical steel and concrete structures called 'tile holes'. (author)

  19. Are There Nuclear Structure Effects on the Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance and Nuclear Incompressibility near A~90?

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Y K; Howard, K B; Matta, J T; Senyigit, M; Itoh, M; Ando, S; Aoki, T; Uchiyama, A; Adachi, S; Fujiwara, M; Iwamoto, C; Tamii, A; Akimune, H; Kadono, C; Matsuda, Y; Nakahara, T; Furuno, T; Kawabata, T; Tsumura, M; Harakeh, M N; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N

    2016-01-01

    "Background-free" spectra of inelastic $\\alpha$-particle scattering have been measured at a beam energy of 385 MeV in $^{90, 92}$Zr and $^{92}$Mo at extremely forward angles, including 0$^{\\circ}$. The ISGMR strength distributions for the three nuclei coincide with each other, establishing clearly that nuclear incompressibility is not influenced by nuclear shell structure near $A\\sim$90 as was claimed in recent measurements.

  20. Are there nuclear structure effects on the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and nuclear incompressibility near A ∼ 90?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y. K.; Garg, U.; Howard, K. B.; Matta, J. T.; Şenyiğit, M.; Itoh, M.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Adachi, S.; Fujiwara, M.; Iwamoto, C.; Tamii, A.; Akimune, H.; Kadono, C.; Matsuda, Y.; Nakahara, T.; Furuno, T.; Kawabata, T.; Tsumura, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    2016-09-01

    "Background-free" spectra of inelastic α-particle scattering have been measured at a beam energy of 385 MeV in 90,92Zr and 92Mo at extremely forward angles, including 0°. The ISGMR strength distributions for the three nuclei coincide with each other, establishing clearly that nuclear incompressibility is not influenced by nuclear shell structure near A ∼ 90 as was claimed in recent measurements.

  1. Co-ordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the ninth meeting of the international nuclear structure and decay data network at Kuwait, 10-14 March 1990. The meeting was attended by 19 scientists from 9 Member States and two international organizations, concerned with the compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. The document contains a summary and the proceedings of the meeting, and in annexes, status reports of activities in nuclear structure and decay data from the participating centers. A separate abstract was prepared for one of the scientific lectures related to the topics of the meeting which is reproduced in full length. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Proceedings of the Conference on Structural Analysis and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's presented the discussion of recents research results and developments related to applications of structural mechanics and seismology to mechanical structures and to nuclear facility sites. (E.G.)

  3. Using Grand Challenges For Innovative Teaching in Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Wysession, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    An innovative approach to teaching involves using the "Big Ideas" or "Grand Challenges" of a field, as determined by the research community in that area, as the basis for classroom activities. There have been several recent efforts in the areas of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics to determine these Grand Challenges, including the areas of seismology ("Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems"), mineral physics ("Unlocking the Building Blocks of the Planet"), EarthScope-related science ("Unlocking the Secrets of the North American Continent: An EarthScope Science Plan for 2010-2020"), and structural geology and tectonics (at the Structural Geology and Tectonics Forum held at Williams College in June, 2012). These research community efforts produced frameworks of the essential information for their fields with the aim of guiding future research. An integral part of this, however, is training the next generation of scientists, and using these Big Ideas as the basis for course structures and activities is a powerful way to make this happen. When activities, labs, and homeworks are drawn from relevant and cutting-edge research topics, students can find the material more fascinating and engaging, and can develop a better sense of the dynamic process of scientific discovery. Many creative ideas for incorporating the Grand Challenges of structural geology, tectonics, and geophysics in the classroom were developed at a Cutting Edge workshop on "Teaching Structural Geology, Geophysics, and Tectonics in the 21st Century" held at the University of Tennessee in July, 2012.

  4. Artificial intelligence applications in the nuclear field: Achievements and prospects: The new challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first applications of Artificial Intelligence in the nuclear field were expert systems dedicated to off-line problems of diagnosis and maintenance. A second step aimed at solving more ambitious problems related to plant design and operation, which improved methodologies and tools. By the end of this period, new limits appeared. To solve the problems faced in the late eighties, powerful principles and methods became available. These require extensive sources. The present book describes examples of large-scale applications of Artificial Intelligence in the nuclear field

  5. Aerosol challenges to air cleaning systems during severe accidents in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of air cleaning systems may be operating in nuclear power plants and under severe accident conditions, these systems may be treating airborne concentrations of aerosols which are very high. Predictions of airborne aerosol concentrations in nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions are reviewed to provide a basis for evaluating the potential effects on the air cleaning systems. The air cleaning systems include filters, absorber beds, sprays, water pools, ice beds, and condensers. Not all of these were intended to operate as air cleaners but will in fact be good aerosol collectors. Knowledge of expected airborne concentrations will allow better evaluation of system performances

  6. Technical Challenges in the Application and Licensing of Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the modernization of existing analogue instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants through digital I&C technology, and the implementation of digital I&C systems in new plants, the industry is faced with significant challenges. These challenges appear in the form of difficulties in managing the necessarily incremental transition, highly integrated (and interdependent) architectures, the flexible configurability enabled by digital technology, and uncertainty and inconsistency in licensing digital I&C systems and equipment in the different Member States. This publication discusses 17 major issues that utilities, developers, suppliers and regulatory stakeholders need to consider, so that the industry can capture and benefit from shared experience, recent technological developments, and emerging best practices

  7. Nuclear-polarization effect to the hyperfine structure in heavy multicharged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A. V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the correction to the hyperfine structure of heavy multicharged ions, which is connected with the nuclear-polarization effect caused by the unpaired bound electron. Numerical calculations are performed for hydrogenlike ions taking into account the dominant collective nuclear excitations. The correction defines the ultimate limit of precision in accurate theoretical predictions of the hyperfine-structure splittings.

  8. The Complex Challenges of Remotely Removing Redundant Pipework and Cleaning/Remediation of Aging Civil Structures at Sellafield - 12446

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farran, Paul [Projects First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    This paper identifies how a joint Sellafield Ltd/Nuclear Management Partners Tactical Review Team and main contractor, SA Robotics, developed and successfully deployed a solution to clean and coat the wall surface of an aging structure on the Sellafield Site. This involved removal of redundant pipework from the wall, cleaning and coating of the surface using a bespoke designed robotic manipulator with various end effectors. This system was able to safely and in a controlled manner remove the pipework, clean down the wall and prime and coat it within the required programme duration which was 5 months earlier than a previous shielding only option. This was done in a high radiation field and in the challenging conditions of winter in Northern England. (authors)

  9. The Complex Challenges of Remotely Removing Redundant Pipework and Cleaning/Remediation of Aging Civil Structures at Sellafield - 12446

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies how a joint Sellafield Ltd/Nuclear Management Partners Tactical Review Team and main contractor, SA Robotics, developed and successfully deployed a solution to clean and coat the wall surface of an aging structure on the Sellafield Site. This involved removal of redundant pipework from the wall, cleaning and coating of the surface using a bespoke designed robotic manipulator with various end effectors. This system was able to safely and in a controlled manner remove the pipework, clean down the wall and prime and coat it within the required programme duration which was 5 months earlier than a previous shielding only option. This was done in a high radiation field and in the challenging conditions of winter in Northern England. (authors)

  10. Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katnam, K. B.; Da Silva, L. F. M.; Young, T. M.

    2013-08-01

    Advanced composite materials have gained popularity in high-performance structural designs such as aerospace applications that require lightweight components with superior mechanical properties in order to perform in demanding service conditions as well as provide energy efficiency. However, one of the major challenges that the aerospace industry faces with advanced composites - because of their inherent complex damage behaviour - is structural repair. Composite materials are primarily damaged by mechanical loads and/or environmental conditions. If material damage is not extensive, structural repair is the only feasible solution as replacing the entire component is not cost-effective in many cases. Bonded composite repairs (e.g. scarf patches) are generally preferred as they provide enhanced stress transfer mechanisms, joint efficiencies and aerodynamic performance. With an increased usage of advanced composites in primary and secondary aerospace structural components, it is thus essential to have robust, reliable and repeatable structural bonded repair procedures to restore damaged composite components. But structural bonded repairs, especially with primary structures, pose several scientific challenges with the current existing repair technologies. In this regard, the area of structural bonded repair of composites is broadly reviewed - starting from damage assessment to automation - to identify current scientific challenges and future opportunities.

  11. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  12. Nuclear technology - challenges in the 21st century. V.2: invited talks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the proceedings also covers the entire spectrum of activities in nuclear science and technology with a futuristic approach. Emphasis is given to advanced technologies under development and plans for the future. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  14. The nuclear symmetry energy and other isovector observables from the point of view of nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Colo', G; Paar, N

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we review some works related with the extraction of the symmetry energy parameters from isovector nuclear excitations, like the giant resonances. Then, we move to the general issue of how to assess whether correlations between a parameter of the nuclear equation of state and a nuclear observable are robust or not. To this aim, we introduce the covariance analysis and we discuss some counter-intuitive, yet enlightening, results from it.

  15. Analysis of statistical model properties from discrete nuclear structure data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firestone Richard B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental M1, E1, and E2 photon strengths have been compiled from experimental data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF and the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF. Over 20,000 Weisskopf reduced transition probabilities were recovered from the ENSDF and EGAF databases. These transition strengths have been analyzed for their dependence on transition energies, initial and final level energies, spin/parity dependence, and nuclear deformation. ENSDF BE1W values were found to increase exponentially with energy, possibly consistent with the Axel-Brink hypothesis, although considerable excess strength observed for transitions between 4-8 MeV. No similar energy dependence was observed in EGAF or ARC data. BM1W average values were nearly constant at all energies above 1 MeV with substantial excess strength below 1 MeV and between 4-8 MeV. BE2W values decreased exponentially by a factor of 1000 from 0 to 16 MeV. The distribution of ENSDF transition probabilities for all multipolarities could be described by a lognormal statistical distribution. BE1W, BM1W, and BE2W strengths all increased substantially for initial transition level energies between 4-8 MeV possibly due to dominance of spin-flip and Pygmy resonance transitions at those excitations. Analysis of the average resonance capture data indicated no transition probability dependence on final level spins or energies between 0-3 MeV. The comparison of favored to unfavored transition probabilities for odd-A or odd-Z targets indicated only partial support for the expected branching intensity ratios with many unfavored transitions having nearly the same strength as favored ones. Average resonance capture BE2W transition strengths generally increased with greater deformation. Analysis of ARC data suggest that there is a large E2 admixture in M1 transitions with the mixing ratio δ ≈ 1.0. The ENSDF reduced transition strengths were considerably stronger than those derived from

  16. The need for nuclear power. Viewpoint on the world's challenging energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the world's growing need for energy, the Royal Society and Royal Academy report proposes 'the formation of an international body for energy research and development, funded by contributions from individual nations on the basis of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or total national energy consumption'. The body would be 'a funding agency supporting research, development and demonstrators elsewhere, not a research center itself'. Its budget might build to an annual level of some $25 billion, 'roughly 1% of the total global energy budget'. If it truly wants to develop efficient and responsible energy supplies, such a body should focus on the nuclear option, on establishing a secure international nuclear-fuel storage and reprocessing system, and on providing expertise for siting, financing, and licensing modular nuclear power systems to developing nations. According to authors, who study the dynamics of energy technologies, 'the share of energy supplied by electricity is growing rapidly in most countries and worldwide'. Throughout history, humankind has gradually decarbonized its dominant fuels, moving steadily away from the more polluting, carbon-rich sources. Thus the world has gone from coal (which has one hydrogen atom per carbon atom and was dominant from 1880 to 1950) to oil (with two hydrogens per carbon, dominant from 1950 to today). Natural gas (four hydrogens per carbon) is steadily increasing its market share. But nuclear fission produces no carbon at all. Physical reality - not arguments about corporate greed, hypothetical risks, radiation exposure, or waste disposal - ought to inform decisions vital to the future of the world. Because diversity and redundancy are important for safety and security, renewable energy sources ought to retain a place in the energy economy of the century to come. But nuclear power should be central. Despite its outstanding record, it has instead been relegated by its opponents to the same twilight zone of contentious

  17. IAEA co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supporting development of structural materials for innovative nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only, full text follows: CRPs are the most durable and systematic IAEA programme implementation tool. Their objectives are defined on the basis of requests from the Member States, so they reflect real national needs and priorities. While during many years engineering activities were mainly focused on evolutionary development of existing nuclear power technologies, the last time more and more Member States are involved into innovation programmes targeting better operational parameters, optimised nuclear fuel cycles, and less radioactive wastes. Such innovative nuclear power technologies require new advanced radiation resistant materials, able to reliably operate in earlier non-experienced conditions. Particularly challenging parameters are characteristic for fuel cladding and other structural materials of fuel assemblies that undergo a combination of extreme radiation, chemical and mechanical loads. Development of these materials require considerable efforts, time and money, that brings about a need for international collaboration where the IAEA plays a considerable role. From 1993 to 2013 the IAEA has implemented a series of three CRPs on fuel modelling (FUMEX), and the joint NEA-IAEA International Fuel Performance Experimental (IFPE) Database of well-reviewed irradiation test results has been created, which aim to verify computer codes developed in different countries for analysis and prediction of fuel behaviour. Nevertheless that semi-empirical approach does not allow penetration into the unknown area of super high doses that requires experimental and theoretical simulations. Hence the IAEA initiated CRPs on accelerator simulation and theoretical modelling of radiation effects (SMoRE, 2008-2013) and on ODSS benchmarking (started in 2011). The presentation provides information about organisation and available results of these recently finished and on-going CRPs, as well as about plans for the near future. (authors)

  18. A new challenges in international cooperation. Via interdisciplinary approach towards safe nuclear industry back-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of multinational radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel repositories requires safe nuclear industry back-end. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting shared multinational repositories, based on self-organization, chaos and fuzziness concepts. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stakeholder - the national stakeholder, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in the environment, being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stakeholder consensus could be promoted by activating the international scale multilateral interactions between intra- and international stakeholders, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements - the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and systems thinking - basic prerogatives for elevating the level of mutual understanding and consensus. (author)

  19. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-12-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A {approx_equal} 182 region, structure of {sup 182}Hg and {sup 182}Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm and the anomalous h{sub 11/2} proton crossing in the A{approximately}135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier {alpha} particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4{pi} channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  20. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. [Dept. of Chemistry, Washington Univ. , St. Louis, Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A [approx equal] 182 region, structure of [sup 182]Hg and [sup 182]Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in [sup 136]Pm and the anomalous h[sub 11/2] proton crossing in the A[approximately]135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier [alpha] particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative [sup 209]Bi + [sup 136]Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4[pi] channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  1. Nuclear Power for Future Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  2. Frontiers of Nuclear Structure Physics - Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Honor of Akito Arima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, M.; Otsuka, T.; Mizusaki, T.; Yazaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Aspects of the structure of light nuclei * A frontier of shell model calculation: large-scale calculation with G-matrix interaction in middle pf-shell * Realistic large-basis shell-model calculation in the low-mass tin isotopes * Isospin symmetry breaking in light nuclei * The role of pairing in nuclear collective motion * Universal correlations of collective observables: empirical phenomenology and model interpretations * Interacting Boson Model for O(6) nuclei * Multiple Q-phonon modes in even barium nuclei * Two-phonon γ-vibrational states in deformed nuclei * Scattering of GeV electrons by nuclei * Nuclear structure experiments at CEBAF * Correlations and relativistic features in nuclear structure * Collective string-like model of baryons * Hadron-nucleon scattering lengths in QCD sum rules * Atomic yrast brands of metastable amiprotonic helium atomcules * Loosely coupling few-body systems * Nuclear spin responses in astroparticle physics * Towards extremes of nuclear states with radioactive beams * Strangeness Nuclear Physics: experimental tests of quark-based pictures * Deep hole states and hypernuclei * Simple two-body effective-interaction matrix elements and realistic microscopic nuclear-structure calculations * Signature and parity splitting in rotational bands: double minimal potential model * Search for mixed-symmetry states in O(6) nuclei * From the shell model to the interacting boson model * Optimal pair description of nuclear motions in a degenerate orbit * Some current topics in nuclear structure at drip lines * Halo structure of light neutron-rich nuclei * Nucleosynthesis in explosive hydrogen burning process * Nuclear astrophysics with secondary (radioactive) beams * Magnetic moments: A microscopic look into the nuclear structure of medium weight and heavy nuclei * Laser trapping of radioactive atoms * Chiral perturbation in dense matter and meson condensation controversy

  3. Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rocio; Stowasser, Gabriele; McGill, Rona A.R.; Bearhop, Stuart; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1.Understanding interspecific interactions, and the influences of anthropogenic disturbance and environmental change on communities, are key challenges in ecology. Despite the pressing need to understand these fundamental drivers of community structure and dynamics, only 17% of ecological studies conducted over the past three decades have been at the community level. 2.Here, we assess the trophic structure of the procellariiform community breeding at South Georgia, to identify ...

  4. Alkali metal Rankine cycle boiler technology challenges and some potential solutions for space nuclear power and propulsion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently.

  5. Theoretical Borderlands: Using Multiple Theoretical Perspectives to Challenge Inequitable Power Structures in Student Development Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abes, Elisa S.

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of possibilities and methodological considerations for using multiple theoretical perspectives in research that challenges inequitable power structures in student development theory. Specifically, I explore methodological considerations when partnering queer theory and constructivism in research on lesbian identity…

  6. Challenges in long-term operation of nuclear power plants - Implications for regulatory bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries in the past half a century. Based on this experience, many operators have sought and have received authorisation for long-term operation, whereby plant operation continues beyond the period considered in the design of the plant. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for extended service should be based on assurance of the fitness of the plant and the operator for safe and reliable operation over the entire period considered for long-term operation. This assurance may be obtained by establishment of appropriate regulatory requirements, specification of goals and safety levels and regulatory assessment and oversight of the operator's programme for long-term operation. The operators and regulators should ensure that operating experience continues to be evaluated during long-term operation to ensure that any relevant lessons are effectively applied. Other considerations for assurance of safe operation are effective management of ageing, possible need for safety improvements, application of lessons learnt from operating experience, evaluation of environmental impacts, adequate staff resources and performance, review of security at the plant, action in response to emerging issues, and openness and transparency in the transition to long-term operation. Even though most of these considerations are addressed under the regulatory framework that applies to the initial operating period, additional regulatory activities in these areas may be necessary for long-term operation. Although there can be significant differences in regulatory approaches used by different countries for evaluating acceptability of long-term operation, there is general agreement on the purposes and goals of the regulatory reviews. An authorisation of long-term operation could involve a licence renewal or a periodic safety review or an approach that melds elements of both. This report presents guidance that is intended

  7. Microscopic and bosonic descriptions of collective nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have presented two complementary pictures of bosons and fermions to describe the collective states of the nuclear system. The archetypical bosonic algebra is the original interacting boson model [1]. Without distinguishing between proton and neutron bosons, it gave rise to successful phenomenology for medium and heavy nuclei, and is built from the concept of dynamical symmetry whose genesis is a group chain. The final goal of the study of the microscopic foundations of the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) is to derive the IBM parameters microscopically, namely, from nucleon's degrees of freedom. To study them we have mainly two subjects to investigate. One is the validity of truncation of nucleon pair space from the entire shell-model space and the other is the validity of Otsuka-Arima-Iachello (OAI) mapping up to first or second order. Then we have to apply it to the realistic case. In this paper we have studied the low-lying states of rotational and near-spherical nuclei using the OAI mapping approach. The like-nucleon interacting is described by the monopole, quadrupole, hexadecapole pairing, quadrupole and hexadecapole interactions. The purpose of the present paper is to find the eigenstates of this shell model Hamiltonians in a good approximation by using the OAI mapping approach, and to carry out the microscopic calculation of the IBM based on the shell-model interaction. We have investigated whether or not the O(6) symmetry in γ-unstable isotopes appears in the microscopic approach. We use the OAI mapping approach for the present microscopic research. However, it is important to define the collective pairs within the framework of the nucleon many-body problem. Therefore we use the number-conserving Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method for determining the S pair structure. Next we determine the D pair structure by the proton-neutron Tamm-Dancoff approximation. We determine the collective pairs from the full shell model space and carry out the OAI

  8. Nucleoporins as components of the nuclear pore complex core structure and Tpr as the architectural element of the nuclear basket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Sandra; Thyberg, Johan; Björkroth, Birgitta; Rackwitz, Hans-Richard; Cordes, Volker C

    2004-09-01

    The vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a macromolecular assembly of protein subcomplexes forming a structure of eightfold radial symmetry. The NPC core consists of globular subunits sandwiched between two coaxial ring-like structures of which the ring facing the nuclear interior is capped by a fibrous structure called the nuclear basket. By postembedding immunoelectron microscopy, we have mapped the positions of several human NPC proteins relative to the NPC core and its associated basket, including Nup93, Nup96, Nup98, Nup107, Nup153, Nup205, and the coiled coil-dominated 267-kDa protein Tpr. To further assess their contributions to NPC and basket architecture, the genes encoding Nup93, Nup96, Nup107, and Nup205 were posttranscriptionally silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) in HeLa cells, complementing recent RNAi experiments on Nup153 and Tpr. We show that Nup96 and Nup107 are core elements of the NPC proper that are essential for NPC assembly and docking of Nup153 and Tpr to the NPC. Nup93 and Nup205 are other NPC core elements that are important for long-term maintenance of NPCs but initially dispensable for the anchoring of Nup153 and Tpr. Immunogold-labeling for Nup98 also results in preferential labeling of NPC core regions, whereas Nup153 is shown to bind via its amino-terminal domain to the nuclear coaxial ring linking the NPC core structures and Tpr. The position of Tpr in turn is shown to coincide with that of the nuclear basket, with different Tpr protein domains corresponding to distinct basket segments. We propose a model in which Tpr constitutes the central architectural element that forms the scaffold of the nuclear basket.

  9. Studies of nuclear structure using neutrons and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: fundamental symmetries in the nucleus; internucleon interactions; internucleon dynamics in very light nuclei; the many-nucleon problem; developments in electronuclear physics; and nuclear instruments and methods

  10. Structure and Activities of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Owunwanne, Azuwuike; Alenezi, Saud

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine in Kuwait began in 1965 as a clinic for treating thyroid diseases. The practice developed gradually and until 1981 when the Faculty of Medicine established the Division of Nuclear Medicine in the Department of Radiology, which later became a separate department responsible for establishing and managing the practice in all hospitals of Kuwait. In 1987, a nuclear medicine residency program was begun and it is administered by Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations originally as a 4-year but currently as a 5-year program. Currently there are 11 departments in the ministry of health hospitals staffed by 49 qualified attending physicians, mostly the diplomats of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations nuclear medicine residency program, 4 academic physicians, 2 radiopharmacists, 2 physicists, and 130 technologists. These departments are equipped with 33 dual-head gamma cameras, 10 SPET/CT, 5 PET/CT, 2 cyclotrons, 1 breast-specific gamma imaging, 1 positron-emitting mammography, 10 thyroid uptake units, 8 technegas machines, 7 PET infusion systems, and 8 treadmills. Activities of nuclear medicine in Kuwait include education and training, clinical service, and research. Education includes nuclear medicine technology program in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, the 5-year residency program, medical school teaching distributed among different modules of the integrated curriculum with 14 didactic lecture, and other teaching sessions in nuclear medicine MSc program, which run concurrently with the first part of the residency program. The team of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait has been active in research and has published more than 300 paper, 11 review articles, 12 book chapters, and 17 books in addition to 36 grants and 2 patents. A PhD program approved by Kuwait University Council would begin in 2016. PMID:27237444

  11. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The 11th International Seminar on Nuclear Physics was held in Ischia from May 12 to May 16, 2014. This Seminar was dedicated to Aldo Covello, who has been the promoter of this series of meetings, which started in Sorrento in 1986 and continued with meetings held every two or three years in the Naples area. Aldo's idea was to offer to a group of researchers, actively working in selected fields of Nuclear Physics, the opportunity to confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. The choice for the period of the year, Spring, as well as the sites chosen reflected this intent. The first meeting was of a purely theoretical nature, but it was immediately clear that the scope of these conferences needed to be enlarged calling into play the experimental community. Then, starting from the second meeting, all the following ones have been characterized by fruitful discussion between theoretical and experimental researchers on current achievements and future developments of nuclear structure. This may be read, in fact, as one of the motivating factors for Aldo's election as Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008 "... for his outstanding contributions to the international nuclear physics community by providing, for over two decades, a venue for theorists and experimentalists to share their latest ideas." The present meeting, organized by Aldo's former students and with the benefit of his suggestions, has maintained this tradition. The title "Shell model and nuclear structure: achievements of the past two decades" recalls that of the 2nd International Spring Seminar "Shell Model and Nuclear Structure: where do we stand?". The main aim of this 11th Seminar was, in fact, to discuss the changes of the past two decades on our view of nuclei in terms of shell structure as well as the perspectives of the shell model, which has been one of the key points in Aldo's research. This point is well accounted by the Opening Speech of Igal Talmi, one of the fathers of the

  12. Influence of the nuclear symmetry energy on the structure and composition of the outer crust

    CERN Document Server

    Roca-Maza, X; Garcia-Galvez, T; Centelles, M

    2011-01-01

    We review and extend with nonrelativistic nuclear mean field calculations a previous study of the impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on the structure and composition of the outer crust of nonaccreting neutron stars. First, we develop a simple "toy model" to understand the most relevant quantities determining the structure and composition of the outer crust: the nuclear symmetry energy and the pressure of the electron gas. While the latter is a well determined quantity, the former ---specially its density dependence--- still lacks an accurate characterization. We thus focus on the influence of the nuclear symmetry energy on the crustal composition. For that, we employ different nuclear models that are accurate in the description of terrestrial nuclei. We show that those models with stiffer symmetry energies ---namely, those that generate thicker neutron skins in heavy nuclei and have smaller symmetry energies at subnormal nuclear densities--- generate more exotic isotopes in the stellar crust than their sof...

  13. The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). Its philosophy, content and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) on behalf of international Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. For A≥44 the file is used to produce the Nuclear Data Sheets. Data for A=5 to 44 are extracted from the evaluations published in Nuclear Physics. The contents of ENSDF are briefly described as is the philosophy and methodology of ENSDF evaluations. Also discussed are the services available at various nuclear data centers and the on-line services of the NNDC. Application codes developed for use with ENSDF are described with the program RADLST used as an example. The interaction of ENSDF evaluations with other evaluations is also discussed. (author). 23 refs, 3 tabs

  14. Regulatory and industry co-operation on nuclear safety research. Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulator-industry co-operation in nuclear safety research has potential advantages as well as disadvantages. This report provides research managers in industry, regulatory organisations and research centres with information on current practices in collaborative safety research in OECD member countries. It identifies means of establishing effective industry-regulator collaboration and provides indications on how to overcome difficulties that can arise. It also advises on possible areas of concern. The report addresses in particular the issue of regulator independence, means to preserve it and ways to demonstrate it to the public while undertaking collaboration with industry. (author)

  15. Sensing and atomic-scale structure analysis of single nuclear spin clusters in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fazhan; Kong, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Kong, Fei; Zhao, Nan; Liu, Ren-Bao; Du, Jiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a crown-jewel challenge in the field of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and has important applications in chemical analysis and in quantum computing. Recently, it becomes possible to tackle this grand challenge thanks to experimental advances in preserving quantum coherence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond as a sensitive probe and theoretical proposals on atomic-scale magnetometry via dynamical decoupling control. Through dec...

  16. Nuclear Dependence in Weak Structure Functions and the Determination of Weak Mixing Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Simo, I Ruiz; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We have studied nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F^A_2(x)$ and $F^A_3(x)$ and in the extraction of weak mixing angle using Paschos Wolfenstein(PW) relation. We have modified the PW relation for nonisoscalar nuclear target. We have incorporated the medium effects like Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, nuclear binding energy, nucleon correlations, pion $\\&$ rho cloud contributions, and shadowing and antishadowing effects.

  17. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  18. Towards a consistent approach to nuclear structure: EFT of two- and many-body forces

    OpenAIRE

    Machleidt, R.; Entem, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We review the nuclear forces currently in use, i.e., the high-precision NN potentials of the 1990's and the nuclear two- and many-body forces based upon chiral effective field theory (EFT). We argue that the EFT approach is superior to any of the older schemes. Since accurate chiral forces are available now, the stage is set for microscopic nuclear structure to move into a new exciting era.

  19. Towards a consistent approach to nuclear structure: EFT of two- and many-body forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the nuclear forces currently in use, i.e., the high-precision NN potentials of the 1990s and the nuclear two- and many-body forces based upon chiral effective field theory (EFT). We argue that the EFT approach is superior to any of the older schemes. Since accurate chiral forces are available now, the stage is set for microscopic nuclear structure to move into a new and exciting era

  20. North Korea's nuclear weapons program:verification priorities and new challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Duk-ho (Korean Consulate General in New York)

    2003-12-01

    A comprehensive settlement of the North Korean nuclear issue may involve military, economic, political, and diplomatic components, many of which will require verification to ensure reciprocal implementation. This paper sets out potential verification methodologies that might address a wide range of objectives. The inspection requirements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency form the foundation, first as defined at the time of the Agreed Framework in 1994, and now as modified by the events since revelation of the North Korean uranium enrichment program in October 2002. In addition, refreezing the reprocessing facility and 5 MWe reactor, taking possession of possible weapons components and destroying weaponization capabilities add many new verification tasks. The paper also considers several measures for the short-term freezing of the North's nuclear weapon program during the process of negotiations, should that process be protracted. New inspection technologies and monitoring tools are applicable to North Korean facilities and may offer improved approaches over those envisioned just a few years ago. These are noted, and potential bilateral and regional verification regimes are examined.