DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gushchin, Artem; Ooi, Bee Lean; Harris, Pernille;
2009-01-01
In our pursuit of mixed chalcogen-bridged cluster complexes, solids of the compositions Mo3SSe6Br4 and W3SSe6Br4 were prepared using high-temperature synthesis from the elements. Treatment of Mo3SSe6Br4 with Bu4NBr in a vibration mill yielded (Bu4N)(3)([Mo-3(mu(3)-S)(mu(2)-Se-2)(3)Br-6]Br} (I). I...
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex MR Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Hassan Mostafavi
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Interpretation of MR imaging of the wrist may be difficult because of the small size of this joint, its complex anatomy, and its sometimes poorly unders-tood pathologic lesions. A recent study revealed that MR imaging of the wrist influences clinicians' diagnoses and management plans in most patients. "nWhich structures make up the triangular fibrocarti-lage complex (TFCC are not universally agreed upon. In most descriptions, however, the TFCC is composed of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC, the meniscus homolog, the ulnar collateral ligament, the dorsal and volar radioulnar ligaments and the sheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The ulnolunate and ulnotriquetral ligaments may also be considered as part of the TFCC. These structures are a complex unit that function as a stabilizing element in the pivot movement of the radius and ulna and limit the lateral deviation of the carpus. The distal radioulnar joint is primarily stabilized by the TFCC. The TFC functions as a cushion between the ulnar head and carpal bones. Many of the structures that make up the complex are connected by fibrous bands. "nThis presentation summarizes the current diagnostic criteria that can be useful in interpreting abnormalities of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC of the wrist in this difficult topic in joint MR imaging
Uranium (VI)Bis(imido) chalcogenate complexes:synthesis and density functional theory analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bis(imido) uranium(VI) trans- and cis-dichalcogenate complexes with the general formula U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 (EAr = O-2-tBuC6H4, SPh, SePh, TePh) and U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(R2bpy) (EAr = SPh, SePh, TePh) (R2bpy = 4,4'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl, R = Me, tBu) have been prepared. This family of complexes includes the first reported monodentate selenolate and tellurolate complexes of uranium(VI). Density functional theory calculations show that covalent interactions in the U-E bond increase in the trans-dichalcogenate series U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 as the size of the chalcogenate donor increases and that both 5f and 6d orbital participation is important in the M-E bonds of U-S, U-Se, and U-Te complexes.
Uranium (VI)Bis(imido) chalcogenate complexes:synthesis and density functional theory analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spencer, Liam P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Bis(imido) uranium(VI) trans- and cis-dichalcogenate complexes with the general formula U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 (EAr = O-2-tBuC6H4, SPh, SePh, TePh) and U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(R2bpy) (EAr = SPh, SePh, TePh) (R2bpy = 4,4'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridyl, R = Me, tBu) have been prepared. This family of complexes includes the first reported monodentate selenolate and tellurolate complexes of uranium(VI). Density functional theory calculations show that covalent interactions in the U-E bond increase in the trans-dichalcogenate series U(NtBu)2(EAr)2(OPPh3)2 as the size of the chalcogenate donor increases and that both 5f and 6d orbital participation is important in the M-E bonds of U-S, U-Se, and U-Te complexes.
Histological assessment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex.
Semisch, M; Hagert, E; Garcia-Elias, M; Lluch, A; Rein, S
2016-06-01
The morphological structure of the seven components of triangular fibrocartilage complexes of 11 cadaver wrists of elderly people was assessed microscopically, after staining with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Elastica van Gieson. The articular disc consisted of tight interlaced fibrocartilage without blood vessels except in its ulnar part. Volar and dorsal radioulnar ligaments showed densely parallel collagen bundles. The subsheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, the ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligament showed mainly mixed tight and loose parallel tissue. The ulnolunate ligament contained tighter parallel collagen bundles and clearly less elastic fibres than the ulnotriquetral ligament. The ulnocarpal meniscoid had an irregular morphological composition and loose connective tissue predominated. The structure of the articular disc indicates a buffering function. The tight structure of radioulnar and ulnolunate ligaments reflects a central stabilizing role, whereas the ulnotriquetral ligament and ulnocarpal meniscoid have less stabilizing functions. PMID:26685153
Chalcogenated Schiff bases: Complexation with palladium(II) and Suzuki coupling reactions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pradhumn Singh; G K Rao; Mohd Salman Karim; Ajai K Singh
2012-11-01
Chalcogenated Schiff bases of 5-chloroisatin (L1-L3), 2-(methythio)benzaldehyde (L4), 2-acetylpyridine (L5) and benzaldehyde (L6-L7) have been synthesized. Both the carbonyl groups of 5- chloroisatin appear to be reactive (noticed for the first time) for making >C=N bond, of course one at a time only. The 1H, 13C{1H}, 77Se{1H} and 125Te{1H} NMR spectroscopy have been used to establish the coexistence of two products, which were found in the ratio 53:47 (E = S), 55:45 (E = Se) and 81:19 (E = Te). The larger amount is of the one in which C=O group away from NH is derivatized. The two products are not separable. Palladium complexes (1-4) of Schiff bases of other three aldehydes were synthesized. The ligands as well as complexes were characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of [Pd(L4/L5)Cl][ClO4] (1/2) have been solved. The Pd-Se bond lengths are 2.4172(17) and 2.3675(4) Å, respectively for 1 and 2. The Pd-complexes (3-4) of L6-L7 were explored for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and found promising as 0.006 mol % of 3 is sufficient to obtain good conversion with TON up to 1.58 × 104.
Majumdar, Subhojit; Stauber, Julia M; Palluccio, Taryn D; Cai, Xiaochen; Velian, Alexandra; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V; Temprado, Manuel; Captain, Burjor; Cummins, Christopher C; Hoff, Carl D
2014-10-20
The enthalpy of oxygen atom transfer (OAT) to V[(Me3SiNCH2CH2)3N], 1, forming OV[(Me3SiNCH2CH2)3N], 1-O, and the enthalpies of sulfur atom transfer (SAT) to 1 and V(N[t-Bu]Ar)3, 2 (Ar = 3,5-C6H3Me2), forming the corresponding sulfides SV[(Me3SiNCH2CH2)3N], 1-S, and SV(N[t-Bu]Ar)3, 2-S, have been measured by solution calorimetry in toluene solution using dbabhNO (dbabhNO = 7-nitroso-2,3:5,6-dibenzo-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene) and Ph3SbS as chalcogen atom transfer reagents. The V-O BDE in 1-O is 6.3 ± 3.2 kcal·mol(-1) lower than the previously reported value for 2-O and the V-S BDE in 1-S is 3.3 ± 3.1 kcal·mol(-1) lower than that in 2-S. These differences are attributed primarily to a weakening of the V-Naxial bond present in complexes of 1 upon oxidation. The rate of reaction of 1 with dbabhNO has been studied by low temperature stopped-flow kinetics. Rate constants for OAT are over 20 times greater than those reported for 2. Adamantyl isonitrile (AdNC) binds rapidly and quantitatively to both 1 and 2 forming high spin adducts of V(III). The enthalpies of ligand addition to 1 and 2 in toluene solution are -19.9 ± 0.6 and -17.1 ± 0.7 kcal·mol(-1), respectively. The more exothermic ligand addition to 1 as compared to 2 is opposite to what was observed for OAT and SAT. This is attributed to less weakening of the V-Naxial bond in ligand binding as opposed to chalcogen atom transfer and is in keeping with structural data and computations. The structures of 1, 1-O, 1-S, 1-CNAd, and 2-CNAd have been determined by X-ray crystallography and are reported. PMID:25280113
Diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage complex injury using arthrography and MRI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Kiyonobu; Soejima, Osamu; Naito, Masatoshi [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine
2001-09-01
Twenty patients (twenty-one wrists) with chronic ulnar wrist pain who had undergone radiocarpal arthrography and MRI before arthroscopic examination were evaluated to determine the usefulness of these preoperative diagnostic procedures (arthrogrphy and MRI) for the detection of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury. Based on the arthroscopic findings, the sensitivity and specificity of arthrography were 63% and 100% respectively for detecting TFCC lesions, while they were 68% and 50% respectively for MRI. Although no significant superiority was observed between arthrography and MRI in this study, further improrumchts in the preoperative diagnostic procedures are still needed in order to more accurately detect TFCC injuries. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The complexes formed by H2CO, CH3CHO, and (CH3)2CO with 1, 2, and 3 molecules of CO2 are studied by ab initio calculations. Three different types of heterodimers are observed, most containing a tetrel bond to the C atom of CO2, and some supplemented by a CH⋅⋅O H-bond. One type of heterodimer is stabilized by an anti-parallel arrangement of the C=O bonds of the two molecules. The binding energies are enhanced by methyl substitution on the carbonyl, and vary between 2.4 and 3.5 kcal/mol. Natural bond orbital analysis identifies a prime source of interaction as charge transfer into the π*(CO) antibonding orbital. Heterotrimers and tetramers carry over many of the geometrical and bonding features of the binary complexes, but also introduce O⋅⋅O chalcogen bonds. These larger complexes exhibit only small amounts of cooperativity
Dorsal Tear of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex: Clinical Features and Treatment.
Abe, Yukio; Moriya, Atsushi; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Koji
2016-03-01
Background Several different triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear patterns have been classified through the use of wrist arthroscopy. A tear of the dorsal aspect of the TFCC has been previously reported, but it is not included in Palmer original classification. Our purpose was to describe this type of tear pattern along with the clinical presentation. Methods An isolated dorsal TFCC tear was encountered in seven wrists of six patients (three men and three women; average age was 31 years). All patients were evaluated by physical exam, X-ray, plain axial computed tomography with pronation, neutral and supination position, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with coronal, sagittal, and axial section and arthroscopy. Results The clinical findings varied and included the following: tenderness at the dorsoulnar aspect of the wrist was positive in all wrists, fovea sign was positive in five wrists, and tenderness at the dorsal aspect of the distal radioulnar joint was present in one wrist. Pain with forearm rotation was positive in all wrists. The ulnar head ballottement test induced pain in all wrists, whereas dorsal instability of the ulnar head was present in one wrist with this test. The ulnocarpal stress test was positive in five wrists. Axial and sagittal images on MRI revealed the dorsal tear in five wrists. All wrists were treated with an arthroscopic capsular repair. The final functional outcome at an average follow-up of 16.1 months was four excellent and one good wrist according to the modified Mayo wrist score. Conclusions The aim of this article is to describe our experiences with tears involving the dorsal aspect of the TFCC, which may be misdiagnosed if the surgeon is not cognizant of this injury. Type of study/level of evidence Diagnostic/level IV. PMID:26855835
On the Reduction of a Complex Matrix to Triangular or Diagonal by Consimilarity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tongsong Jiang; Musheng Wei
2006-01-01
Two n × n complex matrices A and B are said to be consimilar if S-1 AS = B for some nonsingular n × n complex matrix S. This paper, by means of real representation of a complex matrix, studies problems of reducing a given n × n complex matrix A to triangular or diagonal form by consimilarity, not only gives necessary and sufficient conditions for contriangularization and condiagonalization of a complex matrix, but also derives an algebraic technique of reducing a matrix to triangular or diagonal form by consimilarity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electronic stucture of chalcogen impurities in silicon which give rise to deep levels in the forbidden band gap of that semiconductor is studied. The molecular cluster model within the formalism of the multiple scattering method in the Xα local density approximation was used . The surface orbitals were treated by using the Watson sphere model. Studies were carried out for the isolated substitutional sulfur and selenium impurities (Si:S and Si:Se). A pioneer investigation was performed for the nearest-neighbor impurity pairs of sulfur and selenium (Si:S2 and Si:Se2). All the systems were also analysed in the positive charge states (Si:S+, Si:Se+ and Si:Se2+) and for the isolated impurities the calculations were carried out to the spin polarized limit. The obtained results were used to interpret recent photoconductivity, photocapitance, EPR and DLTS data on these centers. It was observed that the adopted model is able to provide a satisfactory description of the electronic structure of the chalcogen impurity centers in silicon. (autor)
The allylic chalcogen effect in olefin metathesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuya A. Lin
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Olefin metathesis has emerged as a powerful tool in organic synthesis. The activating effect of an allylic hydroxy group in metathesis has been known for more than 10 years, and many organic chemists have taken advantage of this positive influence for efficient synthesis of natural products. Recently, the discovery of the rate enhancement by allyl sulfides in aqueous cross-metathesis has allowed the first examples of such a reaction on proteins. This led to a new benchmark in substrate complexity for cross-metathesis and expanded the potential of olefin metathesis for other applications in chemical biology. The enhanced reactivity of allyl sulfide, along with earlier reports of a similar effect by allylic hydroxy groups, suggests that allyl chalcogens generally play an important role in modulating the rate of olefin metathesis. In this review, we discuss the effect of allylic chalcogens in olefin metathesis and highlight its most recent applications in synthetic chemistry and protein modifications.
Ugur Anil Bingol, MD; Can Cinar, MD; Neslihan Tasdelen, MD
2015-01-01
Summary: Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyonʼs canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ugur Anil Bingol, MD
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Summary: Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyonʼs canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination.
Bingol, Ugur Anil; Cinar, Can; Tasdelen, Neslihan
2015-03-01
Ganglions are the most frequently seen soft-tissue tumors in the hand. Nerve compression due to ganglion cysts at the wrist is rare. We report 2 ganglion cysts arising from triangular fibrocartilage complex, one of which caused ulnar nerve compression proximal to the Guyon's canal, leading to ulnar neuropathy. Ganglion cysts seem unimportant, and many surgeons refrain from performing a general hand examination. PMID:25878929
Initial clinical experience of MRI microscopy coil to triangular fibrocartilage complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the efficacy of high-resolution MRI using a microscopy coil at 1.5 T for diagnosing triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury, compared with arthroscopy and arthrography. All subjects were imaged in the prone position with the arm over the head. The wrist was kept in the pronation position and a microscopy coil was placed on the center of ulnar head. All MR images were obtained at 1.5 T. Two-dimensional gradient-echo (GRE), short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and fast spin echo (FSE) images of the wrist were acquired using a microscopy coil (47 mm in diameter). Eight patients with injured TFCC were studied with both arthrography and MRI, and three patients were studied with both arthroscopy and MRI. The structures of TFCC were classified into 6 regions (radius attachment, disc proper, triangular ligament, lunate-triquetral attachment, volar side radio-ulnar ligament, and dorsal side radio-ulnar ligament), and were evaluated by one orthopedics surgeon and two radiologists. It was possible to distinguish each structure of the TFCC using high-resolution MRI with a microscopy coil. The injuries were pointed out at radius attachment in 3 patients, disc proper in 4, triangular ligament in 4, dorsal side radio-ulnar ligament in 3, volar side radioulnar ligament in 7, and lunate-triquetral attachment in 7 on MRI. Using arthroscopy, injuries at lunate-triquetral attachment in 1, dorsal side radio-ulnar ligament, and triangular ligament in 3 were not observed possibly because of dorsal approach. Another TFCC injuries on MRI in 3 patients were consistent with those with arthroscopy. High-resolution MRI with a microscopy coil allowed to describe most of TFCC injuries, and to evaluate triangular ligament, lunate-triquetral attachment and dorsal side radio-ulnar ligament, which could not be observed by arthroscopy and arthrography. (author)
Arthroscopic Trans-osseous Suture of Peripheral Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear.
Jegal, Midum; Heo, Kang; Kim, Jong Pil
2016-10-01
The importance of foveal repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) on stability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) has been emphasized with increasing knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of the TFCC and DRUJ. Although both open and arthroscopic techniques have been described for improving DRUJ stability, there has been a marked evolution of arthroscopic TFCC repair technique with successful clinical outcome. Recently, an arthroscopic trans-osseous technique has been described to repair foveal tears of the TFCC. The advantage of the technique is that it allows for anatomical repair of both the superficial and deep layers. This article describes the details of this novel technique. PMID:27595945
Anion Transport with Chalcogen Bonds.
Benz, Sebastian; Macchione, Mariano; Verolet, Quentin; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan
2016-07-27
In this report, we introduce synthetic anion transporters that operate with chalcogen bonds. Electron-deficient dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophenes (DTTs) are identified as ideal to bind anions in the focal point of the σ holes on the cofacial endocyclic sulfur atoms. Anion binding in solution and anion transport across lipid bilayers are found to increase with the depth of the σ holes of the DTT anionophores. These results introduce DTTs and related architectures as a privileged motif to engineer chalcogen bonds into functional systems, complementary in scope to classics such as 2,2'-bipyrroles or 2,2'-bipyridines that operate with hydrogen bonds and lone pairs, respectively. PMID:27433964
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To compare direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography with arthroscopy of the wrist for evaluation of injury in the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Methods: Fourteen cases with suspicion of injury of triangular fibrocartilage complex were performed with conventional MR and direct MR arthrography, 10 cases were done by arthroscopy. In the direct MR arthrography, needle placement was obtained using clinical landmark under sterile technique and fluoroscopy, intra-articular injection was performed at the radius-scaphoid space with 5-7 ml 0.3% mixture of Gadolinium (0.1 mmol/ L) and saline(0.3 ml Gd-DTPA + 100 ml saline). The findings of MRI and MR arthrography were analyzed with results of arthroscopy. Results: (1) Among 14 cases with injury of TFCC, there were ulnar tear in 5 cases, radius tear in 4 cases, complete tear in 5 cases (included 2 cases with long term rheumatoid). (2) High signal intensity and isointensity signal of injury of TFCC were revealed on STIR or T2WI and T1WI respectively, normal hypointensity signal of the TFCC was partially or completely absent. Contrast media at the ulnar insertion (5 cases with ulnar tear) or radius attachment of the TFCC (4 cases with radius tear) were seen in the MR arthrography with different extent, 5 cases with complete tear showed contrast media at the both ulnar insertion and radius attachment of the TFCC. The findings of MR arthrography were well corresponded with results of arthroscopy on the lesion site, including ulnar tear in 3 cases, radius tear in 4 cases and complete tear in 3 cases. (3) Among 14 cases with TFCC, 8 cases had dislocation of radius-ulnar joint, 6 cases had bone contusion of radius or ulnar, synovial reaction was also clearly depicted on conventional MRI and direct MR arthrography in all cases. Conclusion: Compared with results of arthroscopy, direct MR arthrography can adequately reveal the injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, synoviat reaction and edema changes
Fontès, D
2006-11-01
Lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex of the wrist (TFCC) have perfectly been dismembered by Andrew Palmer and have largely benefited from progress of arthroscopy of the wrist. One distinguishes thus traumatic lesions (class 1) individualized according to their localization, central (1-A), ulnar (1-B), radial (1-D) or distal (1-C). Central lesions are classically associated to a positive ulnar variance. The clinical symptomatology evokes a meniscal like syndrome of the wrist. In case of failure of the medical treatment, it will be necessary to propose a surgical procedure guided by histopathology of the triangular complex. Thus, ulnar peripheral richly vascularized lesions (1-B) could therefore potentially heal and will have to benefit by an attempt of surgical reattachment (arthroscopic technique of Whipple, Poehling or other techniques) or by an osteosynthesis in case of fracture on the basis on the ulnar styloid process. Central fibrocartilage lesions (1-A) or radial avulsions (1-D) are less vascularized and have therefore little probability to heal; they will benefit then ideally from the endoscopic debridement of unstable flaps of the central portion of TFCC. No immobilization is required and rehabilitation is immediately undertaken. Less frequent class 1-C lesions justify in our practice a simple arthroscopic regularization, alone complete ruptures could have necessitate a direct suture. Class 2 degenerative lesions are graduated (A to E) according to evolution of the chondromalacia of the ulnar head and carpal bone, perforation of the central disc and lunotriquetral ligament degeneration. They are usually associated with a constitutional or an acquired ulnar plus variance syndrome, for example after a distal radius fracture malunion. The clinical symptomatology needs to differentiate them from the simple frequent physiological perforations after the age of 50 years. Arthroscopy will allow to regularize unstable non-vascularized lesions and to
Woo, Sung Jong; Jegal, Midum; Park, Min Jong
2016-01-01
Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability. PMID:27293286
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Toshiyasu [Fujita Health Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Second Hospital; Yabe, Yutaka; Horiuchi, Yukio; Kikuchi, Yoshito; Makita, Satoo
1996-08-01
Advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now allow for the visualization of small structures, such as the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) of the wrist. Recent investigators suggested that MRI is useful in delineation of the TFCC itself and its abnormality, and supported that diagnostic value of MRI for the TFCC tears is almost equal to those of arthrography and arthroscopy. In contrast, there were several reports that representation of the TFCC in MRI was less worth than in arthrography. Further, it was reported that MRI was not useful because abnormal findings existed at normal volunteers` wrists. Recent development of the pulse sequence is remarkable, such as gradient echo, fast spin echo and fat suppression method. However, as the previous MR studies of the TFCC mainly using conventional spin echo pulse sequence, there were a few comparison of each pulse sequence and we do not know how each pulse sequence delineates the TFCC. Therefore, we studied MRI of the TFCC using several pulse sequence in normal volunteers, and compared MR slices of the TFCC with corresponding histological sections to evaluate shape detectability of MRI. (J.P.N.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Rachathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
2016-04-15
To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)
Covalency in the f-element-chalcogen bond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ingram, Kieran I.M. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: n.kaltsoyannis@ucl.ac.uk; Gaunt, Andrew J.; Neu, Mary P. [Inorganic, Isotope and Actinide Chemistry (C-IIAC), Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2007-10-11
The geometric and electronic structures of the title complexes have been studied using gradient corrected density functional theory. Excellent agreement is observed between computed r(M-E) and experimental values in analogous {sup i}Pr complexes. Natural charge analysis indicates that the M-E bond becomes less ionic in the order O>S>S> Te, and that this decrease is largest for U and smallest for La. Natural and Mulliken overlap populations suggest increasing M-E covalency as group 16 is descended, and also in the order La
Covalency in the f-element-chalcogen bond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The geometric and electronic structures of the title complexes have been studied using gradient corrected density functional theory. Excellent agreement is observed between computed r(M-E) and experimental values in analogous iPr complexes. Natural charge analysis indicates that the M-E bond becomes less ionic in the order O>S>S> Te, and that this decrease is largest for U and smallest for La. Natural and Mulliken overlap populations suggest increasing M-E covalency as group 16 is descended, and also in the order La< Pu< U for a given chalcogen. Increased covalency down group 16 arises from increased metal d (and s) participation in the bonding, while that from La to Pu and U stems from larger 5f orbital involvement compared with 4f
Supramolecular macrocycles reversibly assembled by Te…O chalcogen bonding
Ho, Peter C.; Szydlowski, Patrick; Sinclair, Jocelyn; Elder, Philip J. W.; Kübel, Joachim; Gendy, Chris; Lee, Lucia Myongwon; Jenkins, Hilary; Britten, James F.; Morim, Derek R.; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio
2016-01-01
Organic molecules with heavy main-group elements frequently form supramolecular links to electron-rich centres. One particular case of such interactions is halogen bonding. Most studies of this phenomenon have been concerned with either dimers or infinitely extended structures (polymers and lattices) but well-defined cyclic structures remain elusive. Here we present oligomeric aggregates of heterocycles that are linked by chalcogen-centered interactions and behave as genuine macrocyclic species. The molecules of 3-methyl-5-phenyl-1,2-tellurazole 2-oxide assemble a variety of supramolecular aggregates that includes cyclic tetramers and hexamers, as well as a helical polymer. In all these aggregates, the building blocks are connected by Te…O–N bridges. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic experiments demonstrate that the two types of annular aggregates are persistent in solution. These self-assembled structures form coordination complexes with transition-metal ions, act as fullerene receptors and host small molecules in a crystal. PMID:27090355
Hess, Florian; Farshad, Mazda; Sutter, Reto; Nagy, Ladislav; Schweizer, Andreas
2012-11-01
We performed this study to investigate whether discrepancy of bilateral dorsovolar shift of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is decisive for the diagnosis of DRUJ instability. Although several cadaver studies have quantified the amount of physiological dorsovolar shift, so far, there is no reliable method of quantification of DRUJ mobility in daily practice. The aim was to describe a novel sonographic method of quantifying DRUJ instability and evaluate its reliability and validity. In this study, 40 healthy volunteers and 17 patients with complete rupture of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) underwent sonographic quantification of the grade of instability of their DRUJ bilaterally. Dorsovolar ulnar head translation relative to the distal radius was quantified by means of ultrasonography performed in a transversal plane through the ulnar head and Lister tubercle. Measurements were done while actively pressing the volar surface of the hand onto a brick 30 degrees pronated, and after lifting the hand. A quotient Q of the radioulnar distance (distance between the dorsal radius surface and the ulnar head) between the unloaded and loaded wrist was calculated for differentiation of a normal and unstable DRUJ. The Q ratio of the 17 patients with unilateral TFCC lesion was significantly different between the pathologic side and the contralateral wrist (1.19 vs. 0.54, p 0.8 was found to be a reasonable cut-off for pathologic laxity of the DRUJ with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 81%. A quotient Q > 0.8 determines instability of the DRUJ reliably. This was a level II diagnostic study. PMID:24179720
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ten healthy volunteers (4 males and 6 females, 21-27 years old mean 25.3) were included in this study. All subjects were imaged in a prone position with the arm over the head. A microscopy coil (47 mm in diameter) was placed on the center of ulna head. Two-dimensional gradient-echo (GRE) images of the wrist were acquired with TR/TE/FA=374-385/11-12/40, 1.5 mm slice thickness, and 50 mm field of view. We used two fixation tools developed for radial-deviated position'' and ''ulnar-deviated position''. Images of the subjects were obtained in three positions; radial-deviated, ulnar-deviated and neutral position. The deformation of the articular disc (length and thickness of the radial and ulnar attachments, and the mid-portion between them) of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) was measured using a personal computer (software Get Curvature Radius) and data analysis was conducted by the One-way Repeated-Measures ANOVA test. P<0.05 was set as the significant difference. All subjects were not injured at TFCC, S-L ligament and L-T ligament. The mean of radial deviation angle was 19.0±3.2 deg, ulnar deviation is 37.1±6.4 deg. The disc length on radial deviation was significantly longer than that on neutral and ulnar-deviated position. The disc at ulnar side on radial-deviated position was significantly thicker than that on neutral and ulnar-deviated position. No significant difference was observed in the size of the center of disk and radial attachment among three positions. On radial deviation of the wrist, the disc of TFCC increased in length and increased in thickness at ulnar side of TFCC, probably because the peripheral part of disc was pulled toward ulnar and peripheral directions. (author)
Chandra, Sankhabrata; Rana, Bhaskar; Periyasamy, Ganga; Bhattacharya, Atanu
2016-06-01
Here we demonstrate, compare and contrast relaxation- and correlation-driven charge migration dynamics in halogen, chalcogen, pnicogen and tetrel bonded clusters, following their vertical ionization. For this work, we have selected different isolated A-X:NH3 clusters, where A represents F, Cl, CN and NH2 substituents and X features Cl, SH, PH2 and SiH3 to exhibit specific noncovalent bonding interaction. The charge migration dynamics in these clusters is studied using the density functional theory (DFT) with the wB97XD functional and the 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. Approximately 400-600 attosecond time scale is predicted for charge migration in (1:1) AX:NH3 complexes. Effects of basis set and intermolecular distance on the ultrafast charge migration dynamics through the halogen, chalcogen, pnicogen, and tetrel bonded clusters are also discussed. This is the first report on pure relaxation- and correlation-driven charge migration dynamics in chalcogen, pnicogen and tetrel bonded clusters.
Simultaneous triangularization
Radjavi, Heydar
2000-01-01
A collection of matrices is said to be triangularizable if there is an invertible matrix S such that S1 AS is upper triangular for every A in the collection. This generalization of commutativity is the subject of many classical theorems due to Engel, Kolchin, Kaplansky, McCoy and others. The concept has been extended to collections of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces: such a collection is defined to be triangularizable if there is a maximal chain of subspaces of the Banach space, each of which is invariant under every member of the collection. Most of the classical results have been generalized to compact operators, and there are also recent theorems in the finite-dimensional case. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of triangularizability in both the finite and infinite-dimensional cases. It contains numerous very recent results and new proofs of many of the classical theorems. It provides a thorough background for research in both the linear-algebraic and operator-theoretic aspects of tr...
Chimie Douce Synthesis of Chalcogen-Doped Manganese Oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chalcogen-doped manganese oxides have been prepared by Chimie Douce redox reaction between permanganate and chalcogen element fine powder under acidic condition (pH = 1). According to powder X-ray diffraction analyses, the S- and Se-doped manganese oxides are crystallized with layered birnessite and tunnel-type α-MnO2 structures, respectively. On the contrary, Te-doped compound was found to be X-ray amorphous. According to EDS analyses, these compounds contain chalcogen dopants with the ratio of chalcogen/manganese = 4-7%. We have investigated the chemical bonding character of these materials with X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) analysis. Mn K-edge XAS results clearly demonstrated that the manganese ions are stabilized in octahedral symmetry with the mixed oxidation states of +3/+4. On the other hand, according to Se K- and Te L1-edge XAS results, selenium and tellurium elements have the high oxidation states of +6, which is surely due to the oxidation of neutral chalcogen element by the strong oxidant permanganate ion. Taking into account their crystal structures and Mn oxidation states, the obtained manganese oxides are expected to be applicable as electrode materials for lithium secondary batteries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo Sthel
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The concept of sustainable complex triangular cells may be applied to an individual of any human society. This concept was introduced in two recent articles. A case study was proposed to show the applicability of this new concept to Indian populations without contact with civilization and with a low environmental impact. Here we propose to apply this concept to a recent study, which claims that the concept of “common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. The income distribution of a country was used to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 emissions are distributed among its citizens and, from that a global CO2 distribution was constructed. We propose the extension of the concept of complex triangular cells where its area would be equivalent to the CO2 emission per individual. In addition, a new three-dimensional geometric model for the regular hexagonal structure is offered in which the sharing of natural resources (human cooperation is employed to reduce CO2 emissions in two scenarios by 2030.
Guo, Xin; An, Xiulin; Li, Qingzhong
2015-04-01
Quantum-chemical calculations have been performed for the chalcogen- and halogen-bonded complexes of F2CSe with a series of nitrogen bases (N2, NCH, NH3, NHCH2, NCLi, and NMe3) and dihalogen molecules (BrCl, ClF, and BrF), respectively. Both types of interactions are mainly driven by the electrostatic and orbital interactions. The chalcogen bond becomes stronger in the order of NCH (sp) < NH3 (sp(3)) < NHCH2 (sp(2)), showing some inconsistence with the electronegativity of the hybridized N atom. The Li and methyl groups have an enhancing effect on the strength of chalcogen bond; however, the former is jointly achieved through the electrostatic and orbital interactions, whereas the orbital interaction has dominant contribution to the latter enhancement. The halogen bond with F2CX (X = O, S, Se) as the electron donor is stronger for the heavier chalcogen atom, exhibiting a reverse dependence on the chalcogen atom with that in hydrogen bonds. The halogen bond is further strengthened by the presence of chalcogen bond in the ternary complexes. In addition, CSD research confirms the abundance of Se···N interaction in crystal materials. PMID:25797149
Congenital Triangular Alopecia
Yin Li, Vincent Chum; Yesudian, Paul Devakar
2015-01-01
Congenital triangular alopecia (CTA) also known as temporal triangular alopecia is a benign noncicatricial pattern of hair loss. It typically affects the frontotemporal region and rarely involves the temporoparietal or occipital scalp. It is a nonprogressive disorder that presents as a triangular, oval or lancet-shaped patch of alopecia. CTA can manifest at birth or develop later in life. The exact etiology of this condition remains unknown. Rarely, it may be associated with other disorders s...
Computing Cylindrical Algebraic Decomposition via Triangular Decomposition
Chen, Changbo; Maza, Marc Moreno; Xia, Bican; Yang, Lu
2009-01-01
Cylindrical algebraic decomposition is one of the most important tools for computing with semi-algebraic sets, while triangular decomposition is among the most important approaches for manipulating constructible sets. In this paper, for an arbitrary finite set $F \\subset {\\R}[y_1, ..., y_n]$ we apply comprehensive triangular decomposition in order to obtain an $F$-invariant cylindrical decomposition of the $n$-dimensional complex space, from which we extract an $F$-invariant cylindrical algeb...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Ryan K.L.; Ng, Alex W.H.; Tong, Cina S.L.; Griffith, James F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Shatin (China); Tse, W.L.; Wong, C.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Shatin (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics, Prince Of Wales Hospital, Shatin (China)
2013-09-15
This study compares the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT arthrography (CTA), conventional 3-T MR and MR arthrography (MRA) in detecting intrinsic ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears of the wrist. Ten cadaveric wrists of five male subjects with an average age 49.6 years (range 26-59 years) were evaluated using CTA, conventional 3-T MR and MRA. We assessed the presence of scapholunate ligament (SLL), lunotriquetral ligament (LTL), and TFCC tears using a combination of conventional arthrography and arthroscopy as a gold standard. All images were evaluated in consensus by two musculoskeletal radiologists with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy being calculated. Sensitivities/specificity/accuracy of CTA, conventional MRI, and MRA were 100 %/100 %/100 %, 66 %/86 %/80 %, 100 %/86 %/90 % for the detection of SLL tear, 100 %/80 %/90 %, 60 %/80 %/70 %, 100 %/80 %/90 % for the detection of LTL tear, and 100 %/100 %/100 %, 100 %/86 %/90 %, 100 %/100 %/100 % for the detection of TFCC tear. Overall CTA had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy among the three investigations while MRA performed better than conventional MR. CTA also had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying which component of the SLL and LTL was torn. Membranous tears of both SLL and LTL were better visualized than dorsal or volar tears on all three imaging modalities. Both CT and MR arthrography have a very high degree of accuracy for diagnosing tears of the SLL, LTL, and TFCC with both being more accurate than conventional MR imaging. (orig.)
Pairs of chalcogen impurities in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electronic structure of complex defects in silicon involving oxygen and sulfur (O-O, S-O and S-S), occupying different positions in the host crystal is studied. It is shown that the many-electron effects (via configuration interaction) are important to describe the correct ground state. The orbital base set is obtained through the LCAO-MO-INDO/S method. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purpose: To determine the value of applying finger trap distraction during direct MR arthrography of the wrist to assess intrinsic ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears. Materials and methods: Twenty consecutive patients were prospectively investigated by three-compartment wrist MR arthrography. Imaging was performed with 3-T scanners using a three-dimensional isotropic (0.4 mm) T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo sequence, with and without finger trap distraction (4 kg). In a blind and independent fashion, two musculoskeletal radiologists measured the width of the scapholunate (SL), lunotriquetral (LT) and ulna-TFC (UTFC) joint spaces. They evaluated the amount of contrast medium within these spaces using a four-point scale, and assessed SL, LT and TFCC tears, as well as the disruption of Gilula's carpal arcs. Results: With finger trap distraction, both readers found a significant increase in width of the SL space (mean Δ = +0.1 mm, p ≤ 0.040), and noticed more contrast medium therein (p ≤ 0.035). In contrast, the differences in width of the LT (mean Δ = +0.1 mm, p ≥ 0.057) and UTFC (mean Δ = 0 mm, p ≥ 0.728) spaces, as well as the amount of contrast material within these spaces were not statistically significant (p = 0.607 and ≥0.157, respectively). Both readers detected more SL (Δ = +1, p = 0.157) and LT (Δ = +2, p = 0.223) tears, although statistical significance was not reached, and Gilula's carpal arcs were more frequently disrupted during finger trap distraction (Δ = +5, p = 0.025). Conclusion: The application of finger trap distraction during direct wrist MR arthrography may enhance both detection and characterisation of SL and LT ligament tears by widening the SL space and increasing the amount of contrast within the SL and LT joint spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerny, Milena; Marlois, Romain [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Theumann, Nicolas [Institute of Radiology, Clinique Hirslanden Bois-Cerf, Avenue d’Ouchy 31, 1006 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bollmann, Christof; Wehrli, Laurent [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Clinique Longeraie and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Avenue de la Gare 9, 1003 Lausanne (Switzerland); Richarme, Delphine [Institute of Radiology, Clinique Hirslanden Bois-Cerf, Avenue d’Ouchy 31, 1006 Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Becce, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.becce@chuv.ch [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2013-10-01
Purpose: To determine the value of applying finger trap distraction during direct MR arthrography of the wrist to assess intrinsic ligament and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears. Materials and methods: Twenty consecutive patients were prospectively investigated by three-compartment wrist MR arthrography. Imaging was performed with 3-T scanners using a three-dimensional isotropic (0.4 mm) T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo sequence, with and without finger trap distraction (4 kg). In a blind and independent fashion, two musculoskeletal radiologists measured the width of the scapholunate (SL), lunotriquetral (LT) and ulna-TFC (UTFC) joint spaces. They evaluated the amount of contrast medium within these spaces using a four-point scale, and assessed SL, LT and TFCC tears, as well as the disruption of Gilula's carpal arcs. Results: With finger trap distraction, both readers found a significant increase in width of the SL space (mean Δ = +0.1 mm, p ≤ 0.040), and noticed more contrast medium therein (p ≤ 0.035). In contrast, the differences in width of the LT (mean Δ = +0.1 mm, p ≥ 0.057) and UTFC (mean Δ = 0 mm, p ≥ 0.728) spaces, as well as the amount of contrast material within these spaces were not statistically significant (p = 0.607 and ≥0.157, respectively). Both readers detected more SL (Δ = +1, p = 0.157) and LT (Δ = +2, p = 0.223) tears, although statistical significance was not reached, and Gilula's carpal arcs were more frequently disrupted during finger trap distraction (Δ = +5, p = 0.025). Conclusion: The application of finger trap distraction during direct wrist MR arthrography may enhance both detection and characterisation of SL and LT ligament tears by widening the SL space and increasing the amount of contrast within the SL and LT joint spaces.
The MRI diagnosis of triangular fibrocartilage complex injures in the wrist%腕三角纤维软骨复合体损伤的MRI诊断
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
万梦楠; 周胜法; 林锋; 陈久尊; 何家维; 郑显秋
2016-01-01
目的：探讨3．0T MRI在腕关节三角纤维软骨复合体（TFCC）损伤中的价值。方法回顾性分析26例TFCC损伤的MRI及X线平片、CT表现。结果26例X线检查13例阴性，5例茎突骨折，2例桡骨远端骨折，2例月骨坏死，6例尺骨径突阳性征。5例多层螺旋CT扫描，发现骨折或／和骨坏死2例。26例MRI检查中，21例诊断TFCC损伤，其中包括TFCC撕裂或穿孔8例，主要表现为在MRI脂肪抑制序列（ STIR）、2D MERGE及T2 WI上点状、条片状高信号，在T1 WI序列上呈等信号；9例腕部骨折（包括尺骨茎突5例，桡骨2例，腕骨2例）；3例三角骨或月骨坏死；8例尺桡骨或腕骨挫伤；10例腕关节腔积液。结论 TFCC形态细小而不规则，损伤时X线平片和CT检查价值有限，MRI多序列多方位薄层图像对显示其损伤及邻近骨质病变有重要价值。%Objective To investigate the value of 3.0 T MRI in triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injures in the wrist. Methods The MRI, X-ray and CT characteristics of 26 cases of TFCC injuries were analyzed retrospectively .Results Of the 26 cases with X-ray examination , 13 were negative cases , 5 ulnar styloid fracture , 2 distal radial fracture , 2 lunate necrosis and 6 positive ulnar styloid.5 cases underwent multi-slice CT scan, of which 2 cases had fracture or/and necrosis, others hadn’t ab-normal sign.Of the 26 patients underwent MRI examination , 21 cases were diagnosed as TFCC injuries including 8 cases with TF-CC tear or perforation which were mainly spotty and stripped hyperintense on MRI short time inverse recovery ( STIR ) , 2DMERGE and T2 WI and isointense on T 1 WI;9 were wrist fracture (5 ulnar styloid, 2 radius and 2 wrists);3 were triangular bone or lunate necrosis;8 were radius and ulna or wrist contusion and 10 wrist joints effusion.Bone contusion was long T 1 and long T2 , including bone fracture with bone trabecular or bone cortex breaking .Conclusion The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfirrmann, C.W.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Theumann, N.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Service de Radiologie, CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chung, C.B.; Trudell, D.J.; Resnick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Botte, M.J. [Div. of Orthopedic Surgery, Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La Jolla, CA (United States)
2001-12-01
Objective: To evaluate the dynamic morphologic changes of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) during pronation and supination of the forearm using high-resolution MR arthrography in cadavers and to evaluate the impact of these changes on the diagnostic assessment of the normal and abnormal TFCC. Design and specimens: High-resolution MR arthrography of 10 wrists of cadaveric specimens was obtained in maximum pronation, in the neutral position, and in maximum supination of the forearm. The structures of the TFCC were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and correlated with anatomic sections. The position of the forearm that allowed the best visualization of normal structures and lesions of the TFCC was determined. Results: The shape and extent of the articular disc as well as the radial portions of the radioulnar ligaments did not change with pronation and supination. The articular disc was horizontal in the neutral position and tilted more distally to align with the proximal carpal row in pronation and supination. The fibers of the ulnar part of the radioulnar ligaments (ulnar attachment of the articular disc) revealed the most significant changes: their orientation was coronal in the neutral position and sagittal in positions of pronation and supination. The ulnomeniscal homologue was largest in the neutral position and was reduced in size during pronation and supination. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was centered in its groove in the neutral position and pronation. In supination this tendon revealed subluxation from this groove. The dorsal capsule of the distal radioulnar joint was taut in pronation, and the palmar capsule was taut in supination. The preferred forearm position for analysis of most of the structures of the TFCC was the neutral position, followed by the pronated position. The neutral position was rated best for the detection of ulnar and radial detachments of the TFCC, followed by the pronated position, except for two central
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Objective: To evaluate the dynamic morphologic changes of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) during pronation and supination of the forearm using high-resolution MR arthrography in cadavers and to evaluate the impact of these changes on the diagnostic assessment of the normal and abnormal TFCC. Design and specimens: High-resolution MR arthrography of 10 wrists of cadaveric specimens was obtained in maximum pronation, in the neutral position, and in maximum supination of the forearm. The structures of the TFCC were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists and correlated with anatomic sections. The position of the forearm that allowed the best visualization of normal structures and lesions of the TFCC was determined. Results: The shape and extent of the articular disc as well as the radial portions of the radioulnar ligaments did not change with pronation and supination. The articular disc was horizontal in the neutral position and tilted more distally to align with the proximal carpal row in pronation and supination. The fibers of the ulnar part of the radioulnar ligaments (ulnar attachment of the articular disc) revealed the most significant changes: their orientation was coronal in the neutral position and sagittal in positions of pronation and supination. The ulnomeniscal homologue was largest in the neutral position and was reduced in size during pronation and supination. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was centered in its groove in the neutral position and pronation. In supination this tendon revealed subluxation from this groove. The dorsal capsule of the distal radioulnar joint was taut in pronation, and the palmar capsule was taut in supination. The preferred forearm position for analysis of most of the structures of the TFCC was the neutral position, followed by the pronated position. The neutral position was rated best for the detection of ulnar and radial detachments of the TFCC, followed by the pronated position, except for two central
Kremer, Adrian; Fermi, Andrea; Biot, Nicolas; Wouters, Johan; Bonifazi, Davide
2016-04-11
The high-yielding synthesis of 2-substituted benzo-1,3-tellurazoles and benzo-1,3-selenazoles through a dehydrative cyclization reaction has been reported, giving access to a large variety of benzo-1,3-chalcogenazoles. Exceptionally, these aromatic heterocycles proved to be very stable and thus very handy to form controlled solid-state organizations in which wire-like polymeric structures are formed through secondary N⋅⋅⋅Y bonding interactions (SBIs) engaging the chalcogen (Y=Se or Te) and nitrogen atoms. In particular, it has been shown that the recognition properties of the chalcogen centre at the solid state could be programmed by selectively barring one of its σ-holes through a combination of electronic and steric effects exerted by the substituent at the 2-position. As predicted by the electrostatic potential surfaces calculated by quantum chemical modelling, the pyridyl groups revealed to be the stronger chalcogen bonding acceptors, and thus the best ligand candidate for programming the molecular organization at the solid state. In contrast, the thiophenyl group is an unsuitable substituent for establishing SBIs in this molecular system as it gives rise to chalcogen-chalcogen repulsion. The weaker chalcogen donor properties of the Se analogues trigger the formation of feeble N⋅⋅⋅Se contacts, which are manifested in similar solid-state polymers featuring longer nitrogen-chalcogen distances. PMID:26899235
三角纤维软骨复合体的MRI 技术研究%Magnetic resonance imaging of the triangular fibrocartilage complex
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
纪涛涛; 毛传万; 王雪; 刘倩; 张瑞方; 叶信健; 严志汉; 何家维
2015-01-01
Objective To investigate the value of MR 3D fs SPGR(three-dimensional fat-suppressed spoiled gradient echo se-quence)in displaying the general structure of normal triangular fibrocartilage complex(triangular fibrocartilage disc,palm dorsal dis-tal radioulnar ligament,ulnolunate ligament,ulnotriquetral ligament,ulnar collateral ligament,extensor carpi sheath and articular disc homologues).Methods 1 5 normal adults(30 carpals)were examined withconventional sequences including axial fast spin-echo T1-weighted images (FSE T1 WI)or T2-weighted images (T2 WI),coronal fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-weighted images (FSE fsT2 WI)and coronal 3D fs SPGR.As well,3D image reconstruction was performed.Two experienced radiologists read the images with an agreement and recorded the display rate of general structure of TFCC.Results Triangular fibrocartilage disc,articular disc homologuespalm,dorsal distal radioulnar ligament,and extensor carpi sheath were totally showed on coronal and cross sections.Ulnolunate liga-ment and ulnotriquetral ligament were totally seen on the coronal plane,and the display rates on cross-section were 93.3%(28/30), 96.7%(29/30)respectively.Ulnar collateral ligament was seen on cross-section and coronal plane 83.3%(25/30),86.7%(26/30)re-spectively.Conclusion Coronal 3D fs SPGR sequence can be used as a regular sequence for observing TFCC and the surrounding lig-aments .%目的：探讨3.0T MRI 三维脂肪抑制扰相梯度回波技术(3D fs SPGR)对正常三角纤维软骨复合体(TFCC)的大体结构(三角纤维软骨盘、桡尺远端掌背侧韧带、尺月韧带、尺三角韧带、尺侧副韧带、尺侧腕伸肌腱鞘及关节盘同系物)的显示情况。方法成人健康志愿者15例(30例腕关节)，分别用轴位快速自旋回波 T1加权像(FSE T1 WI)或 T2加权像(T2 WI)，冠状位快速自旋回波脂肪抑制 T2加权像(FSE fsT2 WI)，冠状位3D fs SPGR 对30例腕关节进行常规扫描，后将3D 序列图像重建，由2
Congenital temporal triangular alopecia.
Bargman, H
1984-01-01
Congenital temporal triangular alopecia is a form of nonscarring alopecia that, as its name suggests, is present at birth. Four cases are reported. One patient underwent hair transplantation, which was successful and might be useful in other patients. Cases occurring in a father and his son suggest for the first time a genetic link.
Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers
Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin
2013-01-01
Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.
TREATMENT OF TRIANGULAR FIBROCARTILAGE COMPLEX TEAR UNDER WRIST ARTHROSCOPY%腕关节镜下治疗三角纤维软骨复合体损伤
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
米琨; 刘武; 刘鹏飞; 俸志斌; 李玉文; 惠桂生
2011-01-01
目的 探讨腕关节镜下治疗三角纤维软骨复合体(triangular fibrocartilage complex,TFCC)损伤的方法及疗效.方法 2006年1月-2008年12月,收治TFCC损伤16例.男11例,女5例;年龄25～51岁,平均32.5岁.扭伤12例,跌伤4例.左侧10例,右侧6例.病程3个月～6年2个月.主要临床症状为腕关节尺侧疼痛、无力,用力握拳和提重物时疼痛明显.尺腕应力试验阳性14例,阴性2例.术前腕关节掌屈(45.58±5.18)°,背伸(41.22±3.83)°,桡偏(17.82±2.48)°,尺偏(21.35±4.61)°,旋前(69.85±8.36)°,旋后(70.13±6.34)°.术中根据腕关节镜下观察情况,对损伤按照Palmer刨伤性TFCC分类标准进行分类并行相应治疗.其中10例Ⅰ A类损伤行清理术;3例Ⅰ B类损伤中2例行缝合修补,1例缝合失败改部分切除术;2例Ⅰ C类损伤对损伤的三角软骨盘及尺月韧带和尺三角韧带进行清创;1例Ⅰ D类损伤采取汽化修整成形术.结果 术后切口均Ⅰ期愈合,未发生关节感染及神经、血管损伤等并发症.患者均获随访,随访时间14～38个月,平均18.5个月.15例恢复正常生活、工作,无腕关节尺侧疼痛发生;1例无疼痛发生,但腕关节无力.末次随访时腕关节掌屈(50.16±6.21)°,背伸(45.37±4.65)°,桡偏(18.95±3.56)°,尺偏(26.28±5.09)°,旋前(78.87±7.69)°,旋后(76.46±8.31)°,与术前相应指标比较差异均有统计学意义(JP＜0.05).采用Green-O'Brien功能评定方法进行评定,获优9例,良6例,可1例,优良率93.75%.结论 腕关节镜下治疗TFCC损伤既能明确诊断,又能进行相应处理,且创伤小,功能恢复快,可有效避免腕尺侧疼痛的发生.%Objective To evaluate the treatment and effects of wrist arthroscopy in tear of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Methods Between January 2006 and December 2008, 16 patients with tear of TFCC were treated. Of 16 patients, 11 were male and 5 were female with an average age of 32.5 years (range, 25-51 years). Injury
Synthesized Optimization of Triangular Mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Wenqiang; YANG Wenyu
2006-01-01
Triangular mesh is often used to describe geometric object as computed model in digital manufacture, thus the mesh model with both uniform triangular shape and excellent geometric shape is expected. But in fact, the optimization of triangular shape often is contrary with that of geometric shape. In this paper, one synthesized optimizing algorithm is presented through subdividing triangles to achieve the trade-off solution between the geometric and triangular shape optimization of mesh model. The result mesh with uniform triangular shape and excellent topology are obtained.
Congenital Triangular Alopecia.
Yin Li, Vincent Chum; Yesudian, Paul Devakar
2015-01-01
Congenital triangular alopecia (CTA) also known as temporal triangular alopecia is a benign noncicatricial pattern of hair loss. It typically affects the frontotemporal region and rarely involves the temporoparietal or occipital scalp. It is a nonprogressive disorder that presents as a triangular, oval or lancet-shaped patch of alopecia. CTA can manifest at birth or develop later in life. The exact etiology of this condition remains unknown. Rarely, it may be associated with other disorders such as Down's syndrome and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis. The diagnosis is based on its distinct clinical appearance. Histologically, hair follicles are miniaturized and replaced by sparse vellus hair follicles. Tricoscopy using a polarized light handheld dermatoscope can be a useful diagnostic tool. CTA is often asymptomatic and remains unchanged throughout the life. No treatment is required. Surgical intervention with follicular unit hair transplantation can provide a satisfactory cosmetic result. In this paper, we have identified 126 cases of CTA in the published literature cited on PubMed between 1905 and 2015. From the available evidence, 79% of patients with CTA presented with unilateral hair loss, 18.5% with bilateral involvement and rarely, with occipital alopecia (2.5%). There was no gender predilection. These figures are entirely consistent with previously published data. Physicians should remember to consider CTA as a potential diagnosis in any patient presenting with a nonscarring alopecia in order to avoid unnecessary investigations and treatments. PMID:26180448
Lutz, Patricia B; Bayse, Craig A
2016-04-01
Reducible sulfur and selenium (r-S/Se) compounds, defined as sulfur and selenium compounds not in the lowest -2 oxidation state (e.g., -1 to +6), release Zn(2+) from zinc-sulfur proteins such as zinc fingers (ZFs) and metallothionein. A series of density functional theory calculations was performed on donor-acceptor complexes between r-S/Se compounds and models of the Cys2His2, Cys3His and Cys4 ZF sites. These S⋯S/Se chalcogen bonding interactions consist of the donation of electron density from a S lone pair on the ZF model to a S/Se-X antibonding molecular orbital of the r-S/Se compound. The strength of the interaction was shown to be dependent upon the Lewis basicity of the ZF model (Cys4>Cys3His>Cys2His2) and the Lewis acidity of the r-S/Se compound as measured by the energy of the S/Se-X antibonding orbital. Interactions with the softer r-Se compounds were stronger than the r-S compounds, consistent with the greater reactivity of the former with ZF proteins. PMID:26877152
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions, the correlation between triangular flow and initial spatial triangularity is studied. The triangular flow, even in ideal fluid, is not strongly correlated with the initial triangularity. The correlation is largely reduced in viscous fluid. Elliptic flow on the other hand appears to be strongly correlated with initial eccentricity. Weak correlation between triangular flow and initial triangularity indicates that a part of triangular flow is unrelated to initial triangularity. Triangularity acquired during the fluid evolution also contributes to the triangular flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A series of chalcogen esters 1a, 6a and 6b have been synthesized in a straightforward manner. Polarized-light optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that these chalcogen esters displayed a wide nematic range of mesophase. In addition, UV-Vis in solution (ca.10-5 mol L-1) was applied in order to obtain the HOMO-LUMO gap for further comparison with the theoretical results. The calculated values to the HOMO-LUMO gap are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, where the electronegativity of the heteroatom (O, S and Se) seems to play a fundamental role in the absorption maxima location. A theoretical study was performed using a DFT/B3LYP calculations with Becke's three-parameter hybrid method applying the Lee-Yang-Parr functional correlation (B3LYP) with DGDZVP basis set in order to evaluate some physical chemistry data related with mesomorphic and spectral electronic properties. By synthesizing these compounds we were able to get a more precise description about the influence of the chalcogen atom on the mesomorphic and photophysical properties. (author)
Walking Down the Chalcogenic Group of the Periodic Table: From Singlet to Triplet Organic Emitters.
Kremer, Adrian; Aurisicchio, Claudia; De Leo, Federica; Ventura, Barbara; Wouters, Johan; Armaroli, Nicola; Barbieri, Andrea; Bonifazi, Davide
2015-10-19
The synthesis, X-ray crystal structures, ground- and excited-state UV/Vis absorption spectra, and luminescence properties of chalcogen-doped organic emitters equipped on both extremities with benzoxa-, benzothia-, benzoselena- and benzotellurazole (1X and 2X ) moieties have been reported for the first time. The insertion of the four different chalcogen atoms within the same molecular skeleton enables the investigation of only the chalcogenic effect on the organisation and photophysical properties of the material. Detailed crystal-structure analyses provide evidence of similar packing for 2O -2Se , in which the benzoazoles are engaged in π-π stacking and, for the heavier atoms, in secondary X⋅⋅⋅X and X⋅⋅⋅N bonding interactions. Detailed computational analysis shows that the arrangement is essentially governed by the interplay of van der Waals and secondary bonding interactions. Progressive quenching of the fluorescence and concomitant onset of phosphorescence features with gradually shorter lifetimes are detected as the atomic weight of the chalcogen heteroatom increases, with the tellurium-doped derivatives exhibiting only emission from the lowest triplet excited state. Notably, the phosphorescence spectra of the selenium and tellurium derivatives can be recorded even at room temperature; this is a very rare finding for fully organic emitters. PMID:26471446
Zero Field Splitting of the chalcogen diatomics using relativistic correlated wave-function methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rota, Jean-Baptiste; Knecht, Stefan; Fleig, Timo;
2011-01-01
The spectrum arising from the (π*)2 configuration of the chalcogen dimers, namely the X21, a2 and b0+ states, is calculated using Wave-Function Theory (WFT) based methods. Two-component (2c) and four-component (4c) MultiReference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) and Fock-Space Coupled Cluster (FS...
Chalcogen height dependence of magnetism and Fermiology in FeTexSe1−x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The FeTexSe1−x (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1) system has been studied using density functional theory. Our results show that for FeSe, the local density approximation (LDA) seems a better approximation in terms of magnitude of magnetic energy whereas the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) greatly overestimates it. On the other hand for FeTe, GGA is a better approximation that gives the experimentally observed magnetic state. It has been shown that the height of chalcogen atoms above Fe layers has a significant effect on band structure, electronic density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level N(EF) and Fermi surfaces. For FeSe the value of N(EF) is small so as to satisfy Stoner criteria for ferromagnetism, (I × N(EF) ≥ 1) whereas for FeTe, since the value of N(EF) is large, the same is close to being satisfied. Force minimization for FeTexSe1−x using the supercell approach shows that in a disordered system Se and Te do not share the same site and have two distinct z co-ordinates. This has a small effect on magnetic energy but no significant difference in band structure and DOS near EF when calculated using either the relaxed or average value of z for chalcogen atoms. Thus substitution of Se at the Te site decreases the average value of chalcogen height above Fe layers, which in turn affects the magnetism and Fermiology in the system. By using the coherent potential approximation for the disordered system, we found that height of chalcogen atoms above the Fe layer, rather than chalcogen species or disorder in the anion planes, affects the magnetism and shape of Fermi surfaces (FSs), thus significantly altering nesting conditions, which govern antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in the system. (paper)
[Unilateral triangular lumbopelvic stabilization: indications and techniques].
Hoffmann, M F; Dudda, M; Schildhauer, T A
2013-11-01
Operative fixation has become treatment of choice for unstable sacral fractures. Osteosynthesis for these fractures results in loss of reduction in up to 15%. Vertical sacral fractures involving the S1 facet joint (Isler 2 and 3) may lead to multidirectional instability. Multidirectional instability of the posterior pelvic ring and lumbopelvic junction may be stabilized and forces balanced by a so-called lumbopelvic triangular fixation. Lumbopelvic triangular fixation combines vertical fixation between the lumbar vertebral pedicle and the ilium, with horizontal fixation, as an iliosacral screw or a transiliacal plate osteosynthesis. The iliac screw is directed from the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) to the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). Thereby, lumbopelvic fixation decreases the load to the sacrum and SI joint and transfers axial loads from the lumbar spine directly onto the ilium. Triangular lumbopelvic fixation allows early full weight bearing and therefore reduces prolonged immobilization. The placement of iliac screws may be a complex surgical procedure. Thus, the technique requires thorough surgical preparation and operative logistics. Wound-related complications may occur. Preexisting Morell-Lavalée lesions increase the risk for infection. Prominent implants cause local irritation and pain. Hardware prominence and pain are markedly reduced with screw head recession into the PSIS. PMID:24233083
Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew
2013-08-06
A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.
Use of ionic liquids in synthesis of nanocrystals, nanorods and nanowires of elemental chalcogens
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Thirumurugan
2007-04-01
Nanocrystals of elemental chalcogens have been synthesized solvothermally by using elemental chalcogen powder (Se and Te) and NaBH4 in imidazolium[BMIM]-based ionic liquids as solvents at 180–200°C. Nanorods and nanowires of Se and Te have been obtained when polyethyleneglycol was used as a co-solvent. Se nanowires have been prepared by using an ionic liquid with a small amount of water at room temperature. Sulfur microspheres have been prepared by heating sulfur powder in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and polyethyleneglycol over the temperature range 150–250°C. The nanostructures obtained are single crystalline in all the cases.
Ultrasound fields from triangular apertures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1996-01-01
The pulsed field from a triangular aperture mounted in an infinite, rigidbaffle is calculated. The approach of spatial impulse responses,as developed by Tupholme and Stepanishen, is used. By this both the emitted and received pulsed ultrasound field can be found for any transducerexcitation and...
On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections. Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.
Shukla, Rahul; Chopra, Deepak
2016-05-18
In this article, we have analyzed the nature and characteristics of PSe noncovalent interactions by studying the effect of substitution on XH2PSeH2, H3PSeHX and XH2PSeHX (X= -H, -F, -CH3, -CF3, -Cl, -OH, -OCH3, -NH2, -NHCH3, and -CN) as our systems of interest at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Binding energy calculations depict that binding energy increases in the order XH2PSeH2 < H3PSeHX < XH2PSeHX with the nature of the substituent having a direct effect on the strength of the interactions. PSe contacts as short as 2.52 Å were observed and analyzed in our study. The energy values for PSe contacts were found to exist in the range of -1.20 kcal mol(-1) to -7.89 kcal mol(-1). The topological analysis confirms the presence of PSe contacts in all the complexes with characteristics similar to hydrogen bonds. NBO analysis helped in categorizing these interactions into pnicogen and chalcogen bonds, depending on the strength of P(lp) to σ*(Se-X) orbitals or Se(lp) to σ*(P-X) orbitals. PMID:27145973
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘玉珂; 张敏; 张斌青; 郭会利; 陈伟; 杨静; 张国庆
2014-01-01
Objective To discuss the application value of weight-bearing MRI in the Diagnosis of injury of triangular fibrocartilage complex(TFCC) in the wrist. Mathods 22 cases with suspected injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex were performed with conventional MR and weight-bearing MRI. 20 cases of them underwent arthroscopy. The findings of conventional MRI, weight-bearing MRI and arthroscopy were compared and analyzed. Results In 22 cases of injury of TFCC, 17 cases showed part tearing, including ulnar tearing in 12 cases, radius tear in 5 cases. Isointensity signal and High signal intensity of injury of TFCC were revealed on T1WI and T2WI respectively, and the injury range was no more than half of the TFCC. In weight-bearing MRI GE-STIR sequence, the signal is more higher and more limited than conventional MRI, and the boundary was more clear. The signal was more higher and the surrounding soft tissue edema showed more obvious. 5 cases showed complete tearing, and the shape was irregular and the signal was heterogeneously increased in conventional MRI. The shape was more irregular and the signal was higher in weight-bearing MRI, and the surrounding soft tissue edema was more obvious. 9 cases were associated with cystic fluid in the radius-ulnar joint. 8 cases were associated with dislocation of radius-ulnar joint, and 7 cases associated with ulnar-sided wrist impingement syndromes, and 4 cases associated with bone marrow edema of radius or ulnar. Conclusion Compared with conventional MRI, weight-bearing MRI could adequately reveal the injury of triangular fibrocartilage complex, and the combination of the two methods can improve the diagnostic accuracy of injury of TFCC.%目的：探讨负重位MRI在腕关节三角纤维软骨复合体（TFCC）损伤中的应用价值。方法搜集临床怀疑腕关节TFCC损伤的患者22例，均进行腕关节常规体位和负重位MRI扫描，其中20例行腕关节镜检查，对比分析TFCC常规体位与负重位
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈爽; 徐文东; 冯晓源
2008-01-01
Objective To compare direct magnetic resonance(MR)arthrography with arthroscopy of the wrist for evaluation of injury in the triangular fibrocartilage complex(TFCC).Methods Fourteen cases with suspicion of injury of triangular fibrocartilage complex were performed with conventional MR and direct MR arthrography,10 cases were done by arthroscopy.In the direct MR arthrography,needle placement was obtained using clinical landmark under sterile technique and fluoroscopy,intra-articular injection was performed at the radius-scaphoid space with 5-7 ml 0.3%mixture of Gadolinium (0.1 mmol/L)and saline(0.3 ml Gd-DTPA+100 ml saline).The findings of MRI and MR arthrography were analyzed with results of arthroscopy.Resuits (1)Among 14 cases with injury of TFCC,there were ulnar tear in 5cases,radius tear in 4 cases,complete tear in 5 cases(included 2 cases with long term rheumatoid).(2)High signal intensity and isointensity signal of injury of TFCC were revealed on STIR or T2 WI and T1 WIrespectively,normal hypointensity signal of the TFCC was partially or completely absent.Contrast media at the ulnar insertion(5 cases with ulnar tear)or radius attachment of the TFCC(4 cases with radius tear)were seen in the MR arthrography with difierent extent,5 cases with complete tear showed contrast media at the both ulnar insertion and radius attachment of the TFCC.The findings of MR arthrography were well corresponded with results of arthroscopy on the lesion site,including ulnar tear in 3 cases,radius tear in 4cases and complete tear in 3 cases.(3)Among 14 cases with TFCC,8 cases had dislocation of radius-ulnar joint,6 cases had bone contusion of radius or ulnar,synovial reaction was also clearly depicted on conventional MRI and direct MR arthrography in all cases.Conclusion Compared with results of arthroscopy,direct MR arthrography can adequately reveal the injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex,synovial reaction and edema changes are depicted on conventional MRI.%目的 通
Householder triangularization of a quasimatrix
Trefethen, Lloyd N.
2008-01-01
A standard algorithm for computing the QR factorization of a matrix A is Householder triangularization. Here this idea is generalized to the situation in which A is a quasimatrix, that is, a “matrix” whose “columns” are functions defined on an interval [a,b]. Applications are mentioned to quasimatrix leastsquares fitting, singular value decomposition, and determination of ranks, norms, and condition numbers, and numerical illustrations are presented using the chebfun system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟敏之; 曾旭文; 梁治平
2010-01-01
Objective To explore the clinical application of MRI technology in the injury of triangular fibrocartilage complex and its ligament. Clear its value in clinical treatment.Methods Review 5 normal volunteer and 21 cases patien whom pain in wrist. Evaluate the sequence of GRE T2、SE T1、STIR and 3D dynamic scan in the wrist. Results MRI play the important role to evaluate the TFCC、scapholunate ligament (SLL), and lunotriquetral ligament(LTL).In 21 cases pain of wrist patien, there were 8 cases suffer TFCC tears. SLL injure in 4 cases and TLT injure in 2 cases. The fracture in the wrist bone are 5 case. Rheumatoid arthritis are 4 case, Ischemia necrosis 2case. Conclusion The wrist injure often with TFCC and ligament lesion, it worth pay attention to clinic. The structure of wrist is complex, for accurate dialogic,we must use multi sequence and many orientation to show the anatomic.%目的 探讨MRI技术在腕三角纤维软骨体其周围韧带损伤的临床应用,明确其临床治疗价值.方法 对5名正常腕关节志愿者及21名腕关节痛患者进行观察,使用GRE T2、SE T1及STIR检查序列及动态腕关节扫描对腕三角纤维软骨复合体形态进行评价.结果 MRI在评价三角纤维软骨、月三角韧带、舟月间韧带起重要作用.21例腕关节痛患者三角纤维软骨撕裂8例,腕部骨折7例,类风湿性关节炎4例.腕骨缺血性坏死2例.结论 腕关节慢性损伤常伴有TFCC损伤,值得临床重视.腕关节结构复杂,在检查过程中必须多序列,多方位结合以协助诊断.
Defect chemistry and chalcogen diffusion in thin-film Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harvey, Steven P.; Repins, Ingrid; Teeter, Glenn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)
2015-02-21
Selenium diffusion in polycrystalline thin-film Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSe) on molybdenum-coated soda-lime glass substrates was investigated by in situ monitoring of the molybdenum back-contact resistance during high-temperature selenization treatments. In these measurements, selenium diffusion through the CZTSe layer results in conversion of the molybdenum layer to MoSe{sub 2}, increasing the sheet resistance of the film stack. By monitoring the rate of MoSe{sub 2} formation as a function of annealing temperature, an activation energy of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV has been measured for selenium diffusion in CZTSe. The partial pressure dependence of chalcogen diffusion suggests that chalcogen vacancies are not the defect controlling chalcogen diffusion in thin-film CZTSe.
The Dominant Role of Chalcogen Bonding in the Crystal Packing of 2D/3D Aromatics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Přáda, A.; Padělková, Z.; Pecina, Adam; Macháček, Jan; Lepšík, Martin; Holub, Josef; Růžička, A.; Hnyk, Drahomír; Hobza, Pavel
2014-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 38 (2014), s. 10139-10142. ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR GAP208/10/2269 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0058; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011033 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * chalcogen bonds * crystal structures * sulfur * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.261, year: 2014
Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr polyhalogen–chalcogen
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A A Alemi; E Solaimani
2004-06-01
In this paper polyhalogen–chalcogen Br2SeIBr was synthesized and the crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. This compound was prepared in the temperature range 150–50°C which was brownish-red in colour and crystallized in monoclinic crystal system and space group 21/c with four molecules per unit cell. Lattice parameters were: = 6.3711(1), = 6.7522(2), = 16.8850(5) Å, = = 90°, = 95·96°, = 722·45 Å3.
Lukasiewicz-like Triangular Subnorms
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Petrík, Milan; Sarkoci, P.
Paris : Atlantis Press, 2015 - (Alonso, J.; Bustince, H.; Reformat, M.), s. 1100-1105 ISBN 978-1-5108-0807-2. - (Advances in Intelligent Systems Research. 89). [IFSA - EUSFLAT 2015. World Congress of the International Fuzzy Systems Association /16./, Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology /9./. Gijón (ES), 30.06.2015-03.07.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/0059/12 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : positively cancellative * commutative semigroup * triangular subnorm * weakly cancellative Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
UWB Directive Triangular Patch Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. C. Lepage
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Compact directive UWB antennas are presented in this paper. We propose an optimization of the F-probe fed triangular patch antenna. The new design achieves an impedance bandwidth of 69% (3–6.15 GHz and presents good radiation characteristics over the whole impedance bandwidth. The average gain is 6.1 dB. A time-domain study has been performed to characterize the antenna behavior in case a UWB pulse is used. Finally, we propose an alternative solution to facilitate the manufacturing process using metallized foam technology. It also improves the robustness of the antenna as well as reducing its cost.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Single-crystal silicon was hyperdoped with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium using ion implantation and nanosecond laser melting. The hyperdoping of such chalcogen elements led to strong and wide sub-bandgap light absorption. Annealing the hyperdoped silicon, even at low temperatures (such as 200–400 °C), led to attenuation of the sub-bandgap absorption. To explain the attenuation process, we modeled it as chemical decomposition reaction from an optically absorbing structure to a non-absorbing structure. Attenuation of the experimental absorption coefficient was fit using the Arrhenius equation. From the fitted data, we extracted the reaction activation energies of S-, Se-, and T-hyperdoped silicon as 0.338 ± 0.029 eV, 0.471 ± 0.040 eV, and 0.357 ± 0.028 eV, respectively. We discuss these activation energies in terms of the bond energies of chalcogen–Si metastable bonds, and suggest that several high-energy interstitial sites, rather than substitutional sites, are candidates for the atomic structures that are responsible for the strong sub-bandgap absorption of chalcogen hyperdoped silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Ke-Fan [Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Shao, Hezhu [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Liu, Kong; Qu, Shengchun, E-mail: qsc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: wangyx@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhanguo [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Yuanxu, E-mail: qsc@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: wangyx@henu.edu.cn [Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)
2015-09-14
Single-crystal silicon was hyperdoped with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium using ion implantation and nanosecond laser melting. The hyperdoping of such chalcogen elements led to strong and wide sub-bandgap light absorption. Annealing the hyperdoped silicon, even at low temperatures (such as 200–400 °C), led to attenuation of the sub-bandgap absorption. To explain the attenuation process, we modeled it as chemical decomposition reaction from an optically absorbing structure to a non-absorbing structure. Attenuation of the experimental absorption coefficient was fit using the Arrhenius equation. From the fitted data, we extracted the reaction activation energies of S-, Se-, and T-hyperdoped silicon as 0.338 ± 0.029 eV, 0.471 ± 0.040 eV, and 0.357 ± 0.028 eV, respectively. We discuss these activation energies in terms of the bond energies of chalcogen–Si metastable bonds, and suggest that several high-energy interstitial sites, rather than substitutional sites, are candidates for the atomic structures that are responsible for the strong sub-bandgap absorption of chalcogen hyperdoped silicon.
Problems on triangular norms and related operators
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klement, E.P.; Mesiar, Radko; Pap, E.
2004-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 145 (2004), s. 471-479. ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : triangular norm * triangular conorm * aggregation operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004
Spectral properties of random triangular matrices
Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra
2011-01-01
We provide a relatively elementary proof of the existence of the limiting spectral distribution (LSD) of symmetric triangular patterned matrices and also show their joint convergence. We also derive the expressions for the moments of the LSD of the symmetric triangular Wigner matrix using properties of Catalan words.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢仁国; 汤锦波; 唐天驷; 刘国峰; 王古衡; 张昌军; 刑树国
2011-01-01
Objective Ulnar side wrist pain is one of the commonest symptoms, mostly arised from the triangular fibrocartilage complex ( TFCC) injuries. Arthroscopy is considered as the golden standard for diagnosis of the wrist disorders, superior to the CT and MRI. The aim of this study is to observe the anatomic components of TFCC of the wrist morphologically and arthroscopically, and to obtain the accurate arthroscopic view by comparison. Methods Five fresh cadaver upper limbs were applied to observe distal aspect of TFCC by the routine radiocarpal approach and proximal aspect of TFCC hy a direct approach over the distal radioulnar joint. After arthroscopy and capsulotomy, The TFCC was exposed to examine its components visually, and to examine the corresponding sites under the arthroscope. TFCC was then detached from the distal ends of the radius and the ulna to measure its length and thickness. Results TFC was like a triangular disc , of which peripheral parts became thickened into the palmar radioulnar ligament ( PRU) and the dorsal radioulnar ligament ( DRU) . TFCC originated from the ulnar edge of distal radius. Its distal part inserted and surrounded the base of ulnar styloid process, and its proximal part inserted into the fovea of distal ulna. Compared with the morphological observations, the distal aspect of the TFCC originations was very smooth under the wrist arthroscope. There was no obvious distinction among TFC, PRU and DRU. The proximal aspect of TFCC seemed like an arc over the distal radius and the fovea. The round articular surface of the ulnar head and the sigmoid notch at ulnar side of the distal radius could be seen clearly. Conclusions Wrist arthrosopy is reliable to clarify the TFCC accurately, based on the anatomical and morphological guidance. The direct portal route over the distal radio-ulnar joint is availahle to observe the profound parts of PRU and DRU ligaments.%目的 观察腕尺侧三角纤维软骨复合体的大体结构和腕关节镜
Constructing parametric triangular patches with boundary conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui Liu; Jun Ma; Fuhua Cheng
2008-01-01
The problem of constructing a parametric triangular patch to smoothly connect three surface patches is studied. Usually, these surface patches are defined on different parameter spaces. Therefore, it is necessary to define interpolation conditions, with values from the given surface patches, on the boundary of the triangular patch that can ensure smooth transition between different parameter spaces. In this paper we present a new method to define boundary conditions. Boundary conditions defined by the new method have the same parameter space if the three given surface patches can be converted into the same form through affine transformation. Consequently, any of the classic methods for constructing functional triangular patches can be used directly to construct a parametric triangular patch to connect given surface patches with G continuity. The resulting parametric triangular patch preserves precision of the applied classic method.
Watching systems of triangular graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Roozbayani
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A watching system in a graph $G=(V, E$ is a set $W={omega_{1}, omega_{2}, cdots, omega_{k}}$, where $omega_{i}=(v_{i}, Z_{i}, v_{i}in V$ and $Z_{i}$ is a subset of closed neighborhood of $v_{i}$ such that the sets $L_{W}(v={omega_{i}: vin omega_{i}}$ are non-empty and distinct, for any $vin V$. In this paper, we study the watching systems of line graph $K_{n}$ which is called triangular graph and denoted by $T(n$. The minimum size of a watching system of $G$ is denoted by $omega(G$. We show that $omega(T(n=lceilfrac{2n}{3}rceil$.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐静; 汤锦波; 贾中正; 谢仁国
2009-01-01
目的 研究在体前臂旋前、旋后不同运动范围内三角纤维软骨复合体(TFCC)深部和浅部纤维的运动学.方法 以螺旋CT扫描6名志愿者腕关节,分别获得前臂在旋前90°至旋后90°内每隔30°的运动范围内桡骨和尺骨远端图像,三维重建骨结构图像后经软件处理得到在腕关节旋前和旋后过程中,三角纤维软骨复合体深部、浅部纤维的长度变化.结果 前臂旋转运动中,旋前运动时TFCC背侧浅部纤维、掌侧深部纤维处于紧张状态,TFCC掌侧浅部纤维、背侧深部纤维处于放松状态.旋后运动时TFCC背侧浅部纤维、掌侧深部纤维处于放松状态,TFCC掌侧浅部纤维、背侧深部纤维则处于紧张状态.结论 前臂旋转运动过程中,掌背侧总同时有TFCC掌、背侧深部或浅部纤维处于紧张状态,维持了下尺桡关节的稳定性.%objective To investigate three-dimensional kinematics of the superficial and deep portion of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) in different parts of the forearm rotation.Methods Six wrists of 6 volunteers were used to obtain CT scans at different positions of the wrist.The wrists were scanned from 90°of pronation to 90°of supination at an interval of 30 degrees.The 3-dimensional radius and ulna were reconstructed with customized software and changes in length of the superficial and deep portion of TFCC during forearm rotation.Results In forearm pronation,the superficial dorsal portion and the deep palmar portion of the TFCC were tight.While the sperficial palmar portion and the deep dorsal potion of the TFCC were lax.In supination,the changes inlength of all these fibers were reverse.Conclusions In forearm rotation one portion fibers of dorsal TFCC and one portion fibers of palmar TFCC are tight,and this mechanism controls stability during DRUJ rotation.
Modulating the Electronic and Optical Properties of Tetragonal ZnSe Monolayers by Chalcogen Dopants.
Zhou, Jia; Li, Yang; Wu, Xiaohong; Qin, Wei
2016-07-01
The recently proposed three-atom-thick single-layer ZnSe sheet demonstrates a strong quantum confinement effect by exhibiting a large enhancement of band gap relative to the zinc blende (ZB) bulk phase. In this work, we aim at investigating the electronic and optical properties of this ultrathin tetragonal ZnSe single-layer sheet with various chalcogen dopant atoms, based on density functional theory (DFT). We find that these single-layer sheets with dopant atoms are still direct-band semiconductors with tunable band gaps, which can lead to strong light absorption and potential applications in solar energy harvesting. Theoretical optical absorbance results show that the S-doped ZnSe monolayer exhibits a higher absorption performance compared to other doped and undoped ZnSe monolayers. These findings pave a way for the modulation of novel ultrathin tetragonal ZnSe monolayers for a wealth of potential optoelectronic applications. PMID:26972924
Guo, Y.; Liu, D.; Robertson, J.
2015-04-01
It is predicted that Schottky barriers of the transition metal dichalcogenides MoSe2, MoTe2, WS2, WSe2, and WTe2 will suffer less from Fermi level pinning by chalcogen vacancies than does MoS2, because their vacancy formation energies are larger. The reduction in vacancy numbers will allow a greater degree of Schottky barrier height tuning by varying metal work function of the contacts in these compounds. The vacancy levels of WS2, WSe2 and MoSe2, and MoTe2 are also calculated to lie nearer midgap, so that ambipolar conduction will be easier in these compounds than in MoS2.
Highly Strained Heterocycles Constructed from Boron-Boron Multiple Bonds and Heavy Chalcogens.
Braunschweig, Holger; Constantinidis, Philipp; Dellermann, Theresa; Ewing, William C; Fischer, Ingo; Hess, Merlin; Knight, Fergus R; Rempel, Anna; Schneider, Christoph; Ullrich, Stefan; Vargas, Alfredo; Woollins, J Derek
2016-04-25
The reactions of a diborene with elemental selenium or tellurium are shown to afford a diboraselenirane or diboratellurirane, respectively. These reactions are reminiscent of the sequestration of subvalent oxygen and nitrogen in the formation of oxiranes and aziridines; however, such reactivity is not known between alkenes and the heavy chalcogens. Although carbon is too electronegative to affect the reduction of elements with lower relative electronegativity, the highly reducing nature of the B-B double bond enables reactions with Se(0) and Te(0) . The capacity of multiple bonds between boron atoms to donate electron density is highlighted in reactions where diborynes behave as nucleophiles, attacking one of the two Te atoms of diaryltellurides, forming salts consisting of diboratellurenium cations and aryltelluride anions. PMID:27027522
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pecina, Adam; Lepšík, Martin; Hnyk, Drahomír; Hobza, Pavel; Fanfrlík, Jindřich
2015-01-01
Roč. 119, č. 8 (2015), s. 1388-1395. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR GAP208/10/2269 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011033; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0058; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : intermolecular interaction energies * Kohn-Sham orbitals * halogen bond Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2014
Classification and MR imaging of triangular fibrocartilage complex lesions%三角纤维软骨复合体损伤的分型及磁共振表现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
詹惠荔; 刘悦; 白荣杰; 钱占华; 叶薇; 李亚雄; 吴伯栋
2016-01-01
Objective To explore the MRI characteristics of injuries of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC),and provide imaging basis for the early diagnosis and treatment of the injuries.Methods A total of 10 healthy volunteers without wrist injuries and 200 patients from Beijing Jishuitan Hospital who complained ulnar-sided wrist pain and were highly suspected as the injury of TFCC underwent the wrist magnetic resonance examination.All subjects were in a prone position and underwent examination on coronal T1 WI scan and PD-FS on 3 planes respectively.Then the MRI characteristics of 3 healthy volunteers and 67 patients with TFCC injuries that confirmed by operation were analyzed.According to the comparative analysis of normal anatomy and Palmer classification,the injuries were classified and MRI features of different types of injuries were analyzed.At last,imaging findings were compared with surgical results.Results Three healthy volunteers without injuries showed mainly in low signal intensity on T1WI and PD-FS images.According to Palmer classification,there were 52 traumatic injuries (Ⅰ A 9,Ⅰ B 25,Ⅰ C 3,Ⅰ D 13,In addition,1 has central perforation and ulnar avulsion and 1 has ulnar and radial injuries simultaneously) and 15 degenerative injuries (Ⅱ A 5,Ⅱ B 1,ⅡC 2,Ⅱ D 1,Ⅱ E 6) among 67 patients.The central perforation mainly demonstrated as linear high signal perpendicular to the disk,and run in a sagittal line.The ulnar,distal,and radial avulsion mainly showed the injuries were irregular,the structures were ambiguous,and there was high signal intensity in the injured structures on PD-FS.Degenerative injuries demonstrated the irregularity of TFC and heterogeneous signals on PD-FS.There were mixed intermediate-high signals and changes in the articular cartilage of lunate and ulna,high signal in the lunotriquetral ligament and ulnocarpal or radioulnar arthritis.Conclusion MRI can demonstrate the anatomy of TFCC accurately,evaluate and make the general
Kadlag, Yogita; Becker, Harry
2016-04-01
187Re-187Os systematics, abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, PGE, and Au), chalcogen elements (Te, Se, and S), and some major and minor elements were determined in physically separated components of the Allende (CV3) and Murchison (CM2) carbonaceous chondrites. Substantial differences exist in the absolute and relative abundances of elements in the components, but the similarity of calculated and literature bulk rock abundances of HSE and chalcogens indicate that chemical complementarity exists among the components, with CI chondrite-like ratios for many elements. Despite subsequent alteration and oxidation, the overall cosmochemical behavior of most moderately to highly siderophile elements during high-temperature processing has been preserved in components of Allende at the sampling scale of the present study. The 187Re-187Os systematics and element variations of Allende are less disturbed compared with Murchison, which reflects different degrees of oxidation and alteration of these meteorites. The HSE systematics (with the exception of Au) is controlled by two types of materials: Pd-depleted condensates and CI chondrite-like material. Enrichment and heterogeneous distribution of Au among the components is likely the result of hydrothermal alteration. Chalcogen elements are depleted compared with HSE in all components, presumably due to their higher volatility. Small systematic variations of S, Se, and Te in components bear the signature of fractional condensation/partial evaporation and metal-sulfide-silicate partitioning.
A Critical Path Problem Using Intuitionistic Triangular Fuzzy Number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.JAYAGOWRI
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Critical path method is a network based method planned for development and organization of complex project in real world application. In this paper, a new methodology has been made to find the critical path in a directed acyclic graph, whose activity time uncertain. The vague parameters in the network are represented by intuitionistic triangular fuzzy numbers, instead of crisp numbers. A new procedure is proposed to find the optimal path, and finally illustrative examples is provided to validate the proposed approach.
Honeycomb and triangular domain wall networks in heteroepitaxial systems
Elder, K. R.; Chen, Z.; Elder, K. L. M.; Hirvonen, P.; Mkhonta, S. K.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Ala-Nissila, T.
2016-05-01
A comprehensive study is presented for the influence of misfit strain, adhesion strength, and lattice symmetry on the complex Moiré patterns that form in ultrathin films of honeycomb symmetry adsorbed on compact triangular or honeycomb substrates. The method used is based on a complex Ginzburg-Landau model of the film that incorporates elastic strain energy and dislocations. The results indicate that different symmetries of the heteroepitaxial systems lead to distinct types of domain wall networks and phase transitions among various surface Moiré patterns and superstructures. More specifically, the results show a dramatic difference between the phase diagrams that emerge when a honeycomb film is adsorbed on substrates of honeycomb versus triangular symmetry. It is also shown that in the small deformation limit, the complex Ginzburg-Landau model reduces to a two-dimensional sine-Gordon free energy form. This free energy can be solved exactly for one dimensional patterns and reveals the role of domains walls and their crossings in determining the nature of the phase diagrams.
Fluid Flow Through Triangular and Square Cylinders
Salam, Nasaruddin
2014-01-01
Characteristicsof fluid flowing through triangular and square cylindershas been analyzed experimentally andnumerically by CFDat Reynolds number based on square cylinders diameter,Re = 14.730;26.040 and 37.192. Ratio of the distance between cylinders to square cylinders diameter (L/D) was variedas0.0;1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 4.0; and 5.0 while ratio of the triangular cylinders diameter to square cylinders diameter (d/D) was constant at 0.5. The results showed that the vortex is damped...
Sharma, Subash; Kalita, Golap; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Zulkifli, Zurita; Tanemura, Masaki
2015-01-01
In-plane heterostructure of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene is of great interest for its tunable bandgap and other unique properties. Here, we reveal a H2-induced etching process to introduce triangular hole in triangular-shaped chemical vapor deposited individual h-BN crystal. In this study, we synthesized regular triangular-shaped h-BN crystals with the sizes around 2-10 μm on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The etching behavior of individual h-BN crystal w...
Solutions to the Triangular Bicycle Flags Problem
Hartweg, Kim
2005-01-01
Students in a fifth-grade general education class and a second-grade gifted class participated in the Triangular Bicycle Flags problem. The results indicated that providing students with geometric experiences at the correct van Hiele level is necessary for helping students move from one level of understanding to the next.
Basic Employability Skills: A Triangular Design Approach
Rosenberg, Stuart; Heimler, Ronald; Morote, Elsa-Sofia
2012-01-01
Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the basic employability skills needed for job performance, the reception of these skills in college, and the need for additional training in these skills after graduation. Design/methodology/approach: The research was based on a triangular design approach, in which the attitudes of three distinct groups--recent…
Chalcogenation of the 1,4-C2P4 ring: oxidation, isomerization, insertion, and ring contraction.
Elder, Philip J W; Chivers, Tristram
2013-07-01
The reaction of H2C(PCl2)2 with 4 equiv of (t)BuMgCl in tetrahydrofuran (THF) produces 1,4-(CH2)2(P(t)Bu)4, 1, in about 65% yield. This six-membered ring reacts directly with elemental sulfur or selenium in toluene at low temperatures to give the mono- and dichalcogenides 1,4-(CH2)2(P(t)BuE)(P(t)Bu)3 (E = S, 2a, E = Se, 2b) and 1,4-(CH2)2-2,5-(P(t)BuE)2(P(t)Bu)2 (E = S, 3a, E = Se, 3b). X-ray structural determinations showed that 3a and 3b are isostructural in the solid state; the six-membered C2P4 ring exhibits a twist-boat geometry with chalcogen substituents in syn positions in each case. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the three possible isomers of disubstitution were performed to elucidate the factors that favor the 2,5-isomer. Thermal isomerism was observed in solutions of 3b or 3a in toluene at 60 and 95 °C, respectively, to give the corresponding 2,6-isomers. With an excess of chalcogen in toluene at reflux, the four-membered rings (H2C)(P(t)BuE)2E (E = S, 4a, E = Se, 4b) were obtained and identified by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography, which showed the (t)Bu groups in a trans orientation with respect to the CP2E ring. With a large excess of chalcogen, the five-membered rings (H2C)(P(t)BuE)2E2 (E = S, 5a, E = Se, 5b) were also observed; the X-ray structure of 5b revealed a half-envelope conformation for the CP2Se2 ring. The direct reaction of 4a with sulfur in boiling toluene does not produce 5a, whereas 5b is formed slowly and in low yields from 4b and selenium under similar conditions. On the basis of DFT calculations of the relative energies of likely intermediates, chalcogen insertion into the P-P bonds of 3a and 3b to give eight-membered C2P4E2 rings, followed by monomerization, is proposed as a feasible pathway for the formation of the four-membered CP2E heterocycles 4a and 4b. PMID:23786389
Linear Maps Preserving Idempotency of Products of Matrices on Upper Triangular Matrix Algebras
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI JING; JI GUO-XING
2009-01-01
. Let Tn be the algebra of all n × n complex upper triangular matrices. We give the concrete forms of linear injective maps on Tn which preserve the nonzero idempotency of either products of two matrices or triple Jordan products of two matrices.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Santosh K Sahoo
2015-12-01
A relative synthetic strategy toward intermolecular oxidative C−Chalcogen bond formation of alkanes has been illustrated using both Cu(II) assisted Cu(II) free conditions. This led to construction of a comparative study of hydrocarbon benzylic and 2°/3°-cycloalkyl moieties bond sulfenylation and selenation protocol by the chalcogen sources, particularly sulfur and selenium, respectively. In addition, this protocol disclosed the auspicious formation of sp3C−S coupling products over leading the sp3C−N coupling products by using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) substrates.
Triangular de Rham cohomology of compact Kahler manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The de Rham H1DR(M,G) of a smooth manifold M with values in a group Lie G is studied. By definition, this is the quotient of the set of flat connections in the trivial principal bundle MxG by the so-called gauge equivalence. The case under consideration is the one when M is a compact Kahler manifold and G is a soluble complex linear algebraic group in a special class containing the Borel subgroups of all complex classical groups and, in particular, the group of all triangular matrices. In this case a description of the set H1DR(M,G) in terms of the cohomology of M with values in the (Abelian) sheaves of flat sections of certain flat Lie algebra bundles with fibre g (the tangent Lie algebra of G) or, equivalently, in terms of the harmonic forms on M representing this cohomology is obtained
Triangular Geometrized Sampling Heuristics for Fast Optimal Motion Planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Hussain Qureshi
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT-based algorithms have become increasingly popular due to their lower computational complexity as compared with other path planning algorithms. The recently presented RRT* motion planning algorithm improves upon the original RRT algorithm by providing optimal path solutions. While RRT determines an initial collision-free path fairly quickly, RRT* guarantees almost certain convergence to an optimal, obstacle-free path from the start to the goal points for any given geometrical environment. However, the main limitations of RRT* include its slow processing rate and high memory consumption, due to the large number of iterations required for calculating the optimal path. In order to overcome these limitations, we present another improvement, i.e, the Triangular Geometerized-RRT* (TGRRT* algorithm, which utilizes triangular geometrical methods to improve the performance of the RRT* algorithm in terms of the processing time and a decreased number of iterations required for an optimal path solution. Simulations comparing the performance results of the improved TG-RRT* with RRT* are presented to demonstrate the overall improvement in performance and optimal path detection.
Triangular Ising antiferromagnets with quenched nonmagnetic impurities.
Tang, Huai-Lei; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Guo-Hong; Jiang, Ying
2010-05-01
In a random spin system, the cooperation of randomness and frustration will lead to a spin-glass phase. However, in geometrically frustrated spin systems, quenched nonmagnetic impurities lift frustration locally. This makes randomness and frustration in these systems as competitors rather than cooperators. By mapping the dilute triangular Ising antiferromagnetic system to elastic array of noncrossing strings, we find that the nonmagnetic impurities in the spin system play roles of pinning centers in the string system. Calculation shows that in the ground state of this system, the spin-glass correlation is power-law decayed, quite different from the standard behavior of spin glass in which spin-glass correlation between two spins at infinite distance tends to a finite value. This indicates that triangular Ising antiferromagnets with quenched nonmagnetic impurities cannot be a spin glass. Instead, in the ground states, they present properties of vortex glass. PMID:20866185
Transport Properties for Triangular Barriers in Graphene
Mouhafid, Abderrahim El; Jellal, Ahmed
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the electronic transport properties of Dirac fermions through one and double triangular barriers in graphene. Using the transfer matrix method, we determine the transmission, conductance and Fano factor. They are obtained to be various parameters dependent such as well width, barrier height and barrier width. Therefore, different discussions are given and comparison with the previous significant works is done. In particular, it is shown that at Dirac point the Dirac fer...
Human resource management in triangular employment relationships
Fontinha, Ana Rita Ramos
2013-01-01
This dissertation concerns the triangular employment relationships of agency workers and outsourced workers. In particular, the aim was to investigate the relationship between employees’ perceptions and attributions of human resource management (HRM) practices and their dual affective organisational commitment, i.e., their commitment towards both the agency/outsourcer and the client organisation. We developed three empirical studies. In the first study, we found that commitmentfocused HRM att...
Block Triangular Preconditioning for Stochastic Galerkin Method
Zheng, Bin; Lin, Guang; Xu, Jinchao
2013-01-01
In this paper we study fast iterative solvers for the large sparse linear systems resulting from the stochastic Galerkin discretization of stochastic partial differential equations. A block triangular preconditioner is introduced and applied to the Krylov subspace methods, including the generalized minimum residual method and the generalized preconditioned conjugate gradient method. This preconditioner utilizes the special structures of the stochastic Galerkin matrices to achieve high efficie...
Optimization Bicriteria Linear Programming Constraint Fuzzy Triangular
Pratama, Lintang Gilang
2014-01-01
This final project is to make a algorithm Bicriteria Linear Programming with constraint is triangular fuzzy number. The method used in this research is download-right defuzzyfication bicriteria linear programming problems with fuzzy rules in fuzzy sets and fuzzy number operations. Resolving sub-bicriteria problem of fuzzy linear programming with Parametric Simplex Algorithm in which every constraint has become a firm number and efficient (optimum) result is the form of best eff...
Vertex-Atom-Dependent Rectification in Triangular h-BNC/Triangular Graphene Heterojunctions
Wang, Lihua; Zhao, Jianguo; Zhang, Zizhen; Ding, Bingjun; Guo, Yong
2016-08-01
First-principles calculations have shown dramatically unexpected rectifying regularities in particular heterojunction configurations with triangular hexagonal boron-nitride-carbon ( h-BNC) and triangular graphene (TG) sandwiched between two armchair graphene nanoribbon electrodes. When the triangular h-BNC and TG are linked by vertex atoms of nitrogen and carbon (boron and carbon), forward (reverse) rectifying performance can be observed. Moreover, for a certain linking mode, the larger the elemental proportion p (where p = N_{{{boron}} + {{nitrogen}}} /N_{{{boron}} + {{nitrogen}} + {{carbon}}} ) in the h-BNC, the larger the ratio for forward (reverse) rectification. A mechanism for these rectification behaviors is suggested. The findings provide insights into control of rectification behaviors in TG-based nanodevices.
Thermodynamic Properties in Triangular-Lattice Superconductors
Ma, Xixiao; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Huaisong; Lan, Yu; Feng, Shiping
2016-06-01
The study of superconductivity arising from doping a Mott insulator has become a central issue in the area of superconductivity. Within the framework of the kinetic-energy-driven superconducting (SC) mechanism, we discuss the thermodynamic properties in the triangular-lattice cobaltate superconductors. It is shown that a sharp peak in the specific heat appears at the SC transition temperature T_c, and then the specific heat varies exponentially as a function of temperature for temperatures Tqualitatively the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-type temperature dependence, and has the same dome-shaped doping dependence as T_c.
Parameterization of triangular meshes for texture mapping
Leksell, Mats
2008-01-01
A parameterization of a three-dimensional triangular mesh M to a two dimensional parameter domain is a invertibel PM : S - R, where is the set of all points on the surface. one of the use for such a mapping is for mapping an image from the parameter space D-R onto S. thesis evalutes several apporaches for creating such a mapping. for this purpos , the optimal mapping is an isomtry, i.e. a mapping that preserves the length of all the edges. Such a mapping is however often impossible or somputa...
Theory of a triangular micro-robot
Vladimirov, Vladimir A
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the self-propulsion of a triangular micro-robot (or triangle-robot) which consists of three spheres connected by three rods; the rods' lengths are changing independently and periodically. Using the asymptotic procedure containing the two-timing method and distinguished limit arguments, we obtain analytic expressions for self-propulsion velocity the angular velocity. Our calculations show that a triangle-robot rotates with constant angular velocity around its centroid, while the centroid moves in a circle. The important special case of zero angular velocity represents rectilinear translational self-propulsion with constant velocity.
An Improved Triangular Element With Drilling Rotations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars; Grønne, Mikael
2002-01-01
A new plane element with rotational degrees in the corner nodes is presented. The element has 12 degrees of freedom and the only difference from the well-known Linear Strain Triangular (LST) element is that the displacements perpendicular to the element sides in the mid-side nodes are replaced by...... rotations in the corner nodes. Compared to Allman's plane element which was the first succesfull implementation of drilling rotations the proposed element has extra displacements in the mid-side nodes parallel to the element sides. The performance should therefore be better and closer to the LST...
Natural elongation and triangularity of tokamak equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quasianalytic formulas are calculated for the elongation κ and triangularity δ of the plasma surface of a free-boundary tokamak equilibrium. The final results give κ and δ as functions of five quantities: the inverse aspect ratio ε, the poloidal beta βp, the internal inductance li, and the quadrupole and hexapole moments of the externally applied field. The agreement with numerically computed equilibria is found to be quite good when A≥3, κ≤1.5, and δ≤0.2 and when the plasma is limited by the vacuum vessel wall and not diverted by the presence of a separatrix on the plasma surface
Reproducible Triangular Solvers for High-Performance Computing
Iakymchuk, Roman; Defour, David; Collange, Sylvain; Graillat, Stef
2015-01-01
On modern parallel architectures, floating-point computations may become non-deterministic and, therefore, non-reproducible mainly due to non-associativity of floating-point operations. We propose an algorithm to solve dense triangular systems by leveraging the standard parallel triangular solver and our, recently introduced, multi-level exact summation approach. Finally, we present implementations of the proposed fast repro-ducible triangular solver and results on recent NVIDIA GPUs.
Use of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of temporal triangular alopecia *
de Campos, Jullyene Gomes; Oliveira, Cláudia Marina Puga Barbosa; Romero, Sandra Adolfina Reyes; Klein, Ana Paula; Akel, Patricia Bandeira de Melo; Pinto, Giselle Martins
2015-01-01
Temporal triangular alopecia, also referred as congenital triangular alopecia, is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by a non-scarring, circumscribed alopecia often located unilaterally in the frontotemporal region. It usually emerges at ages 2-9 years. Alopecia areata is the main differential diagnosis, especially in atypical cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that helps distinguish temporal triangular alopecia from aloepecia areata. Such procedure prev...
Chalcogen doping at anionic site: A scheme towards more dispersive valence band in CuAlO2
Mazumder, Nilesh; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar
2013-02-01
Using first-principles calculations, we propose to enhance the dispersion of the top of valence band at high-symmetry points by selective introduction of chalcogen (Ch) impurities at oxygen site. As ab-plane hole mobility of CuAlO2 is large enough to support a band-conduction model over a polaronic one at room temperature [M. S. Lee et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2029, (2001); J. Tate et al. Phys. Rev. B 80, 165206, (2009)], we examine its electronic and optical properties normal to c-axis. Intrinsic indirectness of energy-gap at Γ-point can be effectively removed along with substantial increase in density of states near Fermi level (EF) upon Ch addition. This can be attributed to S 2p-Cu 3d interaction just at or below EF, which should result in significantly improved carrier mobility and conductivity profile for this important p-type TCO.
Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices
Becker, C; Kronjäger, J; Dörscher, S; Bongs, K; Sengstock, K
2009-01-01
Over the last years the exciting developments in the field of ultracold atoms confined in optical lattices have led to numerous theoretical proposals devoted to the quantum simulation of problems e.g. known from condensed matter physics. Many of those ideas demand for experimental environments with non-cubic lattice geometries. In this paper we report on the implementation of a versatile three-beam lattice allowing for the generation of triangular as well as hexagonal optical lattices. As an important step the superfluid-Mott insulator (SF-MI) quantum phase transition has been observed and investigated in detail in this lattice geometry for the first time. In addition to this we study the physics of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the presence of the triangular optical lattice potential, especially spin changing dynamics across the SF-MI transition. Our results suggest that below the SF-MI phase transition, a well-established mean-field model describes the observed data when renormalizing the spin-d...
Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Over recent years, exciting developments in the field of ultracold atoms confined in optical lattices have led to numerous theoretical proposals devoted to the quantum simulation of problems e.g. known from condensed matter physics. Many of those ideas demand experimental environments with non-cubic lattice geometries. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a versatile three-beam lattice allowing for the generation of triangular as well as hexagonal optical lattices. As an important step, the superfluid-Mott insulator (SF-MI) quantum phase transition has been observed and investigated in detail in this lattice geometry for the first time. In addition to this, we study the physics of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the presence of the triangular optical lattice potential, especially spin changing dynamics across the SF-MI transition. Our results suggest that, below the SF-MI phase transition, a well-established mean-field model describes the observed data when renormalizing the spin-dependent interaction. Interestingly, this opens up new perspectives for a lattice-driven tuning of a spin dynamics resonance occurring through the interplay of the quadratic Zeeman effect and spin-dependent interaction. Finally, we discuss further lattice configurations that can be realized with our setup.
Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, C; Soltan-Panahi, P; Doerscher, S; Sengstock, K [Institut fuer Laserphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg D-22761 (Germany); Kronjaeger, J; Bongs, K, E-mail: cbecker@physnet.uni-hamburg.d [MUARC, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
2010-06-15
Over recent years, exciting developments in the field of ultracold atoms confined in optical lattices have led to numerous theoretical proposals devoted to the quantum simulation of problems e.g. known from condensed matter physics. Many of those ideas demand experimental environments with non-cubic lattice geometries. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a versatile three-beam lattice allowing for the generation of triangular as well as hexagonal optical lattices. As an important step, the superfluid-Mott insulator (SF-MI) quantum phase transition has been observed and investigated in detail in this lattice geometry for the first time. In addition to this, we study the physics of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in the presence of the triangular optical lattice potential, especially spin changing dynamics across the SF-MI transition. Our results suggest that, below the SF-MI phase transition, a well-established mean-field model describes the observed data when renormalizing the spin-dependent interaction. Interestingly, this opens up new perspectives for a lattice-driven tuning of a spin dynamics resonance occurring through the interplay of the quadratic Zeeman effect and spin-dependent interaction. Finally, we discuss further lattice configurations that can be realized with our setup.
The Geometric Continuity of Rational Bezier Triangular Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
田捷
1991-01-01
The problems of geometric continuity for rational Bezier surfaces are discussed.Concise conditions of first order and second order geometric continuity for rational triangular bezier surfaces are given.Meanwhile,a geometric condition for smoothness between adjacent rational bezier surfaces and the transformation formulae between rational triangular patches and rational rectangular patches are obtained.
Sznajd Sociophysics Model on a Triangular Lattice
Chang, Iksoo
The Sznajd sociophysics model is generalized on the triangular lattice with pure antiferromagnetic opinion and also with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic opinions. The slogan of the trade union ``united we stand, divided we fall'' can be realized via the propagation of ferromagnetic opinion of adjacent people in the union, but the propagation of antiferromagnetic opinion can be observed among the third countries between two big super powers or among the family members of conflicting parents. Fixed points are found in both models. The distributions of relaxation time of the mixed model are dispersed and become closer to log-normal as the initial concentration of down spins approaches 0.5, whereas for pure antiferromagnetic spins, they are collapsed into one master curve, which is roughly log-normal. We do not see the phase transition in the model.
Triangularity effects on the collisional diffusion for elliptic tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this conference the effect of ellipticity and triangularity will be analyzed for axisymmetric tokamak in the collisional regime. Analytic forms for the magnetic field cross sections are taken from those derived recently by other authors [1,2]. Analytical results can be obtained in elliptic plasmas with triangularity by using an special system of tokamak coordinates recently published [3-5]. Our results show that triangularities smaller than 0.6, increases confinement for ellipticities in the range 1.2 to 2. This behavior happens for negative and positive triangularities; however this effect is stronger for positive than for negative triangularities. The maximum diffusion velocity is not obtained for zero triangularity, but for small negative triangularities. Ellipticity is also very important in confinement, but the effect of triangularity seems to be more important. High electric inductive field increases confinement, though this field is difficult to modify once the tokamak has been built. The analytic form of the current produced by this field is like that of a weak Ware pinch with an additional factor, which weakens the effect by an order of magnitude. The dependence of the triangularity effect with the Shafranov shift is also analyzed. References 1. - L. L. Lao, S. P. Hirshman, and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981) 2. - G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Physics Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) 3. - P. Martin, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2915 (2000) 4. - P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasmas 12, 082506 (2005) 5. - P. Martin, E. Castro and M. G. Haines, Phys. Plasmas 12, 102505 (2005)
Some Observations on Characteristics of China-U.S.-Russia Triangular Relationship
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li; Xing
2014-01-01
The China-U.S.-Russia triangular relationship emerged in the 1970s~90s, and is still in existence, but only the era environment and conditions, the compared strength between three countries, the impact scope and degree have changed. This triangular relationship is one of the world’s most complex, the most delicate and the most important. The Sino-U.S. relations and Sino-Russian relations are the most important bilateral relationships for China. As China upgrades its strategic and coordinate partnership with Russia, it also energetically promotes strategic-oriented relationship with the United States, namely, in the aspect of high politics, developing the strategic and coordinate relations with Russia, while in the aspect of low politics, developing mutually beneficial and win-win cooperation with the United States.
Logical, algebraic, analytic and probabilistic aspects of triangular norms
Klement, Erich Peter
2005-01-01
This volume gives a state of the art of triangular norms which can be used for the generalization of several mathematical concepts, such as conjunction, metric, measure, etc. 16 chapters written by leading experts provide a state of the art overview of theory and applications of triangular norms and related operators in fuzzy logic, measure theory, probability theory, and probabilistic metric spaces.Key Features:- Complete state of the art of the importance of triangular norms in various mathematical fields- 16 self-contained chapters with extensive bibliographies cover both the theoretical ba
Optimization of Multi-band Rectangular-Triangular Slotted Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.swetha,
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A multi-band microstrip patch antenna is developed and presented in this paper. The radiating elements in this antenna are composed of rectangular and triangular slots. These slots are engraved in the rectangular and triangular patch, joined together in one structure, and by single probe feed. The rectangular and triangular slots make the antenna to operate at multiband with relatively high gain. Therefore, this antenna can be used for wireless communication applications like WLAN, WiMax and radar system applications.
Electro-osmotic flows inside triangular microchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a numerical investigation of both pure electro-osmotic and combined electro-osmotic/pressure-driven flows inside triangular microchannels. A finite element analysis has been adopted to solve the governing equations for the electric potential and the velocity field, accounting for a finite thickness of the electric double layer. The influence of non-dimensional parameters such as the aspect ratio of the cross-section, the electrokinetic diameter and the ratio of the pressure force to the electric force on the flow behavior has been investigated. Numerical results point out that the velocity field is significantly influenced by the aspect ratio of the cross section and the electrokinetic diameter. More specifically, the aspect ratio plays an important role in determining the maximum volumetric flow rate, while the electrokinetic diameter is crucial to establishing the range of pressures that may be sustained by the electro-osmotic flow. Numerical results are also compared with two correlations available in the literature which enable to assess the volumetric flow rate and the pressure head for microchannels featuring a rectangular, a trapezoidal or an elliptical cross-section.
Triangular lattice arrays for interstitial microwave hyperthermia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Implantable miniature microwave antennas operating between 300 and 2450 MHz have been employed to heat deep-seated tumors in hyperthermia cancer therapy. While the complete response rate has been reported to be as high as 80%, a major limitation of this procedure is that present antennas tend to give allow heating zone near the tip of the device. Thus, there is considerable interest in antennas with improved heating at the tip of the interstitial hyperthermia applicator. Previously, the authors reported microwave antennas for interstitial hyperthermia and thermocoagulation with maximal power deposition occurring near the tip of the antenna. Experimental results obtained at phantom measurements showed that heating peaks near the tip of the antenna. Indeed, power deposition was enhanced by six to ten times. In this paper, they report the development of a novel interstitial array configuration for use at 915 and 2450 MHz that better conforms to accessible, deep-seated tumor volume. It is based on the unique configuration of an equilateral triangle. The symmetry afforded by locating three identical interstitial antennas at the corners of the triangle will allow the triangular array geometry to serve as a basic building block with which to construct lattice array structures to effect uniform heating throughout the three-dimensional volume of the tumor
Final critical habitat for Triangular Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus greenii)
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Polygon shapefile of critical habitat for the Triangular Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus greenii) based on the description provided in the Federal Register.
Magnetoresistance measurement of permalloy thin film rings with triangular fins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnetization reversals in permalloy rings controlled by nucleation sites using triangular fins at the same side and diagonal with respect to the field direction are demonstrated by magnetoresistance measurement and micromagnetic simulation. In the ring with triangular fins at the same side, there exists two-step reversal from onion to flux-closure state (or vortex state) and then from flux-closure (or vortex state) to reverse onion state; in the ring with diagonal triangular fins, one-step reversal occurs directly from onion to reverse onion state. The reversal processes are repeatable and controllable in contrast to an ideal ring without triangular fins where one-step and two-step reversals occur randomly in sweep-up and sweep-down processes.
Bhattacharya, Kisholoy; Maity, Manoranjan; Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Majee, Mithun Chandra; Chaudhury, Muktimoy
2013-08-19
A new family of trinuclear homo- and heterometal complexes with a triangular [V(V)O-MO-V(V)O] (M = V(IV), 1 and 2; Re(V), 3] all-oxido-metal core have been synthesized following a single-pot protocol using compartmental Schiff-base ligands, N,N'-bis(3-hydroxysalicylidene)-diiminoalkanes/arene (H4L(1)-H4L(3)). The upper compartment of these ligands with N2O2 donor combination (Salen-type) contains either a V(IV) or a Re(V) center, while the lower compartment with O4 donor set accommodates two V(V) centers, stabilized by a terminal and a couple of bridging methoxido ligands. The compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, which reveal octahedral geometry for all three metal centers in 1-3. Compound 1 crystallizes in a monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, while both 2 and 3 have more symmetric structures with orthorhombic space group Pnma that renders the vanadium(V) centers in these compounds exactly identical. In DMF solution, compound 1 displays an 8-line EPR at room temperature with and values of 1.972 and 86.61 × 10(-4) cm(-1), respectively. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) of this compound shows a couple of bands at 515.14 and 522.14 eV due to vanadium 2p(3/2) and 2p(1/2) electrons in the oxidation states +5 and +4, respectively. All of these, together with bond valence sum (BVS) calculation, confirm the trapped-valence nature of mixed-oxidation in compounds 1 and 2. Electrochemically, compound 1 undergoes two one-electron oxidations at E(1/2) = 0.52 and 0.83 V vs Ag/AgCl reference. While the former is due to a metal-based V(IV/V) oxidation, the latter one at higher potential is most likely due to a ligand-based process involving one of the catecholate centers. A larger cavity size in the upper compartment of the ligand H4L(3) is spacious enough to accommodate Re(V) with larger size to generate a rare type of all-oxido heterotrimetallic compound (3) as established by X-ray crystallography. PMID:23898782
A Class of New Metrics Based on Triangular Discrimination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoxiang Lu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the field of information theory, statistics and other application areas, the information-theoretic divergences are used widely. To meet the requirement of metric properties, we introduce a class of new metrics based on triangular discrimination which are bounded. Moreover, we obtain some sharp inequalities for the triangular discrimination and other information-theoretic divergences. Their asymptotic approximation properties are also involved.
Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond
Bayn, Igal; Meyler, Boris; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi
2011-01-01
Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection e...
Approximating Runge-Kutta matrices by triangular matrices
Hoffmann, W.; Swart, de, P.
1997-01-01
The implementation of implicit Runge-Kutta methods requires the solution of large systems of non-linear equations. Normally these equations are solved by a modified Newton process, which can be very expensive for problems of high dimension. The recently proposed triangularly implicit iteration methods for ODE-IVP solvers [HSw95] substitute the Runge-Kutta matrix A in the Newton process for a triangular matrix T that approximates A, hereby making the method suitable for parallel implementation...
On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices
Pestana, Jennifer
2014-01-01
Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Chemical compounds isolated from Talinum triangulare (Portulacaceae).
de Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; de Carvalho, Almir Ribeiro; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Castro, Rosane Nora; de Oliveira, Marcia Cristina Campos; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo
2014-10-01
This first phytochemical study of Talinum triangulare Leach (Portulacaceae), also known as 'cariru', which is a commonly consumed food in Northern Brazil, allowed the isolation and structural determination of four new compounds: one acrylamide, 3-N-(acryloyl, N-pentadecanoyl) propanoic acid (5), and three new phaeophytins named (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-Ficuschlorin D acid (3(1),3(2)-didehydro-7-oxo-17(3)-O-phytyl-rhodochlorin-15-acetic acid), (13), Talichorin A (17R, 18R)-phaeophytin b-15(1)-hidroxy, 15(2),15(3)-acetyl-13(1)-carboxilic acid (14), and (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-phaeophytin b peroxylactone or (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-hydroperoxy-ficuschlorin D (16), together with twelve known compounds, including four phaeophytins (11,12, 15 and 17). The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, IR, HRESI-MS spectra, including GC-MS, and HPLC-UV analysis, as well as comparisons with the literature data. The CD spectra data analysis were used to define the absolute configuration of phaeophytins 12 (13(2)R, 17R, 18R)-13(2)-hydroxyphaeophytin a, 13 and 16, 15 (15(1)S, 17R, 18R)-3(1),3(2)-didehydro-15(1)-hydroxyrhodochlorin-15-acetic acid δ-lactone-15(2)-methyl-17(3)-phytyl ester and 17 (17R, 18R)-purpurin 18-phytyl ester. PMID:24799228
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhensong Chen; Shenghua Xiong; Yanlai Li; Kwai-Sang Chin
2015-01-01
In order to measure the uncertain information of a type-2 intuitionistic fuzzy set (T2IFS), an entropy measure of T2IFS is presented by using the constructive principles. The proposed entropy measure is also proved to satisfy al of the constructive principles. Further, a novel concept of the type-2 triangular in-tuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy set (T2TITrFS) is developed, and a geometric interpretation of the T2TITrFS is given to comprehend it completely or correctly in a more intuitive way. To deal with a more general uncertain complex system, the constructive principles of an entropy measure of T2TITrFS are therefore proposed on the basis of the axiomatic definition of the type-2 intuitionisic fuzzy entropy measure. This paper elicits a formula of type-2 triangular intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy entropy and verifies that it does sa-tisfy the constructive principles. Two examples are given to show the efficiency of the proposed entropy of T2TITrFS in describing the uncertainty of the type-2 intuitionistic fuzzy information and il ustrate its application in type-2 triangular intuitionistic trapezodial fuzzy decision making problems.
Triangular Clinics: The Way of The Future
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed-Moayed Alavian
2005-09-01
other created the incentive to try something totally different. The Triangular Clinics, chosen the best practice forprevention and care for IDUs, started in Kermanshah in 2000, as a pilot study. The concept of the Triangular Clinic is to tackle three important issues: addressing IDUs through a harm reduction approach; the treatment of STDs; and care and support for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. The problems of drug dependence, STDs and HIV are all behavioral in nature and hence the Clinic is a center for the treatment of behavioral diseases. By grouping the three together, it is possible to organize a comprehensive and integrated service to the patients(5. Such clinics deliver many services, integrating both prevention and care, as seen in figure 1. Services are provided by dedicated staff for drug abusers, people seeking voluntary HIV counseling and testing, PLWHA and their family members, high risk populations, patients with STDs and people exposed to potentially contaminated body fluids (Fig. 1. Harm reduction, as the core activity of Triangular Clinics, serves the infected ones well while other supportive services help healthy but at-risk population prevent the spread of HIV, HCV and other related ailments. We hope the already-in-place program of harm reduction gets national to cover all high risk populations including IDUs in and out of prison.
Statistical disordering of chalcogen atoms in cluster fragments of K4[Re6(μ3-S)8-y(μ3-Te)y(CN)6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
X-ray diffraction investigation is conducted for three types of crystals of K4[Re6(μ3-S)8-y(μ3-Te)y(CN)6] - representatives of the continuous series of solid solutions prepared by high temperature reactions with the use of different initial substances. Syngony of the crystals is cubic, space group is Ia3. Statistical disordering of chalcogen atoms in cluster fragments [Re6(μ3-S)8-y(μ3-Te)y(CN)6] is investigated on data for three crystals. Results obtained show different effect of statistical disordering degree of Te and S on metric characteristics of the structures
Elliptic and triangular flow in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a study of the elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow and their corresponding eccentricity fluctuations for asymmetric (Au+Ag, Au+Cu, and Au+Si) collisions at √(sNN) = 200 GeV. These are compared to the corresponding results from symmetric (Au+Au and Cu+Cu) collisions at the same energy. The study which is carried out using a multiphase transport (AMPT) model shows that triangularity (ε3), fluctuations in triangularity and v3 do not show much variation for the different colliding ion sizes studied. However the eccentricity (ε2), fluctuations in eccentricity and v2, shows a strong dependence on colliding ion size for a given number of participating nucleons. Our study thus indicates that asymmetric heavy-ion collisions could be used to constrain models dealing with flow fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions.
Field-design optimization with triangular heliostat pods
Domínguez-Bravo, Carmen-Ana; Bode, Sebastian-James; Heiming, Gregor; Richter, Pascal; Carrizosa, Emilio; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Frank, Martin; Gauché, Paul
2016-05-01
In this paper the optimization of a heliostat field with triangular heliostat pods is addressed. The use of structures which allow the combination of several heliostats into a common pod system aims to reduce the high costs associated with the heliostat field and therefore reduces the Levelized Cost of Electricity value. A pattern-based algorithm and two pattern-free algorithms are adapted to handle the field layout problem with triangular heliostat pods. Under the Helio100 project in South Africa, a new small-scale Solar Power Tower plant has been recently constructed. The Helio100 plant has 20 triangular pods (each with 6 heliostats) whose positions follow a linear pattern. The obtained field layouts after optimization are compared against the reference field Helio100.
Elliptic and Triangular flow in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions
Haque, Md Rihan; Mohanty, Bedangadas
2011-01-01
We present a study of the elliptic (v2) and triangular (v3) flow and their corresponding eccentricity fluctuations for asymmetric (Au+Ag, Au+Cu and Au+Si) collisions at \\sqrt_NN = 200 GeV. These are compared to the corresponding results from symmetric (Au+Au and Cu+Cu) collisions at the same energy. The study which is carried out using a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model shows that triangularity (\\epsilon_3), fluctuations in triangularity and v3 do not show much variation for the different colliding ion sizes studied. However the eccentricity (\\epsilon_2), fluctuations in eccentricity and v2 shows a strong dependence on colliding ion size for a given number of participating nucleons. Our study thus indicates that asymmetric heavy-ion collisions could be used to constrain models dealing with flow fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions.
Universal triangular spectra in parametrically-driven systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmediev, Nail [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Ankiewicz, Adrian, E-mail: ana124@rsphysse.anu.edu.a [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Soto-Crespo, J.M. [Instituto de Optica, C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Dudley, John M. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-Universite de Franche-Comte, 25030 Besancon (France)
2011-01-17
We analyse triangular spectra that appear in many branches of physics that deal with parametrically-driven systems, and give a simple theoretical analysis for them in terms of the nonlinear dynamics of multimode fields. Such spectra appear universally as a result of an exponential decay of the nonlinearly generated frequency modes of many parametrically-driven systems, and have been confirmed by recent observations of noise-driven supercontinuum generation in optical fibers. We demonstrate that such universal triangular spectra (UTS) can be well-described by the analytical expressions for the spectra of Akhmediev breather (AB) solutions at the point of maximal compression.
Hua, Guoxiong; Du, Junyi; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek
2016-06-01
The development of new methodology for the preparation of functional macrocycles with practical applications is an important research area in macromolecular science. In this study, we report a new one-pot route for the synthesis of a series of macro-heterocycles by incorporating two phosphorus atoms and two chalcogen atoms and two oxygen atoms (double OP(S)SCn or OP(Se)SeCn scaffolds). The three-component condensation reactions of 2,4-diferrocenyl-1,3,2,4-diathiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfide (FcLR, a ferrocene analogue of Lawesson's reagent) or 2,4-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,2,4-dithiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfide (LR, Lawesson's reagent), or 2,4-diphenyl-1,3,2,4-diselenadiphosphetane 2,4-diselenide (WR, Woollins' reagent), disodium alkenyl-diols, and dihalogenated alkanes are performed, giving rise to soluble and air or moisture-stable macrocycles in good-to-excellent yields (up to 92 %). This is the first systemically preparative and readily scalable example of one-pot ring opening/ring extending reaction of three-components to prepare phosphorus-chalcogen containing macrocycles. We also provide a systematic crystallographic study. PMID:27112964
Partitioning a chordal graph into transitive subgraphs for parallel sparse triangular solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peyton, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pothen, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Yuan, Xiaoqing [IBM Canada Lab., North York, Ontario (Canada)
1992-12-01
A recent approach for solving sparse triangular systems of equations on massively parallel computers employs a factorization of the triangular coefficient matrix to obtain a representation of its inverse in product form. The number of general communication steps required by this approach is proportional to the number of factors in the factorization. The triangular matrix can be symmetrically permuted to minimize the number of factors over suitable classes of permutations, and thereby the complexity of the parallel algorithm can be minimized. Algorithms for minimizing the number of factors over several classes of permutations have been considered in earlier work. Let F = L+L{sup T} denote the symmetric filled matrix corresponding to a Cholesky factor L, and let G{sub F} denote the adjacency graph of F. In this paper we consider the problem of minirriizing the number of factors over all permutations which preserve the structure of G{sub F}. The graph model of this problem is to partition the vertices G{sub F} into the fewest transitively closed subgraphs over all perfect elimination orderings while satisfying a certain precedence relationship. The solution to this chordal graph partitioning problem can be described by a greedy scheme which eliminates a largest permissible subgraph at each step. Further, the subgraph eliminated at each step can be characterized in terms of lengths of chordless paths in the current elimination graph. This solution relies on several results concerning transitive perfect elimination orderings introduced in this paper. We describe a partitioning algorithm with {Omicron}({vert_bar}V{vert_bar} + {vert_bar}E{vert_bar}) time and space complexity.
Partitioning a chordal graph into transitive subgraphs for parallel sparse triangular solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Pothen, A. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science); Yuan, Xiaoqing (IBM Canada Lab., North York, Ontario (Canada))
1992-12-01
A recent approach for solving sparse triangular systems of equations on massively parallel computers employs a factorization of the triangular coefficient matrix to obtain a representation of its inverse in product form. The number of general communication steps required by this approach is proportional to the number of factors in the factorization. The triangular matrix can be symmetrically permuted to minimize the number of factors over suitable classes of permutations, and thereby the complexity of the parallel algorithm can be minimized. Algorithms for minimizing the number of factors over several classes of permutations have been considered in earlier work. Let F = L+L[sup T] denote the symmetric filled matrix corresponding to a Cholesky factor L, and let G[sub F] denote the adjacency graph of F. In this paper we consider the problem of minirriizing the number of factors over all permutations which preserve the structure of G[sub F]. The graph model of this problem is to partition the vertices G[sub F] into the fewest transitively closed subgraphs over all perfect elimination orderings while satisfying a certain precedence relationship. The solution to this chordal graph partitioning problem can be described by a greedy scheme which eliminates a largest permissible subgraph at each step. Further, the subgraph eliminated at each step can be characterized in terms of lengths of chordless paths in the current elimination graph. This solution relies on several results concerning transitive perfect elimination orderings introduced in this paper. We describe a partitioning algorithm with [Omicron]([vert bar]V[vert bar] + [vert bar]E[vert bar]) time and space complexity.
A Novel VOF-Type Volume-Tracking Method for Free-Surface Flows Based on Unstructured Triangular Mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Chun-ning; WANG Yuan-zhan; WANG Jian-feng
2005-01-01
A novel VOF-type volume-tracking method for two-dimensional free-surface flows based on the unstructured triangular mesh is presented. Owing to the inherent merit of the unstructured triangular mesh in fitting curved boundaries, this method can handle the free-surface problems with complex geometries accurately and directly, without introducing any complicated boundary treatment or artificial diffusion. The method solves the volume transport equation geometrically through the Modified Lagrangian-Eulerian Re-map (MLER) method, which is applied to advective fluid volumes. Moreover, the PLIC method is adopted to give a second-order reconstructed interface approximation. To validate this method, two advection tests were performed for the establishment of the accuracy and convergence rate of the solutions. Numerical results for these complex tests provide convincing evidence for the excellent solution quality and fidelity of the method.
Anisotropic Adhesion Properties of Triangular-Tip-Shaped Micropillars
Kwak, Moon Kyu
2011-06-01
Directional dry adhesive microstructures consisting of high-density triangular-tip-shaped micropillars are described. The wide-tip structures allow for unique directional shear adhesion properties with respect to the peeling direction, along with relatively high normal adhesion. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Selectively colorimetric detection of cysteine with triangular silver nanoprisms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tong Wu; Yuan Fang Li; Cheng Zhi Huang
2009-01-01
Triangular silver nanoprisms were prepared and applied to make colorimetric detection of cysteine based on our findings that cysteine could lead to the blue shift of the dipole plasmon resonance absorption,but other 19 kinds of natural amino acids could not.Cysteine with a concentration 160 nmol/L can result in a color change that can be discerned with naked eyes.
A Subdivision Scheme for Rational Triangular Bezier Surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡事民
1996-01-01
An explicit formula is developed to decompose a rational triangular Bezier patch into three non-degenerate rational rectangular Bezier patches of the same degree.This formula yields a stable algorithm to compute the control vertices of those three rectangular subpatches.Some properties of the subdivision are discussed and the formula is illustrated with an example.
The Numerical Integration of Discrete Functions on a Triangular Element
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
With the application of Hammer integral formulas of a continuousfunction on a triangular element, the numerical integral formulas of some discrete functions on the element are derived by means of decomposition and recombination of base functions. Hammer integral formulas are the special examples of those of the paper.
Aranha: a 2D mesh generator for triangular finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for generating unstructured meshes for linear and quadratic triangular finite elements is described in this paper. Some topics on the C language data structure used in the development of the program Aranha are also presented. The applicability for adaptive remeshing is shown and finally several examples are included to illustrate the performance of the method in irregular connected planar domains. (author)
On certain diophantine equations related to triangular and tetrahedral numbers
Ulas, Maciej
2008-01-01
In this paper we give solutions of certain diophantine equations related to triangular and tetrahedral numbers and propose several problems connected with these numbers. The material of this paper was presented in part at the 11th International Workshop for Young Mathematicians - NUMBER THEORY, Krak\\'{o}w, 14th-20th september 2008.
Coxeter Decompositions of Bounded Hyperbolic Pyramids and Triangular Prisms
Felikson, A.
2002-01-01
Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplices where studied in math.MG/0212010 and math.MG/0210067. In this paper we use the methods of these works to classify Coxeter decompositions of bounded convex pyramids and triangular prisms in the hyperbolic space H^3.
Photonic Crystal Waveguides in Triangular Lattice of Nanopillars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei
Photonic nanopillars waveguides have been analysed. Dielectric nanopillars are arranged in such way that they from a tringular lattice of 2D photonic crystal. Dispersion of the modes depends on the direction of the triangular lattice, Ã-J or Ã-X, in which nanopillars arrays are extended. Light...
Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; Campos de Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; de Azevedo Amorim, Thiago; Echevarria, Aurea
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE) and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1), resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract).The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL−1 (CE) and 6.6 μg·mL−1 (Fraction 1). The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform. PMID:26784338
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Paula Oliveira Amorim
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1, resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract.The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL−1 (CE and 6.6 μg·mL−1 (Fraction 1. The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform.
Oliveira Amorim, Ana Paula; Campos de Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; de Azevedo Amorim, Thiago; Echevarria, Aurea
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE) and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1), resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/100 g for Fraction 1, and 0.1400 g/100 g for the CE. Taking into account the results of the DPPH, the free radical scavenging capacity was confirmed. The formation of complexes with Fe II ions was evaluated by UV/visible spectrometry; results showed that CE has complexing power similar to the positive control (Gingko biloba extract).The inhibitory capacity of samples against the tyrosinase enzyme was determined by the oxidation of L-DOPA, providing IC50 values of 13.3 μg·mL(-1) (CE) and 6.6 μg·mL(-1) (Fraction 1). The values indicate that Fraction 1 was more active and showed a higher inhibitory power on the tyrosinase enzyme than the ascorbic acid, used as positive control. The hydromethanolic extract of T. triangulare proved to have powerful antioxidant activity and to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme; its potential is increased after the partition with chloroform. PMID:26784338
Hollow Ag/Pd triangular nanoplate: a novel activator for electroless nickel deposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollow Ag/Pd triangular nanoplates have been successfully prepared by a galvanic displacement reaction, in which added Pd2+ ions react with Ag triangular nanoplates as templates. By altering the sizes of the Ag nanotemplates, Ag/Pd triangular nanoplates of different sizes can be prepared. Additionally, the large alloy nanoplates show maximum electrochemical activity when Ag/Pd triangular nanoplates of different sizes are applied as new activators for electroless nickel deposition
The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑鑫; 解学关; 王安远; 张义鹏; 高伟阳; 蒋良福; 陈星隆; 张国佑; 丁健; 周飞亚; 宋永焕; 李晓阳
2011-01-01
目的 对腕关节三角纤维软骨复合体(TFCC)损伤行关节镜检查,并分析其疗效.方法 对2006年1月至2009年12月诊断为TFCC损伤并行腕关节镜治疗的15例患者进行回顾性分析,其中男6例、女9例,平均年龄42岁,平均随访时间26.5个月.根据Palmer分型,Ⅰ型损伤5例(ⅠA型3例,ⅠB型1例,ⅠD型1例),Ⅱ型损伤10例(ⅡA型6例,ⅡC型4例).所有患者保守治疗3个月以上无效后行关节镜治疗.测量指标:腕关节疼痛、握力、关节活动度、腕关节评分(改良Mayo评分)、DASH问卷.结果 术后15例患者腕关节疼痛均有缓解,握力改善;腕关节屈伸(129±26)°,桡尺偏(40±8)°,旋转(174±11)°.按照改良Mayo评分:优3例,良8例,可4例;优良率为73%.术后DASH评分为4～28分,平均(15±7)分.结论 关节镜对于TFCC损伤的诊断明显优于MRI检查,而且关节镜能在检查的同时进行治疗,应作为腕尺痛的常规诊断手段.关节镜治疗各型TFCC损伤均能缓解疼痛,但Ⅰ型效果好于Ⅱ型.伴有尺骨正变异的TFCC损伤应同时行尺骨缩短术以提高术后效果.%Objective The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of arthroscopic diagnosis and repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tears. Methods Fifteen cases of TFCC tears diagnosed and treated with arthroscopic repair in our hospital between January 2006 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. There were six males and nine females. The average age was 42 years. The average follow-up was 26.5 months. TFCC tears were classified by Palmer classification as follows:ⅠA (3 cases),ⅠB (1 case),ⅠD (1 case),ⅡA (6 cases),and ⅡC (4 cases). Arthroscopic repair was performed after at least 3 months of conservative treatment failed. Wrist pain,grip strength,range of motion (ROM),wrist score (modified Mayo wrist score),disabilities of the arm,shoulder,and hand questionnaire (DASH) score were evaluated. Results Postoperatively alleviation of
On the Construction of Jointly Superregular Lower Triangular Toeplitz Matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jonas; Østergaard, Jan; Kudahl, Johnny;
2016-01-01
Superregular matrices have the property that all of their submatrices, which can be full rank are so. Lower triangular superregular matrices are useful for e.g., maximum distance separable convolutional codes as well as for (sequential) network codes. In this work, we provide an explicit design...... for all superregular lower triangular Toeplitz matrices in GF(2p) for the case of matrices with dimensions less than or equal to 5 × 5. For higher dimensional matrices, we present a greedy algorithm that find a solution provided the field size is sufficiently high. We also introduce the notions of jointly...... superregular and product preserving jointly superregular matrices, and extend our explicit constructions of superregular matrices to these cases. Jointly superregular matrices are necessary to achieve optimal decoding capabilities for the case of codes with a rate lower than 1/2, and the product preserving...
(2-1)-Ideal amenability of triangular banach algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Etemad; M Ettefagh
2015-05-01
Let $\\mathcal{A}$ and $\\mathcal{B}$ be two unital Banach algebras and let $\\mathcal{M}$ be an unital Banach $\\mathcal{A}$, $\\mathcal{B}$-module. Also, let $\\mathcal{T}=\\left[\\begin{smallmatrix} \\mathcal{A} & \\mathcal{M}\\\\ & \\mathcal{B}\\end{smallmatrix}\\right]$ be the corresponding triangular Banach algebra. Forrest and Marcoux (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 354 (2002) 1435–1452) have studied the -weak amenability of triangular Banach algebras. In this paper, we investigate (2-1)-ideal amenability of $\\mathcal{T}$ for all ≥ 1. We introduce the structure of ideals of these Banach algebras and then, we show that (2-1)-ideal amenability of $\\mathcal{T}$ depends on (2-1)-ideal amenability of Banach algebras $\\mathcal{A}$ and $\\mathcal{B}$.
A Novel Triangular Shaped UWB Fractal Antenna Using Circular Slot
Shahu, Babu Lal; Pal, Srikanta; Chattoraj, Neela
2016-03-01
The article presents the design of triangular shaped fractal based antenna with circular slot for ultra wideband (UWB) application. The antenna is fed using microstrip line and has overall dimension of 24×24×1.6 mm3. The proposed antenna is covering the wide frequency bandwidth of 2.99-11.16 GHz and is achieved using simple fractal based triangular-circular geometries and asymmetrical ground plane. The antenna is designed and parametrical studies are performed using method of moment (MOM) based Full Wave Electromagnetic (EM) software Simulator Zeland IE3D. The prototype of proposed antenna is fabricated and tested to compare the simulated and measured results of various antenna parameters. The antenna has good impedance bandwidth, nearly constant gain and stable radiation pattern. Measured return loss shows fair agreement with simulated one. Also measured group delay variation obtained is less than 1.0 ns, which proves good time domain behavior of the proposed antenna.
Block-triangular preconditioners for PDE-constrained optimization
Rees, Tyrone
2010-11-26
In this paper we investigate the possibility of using a block-triangular preconditioner for saddle point problems arising in PDE-constrained optimization. In particular, we focus on a conjugate gradient-type method introduced by Bramble and Pasciak that uses self-adjointness of the preconditioned system in a non-standard inner product. We show when the Chebyshev semi-iteration is used as a preconditioner for the relevant matrix blocks involving the finite element mass matrix that the main drawback of the Bramble-Pasciak method-the appropriate scaling of the preconditioners-is easily overcome. We present an eigenvalue analysis for the block-triangular preconditioners that gives convergence bounds in the non-standard inner product and illustrates their competitiveness on a number of computed examples. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kernel methods and scale invariance using the triangular kernel
Sahbi, Hichem; Fleuret, François
2004-01-01
We focus in this paper on the scale invariance of kernel methods using a particular function referred to as the triangular kernel. The study in (Sahbi and Fleuret, 2002) reported scale invariance for support vector machines (SVM) and the current work is an extension for support vector regression (SVR) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA). First, we review these kernel methods and we illustrate analytically the scale invariance of the training processes. Experiments are conducted in ...
A novel optical multilayer hydrophone with a triangular pyramid substrate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Suyong Wu; Xingwu Long; Kaiyong Yang; Yun Huang
2011-01-01
@@ A novel concept for an optical multilayer ultrasonic hydrophone with the sensing film deposited on a triangular pyramid glass substrate is proposed. Using the calculation model for the spectral coefficients' derivatives of a dielectric multilayer optical coating, the acousto-optic sensitivity characteristic of the hydrophone is analyzed with different measurement laser polarizations and incident angles. We present a reasonable method and adjusting strategy for the optimum working point selection of the ultrasound measurement. Analytic results show that the novel hydrophone possesses all the other merits of a plate glass substrate optical multilayer hydrophone but with improved detection sensitivity. A longer measurement time without distortion decreases the difficulty of high frequency signal circuits. Spatial split of the ultrasound signal caused by the substrate's triangular pyramid roof simplifies the spatial spot area correction,which contributes to the accurate calibration of the hydrophone's wideband frequency response.%A novel concept for an optical multilayer ultrasonic hydrophone with the sensing film deposited on a triangular pyramid glass substrate is proposed. Using the calculation model for the spectral coefficients'derivatives of a dielectric multilayer optical coating, the acousto-optic sensitivity characteristic of the hydrophone is analyzed with different measurement laser polarizations and incident angles. We present a reasonable method and adjusting strategy for the optimum working point selection of the ultrasound measurement. Analytic results show that the novel hydrophone possesses all the other merits of a plate glass substrate optical multilayer hydrophone but with improved detection sensitivity. A longer measurement time without distortion decreases the difficulty of high frequency signal circuits. Spatial split of the ultrasound signal caused by the substrate's triangular pyramid roof simplifies the spatial spot area correction
Mott Insulating Ground State on a Triangular Surface Lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Momentum-resolved direct and inverse photoemission spectra of the K/Si(111)-(√(3)x√(3))R30 degree-B interface reveals the presence of strongly localized surface states. The K overlayer remains nonmetallic up to the saturation coverage. This system most likely presents the first experimental realization of a frustrated spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
NEW SECOND ORDER NONCONFORMING TRIANGULAR ELEMENT FOR PLANAR ELASTICITY PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Shaochun; Zheng Yanjun; Mao Shipeng
2011-01-01
In the use of finite element methods to the planar elasticity problems, one difficulty is to overcome locking when elasticity constant λ→∞. In the case of traction boundary condition, another difficulty is to make the discrete Korn's second inequality valid. In this paper, a triangular element is presented. We prove that this element is locking-free, the discrete Korn's second inequality holds and the convergence order is two.
Maxima of Dirichlet and triangular arrays of gamma variables
Bose, Arup; Dasgupta, Amites; Maulik, Krishanu
2008-01-01
Consider a rowwise independent triangular array of gamma random variables with varying parameters. Under several different conditions on the shape parameter, we show that the sequence of row-maximums converges weakly after linear or power transformation. Depending on the parameter combinations, we obtain both Gumbel and non-Gumbel limits. The weak limits for maximum of the coordinates of certain Dirichlet vectors of increasing dimension are also obtained using the gamma representation.
Natural convection in asymmetric triangular enclosures heated from below
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triangular enclosures are typical configurations of attic spaces found in residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Natural convection in triangular rooftops has received considerable attention over the years, mainly on right-angled and isosceles enclosures. In this paper, a finite volume CFD package is employed to study the laminar air flow and temperature distribution in asymmetric rooftop-shaped triangular enclosures when heated isothermally from the base wall, for aspect ratios (AR) 0.2 ≤ AR ≤ 1.0, and Rayleigh number (Ra) values 8 × 105 ≤ Ra ≤ 5 × 107. The effects of Rayleigh number and pitch angle on the flow structure and temperature distributions within the enclosure are analysed. Results indicate that, at low pitch angle, the heat transfer between the cold inclined and the hot base walls is very high, resulting in a multi-cellular flow structure. As the pitch angle increases, however, the number of cells reduces, and the total heat transfer rate progressively reduces, even if the Rayleigh number, being based on the enclosure height, rapidly increases. Physical reasons for the above effect are inspected
Effective Lateral Canthal Lengthening with Triangular Rotation Flap
2016-01-01
In Korea, lateral canthoplasty, along with medial epicanthoplasty, has become popular over the past years to widen the horizontal length of the palpebral fissure. However, the effect of the surgery differs greatly depending on the shape and structure of the eyes. If over-widened, complications such as eversion, scarring, and conjunctival exposure may occur. Thus, the author of this study suggests a more effective and safe method for lateral canthal lengthening that causes minimal complications. A total of 236 patients underwent lateral canthoplasty between July 2007 and December 2015. For each patient, a triangular flap 4–5 mm away from the lateral canthus was elevated and rotated 45 degrees laterally while the continuity of the lower eyelid gray line was maintained. A new lateral canthus was created by fixating the rotation flap to the lateral orbital rim with minimal skin trimming and tension-free sutures, preventing relapse and maintaining a triangular shape. In more than 95% of cases, effective and satisfactory extension was achieved. On average, a 3 mm extension of the lateral canthus was achieved. There were minor complications such as wound dehiscence, webbing, and scarring, which were easily corrected. The author not only extended the lateral canthus 3–4 mm laterally but also maintained the continuity of the gray line on the lower lid as a more natural-looking triangular shape, while minimizing complications such as webbing and conjunctival exposure.
Magnetic properties of a spin-1 triangular Ising system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We studied some magnetic behaviors of the Blume-Capel (BC) model in a site diluted triangular lattice by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the exchange interaction (J), crystal field (D), concentration (p) and temperature (T) on the magnetic properties of the spin-1 BC model in a triangular lattice, such as magnetization, susceptibility, phase diagram and hysteresis behaviors, are investigated in detail. The phase diagrams of the system are presented in two different planes. The tricritical point as well as the tetracritical and critical end special points are found to depend on the physical parameters of the system. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the physical parameters. We show that the hysteresis loops have different coercive field points in which the susceptibility makes a peak at these points. - Highlights: • The triangular Ising system is investigated within EFT with correlations. • The effects of the interaction parameters on spin-1 BC model are studied. • The phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined. • The system shows the tricritical, tetracritical and critical end special points
Magnetic properties of a spin-1 triangular Ising system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin, E-mail: ersinkantar@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2015-07-15
We studied some magnetic behaviors of the Blume-Capel (BC) model in a site diluted triangular lattice by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the exchange interaction (J), crystal field (D), concentration (p) and temperature (T) on the magnetic properties of the spin-1 BC model in a triangular lattice, such as magnetization, susceptibility, phase diagram and hysteresis behaviors, are investigated in detail. The phase diagrams of the system are presented in two different planes. The tricritical point as well as the tetracritical and critical end special points are found to depend on the physical parameters of the system. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the physical parameters. We show that the hysteresis loops have different coercive field points in which the susceptibility makes a peak at these points. - Highlights: • The triangular Ising system is investigated within EFT with correlations. • The effects of the interaction parameters on spin-1 BC model are studied. • The phase diagrams are found for the different interaction parameters. • The hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined. • The system shows the tricritical, tetracritical and critical end special points.
Development of Negative Triangularity Plasmas in DIII-D
Walker, M. L.
2015-11-01
We report on development of DIII-D electron cyclotron heated discharges with controlled negative triangularity plasma shapes, to evaluate the effect on electron heat transport in L-mode plasmas, as reported on TCV. Analysis of TCV data found that negative triangularity exerts a stabilizing influence on the trapped electron mode, the dominant instability in the conditions of those experiments. Major objectives of the DIII-D development are producing complementary plasmas, one with negative and one with positive triangularity, approximately symmetric in major radial coordinate and having similar density and current profiles. Major constraints include selection of plasma parameters and toroidal field to optimize fluctuation diagnostic measurements while preventing transition from L- to H-mode and deposition of EC heating power near the q=1 surface to limit sawteeth. Issues discussed are definition of control scenarios by which the pair of shapes are accessed and their resulting controllability under the constraints imposed by DIII-D shaping control. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Gershenson, Carlos
2011-01-01
The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.
TRESS, Triangular Mesh Stress and Strain in R-Z, X-Y Geometry for Various Load and Temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The program considers the problem of evaluating stresses and strains in two dimensions, given various loading and temperature conditions. Provision is made for 'fixed displacements' and 'lines of symmetry'. R-z and x-y geometries are available, and in the latter the program is able to do either a plane stress or a plane strain calculation. Also available is an option enabling the user to specify only the boundary of the body; the program will then design its own triangular element mesh. Various graphical output options are available. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses triangular finite elements. A set of simultaneous equations (stiffness matrix) is set up connecting the total loads at nodal points with the displacements of these points. These equations are solved using the routine SPARSE, in such a way that additional loading cases may be done with negligible extra running time. Irregular triangular elements may be used, allowing great flexibility in the representation of irregular bodies. Arbitrary variation of material parameters is achieved by covering the body with a set of circles, triangles, or squares, within each of which material parameters are prescribed. Material properties may vary with temperature. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: About 1000 nodes. Not more than 500 fixed displacements and 500 'line of symmetry'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study investigates the effects of computed tomography (CT) parameters on the quality and size of the reverse triangular surface model with an objective of obtaining an accurate 3D triangular surface model of complex-shaped customized objects for reverse engineering and many other applications such as surgical planning and finite element analysis. For this purpose, the fibula of a human knee joint was CT scanned by changing various parameters (slice thickness, slice spacing, pixel size, X-ray tube current and helical pitch) over wide ranges. Three-dimensional triangular surface models were created from point cloud data extracted from the CT image data. To assess the influences of scanning parameters on the surface quality and accuracy, the resulting surface models were qualitatively compared based on various anatomical features. Statistical analysis was used to quantify the deviations of surface models with different scanning parameter levels from the reference CT surface model. The results show that these parameters to a varying degree affect the surface quality, reproduction of various anatomical details and size of the resulting surface model. Moreover, these parameters are highly dependent on each other. Interactive effects of these parameters have been discussed and recommendations have been made for parameter settings. The results of the study would help to improve the accuracy of the 3D surface models required for customized implants and other applications. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, Nasir; Ahmad, Mushtaq, E-mail: nasirhayat@uet.edu.pk [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, UET, Lahore (Pakistan)
2016-01-15
This study investigates the effects of computed tomography (CT) parameters on the quality and size of the reverse triangular surface model with an objective of obtaining an accurate 3D triangular surface model of complex-shaped customized objects for reverse engineering and many other applications such as surgical planning and finite element analysis. For this purpose, the fibula of a human knee joint was CT scanned by changing various parameters (slice thickness, slice spacing, pixel size, X-ray tube current and helical pitch) over wide ranges. Three-dimensional triangular surface models were created from point cloud data extracted from the CT image data. To assess the influences of scanning parameters on the surface quality and accuracy, the resulting surface models were qualitatively compared based on various anatomical features. Statistical analysis was used to quantify the deviations of surface models with different scanning parameter levels from the reference CT surface model. The results show that these parameters to a varying degree affect the surface quality, reproduction of various anatomical details and size of the resulting surface model. Moreover, these parameters are highly dependent on each other. Interactive effects of these parameters have been discussed and recommendations have been made for parameter settings. The results of the study would help to improve the accuracy of the 3D surface models required for customized implants and other applications. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanbing Ju
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the multiattribute decision making (MADM problems in which the attribute values take the form of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements and the weights of attributes take the form of real numbers. Firstly, to solve the situation where the membership degree and the nonmembership degree of an element to a triangular linguistic variable, the concept, operational laws, score function, and accuracy function of dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic elements (DHFTLEs are defined. Then, some dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic geometric aggregation operators are developed for aggregating the DHFTLEs, including dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (DHFTLWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (DHFTLOWG operator, dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic hybrid geometric (DHFTLHG operator, generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic weighted geometric (GDHFTLWG operator, and generalized dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic ordered weighted geometric (GDHFTLOWG operator. Furthermore, some desirable properties of these operators are investigated in detail. Based on the proposed operators, an approach to MADM with dual hesitant fuzzy triangular linguistic information is proposed. Finally, a numerical example for investment alternative selection is given to illustrate the application of the proposed method.
Dung Y. Liao; Yu C. Chai; Sue H. Wang; Chih W. Chen; Ming S. Tsai
2015-01-01
In this study, leaves and stems of Talinum triangulare were sequentially extracted with phosphate buffer solution to obtain PTL and PTS (phosphate buffered extracts of T. triangulare leaves and stems), with 75% ethanol to obtained ETL and ETS (ethanol extracts of T. triangulare leaves and stems), or with 90°C boiling water to obtain WTL and WTS (water extracts of T. triangulare leaves and stems). We investigated the antioxidant activities of various T. triangulare extracts, analyzed the extra...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sutthisak Phongthanapanich; Pramote Dechaumphai
2011-01-01
Level set methods are widely used for predicting evolutions of complex free surface topologies,such as the crystal and crack growth,bubbles and droplets deformation,spilling and breaking waves,and two-phase flow phenomena.This paper presents a characteristic level set equation which is derived from the two-dimensional level set equation by using the characteristic-based scheme.An explicit finite volume element method is developed to discretize the equation on triangular grids.Several examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method for calculating interface evolutions in time.The proposed level set method is also coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase immiscible incompressible flow analysis with surface tension.The Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem is used to test and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Improved triangular prism methods for fractal analysis of remotely sensed images
Zhou, Yu; Fung, Tung; Leung, Yee
2016-05-01
Feature extraction has been a major area of research in remote sensing, and fractal feature is a natural characterization of complex objects across scales. Extending on the modified triangular prism (MTP) method, we systematically discuss three factors closely related to the estimation of fractal dimensions of remotely sensed images. They are namely the (F1) number of steps, (F2) step size, and (F3) estimation accuracy of the facets' areas of the triangular prisms. Differing from the existing improved algorithms that separately consider these factors, we simultaneously take all factors to construct three new algorithms, namely the modification of the eight-pixel algorithm, the four corner and the moving-average MTP. Numerical experiments based on 4000 generated images show their superior performances over existing algorithms: our algorithms not only overcome the limitation of image size suffered by existing algorithms but also obtain similar average fractal dimension with smaller standard deviation, only 50% for images with high fractal dimensions. In the case of real-life application, our algorithms more likely obtain fractal dimensions within the theoretical range. Thus, the fractal nature uncovered by our algorithms is more reasonable in quantifying the complexity of remotely sensed images. Despite the similar performance of these three new algorithms, the moving-average MTP can mitigate the sensitivity of the MTP to noise and extreme values. Based on the numerical and real-life case study, we check the effect of the three factors, (F1)-(F3), and demonstrate that these three factors can be simultaneously considered for improving the performance of the MTP method.
Triangular preconditioners for saddle point problems with a penalty term
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klawonn, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany)
1996-12-31
Triangular preconditioners for a class of saddle point problems with a penalty term are considered. An important example is the mixed formulation of the pure displacement problem in linear elasticity. It is shown that the spectrum of the preconditioned system is contained in a real, positive interval, and that the interval bounds can be made independent of the discretization and penalty parameters. This fact is used to construct bounds of the convergence rate of the GMRES method used with an energy norm. Numerical results are given for GMRES and BI-CGSTAB.
The Hill-determinant perturbation theory with triangular propagators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation prescription is proposed. Its main formal feature lies in an unusual choice of the model space and unperturbed H0 and in a resulting lower-triangular matrix structure of its propagators. Within the framework of the so-called Hill-determinant method, an admissibility of any incompletely solvable zero-order Hamiltonian is achieved in this way. As a consequence, the range of practical applicability of our new perturbative formalism may be expected to incorporate many new phenomenological interactions with a strongly anharmonic character. 18 refs
STL Triangular Mesh Generation Based on SAT Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuwei Zhang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Mesh generation is a fundamental technique in multiple domains. In this study, a STL triangular mesh generation method based on SAT model is proposed. Two novel triangulation methods, the constrained Delaunay algorithm and the grid subtraction algorithm, are employed on the multi-loop planer regions and the curved surfaces respectively. For the use of node adjustment, the mesh nodes on the surface boundary are strictly matched, with no cracks created on the joint of model surfaces. Experiments show that the proposed solution works effectively and high quality of the mesh model is achieved.
A Short Polarization Converter Using a Triangular Waveguide
Yamauchi, Junji; Yamanoue, Masahiro; Nakano, Hisamatsu
2008-01-01
A novel polarization converter using a triangular waveguide is proposed and analyzed by the imaginary-distance beam-propagation method based on Yee's mesh and the finite-difference time-domain method. The polarization conversion length is investigated as a function of relative refractive index difference. It is found, for a silicon core embedded in a silica cladding, that the conversion length is 2 mum, while the insertion loss is 0.5 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 mum. The extinction ratio is mo...
Self-avoiding walks and polygons on the triangular lattice
Jensen, Iwan
2004-01-01
We use new algorithms, based on the finite lattice method of series expansion, to extend the enumeration of self-avoiding walks and polygons on the triangular lattice to length 40 and 60, respectively. For self-avoiding walks to length 40 we also calculate series for the metric properties of mean-square end-to-end distance, mean-square radius of gyration and the mean-square distance of a monomer from the end points. For self-avoiding polygons to length 58 we calculate series for the mean-squa...
Triangular Dynamic Architecture for Distributed Computing in a LAN Environment
Hossain, M Shahriar; Fuad, M Muztaba; Deb, Debzani
2011-01-01
A computationally intensive large job, granulized to concurrent pieces and operating in a dynamic environment should reduce the total processing time. However, distributing jobs across a networked environment is a tedious and difficult task. Job distribution in a Local Area Network based on Triangular Dynamic Architecture (TDA) is a mechanism that establishes a dynamic environment for job distribution, load balancing and distributed processing with minimum interaction from the user. This paper introduces TDA and discusses its architecture and shows the benefits gained by utilizing such architecture in a distributed computing environment.
THE EFFECT OF AN ELASTIC TRIANGULAR INCLUSION ON A CRACK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
焦贵德; 王银邦
2003-01-01
The interaction between an elastic triangular inclusion and a crack is investigated. The problem is formulated using the boundary integral equations for traction boundary value problems derived by Chau and Wang as basic equations. By using the continuity condition of traction and displacement on interface as supplement equations, a set of equations for solving the interaction problem between an inclusion and a crack are obtained, which are solved by asing a new boundary element method. The results in terms of stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated for a variety of crack-inclusion arrangements and the elastic constants of the matrix and the inclusion. The results are valuable for studying new composite materials.
Apex-angle-dependent resonances in triangular split ring resonators
Burnett, Max A
2016-01-01
Along with other frequency selective structures [1] (circles and squares), triangular split-ring resonators (TSRRs) only allow frequencies near the center resonant frequency to propagate. Further, TSRRs are attractive due to their small surface area [2], comparatively, and large quality factors (Q) factors as previously investigated by Gay-Balmaz, et al. [3]. In this work we examine the effects of varying the apex angle on the resonant frequency, the Q factor, and the phase shift imparted by the TSRR element within the GHz frequency regime.
On Mulholland Inequality and Dominance of Strict Triangular Norms
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Petrík, Milan
Berlin: Springer, 2013 - (Bustince, H.; Fernandez, J.; Mesiar, R.; Calvo, T.), s. 187-195. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. 228). ISBN 978-3-642-39164-4. ISSN 2194-5357. [AGOP 2013. International Summer School on Aggregation Operators at the Public University of Navarra. Pamplona (ES), 16.07.2013-20.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP201/12/P055 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0051 Keywords : Mulholland inequality * Minkowski inequality * strict triangular norm * dominance relation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Bistable Chimera Attractors on a Triangular Network of Oscillator Populations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas
2010-01-01
. This triangular network is the simplest discretization of a continuous ring of oscillators. Yet it displays an unexpectedly different behavior: in contrast to the lone stable chimera observed in continuous rings of oscillators, we find that this system exhibits two coexisting stable chimeras. Both...... chimeras are, as usual, born through a saddle-node bifurcation. As the coupling becomes increasingly local in nature they lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to breathing chimeras, which in turn get destroyed through a homoclinic bifurcation. Remarkably, one of the chimeras reemerges by...
Tunable supercurrent in a triangular triple quantum dot system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The supercurrent in a triangular triple quantum dot system is investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the sign of the supercurrent can be changed from positive to negative with increasing the strength of spin-flip scattering, resulting in the π-junction transition. The supercurrent and the π-junction transition are also modulated by tuning the system parameters such as the gate voltage and the interdot coupling. The tunable π-junction transition is explained in terms of the current carrying density of states. These results provide the ways of manipulating the supercurrent in a triple quantum dot system.
Mott transition and magnetism on the anisotropic triangular lattice
Acheche, S.; Reymbaut, A.; Charlebois, M.; Sénéchal, D.; Tremblay, A.-M.S.
2016-01-01
Spin-liquid behavior was recently suggested experimentally in the moderately one-dimensional organic compound $\\kappa$-H$_3$(Cat-EDT-TTF)$_2$. This compound can be modeled by the one-band Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice with $t^\\prime/t \\simeq 1.5$, where $t'$ is the minority hopping. It thus becomes important to extend previous studies, that were performed in the range $0 \\leq t'/t \\leq 1.2$, to find out whether there is a regime where Mott insulating behavior can be foun...
Triangular-slot monopole antenna for on-body communications
Martín Cantero, Alejandro
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT: The objective of this project is to optimize and redesign a Triangular monopole slot antenna designed to work in On-Body communications. Originally, the antenna was working in the 5.8 GHz ISM band and in the first steps of the design we had to modify the antenna to establish its resonant frequency in the 2.4 GHz band. Finally, we changed the antenna substrate to CuClad 217LX, since this substrate is more flexible and therefore more optimum for communications on the human body. Durin...
Wavelength Demultiplexer using Heterostructure Ring Resonators in Triangular Photonic Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Rakhshani
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this Paper a new type of wavelength demultiplexer using ring resonators in 2D triangular photonic crystal is presented. The designed demultiplexer contents two regions which each own a resonator. Two dielectric constants are used in this demultiplexer. These structures which are called hetero have the capability to be used in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM systems. The average transferred power for the two output channels is about 93%. The crosstalk between output channels was more than -18.5dB, also the overall size of the structure was about 144µm2 which is so appropriate for fabrication and integration.
Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Ag3PO4 Triangular Prism
Pengyu Dong; Yan Hao; Peiyang Gao; Entian Cui; Qinfang Zhang
2015-01-01
Ag3PO4 triangular prism was synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation approach by simply adjusting external ultrasonic condition. The as-synthesized Ag3PO4 triangular prism was characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (UV-vis DRS) absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 triangular prism was evaluated by photodegradation of or...
Approximation and geometric processing of digital images with adaptive triangular meshes
Vintimilla Burgos, Boris Xavier
2001-01-01
Esta tesis se ha enfocado en el desarrollo y evaluación de un conjunto de técnicas eficientes para generar y procesar mallas triangulares adaptativas obtenidas a partir de imágenes digitales.Tres objetivos diferentes han sido considerados: (1) aproximación de imágenes digitales con mallas triangulares adaptativas, (2) ejecución de operaciones típicas de procesamiento de imagen sobre mallas triangulares adaptativas y (3) obtención de imágenes digitales a partir de mallas triangulares adaptativ...
On the interference rejection capabilities of triangular antenna array for cellular base stations
Atat, Rachad
2012-03-01
In this paper, we present the performance analysis of the triangular antenna arrays in terms of the interference rejection capability. In this context, we derive an expression to calculate the spatial interference suppression coefficient for the triangular antenna array with variable number of antenna elements. The performance of the triangular antenna array has been compared with the circular antenna array with respect to interference suppression performance, steering beam pattern, beamwidth and directivity. Simulation results show that the triangular array with large number of elements produces a sharper beamwidth and better interference suppression performance than the circular antenna array. © 2012 IEEE.
Statistical Complexity in Traveling Densities
Lopez-Ruiz, Ricardo; Sanudo, Jaime
2009-01-01
In this work, we analyze the behavior of statistical complexity in several systems where two identical densities that travel in opposite direction cross each other. The crossing between two Gaussian, rectangular and triangular densities is studied in detail. For these three cases, the shape of the total density presenting an extreme value in complexity is found.
Utkin, Lev V; Chekh, Anatoly I; Zhuk, Yulia A
2016-08-01
Classification algorithms based on different forms of support vector machines (SVMs) for dealing with interval-valued training data are proposed in the paper. L2-norm and L∞-norm SVMs are used for constructing the algorithms. The main idea allowing us to represent the complex optimization problems as a set of simple linear or quadratic programming problems is to approximate the Gaussian kernel by the well-known triangular and Epanechnikov kernels. The minimax strategy is used to choose an optimal probability distribution from the set and to construct optimal separating functions. Numerical experiments illustrate the algorithms. PMID:27179616
Herzberg Circuit and Berry's Phase in Chirality-based Coded Qubit in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot
Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Rene, Alexandre; Hawrylak, Pawel
2011-01-01
We present a theoretical proposal for the Herzberg circuit and controlled accumulation of Berry's phase in a chirality-based coded qubit in a triangular triple quantum dot molecule with one electron spin each. The qubit is encoded in the two degenerate states of a three spin complex with total spin $S=1/2$. Using a Hubbard and Heisenberg model the Herzberg circuit encircling the degeneracy point is realized by adiabatically tuning the successive on-site energies of quantum dots and tunnel cou...
Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single crystal diamond
Bayn, Igal; Salzman, Joseph; Kalish, Rafi
2011-01-01
Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel triangular cross section nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross section allows vertical confinement and better signal collection efficiency than that of slab-based nanocavities, and eliminates the need for a pre-existing membrane. The nanobeam is fabricated by Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) patterning. The cavity is characterized by a confocal photoluminescence. The modes display quality factors of Q ~220 and are deviated in wavelength by only ~1.7nm from the NV- color center zero phonon line (ZPL). The measured results are found in good agreement with 3D Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) calculations. A more advanced cavity design with Q=22,000 is model...
Triangular nanobeam photonic cavities in single-crystal diamond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond photonics provides an attractive architecture to explore room temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics and to realize scalable multi-qubit computing. Here, we review the present state of diamond photonic technology. The design, fabrication and characterization of a novel nanobeam cavity produced in a single crystal diamond are demonstrated. The present cavity design, based on a triangular cross-section, allows vertical confinement and better signal collection efficiency than that of slab-based nanocavities and eliminates the need for a pre-existing membrane. The nanobeam is fabricated by focused-ion-beam (FIB) patterning. The cavity is characterized by confocal photoluminescence. The modes display quality factors of Q∼220 and deviate in wavelength by only ∼1.7 nm from the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) color center zero phonon line (ZPL). The measured results are found to be in good agreement with three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) calculations. A more advanced cavity design with Q=22 000 is modeled, showing the potential for high-Q implementations using the triangular geometry. The prospects of this concept and its application in spin non-demolition measurement and quantum computing are discussed.
Triangular Black Phosphorus Atomic Layers by Liquid Exfoliation
Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Soon Chang; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Hyeran; Bang, Junhyeok; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youngjun; Park, Byoungnam; Lee, Jouhahn
2016-03-01
Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is the most promising material among the two-dimensional materials due to its layered structure and the excellent semiconductor properties. Currently, thin BP atomic layers are obtained mostly by mechanical exfoliation of bulk BP, which limits applications in thin-film based electronics due to a scaling process. Here we report highly crystalline few-layer black phosphorus thin films produced by liquid exfoliation. We demonstrate that the liquid-exfoliated BP forms a triangular crystalline structure on SiO2/Si (001) and amorphous carbon. The highly crystalline BP layers are faceted with a preferred orientation of the (010) plane on the sharp edge, which is an energetically most favorable facet according to the density functional theory calculations. Our results can be useful in understanding the triangular BP structure for large-area applications in electronic devices using two-dimensional materials. The sensitivity and selectivity of liquid-exfoliated BP to gas vapor demonstrate great potential for practical applications as sensors.
Corrosion processes of triangular silver nanoparticles compared to bulk silver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keast, V. J., E-mail: vicki.keast@newcastle.edu.au; Myles, T. A. [University of Newcastle, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (Australia); Shahcheraghi, N.; Cortie, M. B. [University of Technology Sydney, Institute for Nanoscale Technology (Australia)
2016-02-15
Excessive corrosion of silver nanoparticles is a significant impediment to their use in a variety of potential applications in the biosensing, plasmonic and antimicrobial fields. Here we examine the environmental degradation of triangular silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in laboratory air. In the early stages of corrosion, transmission electron microscopy shows that dissolution of the single-crystal, triangular, AgNP (side lengths 50–120 nm) is observed with the accompanying formation of smaller, polycrystalline Ag particles nearby. The new particles are then observed to corrode to Ag{sub 2}S and after 21 days nearly full corrosion has occurred, but some with minor Ag inclusions remaining. In contrast, a bulk Ag sheet, studied in cross section, showed an adherent corrosion layer of only around 20–50 nm in thickness after over a decade of being exposed to ambient air. The results have implications for antibacterial properties and ecotoxicology of AgNP during corrosion as the dissolution and reformation of Ag particles during corrosion will likely be accompanied by the release of Ag{sup +} ions.
IN SEARCH OF IDEAL FORM- RATIO OF TRIANGULAR CHANNEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. C. DAS
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In Search of Ideal Form-Ratio of Triangular Channel. Cross-sectional form of a natural channel is a two dimensional variable which is thoroughly studied by scholars from different fields on natural sciences like hydrology, geology, geomorphology, etc. Average river channels tend to develop their channel-cross sectional form in a way to produce an approximate equilibrium between the channel and the water and sediment it transport. But how far it is deviated from the ideal cross-sectional form can only be determined by knowing the ideal form which was calculated by Hickin for rectangular channel. This ideal cross-sectional form of ‘maximum efficiency’ is virtually a theoretical one and attaining of which the river transports its water and load with least friction with its bed. ‘Ideal form ratio’ provides numerical tools for triangular channel to determine the degree of deviation of a cross-sectional form from that of an ideal one.
Monte Carlo renormalization: Test on the triangular Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We test the performance of the Monte Carlo renormalization method using the Ising model on the triangular lattice. We apply block-spin transformations which allow for adjustable parameters so that the transformation can be optimized. This optimization takes into account the relation between corrections to scaling and the location of the fixed point. To this purpose we determine corrections to scaling of the triangular Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions, by means of transfer matrix calculations and finite-size scaling. We find that the leading correction to scaling just vanishes for the nearest-neighbor model. However, the fixed point of the commonly used majority-rule block-spin transformation lies far away from the nearest-neighbour critical point. This raises the question whether the majority rule is suitable as a renormalization transformation, because corrections to scaling are supposed to be absent at the fixed point. We define a modified block-spin transformation which shifts the fixed point back to the vicinity of the nearest-neighbour critical Hamiltonian. This modified transformation leads to results for the Ising critical exponents that converge faster, and are more accurate than those obtained with the majority rule. (author)
Corrosion processes of triangular silver nanoparticles compared to bulk silver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Excessive corrosion of silver nanoparticles is a significant impediment to their use in a variety of potential applications in the biosensing, plasmonic and antimicrobial fields. Here we examine the environmental degradation of triangular silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in laboratory air. In the early stages of corrosion, transmission electron microscopy shows that dissolution of the single-crystal, triangular, AgNP (side lengths 50–120 nm) is observed with the accompanying formation of smaller, polycrystalline Ag particles nearby. The new particles are then observed to corrode to Ag2S and after 21 days nearly full corrosion has occurred, but some with minor Ag inclusions remaining. In contrast, a bulk Ag sheet, studied in cross section, showed an adherent corrosion layer of only around 20–50 nm in thickness after over a decade of being exposed to ambient air. The results have implications for antibacterial properties and ecotoxicology of AgNP during corrosion as the dissolution and reformation of Ag particles during corrosion will likely be accompanied by the release of Ag+ ions
Fissioned triangular schemes via sharply 3-transitive groups
Ma, Jianmin
2011-01-01
n [D. de Caen, E.R. van Dam. Fissioned triangular schemes via the cross-ratio, {Europ. J. Combin.}, 22 (2001) 297-301], de Caen and van Dam constructed a fission scheme $\\FT(q+1)$ of the triangular scheme on $\\PG(1,q)$. This fission scheme comes from the naturally induced action of $\\PGL(2,q)$ on the 2-element subsets of $\\PG(1,q)$. The group $\\PGL(2,q)$ is one of two infinite families of finite sharply 3-transitive groups. The other such family $\\Mq(q)$ is a "twisted" version of $\\PGL(2,q)$, where $q$ is an even power of an odd prime. The group $\\PSL(2,q)$ is the intersection of $\\PGL(2,q)$ and $\\Mq(q)$. In this paper, we investigate the association schemes coming from the actions of $\\PSL(2,q)$, $\\Mq(q)$ and $\\PML(2,q)$, respectively. Through the conic model introduced in [H.D.L. Hollmann, Q. Xiang. Association schemes from the actions of $\\PGL(2, q) $ fixing a nonsingular conic, {J. Algebraic Combin.}, 24 (2006) 157-193], we introduce an embedding of $\\PML(2,q)$ into $\\PML(3,q)$. For each of the three grou...
Clar Sextet Analysis of Triangular, Rectangular, and Honeycomb Graphene Antidot Lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2011-01-01
triangular, and the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the lattice geometry plays a crucial role for size of the band gap the triangular arrangement displays always a shable gap, while for the other types only particular hole separations lead to a large gap. This observation is explained using, Clear sextet...
Self-assembly of triangular quantum dots on (111)A substrates by droplet epitaxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the self-assembly of triangular GaAs quantum dots (QDs) on (111)A substrates using droplet epitaxy. Shape transition from hexagonal to triangular QDs is observed with increasing crystallizing temperature. The mechanism of the morphological change is discussed in terms of different growth rates of step edges on a (111)A substrate
Electron sharing and anion-π recognition in molecular triangular prisms.
Schneebeli, Severin T; Frasconi, Marco; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Gardner, Daniel M; Strutt, Nathan L; Cheng, Chuyang; Carmieli, Raanan; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser
2013-12-01
Stacking on a full belly: Triangular molecular prisms display electron sharing among their triangularly arranged naphthalenediimide (NDI) redox centers. Their electron-deficient cavities encapsulate linear triiodide anions, leading to the formation of supramolecular helices in the solid state. Chirality transfer is observed from the six chiral centers of the filled prisms to the single-handed helices. PMID:24227594
Alsufyani, Mohammed A.; Robin Unger
2011-01-01
Temporal triangular alopecia (TTA), also known as congenital triangular alopecia, is a nonscarring, noninflammatroy, circumscribed form of alopecia. TTA has been associated with several disorders, such as Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis. Hair restoration surgery using follicular unit transplantation has been a successful treatment modality for TTA. Herein we report such a success that was sustained for over six years.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robin Unger
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Temporal triangular alopecia (TTA, also known as congenital triangular alopecia, is a nonscarring, noninflammatroy, circumscribed form of alopecia. TTA has been associated with several disorders, such as Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis. Hair restoration surgery using follicular unit transplantation has been a successful treatment modality for TTA. Herein we report such a success that was sustained for over six years.
Constructing triangular patch by basic approximation operator plus additional interpolation operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Caiming; Jl Xiuhua; YANG Xingqiang
2005-01-01
A new method for constructing triangular patches is presented. The triangular patch that interpolates the given boundary curves and cross-boundary slopes is constructed by a basic approximation operator plus an additional interpolation operator. The basic approximation operator is constructed by a polynomial surface of degree five which approximates the given interpolation conditions. The additional interpolation operator is formed by the side-vertex method. The basic and the additional operators have different roles in constructing the triangular patch: the first one makes the triangular patch approximate the given interpolation conditions with a polynomial approximation precision of degree five, while the second one makes it satisfy the given interpolation conditions. The triangular patch reproduces polynomial surfaces of degree five. Comparison results of the new method with the other two methods are included.
Real Time Clustering of Time Series Using Triangular Potentials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aldo Pacchiano
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the problem of computing investment portfolio weightin gs we investigate various methods of clustering as alternatives to traditional mean-v ariance approaches. Such methods can have significant benefits from a practical point of view since they remove the need to invert a sample covariance matrix, which can suffer from estimation error and will almost certainly be non-stationary. The general idea is to find groups of assets w hich share similar return characteristics over time and treat each group as a singl e composite asset. We then apply inverse volatility weightings to these new composite assets. In the course of our investigation we devise a method of clustering based on triangular potentials and we present as sociated theoretical results as well as various examples based on synthetic data.
Model of Vertical Product Differentiation Based on Triangular Distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Jian-bing; WANG He-ping; SHEN Yun-hong
2007-01-01
Supposing that the consumer preference complies with triangular distribution instead of uniform distribution, we establish the model of vertical product differentiation. The simulation shows that there exists stable equilibrium along with unstable equilibrium. In stable equilibrium, high quality products gain an advantage over low quality products. In unstable equilibrium, the former does not possess an apparent advantage in competition, likely to be at a disadvantage. In order to evolve from unstable equilibrium to stable equilibrium, it is necessary for firms to solve such problems as high prices and consumers' perception of scarcity on product qualities. In general, both product qualities and firm profits increase with the consuming capacity and quality perception, and the latter more rapidly.
A flat triangular shell element with Loof nodes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars
1996-01-01
triangular shell element is established by a combination of a new plate bending element DKTL and the well-known linear membrane strain element LST, and for this element the above-mentioned deficiences are avoided. The plate bending element DKTL is based on Discrete Kirchhoff Theory and Loof nodes. The nodal......In the formulation of flat shell elements it is difficult to achieve inter-element compatibility between membrane and transverse displacements for non-coplanar elements. Many elements lack proper nodal degrees of freedom to model intersections making the assembly of elements troublesome. A flat...... configuration of the element is similar to the SemiLoof element, and the formulation is an improvement of a previous formulation. The element is used for both linear statics, linear buckling and geometrical non-linear analysis, and numerical examples are presented to show the robustness, accuracy and quick...
Magnetic anisotropy study of triangular-shaped Co nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imperia, P. [Hahn Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: paolo.imperia@ansto.gov.au; Kandulski, W.; Kosiorek, A. [CESAR Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Glaczynska, H. [CESAR Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn (Germany); Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, Poznan (Poland); Maletta, H. [Hahn Meitner Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Giersig, M. [CESAR Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, 53175 Bonn (Germany)
2008-11-15
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) have been used to measure the magnetic and geometrical characteristics of triangular-shaped Co structures of lateral size 730 nm and thickness 32 nm, prepared by nanosphere lithography (NSL). Evidence of in-plane six-fold magnetic anisotropy induced by the symmetry of the structure has been found. By means of XMCD measurements, performed at remanence after applying a pulsed field, a structure rotation angle-dependent oscillation of about 15% with a periodicity of 60 deg. has been observed for both the orbital and spin moments. Furthermore, the system exhibits the angular hysteresis effect. The magnetic measurements performed by MFM show a reduction of the magnetic configurations to only two states, one quasi-single domain Y state and second, a combination of vortex and Y state.
Acoustic control study of turbofan nozzles with triangular chevrons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grigore CICAN
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper has a small part dealing with the notion of chevron and the process that helps reducing the noise pollution. Based on the gas dynamics and the geometrical parameters of the turbofan jet engine a model of CFD data processing is created. In this process the influence of chevrons on acoustic wave intensity produced by the jet is observed by analyzing this process. A series of tests have been made on 10 si 20 lobed chevrons. The combination between them and the 7 resulting cases have been studied, namely the triangular chevrons in order to settle the influence of the geometrical parameters on the flow and on the jet acoustics. Finally the contribution of the chevrons in noise pollution reduction has been highlighted.
Success Factors of Biotechnology Industry Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei; LEI
2013-01-01
Based on the theory of competitive advantage and value chain, this paper establishes the indicator system, and develop the strategic framework using the fuzzy Delphi method. Then the triangular fuzzy number model is established using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, and the key factors influencing biotechnology industry are extracted. The results show that in terms of weight, the key factors influencing the success of biotechnology industry are sequenced as follows: "open innovation capacity", "quality and cost control ability", "advanced customer-oriented product manufacturing capacity", "technology R & D personnel’s capacity", "brand image building capacity", "logistics and sales capacity", "grasping the market demand trends". The manufacturers and government decision-making body can use this as the basis, to promote the development of the biotechnology industry.
CFD analysis of flow field in a triangular rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The flow field was investigated in subchannels of VVER-440 pressurized water cooled reactors' fuel assemblies (triangular lattice, P/D = 1.35). Impacts of the mesh resolution and turbulence model were studied in order to obtain guidelines for CFD calculations of VVER-440 rod bundles. Results were compared to measurement data published by Trupp and Azad in 1975. The study pointed out that RANS method with BSL Reynolds stress model using a sufficient fine grid can provide an accurate prediction for the turbulence quantities in this lattice. Applying the experiences of the sensitivity study thermal hydraulic processes were investigated in VVER-440 rod bundle sections. Based on the examinations the spacer grids have important effects on the cross flows, axial velocity and outlet temperature distribution of subchannels therefore they have to be modeled satisfactorily in CFD calculations.
Notched Triangular Microstrip Antenna for Dual-Frequency Operation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江轶慧; 钟顺时
2003-01-01
A novel equilateral triangular patch with a rectangular notch etched to one radiating edge on organic magnetic substrate is proposed for dual frequency operation. Both operations of these dual frequencies arise from the perturbation of TM10 and TM11 mode by simply cutting a rectangular notch at the patch bottom. Simulations and experiments have shown the validity of this design. Using an organic magnetic material as the substrate, the antenna exhibits a broader bandwidth of 5.5% and 4.7% at dual-frequencies 1.56GHz and 2.45GHz, respectively, as well as a reduced size compared to the dual-frequency patch antennas on non-magnetic material.
Friction Factor Measurements in an Equally Spaced Triangular Tube Array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vassallo P, Symolon P
2007-03-19
Friction factor data for adiabatic cross-flow of water in a staggered tube array was obtained over a Reynolds number range (based on hydraulic diameter and gap velocity) of about 10,000 to 250,000. The tubes were 12.7mm (0.5 inch) outer diameter, in a uniformly spaced triangular arrangement with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. The friction factor was compared to several literature correlations, and was found to be best matched by the Idelchik correlation. Other correlations were found to vary significantly from the test data. Based on the test data, a new correlation is proposed for this tube bundle geometry which covers the entire Reynolds number range tested.
A Generalization of the Formula for the Triangular Number of the Sum and Product of Natural Numbers
Asiru, M. A.
2008-01-01
This note generalizes the formula for the triangular number of the sum and product of two natural numbers to similar results for the triangular number of the sum and product of "r" natural numbers. The formula is applied to derive formula for the sum of an odd and an even number of consecutive triangular numbers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Carla Aragoni
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The 3 centre-4 electrons (3c-4e and the donor/acceptor or charge-transfer models for the description of the chemical bond in linear three-body systems, such as I3– and related electron-rich (22 shell electrons systems, are comparatively discussed on the grounds of structural data from a search of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD. Both models account for a total bond order of 1 in these systems, and while the former fits better symmetric systems, the latter describes better strongly asymmetric situations. The 3c-4e MO scheme shows that any linear system formed by three aligned closed-shell species (24 shell electrons overall has reason to exist provided that two electrons are removed from it to afford a 22 shell electrons three-body system: all combinations of three closed-shell halides and/or chalcogenides are considered here. A survey of the literature shows that most of these three-body systems exist. With some exceptions, their structural features vary continuously from the symmetric situation showing two equal bonds to very asymmetric situations in which one bond approaches to the value corresponding to a single bond and the second one to the sum of the van der Waals radii of the involved atoms. This indicates that the potential energy surface of these three-body systems is fairly flat, and that the chemical surrounding of the chalcogen/halogen atoms can play an important role in freezing different structural situations; this is well documented for the I3– anion. The existence of correlations between the two bond distances and more importantly the linearity observed for all these systems, independently on the degree of their asymmetry, support the state of hypervalency of the central atom.
Ground State of a Polaron in a Symmetric Triangular Quantum Well
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ji-Ye; LIANG Xi-Xia
2006-01-01
@@ We study the effects of electron-phonon interaction on the electron ground state in a symmetric triangular quantum well, and calculate the ground state energy of an electron in the GaAs/Al0.96Ga0.04As triangular quantum well including the effects of the interaction between electrons and confined LO phonons by using a modified Lee-Low-Pines variational method. The electron wavefunction in the triangular well is chosen as the Airy function.The numerical results are given and discussed.
Dhayal, Rajendra S; Liao, Jian-Hong; Lin, Yan-Ru; Liao, Ping-Kuei; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Liu, C W
2013-03-27
An unprecedented air-stable, nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20H11(S2P(O(i)Pr)2)9] (1H), which is the first example of an elongated triangular orthobicupola array of Cu atoms having C3h symmetry, was synthesized and characterized. Its composition was primarily determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and it was fully characterized by (1)H, (2)H, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of complex 1H can be expressed in terms of a trigonal-bipyramidal [Cu2H5](3-) unit anchored within an elongated triangular orthobicupola containing 18 Cu atoms, which is further stabilized by 18 S atoms from nine dithiophosphate ligands and six capping hydrides. The positions of the 11 hydrides revealed by low temperature XRD were supported by a density functional theory investigation on the simplified model [Cu20H11(S2PH2)9] with C3h symmetry. 1H is capable of releasing H2 gas upon irradiation with sunlight, under mild thermal conditions (65 °C), or in the presence of acids at room temperature. PMID:23472670
Multi-domain electromagnetic absorption of triangular quantum rings
Sitek, Anna; Thorgilsson, Gunnar; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei
2016-06-01
We present a theoretical study of the unielectronic energy spectra, electron localization, and optical absorption of triangular core–shell quantum rings. We show how these properties depend on geometric details of the triangle, such as side thickness or corners’ symmetry. For equilateral triangles, the lowest six energy states (including spin) are grouped in an energy shell, are localized only around corner areas, and are separated by a large energy gap from the states with higher energy which are localized on the sides of the triangle. The energy levels strongly depend on the aspect ratio of the triangle sides, i.e., thickness/length ratio, in such a way that the energy differences are not monotonous functions of this ratio. In particular, the energy gap between the group of states localized in corners and the states localized on the sides strongly decreases with increasing the side thickness, and then slightly increases for thicker samples. With increasing the thickness the low-energy shell remains distinct but the spatial distribution of these states spreads. The behavior of the energy levels and localization leads to a thickness-dependent absorption spectrum where one transition may be tuned in the THz domain and a second transition can be tuned from THz to the infrared range of electromagnetic spectrum. We show how these features may be further controlled with an external magnetic field. In this work the electron–electron Coulomb repulsion is neglected.
Thermoviscoplastic analysis of fibrous periodic composites using triangular subvolumes
Walker, Kevin P.; Freed, Alan D.; Jordan, Eric H.
1993-01-01
The nonlinear viscoplastic behavior of fibrous periodic composites is analyzed by discretizing the unit cell into triangular subvolumes. A set of these subvolumes can be configured by the analyst to construct a representation for the unit cell of a periodic composite. In each step of the loading history, the total strain increment at any point is governed by an integral equation which applies to the entire composite. A Fourier series approximation allows the incremental stresses and strains to be determined within a unit cell of the periodic lattice. The nonlinearity arising from the viscoplastic behavior of the constituent materials comprising the composite is treated as fictitious body force in the governing integral equation. Specific numerical examples showing the stress distributions in the unit cell of a fibrous tungsten/copper metal matrix composite under viscoplastic loading conditions are given. The stress distribution resulting in the unit cell when the composite material is subjected to an overall transverse stress loading history perpendicular to the fibers is found to be highly heterogeneous, and typical homogenization techniques based on treating the stress and strain distributions within the constituent phases as homogeneous result in large errors under inelastic loading conditions.
MULTIPLICATIVE GROUP AUTOMORPHISMS OF INVERTIBLE UPPER TRIANGULAR MATRICES OVER FIELDS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
Suppose F is a field of characteristic not 2 and F* its multiplicative group.Let T* n (F) be the multiplicative group of invertible upper triangular n × n matrices over F and ST±n(F) its subgroup {(aij) ∈ T * n(F)｜aii = +1,i}.This paper proves that f:T * n(F) → T * n(F) is a group automorphism if and only if there exist a matrix Q in T * n(F) and a field automorphism σ of F such that either σ -1 f(A) = ψ(A)QAσQ-1,A = (aij) ∈ T * n(F) or f(A) = ψ(A-1)Q[J(Aσ)-TJ]Q-1,A =(aij) ∈ T * n(F),where Aσ = (σ(aij)),A-T is the transpose inverse of A,J = n∑i=1 Ei n+1-i,and ψ :i=1 T * n(F) → F* is a homomorphism which satisfies {ψ(xIn)σ(x)｜x ∈ F*} = F* and {x ∈F*｜ψ(xIn)σ(x) = 1} = {1}.Simultaneously,they also determine the automorphisms of ST±n(F).
Evidence for Triangular D_3h Symmetry in 12C
Marin-Lambarri, D J; Freer, M; Gai, M; Kokalova, Tz; Parker, D J; Wheldon, C
2014-01-01
We report a measurement of a new high spin Jp = 5- state at 22.4(0.2) MeV in 12C which fits very well to the predicted (ground state) rotational band of an oblate equilateral triangular spinning top with a D_3h symmetry characterized by the sequence 0+, 2+, 3-, 4+/-, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D_3h symmetry was observed in triatomic molecules and it is observed here for the first time in nuclear physics. We discuss a classification of other rotation-vibration bands in 12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode band and suggest measurements in search of the predicted ("missing") states that may shed new light on clustering in 12C and light nuclei. In particular the observation (or non-observation) of the predicted ("missing") states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha-particle composing the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV in 12C.
Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus
Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup
2013-08-01
Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.
Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ 3 2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k. (paper)
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young
2016-01-01
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics. PMID:26843363
Behaviour of Lagrangian triangular mixed fluid finite elements
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Gopalakrishnan; G Devi
2000-02-01
The behaviour of mixed fluid finite elements, formulated based on the Lagrangian frame of reference, is investigated to understand the effects of locking due to incompressibility and irrotational constraints. For this purpose, both linear and quadratic mixed triangular fluid elements are formulated. It is found that there exists a close relationship between the penalty finite element approach that uses reduced/selective numerical integration to alleviate locking, and the mixed finite element approach. That is, performing reduced/selective integration in the penalty approach amounts to reducing the order of pressure interpolation in the mixed finite element approach for obtaining similar results. A number of numerical experiments are performed to determine the optimum degree of interpolation of both the mean pressure and the rotational pressure in order that the twin constraints are satisfied exactly. For this purpose, the benchmark solution of the rigid rectangular tank is used. It is found that, irrespective of the degree of mean and the rotational pressure interpolation, the linear triangle mesh, with or without central bubble function (incompatible mode), locks when both the constraints are enforced simultaneously. However, for quadratic triangle, linear interpolation of the mean pressure and constant rotational pressure ensures exact satisfaction of the constraints and the mesh does not lock. Based on the results obtained from the numerical experiments, a number of important conclusions are arrived at.
Improved Radiation and Bandwidth of Triangular and Star Patch Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ramkumar Prabhu
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This study presents a hexagonal shape Defected Ground Structure (DGS implemented on two element triangular patch microstrip antenna array. The radiation performance of the antenna is characterized by varying the geometry and dimension of the DGS and also by locating the DGS at specific position which were simulated. Simulation and measurement results have verified that the antenna with DGS had improved the antenna without DGS. Measurement results of the hexagonal DGS have axial ratio bandwidth enhancement of 10 MHz, return loss improvement of 35%, mutual coupling reduction of 3 dB and gain enhancement of 1 dB. A new wideband and small size star shaped patch antenna fed capacitively by a small diamond shape patch is proposed. To enhance the impedance bandwidth, posts are incorporated under the patch antenna. HFSS high frequency simulator is employed to analyze the proposed antenna and simulated results on the return loss, the E- and H-plane radiation patterns and Gain of the proposed antenna are presented at various frequencies. The antenna is able to achieve in the range of 4-8.8 GHz an impedance bandwidth of 81% for return loss of less than-10 dB.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Li-min(刘立民); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); LIAN Chuan-jie(连传杰)
2003-01-01
The application of the finite layer & triangular prism element method to the 3D ground subsidence and stress analysis caused by mining is presented. The layer elements and the triangular prism elements have been alternatively used in the numerical simulation system, the displacement pattern, strain matrix, elastic matrix, stiffness matrix, load matrix and the stress matrix of the layer element and triangular prism element have been presented. By means of the Fortran90 programming language, a numerical simulation system based on finite layer & triangular prism element have been built up, and this system is suitable for subsidence prediction and stress analysis of all mining condition and mining methods. Comparing with the infinite element method, this approach dramatically reduces the size of the set of equations that need to be solved, and greatly reduces the amount of data preparation required. It not only saves the internal storage, and the computation time, but also decreases the cost.
Two-dimensional orthogonal DCT expansion in triangular and trapezoid regions
Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun; Lee, Tzu-Heng Henry
2010-07-01
It is known that the 2-D DCT basis is complete and orthogonal in a rectangular region. In this paper, we introduce the way to generate the complete and orthogonal 2-D DCT basis in a trapezoid region or a triangular region without using the complicated Gram-Schmidt method. Moreover, since a polygon can be decomposed several triangular regions, the proposed method is also suitable for the polygonal region. Our algorithm can much generalize the JPEG algorithm. Instead of dividing an image into 8 by 8 blocks, we can divide an image into trapezoid or triangular regions and then transform and code each of them. In addition to the DCT basis, our method can also be used for generating the 2-D complete and orthogonal DFT basis, KLT basis, Legendre basis, Hadamard (Walsh) basis, and polynomial basis in the trapezoid and triangular regions.
Constructal optimization for a solid-gas reactor based on triangular element
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Entropy generation minimization for heat and mass transfer process in a solid-gas reactor is carried out based on constructal theory by using triangular elemental area. The aspect ratio of the triangular elemental area is optimized under constraint conditions. A number of optimal triangular elements are assembled to a new large rectangular area, which is optimised again. The procedure is repeated until the control-volume is covered, and the complete analytical results are obtained. The effects of some parameters on minimum entropy generation are analysed by nu-merical examples. The results show that smaller entropy generation can be ob-tained when the optimization for a given volume is carried out on the basis of tri-angular elements than those obtained on the basis of rectangular elements.
Tilted resonators in a triangular elastic lattice: chirality, Bloch waves and negative refraction
Tallarico, Domenico; Movchan, Alexander B; Colquitt, Daniel J
2016-01-01
We consider a vibrating triangular mass-truss lattice whose unit cell contains a resonator of a triangular shape. The resonators are connected to the triangular lattice by trusses. Each resonator is tilted, i.e. it is rotated with respect to the triangular lattice's unit cell through an angle $\\vartheta_0$. This geometrical parameter is responsible for the emergence of a resonant mode in the Bloch spectrum for elastic waves and strongly affects the dispersive properties of the lattice. Additionally, the tilting angle $\\vartheta_0$ triggers the opening of a band gap at a Dirac-like point. We provide a physical interpretation of these phenomena and discuss the dynamical implications on elastic Bloch waves. The dispersion properties are used to design a structured interface containing tilted resonators which exhibit negative refraction and focussing, as in a "flat elastic lens".
Stress Distribution on Sandwich Structure with Triangular Grid Cores Suffered from Bending Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui Xu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Triangular grid reinforced by carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/EP was designed and manufactured. The sandwich structure was prepared by gluing the core and composite skins. The mechanical properties of the sandwich structure were investigated by the finite element analysis (FEA and three-point bending methods. The calculated bending stiffness and core shear stress were compared to the characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich structure. The results indicated that the triangular core ultimately failed under a bending load of 11000 N; the principal stress concentration was located at the loading region; and the cracks occurred on the interface top skin and triangular core. In addition, the ultimate stress bearing of the sandwich structure was 8828 N. The experimental results showed that the carbon fiber reinforced triangular grid was much stiffer and stronger than the honeycomb structure.
Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadi, Shahin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gleich, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grama, Ananth [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
2015-11-01
Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.
Ciucu, Mihai
2005-01-01
We define the correlation of holes on the triangular lattice under periodic boundary conditions and study its asymptotics as the distances between the holes grow to infinity. We prove that the joint correlation of an arbitrary collection of lattice-triangular holes of even sides satisfies, for large separations between the holes, a Coulomb law and a superposition principle that perfectly parallel the laws of two dimensional electrostatics, with physical charges corresponding to holes, and the...
ON FUZZY TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM USING TRIANGULAR FUZZY NUMBERS WITH MODIFIED REVISED SIMPLEX METHOD
B. Ramesh Kumar; Murugesan, S.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a Modified Revised Simplex Method for minimizing fuzzy transportation problem of a Triangular Fuzzy Numbers. In which the supplies and demands are triangular fuzzy numbers. A parametric approach is used to obtain a fuzzy basic feasible solution with the help of Revised Simplex Method. We get optimal solution of fuzzy transportation problem in which number of constraints equal to number of occupied cells.
Ping Gao; Jun Yao; Weimin Wang; Huan Yang; Wenying Ma
2011-01-01
A sensitive volatile organic vapor sensor based on the LSPR properties of silver triangular nanoprisms is proposed in this paper. The triangular nanoprisms were fabricated by a nanosphere lithography (NSL) method. They have sharp vertices and edges, and are arranged in an ideal hexangular array. These characteristics ensure that they exhibit an excellent LSPR spectrum and a high sensitivity to the exterior environment changes. The LSPR spectra responding to ethanol vapor and four other volati...
Solution of two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation via RBF-triangular method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Fallahzadeh
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new method is introduced to solve a two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation. The method is based on the approximation by Gaussian radial basis functions and triangular nodes and weights. Also, a new quadrature is introduced to approximate the two dimensional integrals which is called the triangular method. The results of the example illustrate the accuracy of the proposed method increases.
Development and Applications of a Flat Triangular Element for Thin Laminated Shells
Mohan, P
1997-01-01
Finite element analysis of laminated shells using a three-noded flat triangular shell element is presented. The flat shell element is obtained by combining the Discrete Kirchhoff Theory (DKT) plate bending element and a membrane element similar to the Allman element, but derived from the Linear Strain Triangular (LST) element. Though this combination has been employed in the literature for linear static analysis of laminated plates, the results presented are not...
Talabi, SO; Olunloyo, VOS; Kamiyo, OM; Collins, MW; Karayiannis, TG
2006-01-01
Triangular enclosures are typical configurations found in attic spaces of residential as well as industrial pitched-roof buildings. Previous studies on airflow within such spaces have focused on the laminar range. A numerical study has been carried out for time-dependent, two-dimensional low turbulence natural convection of air contained in the attic of a pitched roof of triangular cross-section. Two sets of boundary conditions have been considered: enclosure heated from the inclined walls an...
Analysis of the heat transfer in unsymmetrically heated triangular microchannels in slip flow regime
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU; Xun; LIAO; Qiang; XIN; Mingdao
2004-01-01
A theoretical analysis of heat transfer characteristics is presented for the fully developed laminar flow of the incompressible gas in the triangular microchannels heated unsymmetrically with constant axial heat flux. Through solving the energy equation with temperature jump boundary conditions in slip flow regime by virtue of a computationoriented method of the orthonormal function analysis, the dimensionless temperature profiles and the average Nusselt number for various thermal boundary conditions are obtained. The effects of Knudsen number, aspect ratio, and thermal boundary conditions on the heat transfer are discussed. The calculated results show that the orthonormal function method can be used to study the heat transfer characteristics of the unsymmetrically heated triangular microchannels. The average Nusselt number in triangular microchannels is lower for slip flow than for no-slip flow, and decreases with increasing Knudsen number. The aspect ratios and thermal boundary conditions of triangular microchannels have significant influences on the change of average Nusselt numbers with the increase in the Knudsen number. For the equilateral triangular microchannels, the decrease of the Nusselt number ratio due to temperature jump is smaller at large Knudsen number and larger at small Knudsen number on the boundary condition of bottom wall heated alone as compared with the one on the boundary condition of two heated hypotenuse walls. The correlations of the average Nusselt number with the Knudsen number for equilateral triangular microchannels are obtained.
TINITALY/01: a new Triangular Irregular Network of Italy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. T. Pareschi
2007-06-01
Full Text Available A new Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the natural landforms of Italy is presented. A methodology is discussed to build a DEM over wide areas where elevation data from non-homogeneous (in density and accuracy input sources are available. The input elevation data include contour lines and spot heights derived from the Italian Regional topographic maps, satellite-based global positioning system points, ground based and radar altimetry data. Owing to the great heterogeneity of the input data density, the DEM format that better preserves the original accuracy is a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN. A Delaunay-based TIN structure is improved by using the DEST algorithm that enhances input data by evaluating inferred break-lines. Accordingly to this approach, biased distributions in slopes and elevations are absent. To prevent discontinuities at the boundary between regions characterized by data with different resolution a cubic Hermite blending weight S-shaped function is adopted. The TIN of Italy consists of 1.39×109 triangles. The average triangle area ranges from 12 to about 13000 m2 accordingly to different morphologies and different sources. About 50% of the model has a local average triangle area <500 m2. The vertical accuracy of the obtained DEM is evaluated by more than 200000 sparse control points. The overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is less than 3.5 m. The obtained national-scale DEM constitutes an useful support to carry out accurate geomorphological and geological investigations over large areas. The problem of choosing the best step size in deriving a grid from a TIN is then discussed and a method to quantify the loss of vertical information is presented as a function of the grid step. Some examples of DEM application are outlined. Under request, an high resolution stereo image database of the whole Italian territory (derived from the presented DEM is available to browse via internet.
Psyplot: Visualizing rectangular and triangular Climate Model Data with Python
Sommer, Philipp
2016-04-01
The development and use of climate models often requires the visualization of geo-referenced data. Creating visualizations should be fast, attractive, flexible, easily applicable and easily reproducible. There is a wide range of software tools available for visualizing raster data, but they often are inaccessible to many users (e.g. because they are difficult to use in a script or have low flexibility). In order to facilitate easy visualization of geo-referenced data, we developed a new framework called "psyplot," which can aid earth system scientists with their daily work. It is purely written in the programming language Python and primarily built upon the python packages matplotlib, cartopy and xray. The package can visualize data stored on the hard disk (e.g. NetCDF, GeoTIFF, any other file format supported by the xray package), or directly from the memory or Climate Data Operators (CDOs). Furthermore, data can be visualized on a rectangular grid (following or not following the CF Conventions) and on a triangular grid (following the CF or UGRID Conventions). Psyplot visualizes 2D scalar and vector fields, enabling the user to easily manage and format multiple plots at the same time, and to export the plots into all common picture formats and movies covered by the matplotlib package. The package can currently be used in an interactive python session or in python scripts, and will soon be developed for use with a graphical user interface (GUI). Finally, the psyplot framework enables flexible configuration, allows easy integration into other scripts that uses matplotlib, and provides a flexible foundation for further development.
Korobov, A.
2011-08-01
Discrete uniform Poisson-Voronoi tessellations of two-dimensional triangular tilings resulting from the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) growth of triangular islands have been studied. This shape of tiles and islands, rarely considered in the field of random tessellations, is prompted by the birth-growth process of Ir(210) faceting. The growth mode determines a triangular metric different from the Euclidean metric. Kinetic characteristics of tessellations appear to be metric sensitive, in contrast to area distributions. The latter have been studied for the variant of nuclei growth to the first impingement in addition to the conventional case of complete growth. Kiang conjecture works in both cases. The averaged number of neighbors is six for all studied densities of random tessellations, but neighbors appear to be mainly different in triangular and Euclidean metrics. Also, the applicability of the obtained results for simulating birth-growth processes when the 2D nucleation and impingements are combined with the 3D growth in the particular case of similar shape and the same orientation of growing nuclei is briefly discussed.
Alvarez-Ramírez, M; de Moraes, R V; Skea, J E F; Stuchi, T J
2012-01-01
We study the fourth-order stability of the triangular libration points in the absence of resonance for the three-body problem when the infinitesimal mass is affected not only by gravitation but also by light pressure from both primaries. A comprehensive summary of previous results is given, with some inaccuracies being corrected. The Lie triangle method is used to obtain the fourth-order Birkhoff normal form of the Hamiltonian, and the corresponding complex transformation to pre-normal form is given explicitly. We obtain an explicit expression for the determinant required by the Arnold-Moser theorem, and show that it is a rational function of the parameters, whose numerator is a fifth-order polynomial in the mass parameter. Particular cases where this polynomial reduces to a quartic are described. Our results reduce correctly to the purely gravitational case in the appropriate limits, and extend numerical work by previous authors.
Enhancement of photovoltaic cell performance using periodic triangular gratings
Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Dey, Rajat
2014-01-01
The solar energy industry strives to produce more efficient and yet cost effective solar panels each consisting of an array of photovoltaic (PV) cells. The goal of this study was to enhance the performance of PV cells through increasing the cells' optical efficiency defined as a percentage of surface incident light that reaches the PV material. This was achieved through the reduction of waveguide decoupling loss and Fresnel reflection losses by integrating specific nonimaging micro-optical structures on the top surface of existing PV cells. Due to this integration, optical efficiency and performance were increased through the enhancement of light trapping, light guiding, and in-coupling functionalities. Periodic triangular gratings (PTGs) were designed, nonsequentially modeled, optimized, and fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane as proposed micro-optical structures. Then the performance of PV cells with and without integrated PTGs was evaluated and compared. Initial optical simulation results show that an original PV cell (without PTG) exhibits an average optical efficiency of 32.7% over a range of incident light angles between 15 and 90 deg. Integration of the PTG allows the capture of incoming sunlight by total internal reflection (TIR), whence it is reflected back onto the PV cell for multiple consecutive chances for absorption and PV conversion. Geometry of the PTG was optimized with respect to an angle of light incidence of {15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90} deg. Optical efficiency of the geometrically optimized PTGs was then analyzed under the same set of incident light angles and a maximum optical efficiency of 54.1% was observed for a PV cell with integrated PTG optimized at 90 deg. This is a 53.3% relative improvement in optical performance when compared to an original PV cell. Functional PTG prototypes were then fabricated with optical surface quality (below 10 nm Ra) and integrated with PV cells demonstrating an increase in maximum power by 1.08 mW/cm (7
Xiang-Rong Fu; Li-Na Ge; Ge Tian; Ming-Wu Yuan
2013-01-01
This paper presents a novel way to formulate the triangular flat shell element. The basic analytical solutions of membrane and bending plate problem for anisotropy material are studied separately. Combining with the conforming displacement along the sides and hybrid element strategy, the triangular flat shell elements based on the analytical trial functions (ATF) for anisotropy material are formulated. By using the explicit integral formulae of the triangular element, the matrices used in pro...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norhayati Abu Bakar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, we studied the structure of synthesized triangular silver nanoplates in solution and the growth of the nanoplates on a silicon surface using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS as a coupling agent. The triangular-shaped colloidal silver nanoplates were simply synthesized by a direct chemical reduction approach. We studied the three characteristic peaks of the unique optical absorbance of triangular silver nanoplates and subsequently measured an average edge length of 26 ± 1 nm. The nanoplate thickness was determined to be 7 ± 2 nm from transmission electron microscopy images. Depositing the nanoplates on a silicon surface was carried out to determine the coverage of triangular nanoplates obtained when adhesion was promoted by a coupling agent. The APTMS film assisted the attachment of the nanoplates to the silicon surface and the coverage of the nanoplates increased with increasing deposition time. The triangular silver nanoplate thin film was a monolayer and a high coverage (near complete was obtained after eight hours of exposure to the nanoplate solution. The silver film formed was shown to be a good surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrate as it gave an enormous Raman enhancement for bisphenol A (BPA.
A theoretical study of resonant tunneling characteristics in triangular double-barrier diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Resonant tunneling characteristics of triangular double-barrier diodes have been investigated systematically in this Letter, using Airy function approach to solve time-independent Schroedinger function in triangular double-barrier structures. Originally, the exact analytic expressions of quasi-bound levels and quasi-level lifetime in symmetrical triangular double-barrier structures have been derived within the effective-mass approximation as a function of structure parameters including well width, slope width and barrier height. Based on our derived analytic expressions, numerical results show that quasi-bound levels and quasi-level lifetime vary nearly linearly with the structure parameters except that the second quasi-level lifetime changes parabolically with slope width. Furthermore, according to our improved transmission coefficient of triangular double-barrier structures under external electric field, the current densities of triangular double-barrier diodes with different slope width at 0 K have been calculated numerically. The results show that the N-shaped negative differential resistance behaviors have been observed in current-voltage characteristics and current-voltage characteristics depend on the slope width
Min, Kyong S; Zamorano, David P; Wahba, George M; Garcia, Ivan; Bhatia, Nitin; Lee, Thay Q
2014-09-01
Transforaminal pelvic fractures are high-energy injuries that are translationally and rotationally unstable. This study compared the biomechanical stability of triangular osteosynthesis vs 2-transsacral-screw fixation in the repair of a transforaminal pelvic fracture model. A transforaminal fracture model was created in 10 cadaveric lumbopelvic specimens. Five of the specimens were stabilized with triangular osteosynthesis, which consisted of unilateral L5-to-ilium lumbopelvic fixation and ipsilateral iliosacral screw fixation. The remaining 5 were stabilized with a 2-transsacral-screw fixation technique that consisted of 2 transsacral screws inserted across S1. All specimens were loaded cyclically and then loaded to failure. Translation and rotation were measured using the MicroScribe 3D digitizing system (Revware Inc, Raleigh, North Carolina). The 2-transsacral-screw group showed significantly greater stiffness than the triangular osteosynthesis group (2-transsacral-screw group, 248.7 N/mm [standard deviation, 73.9]; triangular osteosynthesis group, 125.0 N/mm [standard deviation, 66.9]; P=.02); however, ultimate load and rotational stiffness were not statistically significant. Compared with triangular osteosynthesis fixation, the use of 2 transsacral screws provides a comparable biomechanical stability profile in both translation and rotation. This newly revised 2-transsacral-screw construct offers the traumatologist an alternative method of repair for vertical shear fractures that provides biplanar stability. It also offers the advantage of percutaneous placement in either the prone or supine position. PMID:25350616
CuO/ Water Nano fluid Heat Transfer Through Triangular Ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present paper laminar flow forced convective heat transfer of CuO/water nano fluid in a triangular duct under constant wall temperature condition is investigated numerically. Sometimes, because of pressure drop limitations the need for noncircular ducts arises in many heat transfer applications. We used nano fluid instead of pure fluid because of its potential to increase heat transfer of system. In this paper, the effect of parameters such as nanoparticles diameter, nanoparticles concentration, type of nanoparticles and heat transfer comparison between nano fluid and pure fluid is studied. Comparison of convective heat transfer of nano fluid in isosceles triangular ducts with various apex angles is also presented. In this study, for the presence of nanoparticles, the dispersion model and for solving differential equations, the finite difference method is used. Numerical results indicate an enhancement of heat transfer of fluid with changing to the suspension of nanometer-sized particles in the triangular duct. Results also defined that equilateral triangular duct has a maximum heat transfer in comparison with other types of isosceles triangular duct.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beata Zagórska-Marek
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The complexity of helical phyllotaxis expressed in diverse phyllotactic patterns and the phenomenon of phyllotactic transformations were investigated theoretically. Two categories of transformations were distinguished: continuous and discontinuous, the latter being interpreted as the consequences of wedge disclinations present at the shoot apex when the number of initials changes. Phyllotaxis triangular unit was described as the common element of all patterns of helical phyllotaxis. It is proposed that the unit plays the same role in a process of the formation of phyllotactic pattern as the crystal basic unit does in a process of crystal growth.
Mechanical Properties of 3-D Printed Cellular Foams with triangular cells
Bunga, Pratap Kumar
In the present work, poly lactic acid (PLA) is used as a model system to investigate the mechanical behavior of 3-D printed foams with triangular cells. Solid PLA tension and compression specimens and foams made of PLA were fabricated using fused deposition 3-D printing technique. The solid PLA tension specimens were characterized for their densities and found to be about 10% lower in density as compared to their bulk counter parts. The triangular foams had a relative density of about 64%. The relationships between the structure of the foams and its deformation behavior under compression along two in-plane directions were characterized. Furthermore, simple finite element models were developed to understand the observed deformation behavior of triangular foams.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wiwien Hadikurniawati
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This study uses an approach of fuzzy multi attribute decision making in determining alternatives to solve the selection problem of the electrician through a competency test. Competency test consists of several tests of knowledge, skills and work attitude. The parameters of decision making is used to choose the best alternative written test, test of theoretical knowledge, practice knowledge test and oral test. Linguistic values expressed by triangular fuzzy numbers is used to represent the preferences of decision makers so that the uncertainty and imprecision in the selection process can be minimized. Aggregation results are represented using triangular fuzzy numbers. The output of this selection process is the best alternative obtained using triangular fuzzy numbers arithmetic approach.
Transformation of design formulae for feed line of triangular microstrip antenna
Mathur, Monika; Singh, Ghanshyam; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Swami, Swati; Vats, Abhijat
2016-03-01
In wireless communication system microstrip antenna is the key component. Popular shapes of patch for microstrip are rectangular, triangular and circular. A new transformation design formulae for feed line of rectangular microstrip antenna by using equivalent design concept were presented by the authors. That says one designed antenna for a given frequency on any substrate can be transformed into another substrate material for the same design frequency by simply multiply a factor ψ to the all dimensions of patch, length of feed line and some power of ψ for feed line width (where ψ is the square root of the ratio of dielectric constants of those two designs). This paper presents that the same formulae of that rectangular transformation feed line can also be applicable for triangular shape microstrip antenna transformation. The process was repeated for the triangular shape patch microstrip antenna as applied for rectangular shape and the simulation results were surprisingly the same for it by applying the same transformation formulae.
Controlling light pulse in triangular quantum well nanostructure via quantum interference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study numerically the optical properties of the intersubband transitions in AlGaAs/GaAs triangular quantum well nanostructure. The Schrödinger equation is being solved numerically for this structure using homemade codes. Afterward the refractive index and the absorption coefficient are calculated for general triangular quantum well using the density matrix formalism. The density matrix equations are being solved numerically for calculation of linear susceptibility. The effect of quantum interference between spontaneous emission decays on the refractive index, absorption coefficient and group velocity is studied for purposed triangular quantum well nanostructure. The result shows the linear optical properties and group index can be controlled via quantum interference between spontaneous emission decays
Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R
2013-12-15
Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries. PMID:23993629
Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite reinforced with aligned triangular bars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bryan Pajarito; Masatoshi Kubouchi; Saiko Aoki
2014-02-01
This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were determined by least-square curve fitting to the experimental data. Diffusion parameters of epoxy and vinyl ester resin were used as input during development of finite element (FE) model of polymer composite. Through transient FE diffusion analysis, anisotropic water transport in thickness direction of the polymer composite was numerically predicted and validated against experimental results. The case of using impermeable triangular bars was also numerically simulated. The diffusivity of reinforced aligned triangular bars was confirmed to affect anisotropic water transport in the composite. The results of this work suggest possible use of polymer composite for barrier and fluid removal applications.
Characterization of PSD of activated carbons by using slit and triangular pore geometries
Azevedo, D. C. S.; Rios, R. B.; López, R. H.; Torres, A. E. B.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Toso, J. P.; Zgrablich, G.
2010-06-01
A mixed geometry model for activated carbons, representing the porous space as a collection of an undetermined proportion of slit and triangular pores, is developed, evaluated theoretically and applied to the characterization of a controlled series of samples of activated carbon obtained from the same precursor material. A method is proposed for the determination of the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) for such a mixed geometry model, leading to the unique determination of the proportion of pores of the two geometries fitting adsorption data. By using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation method in the continuum space, families of N2 adsorption isotherms are generated both for slit and triangular geometry corresponding to different pore sizes. The problem of the uniqueness in the determination of the PSD by fitting an adsorption isotherm using the mixed geometry model is then discussed and the effects of the addition of triangular pores on the PSD are analyzed by performing a test where the adsorption isotherm corresponding to the known PSD is generated and used as the "experimental" isotherm. It is found that a pure slit geometry model would widen the PSD and shift it to smaller sizes, whereas a pure triangular geometry model would produce the opposite effect. The slit and triangular geometry families of isotherms are finally used to the fit experimental N 2 adsorption data corresponding to a family of activated carbons obtained from coconut shells through a one-step chemical activation process with phosphoric acid in air, allowing for the determination of the micropore volume, the proportion of slit and triangular pores and the PSD corresponding to the mixed geometry. The same experimental data were fit using both the conventional slit pore model and the mixed geometry model. From the analysis of the effect of different preparation procedures on the resulting PSDs, it is concluded that the proposed mixed geometry model may probably better capture the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruna Gomes Mônego
2011-04-01
Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a influência dos traços de personalidade de acordo com o modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores (CGF e do amor segundo a Teoria Triangular do Amor de Sternberg na satisfação conjugal. A amostra foi composta por 192 universitários que vivenciavam um relacionamento amoroso classificado como ficante, namoro/noivado ou casamento. Os participantes responderam coletivamente à Escala Fatorial de Satisfação em Relacionamento de Casal, à Escala Triangular do Amor de Sternberg e à Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os resultados indicaram padrões diferentes de correlação para cada tipo de relacionamento e o modelo de Regressão Linear Múltipla foi significativo (F=23,19, gl=10, pThis present study investigated the influence of personality traits according to the Big Five Factors (CGF model and to love according to Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in marital satisfaction. Sample was composed by 192 undergraduate students who experienced a loving relationship classified as an informal relationship, dating/engagement or wedding. Participants answered the "Escala Fatorial de Satisfação em Relacionamento de Casal", the Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed different patterns of correlation for each type of relationship and multiple linear regression model was significant (F=23.19, df=10, p<0.001 and explained 58% of the variance. The intimacy, passion and conscientiousness constructs contributed positively to the satisfaction, while neuroticism had a negative influence. The commitment component and the other personality traits did not reach statistical significance.
Current density and poloidal magnetic field for toroidal elliptic plasmas with triangularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Changes in the poloidal magnetic field around a tokamak magnetic surface due to different values of triangularity and ellipticity are analyzed in this paper. The treatment here presented allows the determination of the poloidal magnetic field from knowledge of the toroidal current density. Different profiles of these currents are studied. Improvements in the analytic forms of the magnetic surfaces have also been found. The treatment has been performed using a recent published system of coordinates. Suitable analytic equations have been used for the elliptic magnetic surfaces with triangularity and Shafranov shift
Modulation instability in a triangular three-core coupler with a negative-index material channel
Shafeeque Ali, A. K.; Nithyanandan, K.; Porsezian, K.; Maimistov, Andrei I.
2016-03-01
A theoretical investigation of the modulation instability (MI) in the three core triangular oppositely directed coupler with negative index material channel is presented. This class of couplers have an effective feedback mechanism due to the opposite directionality of the phase velocities in the negative and positive index channels. It is found that the MI in the nonlinear three core triangular oppositely directed coupler is significantly influenced by the ratio of the forward- to backward-propagating wave power and nonlinearity. Also, in the case of the normal dispersion regime a threshold-like behavior is observed, whereas this behavior is not identified in the anomalous dispersion regime. For the asymmetric case (h\
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The design of rf accelerating structures nowadays is largely based on mesh-codes that solve for fields and eigenfrequencies in arbitrarily shaped cavities. The most developed codes deal with structures of cylindrical symmetry. However, no program is available that can solve for fields with azimuthal variation in cavities with dielectric and/or permeable insertions. Here we describe a discretization method using an 'orthogonal triangular double grid'. The special mesh and the FIT-discretization enable the treatment of cavities and waveguides with arbitrary material insertions and combines the features of SUPERFISH (triangular mesh, rotationally symmetric fields) and URMEL (rectangular mesh but fields with or without azimuthal variation). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The design of rf accelerating structures nowadays is largely based on mesh codes that solve for fields and eigenfrequencies in arbitrarily shaped cavities. The most developed codes deal with structures of cylindrical symmetry. However, no program is available that can solve for fields with azimuthal variation in cavities with dielectric and/or permeable insertions. Here we describe a discretization method using an 'orthogonal triangular double grid'. The special mesh and the FIT discretization allow the treatment of cavities and waveguides with arbitrary material insertions and combines the features of SUPERFISH (triangular mesh, rotationally symmetric fields) and URMEL (rectangular mesh but fields with or without azimuthal variation). (author)
Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Yu, Sijia; Chen, Junze; Liao, Yusen; Xue, Can
2015-06-01
Triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes were successfully synthesized through galvanic replacement by using Ag nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The ridge thickness of the Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes could be readily tuned by adjusting the amount of the Pd source during the reaction. These obtained triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoframes exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the methanol oxidation reaction as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst due to the alloyed Ag-Pd composition as well as the hollow-framed structures. This work would be highly impactful in the rational design of future bimetallic alloy nanostructures with high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems. PMID:25925988
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinxun Wang; Mingzhe Dong; Jun Yao
2012-01-01
Analytical expressions of relative permeability are derived for an interacting cylindrical tube bundle model.Equations for determining relative permeability curves from both the interacting uniform and interacting serial types of triangular tube bundle models are presented.Model parameters affecting the trend of relative permeability curves are discussed.Interacting triangular tube bundle models are used to history-match laboratory displacement experiments to determine the relative permeability curves of actual core samples.By adjusting model parameters to match the history of oil production and pressure drop,the estimated relative permeability curves provide a connection between the macroscopic flow behavior and the pore-scale characteristics of core samples.
Effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on polaron in RbCl triangular quantum dot
M, Tiotsop; A, J. Fotue; S, C. Kenfack; N, Issofa; H, Fotsin; L, C. Fai
2016-04-01
In this paper, the time evolution of the quantum mechanical state of a polaron is examined using the Pekar type variational method on the condition of the electric-LO-phonon strong-coupling and polar angle in RbCl triangular quantum dot. We obtain the eigenenergies, and the eigenfunctions of the ground state, and the first excited state respectively. This system in a quantum dot can be treated as a two-level quantum system qubit and the numerical calculations are performed. The effects of Shannon entropy and electric field on the polaron in the RbCl triangular quantum dot are also studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dung Y. Liao
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, leaves and stems of Talinum triangulare were sequentially extracted with phosphate buffer solution to obtain PTL and PTS (phosphate buffered extracts of T. triangulare leaves and stems, with 75% ethanol to obtained ETL and ETS (ethanol extracts of T. triangulare leaves and stems, or with 90°C boiling water to obtain WTL and WTS (water extracts of T. triangulare leaves and stems. We investigated the antioxidant activities of various T. triangulare extracts, analyzed the extracts' stimulations on human mononuclear cell (MNC growth and secretion of cytokines (interleukin-1 beta, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide, and then assayed their subsequent inhibitions on human leukemic U937 cell growth. Results indicated that extracts of T. triangulare showed significant antioxidant activities. Among these extracts, WTS showed the highest stimulatory effect on human MNC growth. The secretion levels of interleukin-1 beta, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the conditioned medium, wherein human MNC was treated with 500 μg/mL WTS for 72 hours, were 1275, 859, and 2222 pg/mL, respectively. All conditioned media obtained from human MNCs cultured with various T. triangulare extracts showed significant inhibition against U937 cell growth of over 40%. These results suggest that T. triangulare extracts may be used in health foods for their immunomodulatory potential.
Associativity of triangular norms characterized by the geometry of their level sets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Petrík, Milan; Sarkoci, P.
2012-01-01
Roč. 202, 1 September (2012), s. 100-109. ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : associativity * contour * level set * Reidemeister closure condition * triangular norm * web geometry Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2012
Modulation of Rectangular and Triangular Bar targets by Optical Systems using Hamming Filters
B.Rama Mohana Rao; Srinivas, V.; S.L. Goud; G.R.C. Reddy
1997-01-01
The modulation in incoherent imaging systems for rectangular and triangular bar targets has been investigated using Harming apodisation filters. The results of contrast Md cutoff frequency responses have been reported with the help of certain profiles. Different apodisation parameters with different values have been used for the calculation of image modulation.
Air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber with improved triangular air-silica photonic crystal cladding
Yan, M; Shum, P
2005-01-01
We introduce a small-core air-guiding photonic crystal fiber whose cladding is made of improved air-silica photonic crystal with non-circular air holes placed in triangular lattice. The fiber achieves un-disturbed bandgap guidance over 350nm wavelength range.
Notes on TQFT wire models and coherence equations for SU(3) triangular cells
Coquereaux, R; Schieber, G
2010-01-01
After a summary of the TQFT wire model formalism we bridge the gap from Kuperberg equations for SU(3) spiders to Ocneanu coherence equations for systems of triangular cells on fusion graphs that describe modules associated with the fusion category of SU(3) at level k. We show how to solve these equations in a number of examples.
Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard;
2008-01-01
We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...
A numerically accurate and robust expression for bistatic scattering from a plane triangular facet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wendelboe, Gorm; Jacobsen, Finn; Bell, Judith
2006-01-01
This work is related to modeling of synthetic sonar images of naval mines or other objects. Considered here is the computation of high frequency scattering from the surface of a rigid 3D-object numerically represented by plane triangular facets. The far field scattered pressure from each facet is...
Approximation Algorithms for Multicoloring Planar Graphs and Powers of Square and Triangular Meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Kchikech
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A multicoloring of a weighted graph G is an assignment of sets of colors to the vertices of G so that two adjacent vertices receive two disjoint sets of colors. A multicoloring problem on G is to find a multicoloring of G. In particular, we are interested in a minimum multicoloring that uses the least total number of colors. The main focus of this work is to obtain upper bounds on the weighted chromatic number of some classes of graphs in terms of the weighted clique number. We first propose an 11/6-approximation algorithm for multicoloring any weighted planar graph. We then study the multicoloring problem on powers of square and triangular meshes. Among other results, we show that the infinite triangular mesh is an induced subgraph of the fourth power of the infinite square mesh and we present 2-approximation algorithms for multicoloring a power square mesh and the second power of a triangular mesh, 3-approximation algorithms for multicoloring powers of semi-toroidal meshes and of triangular meshes and 4-approximation algorithm for multicoloring the power of a toroidal mesh. We also give similar algorithms for the Cartesian product of powers of paths and of cycles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Triangular nanoflake growth patterns have been commonly observed in synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets and their hybrid structures. Triangular nanoflakes not only show exceptional properties, but also can serve as building blocks for two or three dimensional structures. In this study, taking the MoS2 system as a test case, we propose a Matrix method to understand the mechanism of such unique growth pattern. Nanoflakes with different edge types are mathematically described with configuration matrices, and the total formation energy is calculated as the sum of the edge formation energies and the chemical potentials of sulfur and molybdenum. Based on energetics, we find that three triangular patterns with the different edge configurations are energetically more favorable in different ranges of the chemical potential of sulfur, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Our algorithm has high efficiency and can deal with nanoflakes in microns which are beyond the ability of ab-initio method. This study not only elucidates the mechanism of triangular nanoflake growth patterns in experiment, but also provides a clue to control the geometric configurations in synthesis
Isomorphism of generalized triangular matrix-rings and recovery of tiles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Van Wyk
2003-02-01
Full Text Available We prove an isomorphism theorem for generalized triangular matrix-rings, over rings having only the idempotents 0and 1, in particular, over indecomposable commutative rings or over local rings (not necessarily commutative. As a consequence, we obtain a recovery result for the tile in a tiled matrix-ring.
Scale-Invariance of Support Vector Machines based on the Triangular Kernel
Sahbi, Hichem; Fleuret, François
2002-01-01
This report focuses on the scale-invariance and the good performances of Support Vector Machines based on the triangular kernel. After a mathematica- l analysis of the scale-invariance of learning with that kernel, we illustrate its behavior with a simple 2D classification problem and compare its performances to those of a Gaussian kernel on face detection and handwritten character recognition
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for 19-vertex models with upper triangular K-matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By means of an algebraic Bethe ansatz approach, we study the Zamolodchikov–Fateev and Izergin–Korepin vertex models with non-diagonal boundaries, characterized by reflection matrices with an upper triangular form. Generalized Bethe vectors are used to diagonalize the associated transfer matrix. The eigenvalues as well as the Bethe equations are presented. (paper)
Prasad, D. Nagendra; Ghonge, Sudarshan; Banerjee, Souri
2016-04-01
In this paper we investigate the effect of separation of triangular metal electrodes with both convex and concave geometries, on the localization of suspended DNA molecules under the combined effect of dielectrophoresis and AC electro-osmosis through simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics. Trapping points are realized within the electrodes which are found to vary with the separation of the electrodes.
Generation of triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter with negative coefficient.
Li, Wei; Wang, Wen Ting; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Zhu, Ning Hua
2014-06-16
We report a novel approach to generating full-duty-cycle triangular waveforms based on a microwave photonic filter (MPF) with negative coefficient. It is known that the Fourier series expansion of a triangular waveform has only odd-order harmonics. In this work, the undesired even-order harmonics are suppressed by the MPF that has a periodic transmission response. A triangular waveform at fundamental frequency can be generated by setting the bias of a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at quadrature point. However, it is found that a broadband 90° microwave phase shifter has to be used after photodetection to adjust the phases of odd-order harmonics. Alternatively, a frequency doubling triangular waveform can be generated by setting the bias of the MZM at maximum or minimum transmission point. This approach is more promising because the broadband microwave phase shifter is no longer required in this case but it is more power consuming. The proposed approach is theoretically analyzed and experimentally verified. PMID:24977593
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The governing equations for flow and temperature distribution in rod bundles utilizing the boundaries of the triangular mesh system are developed in the present report. The coordinate transformation is nonorthogonal and uses the natural boundaries of the mesh. Three linearly independent equations of momentum and energy are formulated in the present development
Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for Open XXX Model with Triangular Boundary Matrices
Belliard, Samuel; Crampé, Nicolas; Ragoucy, Eric
2013-05-01
We consider an open XXX spin chain with two general boundary matrices whose entries obey a relation, which is equivalent to the possibility to put simultaneously the two matrices in a upper-triangular form. We construct Bethe vectors by means of a generalized algebraic Bethe ansatz. As usual, the method uses Bethe equations and provides transfer matrix eigenvalues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siya Zhu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Triangular nanoflake growth patterns have been commonly observed in synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide sheets and their hybrid structures. Triangular nanoflakes not only show exceptional properties, but also can serve as building blocks for two or three dimensional structures. In this study, taking the MoS2 system as a test case, we propose a Matrix method to understand the mechanism of such unique growth pattern. Nanoflakes with different edge types are mathematically described with configuration matrices, and the total formation energy is calculated as the sum of the edge formation energies and the chemical potentials of sulfur and molybdenum. Based on energetics, we find that three triangular patterns with the different edge configurations are energetically more favorable in different ranges of the chemical potential of sulfur, which are in good agreement with experimental observations. Our algorithm has high efficiency and can deal with nanoflakes in microns which are beyond the ability of ab-initio method. This study not only elucidates the mechanism of triangular nanoflake growth patterns in experiment, but also provides a clue to control the geometric configurations in synthesis.
Mohammad Afshar Kermani; Mozhdeh Afshar Kermani; Nasser Shahsavari Pour
2016-01-01
In this paper a new approach for ranking fuzzy numbers based on defuzzification is introduced. A new method for defuzzification triangular fuzzy numbers and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on right and left sprits of fuzzy numbers is developed first and then it is used to formulate defuzzification for fuzzy numbers. The approach is illustrated by numerical examples.
Breaking away from the Pack: Positioning the Marketing Discipline through a Triangular Analysis.
Bonnici, Joseph L.; Reddy, Allan C.
1993-01-01
College and university marketing departments should use the technique of positioning to increase enrollments. The triangular approach to positioning uses close scrutiny of the student profile, the benefits marketing courses offer, and the competition the department faces within and outside the business school. The technique can also be used by…
Classical Yang- Baxter Equation and Low Dimensional Triangular Lie Bialgebras Over Arbitrary Field
Zhang, Shouchuan
2006-01-01
Let $ L $ be a Lie algebra over arbitrary field $ k $ with dim $ L $ =3 and dim $ L' $ =2. All solutions of constant classical Yang- Baxter equation (CYBE) in Lie algebra $ L $ are obtained and the necessary conditions which $ (L,[\\ ],\\Delta_{r}, r) $ is a coboundary (or triangular) Lie bialgebra are given.
Cascade and Triangular Source Coding with Side Information at the First Two Nodes
Permuter, Haim
2010-01-01
We consider the cascade and triangular rate-distortion problem where side information is known to the source encoder and to the first user but not to the second user. We characterize the rate-distortion region for these problems. For the quadratic Gaussian case, we show that it is sufficient to consider jointly Gaussian distributions, a fact that leads to an explicit solution.
Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.
2016-07-01
A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.
Phononic band structure in a two-dimensional hybrid triangular graphite lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The propagation of acoustic wave in a two-dimensional phononic crystal of a hybrid triangular graphite array is investigated by the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Our numerical results show that the location and width of the band gaps can be tuned by altering the radii of scatters at different positions.
A Novel Fiber Bragg Grating with Triangular Spectrum and Its Application in Strain Sensor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
A novel fiber Bragg grating with triangular spectrum is presented. A strain sensor based on this fiber grating is proposed. Experiments showed that the sensor has advantages of high sensitivity, wider measuring range and immunity to fluctuation of the light source power.
Quantum simulation of frustrated magnetism in triangular optical lattices
Struck, Julian; Ölschläger, Christoph; Targat, Rodolphe Le; Soltan-Panahi, Parvis; Eckardt, André; Lewenstein, Maciej; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus
2011-01-01
Magnetism plays a key role in modern technology as essential building block of many devices used in daily life. Rich future prospects connected to spintronics, next generation storage devices or superconductivity make it a highly dynamical field of research. Despite those ongoing efforts, the many-body dynamics of complex magnetism is far from being well understood on a fundamental level. Especially the study of geometrically frustrated configurations is challenging both theoretically and exp...
Thermal–structural analysis of ITER triangular support for dominant load verification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yu-Gyeong, E-mail: aspirany@hhi.co.kr [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., 1000, Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Yung-Jin [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., 1000, Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Hee-Jae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Highlights: • The load combination method is introduced to thermal–structural analysis for contradictive loads occurred simultaneously. • The one-way coupling analysis also conducted for thermal–structural analysis and its validity is checked by comparing with the load combination. • The dominant load for triangular support bracket is determined as the baking condition. - Abstract: The triangular support is located on the lower inner shell of vacuum vessel of ITER, which should be designed to withstand various loads such as nuclear heat, coolant pressure and so on. The appropriateness of its design is evaluated under the dominant load that could represent the most conservative condition among the design loads. In order to decide the dominant load, a valid method for thermal–structural analysis is firstly verified considering contradictory behaviors between heat and structural loads. In this paper, two approaches; one-way coupling and load combination, are introduced for thermal–structural analysis. The one-way coupling is a method generally used but has a limit to apply on contradictory conditions. The load combination could give a proper solution since it evaluates each load independently and then adds up each result linearly. Based on the results of each case, structural analysis for another load case, baking condition with incident, is conducted to find out which load is dominant for triangular support. Consequently, it is found that the baking condition is the dominant load for triangular support bracket. The proposed load combination method gives a physically reasonable solution which can be used as a reference for checking the validity of other thermal–structural analysis. It is expected that these results could be applied for manufacturing design of the triangular support under various load conditions.
Thermal–structural analysis of ITER triangular support for dominant load verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The load combination method is introduced to thermal–structural analysis for contradictive loads occurred simultaneously. • The one-way coupling analysis also conducted for thermal–structural analysis and its validity is checked by comparing with the load combination. • The dominant load for triangular support bracket is determined as the baking condition. - Abstract: The triangular support is located on the lower inner shell of vacuum vessel of ITER, which should be designed to withstand various loads such as nuclear heat, coolant pressure and so on. The appropriateness of its design is evaluated under the dominant load that could represent the most conservative condition among the design loads. In order to decide the dominant load, a valid method for thermal–structural analysis is firstly verified considering contradictory behaviors between heat and structural loads. In this paper, two approaches; one-way coupling and load combination, are introduced for thermal–structural analysis. The one-way coupling is a method generally used but has a limit to apply on contradictory conditions. The load combination could give a proper solution since it evaluates each load independently and then adds up each result linearly. Based on the results of each case, structural analysis for another load case, baking condition with incident, is conducted to find out which load is dominant for triangular support. Consequently, it is found that the baking condition is the dominant load for triangular support bracket. The proposed load combination method gives a physically reasonable solution which can be used as a reference for checking the validity of other thermal–structural analysis. It is expected that these results could be applied for manufacturing design of the triangular support under various load conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marin, C.; Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.
2009-07-01
Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588{+-}2,488 yr. BP, 35,355{+-}2,446 yr. BP and 40.185{+-}2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.
One-pot synthesis of triangular gold nanoplates allowing broad and fine tuning of edge length
Miranda, Adelaide; Malheiro, Eliana; Skiba, Elżbieta; Quaresma, Pedro; Carvalho, Patrícia A.; Eaton, Peter; de Castro, Baltazar; Shelnutt, John A.; Pereira, Eulália
2010-10-01
A photocatalytic approach was used to synthesize triangular nanoplates in aqueous solution. The synthesis is based on the reduction of a gold salt using a tin(iv) porphyrin as photocatalyst, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a stabilizing agent, and triethanolamine (TEA) as the final electron donor. The average edge length of the triangular nanoplates can be easily changed in the range 45-250 nm by varying the concentration of photocatalyst, and fine-tuning of the average edge length is achieved by varying the concentration of CTAB. Study of the mechanism of formation of the nanoplates by UV-vis and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that there is a first stage where formation of 5 nm seeds takes place, further growth is probably by fusion and by direct reduction of gold onto the preformed nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formed during the photocatalytic reduction of the gold precursor show an irregular shape that evolves to regular triangular nanoplates after ripening in solution for 24 h.A photocatalytic approach was used to synthesize triangular nanoplates in aqueous solution. The synthesis is based on the reduction of a gold salt using a tin(iv) porphyrin as photocatalyst, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a stabilizing agent, and triethanolamine (TEA) as the final electron donor. The average edge length of the triangular nanoplates can be easily changed in the range 45-250 nm by varying the concentration of photocatalyst, and fine-tuning of the average edge length is achieved by varying the concentration of CTAB. Study of the mechanism of formation of the nanoplates by UV-vis and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that there is a first stage where formation of 5 nm seeds takes place, further growth is probably by fusion and by direct reduction of gold onto the preformed nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formed during the photocatalytic reduction of the gold precursor show an irregular shape that evolves to regular
Yu, Guojun
2012-10-01
In this article, comparative studies on computational accuracies and convergence rates of triangular and quadrilateral meshes are carried out in the frame work of the finite-volume method. By theoretical analysis, we conclude that the number of triangular cells needs to be 4/3 times that of quadrilateral cells to obtain similar accuracy. The conclusion is verified by a number of numerical examples. In addition, the convergence rates of the triangular meshes are found to be slower than those of the quadrilateral meshes when the same accuracy is obtained with these two mesh types. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang-Rong Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel way to formulate the triangular flat shell element. The basic analytical solutions of membrane and bending plate problem for anisotropy material are studied separately. Combining with the conforming displacement along the sides and hybrid element strategy, the triangular flat shell elements based on the analytical trial functions (ATF for anisotropy material are formulated. By using the explicit integral formulae of the triangular element, the matrices used in proposed shell element are calculated efficiently. The benchmark examples showed the high accuracy and high efficiency.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Absolute band gaps of a two-dimensional triangular-lattice photonic crystal are calculated with the finite-difference time-domain method in this paper.Through calculating the photonic band structures of the triangular-lattice photonic crystal consisting of Ge rods immersed in air with different shapes,it is found that a large absolute band gap of 0.098 (2c/a) can be obtained for the structures with hollow triangular Ge rods immersed in air,corresponding to 19.8% of the middle frequency.The influence of the different factors on the width of the absolute band gaps is also discussed.
Kudanalli Nagesha, Dattatri Jois
2002-08-01
Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to investigate new synthetic routes to make stable CdSe and In2S 3 nanoparticles. On these newly synthesized nancolloids, the surface modification was attempted via the chalcogen sites. A mixed metal-ligand complex of Ru(bipy)2Cl2 was used for this purpose. The synthesized nanoparticles and the surface modification reaction were monitored by a changes in the UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, steady state luminescence, time resolved photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Findings and conclusions. Stable, water-soluble CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized with narrow size distribution. Changing the ratio of metal to chalcogen during the synthesis could easily control the sizes of the nanocolloids formed. In2S3 nanoparticles were synthesized with a variety of stabilizer molecules. These particles also showed strong luminescence, which had not been reported for these materials. The surface modification of CdSe and In2S3 nanoparticles with the ruthenium complex resulted in the formation of new bands from the electronic states of the nanoparticles and the complex. The lifetime of emission increased with the modification reaction. There was due to the formation of delocalized energy levels as a consequence of modification reaction.
Constrained CVT Meshes and a Comparison of Triangular Mesh Generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, Hoa [Florida State University; Burkardt, John [Florida State University; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Saka, Yuki [Florida State University
2009-01-01
Mesh generation in regions in Euclidean space is a central task in computational science, and especially for commonly used numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations, e.g., finite element and finite volume methods. We focus on the uniform Delaunay triangulation of planar regions and, in particular, on how one selects the positions of the vertices of the triangulation. We discuss a recently developed method, based on the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) concept, for effecting such triangulations and present two algorithms, including one new one, for CVT-based grid generation. We also compare several methods, including CVT-based methods, for triangulating planar domains. To this end, we define several quantitative measures of the quality of uniform grids. We then generate triangulations of several planar regions, including some having complexities that are representative of what one may encounter in practice. We subject the resulting grids to visual and quantitative comparisons and conclude that all the methods considered produce high-quality uniform grids and that the CVT-based grids are at least as good as any of the others.
Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles
Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.
2013-02-01
Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.
Kumar, Rajneesh; Kumar, Anoop; Goel, Varun
2016-06-01
The force convective heat transfer in an equilateral triangular duct of different wall heat flux configurations was analysed for the laminar hydro-dynamically developed and thermally developing flow by the use of finite volume method. Unstructured meshing was generated by multi-block technique and set of governing equations were discretized using second-order accurate up-wind scheme and numerically solved by SIMPLE Algorithm. For ensuring accuracy, grid independence study was also done. Numerical methodology was verified by comparing results with previous work and predicted results showed good agreement with them (within error of ±5 %). The different combinations of constant heat flux boundary condition were analysed and their effect on heat transfer and fluid flow for different Reynolds number was also studied. The results of different combinations were compared with the case of force convective heat transfer in the equilateral triangular duct with constant heat flux on all three walls.
The system of high frequency triangular waveform generator for mini-cyclotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This generator is designed for a super-sensitive mini-cyclotron mass spectroscope. The main difference in high frequency system design between this and ordinary cyclotron is that this system uses triangular waveform and ordinary cyclotron uses sine wave as Dee voltage. The generator's load is capacitor and it's LC resonance circuit. An electron tube works under switching signal and inductor La is considered as a constant current component in high frequency condition. It generates triangular waveform by alternatively charging and discharging a load capacitor CL with constant current. The output waveform quality depends on the constancy of the charge and discharge current and this current is affected by the shape of switching signal on grid of the electron tube
Indications of c-axis Charge Transport in Hole Doped Triangular Antiferromagnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Ying; LIU Bin; FENG Shi-Ping
2004-01-01
The c-axis charge transport of the hole doped triangular antiferromagnet is investigated within the tJ model by considering the incoherent interlayer hopping.It is shown that the c-axis charge transport of the hole doped triangular antiferromagnet is essentially determined by the scattering from the in-plane fluctuation.The c-axis conductivity spectrum shows a lov-energy peak and the unusual high-energy broad band,while the c-axis resistivity is characterized by a crossover from the high temperature metallic-like behavior to the Iow temperature insulating-like behavior,which is qualitatively consistent with those of the hole doped square lattice antiferromagnet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, Jae Hee; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Ha, Hyo Jun; Jang, Seok Pil [Korea Aerospace Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Woo [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2009-07-01
In the papermaking processes it is well known that the dryer uses the largest amount of energy and has costly components compared with other devices. Many researchers thus conducted to reduce energy and cost of the dryer. Recently Argonne national laboratory has developed the concept of a multiport cylinder dryer that the steam flows along longitudinally oriented mini-channels which are close to inner surface of cylinder dryer. They reported that the innovative design minimizes the condensate layer thickness. However, systematically experimental data are not available. So in this paper we will conduct experiments to study thermal characteristics of condensing steam in a single horizontal mini-channel with triangular shape, representative of a multiport cylinder dryer. Based on the results, we confirm previous results and observe the condensing heat transfer coefficient in the single horizontal mini-channel with triangular shape.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the papermaking processes it is well known that the dryer uses the largest amount of energy and has costly components compared with other devices. Many researchers thus conducted to reduce energy and cost of the dryer. Recently Argonne national laboratory has developed the concept of a multiport cylinder dryer that the steam flows along longitudinally oriented mini-channels which are close to inner surface of cylinder dryer. They reported that the innovative design minimizes the condensate layer thickness. However, systematically experimental data are not available. So in this paper we will conduct experiments to study thermal characteristics of condensing steam in a single horizontal mini-channel with triangular shape, representative of a multiport cylinder dryer. Based on the results, we confirm previous results and observe the condensing heat transfer coefficient in the single horizontal mini-channel with triangular shape.
A waveless free surface flow past a submerged triangular obstacle in presence of surface tension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hakima Sekhri
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We consider the Free surface flows passing a submerged triangular obstacle at the bottom of a channel. The problem is characterized by a nonlinear boundary condition on the surface of unknown configuration. The analytical exact solutions for these problems are not known. Following Dias and Vanden Broeck [6], we computed numerically the solutions via a series truncation method. These solutions depend on two parameters: the Weber number $\\alpha$ characterizing the strength of the surface tension and the angle $\\beta$ at the base characterizing the shape of the apex. Although free surface flows with surface tension admit capillary waves, it is found that solution exist only for values of the Weber number greater than $\\alpha_0$ for different configurations of the triangular obstacle.
Guiding 2.94 $ \\mu $m using low-loss microstructured antiresonant triangular-core fibers
Chen, Yang; Joly, Nicolas Y; Biancalana, Fabio
2016-01-01
We introduce a new simple design of hollow-core microstructured fiber targeted to guide mid-infrared light at a wavelength 2.94 $ \\mu $m. The fiber has a triangular-core supported via silica-glass webs enclosed by a large hollow capillary tube. The fiber specific dimensions are determined based on the guiding technique, which is based on the anti-resonant mechanism. For a triangular-core with side length $100$ $ \\mu $m, the fiber has a minimum transmission loss $0.08\\pm0.005$ dB/m and dispersion 2.3 ps/km/nm at the operational wavelength 2.94 $ \\mu $m.
Dalapati, Sasanka; Addicoat, Matthew; Jin, Shangbin; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Gao, Jia; Xu, Hong; Irle, Stephan; Seki, Shu; Jiang, Donglin
2015-07-01
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of highly ordered porous polymers with many potential applications. They are currently designed and synthesized through hexagonal and tetragonal topologies, limiting the access to and exploration of new structures and properties. Here, we report that a triangular topology can be developed for the rational design and synthesis of a new class of COFs. The triangular topology features small pore sizes down to 12 Å, which is among the smallest pores for COFs reported to date, and high π-column densities of up to 0.25 nm-2, which exceeds those of supramolecular columnar π-arrays and other COF materials. These crystalline COFs facilitate π-cloud delocalization and are highly conductive, with a hole mobility that is among the highest reported for COFs and polygraphitic ensembles.
Use of a neural network to exploit light division in a triangular scintillating crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a novel way of exploiting light division in a scintillating crystal to localise the point of interaction using a neural network. Because sensitivity at the centre of a positron tomograph would be significantly increased for a spherical geometry compared to a cylinder with the same area of detection, we explored the possibility of developing a position-sensitive triangular block detector that might be used ultimately as an element of a spherical shell. With 3 PMTs coupled on each side of a triangular BaF2 crystal of about 8 cm2.1 cm, we obtain spatial resolutions less than 4 mm FWHM over the whole surface of the triangle and energy resolutions of about 14% FWHM for 662 keV impinging photons. Experimental measurements are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and prospects for different configurations are discussed. (orig.)
Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag......-edged antidots give rise to large band gaps compared to armchair-edged antidots, irrespective of the rules which govern the existence of gaps in armchair-edged antidot lattices. In addition the zigzag-edged antidots appear more robust than armchair-edged antidots in the presence of geometrical disorder. The......, reducing the band gaps compared to the unpolarized case. This behavior is also found to be robust in the presence of disorder. Our results highlight the possibilities of using triangular perforations in graphene to open electronic band gaps in systems with experimentally realistic levels of disorder, and...
Detecting one-mode communities in bipartite networks by bipartite clustering triangular
Cui, Yaozu; Wang, Xingyuan
2016-09-01
In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to detect one-mode community structures in bipartite networks, and to deduce which one-mode community structures are weighted. After analyzing the topological properties in bipartite networks, bipartite clustering triangular is introduced. First, bipartite networks are projected into two weighted one-mode networks by bipartite clustering triangular. Then all the maximal sub-graphs from two one-mode weighted networks are extracted and the maximal sub-graphs are merged together using a weighted clustering threshold. In addition, the proposed algorithm successfully finds overlapping vertices between one-mode communities. Experimental results using some real-world network data shows that the performance of the proposed algorithm is satisfactory.
Light trapping at Dirac point in 2D triangular Archimedean-like lattice photonic crystal.
Mao, Qiuping; Xie, Kang; Hu, Lei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Wang, Erlei
2016-04-20
Optical cavities and waveguides are critical parts of modern optical devices. Traditionally, optical cavities and waveguides rely on photonic bandgaps, or total internal reflection, to achieve light trapping. It has been reported that a novel light trapping, which exists in triangular and honeycomb lattices, is attributed to the so-called Dirac point. Our analysis reveals that 2D triangular Archimedean-like lattice photonic crystals also can support this Dirac mode with similar characteristics. This is a new type of localized mode with a different algebraic field profile at a different specified Dirac frequency, which is also beyond any complete photonic bandgap. The new wave localization has different features and can be applied to the design of new optical devices. PMID:27140119
Maximum heat transfer capacity of high temperature heat pipe with triangular grooved wick
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈妍; 张红; 许辉; 于萍; 白穜
2015-01-01
A mathematical model was developed to predict the maximum heat transfer capacity of high temperature heat pipe with triangular grooved wick. The effects of the inclination angle and geometry structure were considered in the proposed model. Maximum heat transfer capacity was also investigated experimentally. The model was validated by comparing with the experimental results. The maximum heat transfer capacity increases with the vapor core radius increasing. Compared with the inclination angle of 0°, the maximum heat transfer capacity increases at the larger inclination angle, and the change with temperature is larger. The performance of heat pipe with triangular grooved wick is greatly influenced by gravity, so it is not recommended to be applied to the dish solar heat pipe receiver.
Estimation Normal Vector of Triangular Mesh Vertex by Angle and Centroid Weights and its Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yueping Chen
2013-04-01
Full Text Available To compute vertex normal of triangular meshes more accurately, this paper presents an improved algorithm based on angle and centroid weights. Firstly, four representational algorithms are analyzed by comparing their weighting characteristics such as angles, areas and centroids. The drawbacks of each algorithm are discussed. Following that, an improved algorithm is put forward based on angle and centroid weights. Finally, by taking the deviation angle between the nominal normal vector and the estimated one as the error evaluation standard factor, the triangular mesh models of spheres, ellipsoids, paraboloids and cylinders are used to analyze the performance of all these estimation algorithms. The machining and inspection operations of one mould part are conducted to verify the improved algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm is effective.
Quantum Spectra and Classical Orbits in Two-Dimensional Equilateral Triangular Billiards
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Sheng-Lu; GAO Feng; HONG Zheng-Pin; DU Meng-Li
2005-01-01
@@ We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the equilateral triangular billiards. The eigenstates of such systems are not separable functions of two variables even though the problem is exactlysolvable. We calculate the Fourier transform of a quantum spectral function and find that the positions of thepeaks match well with the lengths of the classical orbits. This is another example showing that the quantum spectral function provides a bridge between quantum and classical mechanics.
A novel approach for justification of box-triangular germanium profile in SiGe HBTs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work presents a unique and robust approach for validation of using the box-triangular germanium profile in the base of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors, where the methodology considers the simultaneous optimization of the p-type base doping profile in conjunction with the germanium profile in the base. The study analyses the electron motion across the SiGe base in SiGe HBTs, owing to different accelerating electric fields. The analysis first presents a figure of merit, to achieve the minimum electron transit time across the base in conjunction with the increased current gain in n—p—n-SiGe HBTs, which shows a general trend vis-à-vis the advantage of a trapezoid germanium profile, but with additional accuracy as we considered simultaneously optimized p-type base doping. The effect of minority carrier velocity saturation is then included to make the study more detailed. The analysis then investigates the shifted germanium profile in the base to further minimize the base transit time. Finally, it is shown that a shifted germanium profile eventually evolves into a box-triangular Ge-profile in the SiGe base, which could simultaneously minimize the base transit time and reduce emitter delay by virtue of the high current gain. The analysis verifies that for an average Ge-dose of 7.5% Ge across the base, a box-triangular germanium profile in conjunction with an optimum base doping profile has an approximately identical base transit time and a 30% higher current gain, in comparison with an optimum base doping and triangular Ge-profile across the whole base. (semiconductor devices)
Franz, Silvio; Gradenigo, Giacomo; Spigler, Stefano
2015-01-01
We study how the thermodynamic properties of the Triangular Plaquette Model (TPM) are influenced by the addition of extra interactions. The thermodynamics of the original TPM is trivial, while its dynamics is glassy, as usual in Kinetically Constrained Models. As soon as we generalize the model to include additional interactions, a thermodynamic phase transition appears in the system. The additional interactions we consider are either short ranged, forming a regular lattice in the plane, or l...
Xu, Lin; Luo, Zhimin; Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Li, Hai; Zhang, Hua; Xue, Can
2014-09-01
We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag+/Pd2+ is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems.We report the generation of triangular Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms through a rationally designed synthetic strategy based on silver nanoprisms as sacrificial templates. The galvanic replacement between Ag nanoprisms and H2PdCl4 along with co-reduction of Ag+/Pd2+ is responsible for the formation of final prismatic Ag-Pd alloy nanostructures. Significantly, these Ag-Pd alloy nanoprisms exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared with the commercial Pd/C catalyst. Such a high catalytic activity is attributed to not only the alloyed Ag-Pd composition but also the dominant {111} facets of the triangular Ag-Pd nanoprisms. This work demonstrates the rational design of bimetallic alloy nanostructures with control of selective crystal facets that are critical to achieve high catalytic activity for fuel cell systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03600j
Semi-Godunov schemes for general triangular systems of conservation laws
2006-01-01
We consider general triangular systems of conservation laws which arise in applications like multi-phase flows in porous media and are non-strictly hyperbolic. We device simple and efficient finite volume schemes of the Godunov type which are based on a local decoupling of the system into a series of single conservation laws with discontinuous coefficients and are hence termed Semi-Godunov schemes. These schemes are not based on the characte ristic structure of the system. We derive some usef...
Taoufik Ghabara; Faouzi Ghmari; M. S. Sifaoui
2007-01-01
Geometric optics approximation for emissivity from triangular surfaces was compared with exact scattering predictions from electromagnetic theory. Rigorous electromagnetic scattering theory was numerically formulated based on the differential method. We have used a numerical simulation of the emissivity of gold and tungsten for a wavelength equal 0.55 micron to explore the validity of the geometric optics. Surface parameter domains for the regions of accuracy of the geometric optics approxima...
Multicritical point of Ising spin glasses on triangular and honeycomb lattices
de Queiroz, S. L. A.
2005-01-01
The behavior of two-dimensional Ising spin glasses at the multicritical point on triangular and honeycomb lattices is investigated, with the help of finite-size scaling and conformal-invariance concepts. We use transfer-matrix methods on long strips to calculate domain-wall energies, uniform susceptibilities, and spin-spin correlation functions. Accurate estimates are provided for the location of the multicritical point on both lattices, which lend strong support to a conjecture recently adva...
Laminar Natural Convection of Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids Inside Triangular Enclosure
Ala?a Abbas Muhadi
2007-01-01
In the present work, steady two dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids inside isosceles triangular enclosure has been analyzed numerically for a wide range of the modified Rayleigh numbers of (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105), with non-dimensional parameter (NE) of Prandtl Eyring model ranging from (0 to 10), and modified Prandtl number take in the range (Pr* =1,10, and 100). Two types of boundary conditions have been considered. The first, whe...
Submillimeter wave ESR study on triangular lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first submillimeter wave ESR on triangular lattice antiferromagnet, CuFeO2 has been performed in frequencies up to 762 GHz. The changes of AFMR modes were observed for H parallel c, corresponding to the metamagnetic transition which occurred below TN2. In a phase between TN1 and TN2, we observed an easy-plane type AFMR mode which could not explain a partially disordered model suggested by neutron diffraction experiments
Nagaraju, A; Prof. B.Uma Maheswar Gowd
2015-01-01
Solar heat has been thrust area of research to explore renewable energy utilisation for the past few decades. In solar air heaters artificial roughness is tried on the surface of the absorber plate by adding small roughness elements to enhance the heat transfer rate. In the present work triangular protrusion are provided to act as roughness elements over the surface of the aluminum absorber plate. The experimental study is carried out on the effect of change in apex angle of protr...
Specificity of Accounting and Tax Treatments related to Triangular Foreign Trade Transactions
Paliu-Popa, Lucia
2013-01-01
Considering the purpose of conducting any foreign trade transaction, which is generally limited to obtaining a commercial advantage by attracting foreign contribution with the smallest costs and considering the role of the accounting information and the need to involve it in decision-making due to its increased credibility and relevance in the eyes of internal and external users, in what follows we intend to develop accounting models specific to triangular foreign trade transactions in relati...
Bini, D. A.; Dendievel, S.; Latouche, G.; Meini, B.
2015-01-01
The Erlangian approximation of Markovian fluid queues leads to the problem of computing the matrix exponential of a subgenerator having a block-triangular, block-Toeplitz structure. To this end, we propose some algorithms which exploit the Toeplitz structure and the properties of generators. Such algorithms allow to compute the exponential of very large matrices, which would otherwise be untreatable with standard methods. We also prove interesting decay properties of the exponential of a gene...
State feedback controller for a class of MIMO non triangular systems
Farza, Mondher; M'Saad, Mohammed; Gehan, Olivier; Pigeon, Eric; Hajji, Sofien
2011-01-01
This paper presents a controller design for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems involving some uncertainties. The latter is particularly composed by cascade subsystems and each subsystem is associated to a subset of the system outputs and assumes a triangular dependence on its own state variables and may depend on the state variables of all other subsystems. The main contribution consists in extending the available control results to allow more interconnections between the subsystems. Of fundam...
Ana Paula Oliveira Amorim; Márcia Cristina Campos de Oliveira; Thiago de Azevedo Amorim; Aurea Echevarria
2013-01-01
The aim of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant activity against the radical species DPPH, the reducing capacity against Fe II ions, and the inhibitory activity on the tyrosinase enzyme of the T. triangulare. Hydromethanolic crude extract provided two fractions after the liquid/liquid partition with chloroform. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content of the crude extract (CE) and the hydromethanolic fraction (Fraction 1), resulting in a concentration of 0.5853 g/1...
INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVAULATION OF DESMODIUM TRIANGULARE (RETZ.) MERR. ROOT
R.S. Jayaseelan; Fijesh P.Vijayan; M. Madheswaran; Suresh V; Jose Padikkala
2012-01-01
The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of the root of Desmodium triangulare (Fabaceae). 70% Methanolic extract was screened by using in vitro by antioxidant activity screening models such as (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity in all the models studied. Prelimina...
Anisotropic Hubbard model on a triangular lattice - spin dynamics in HoMnO3
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Saptarshi Ghosh; Avinash Singh
2008-01-01
The recent neutron scattering data for spin-wave dispersion in HoMnO3 are well-described by an anisotropic Hubbard model on a triangular lattice with a planar (XY) spin anisotropy. Best fit indicates that magnetic excitations in HoMnO3 correspond to the strong-coupling limit / > ∼ 15, with planar exchange energy = 42/ ≃ 2.5 meV and planar anisotropy ≃ 0.35 meV.
Numerical Study of Thermal Radiation Effect on Confined Turbulent Free Triangular Jets
Kiyan Parham; Esmaeil Esmaeilzadeh; Amir Siahsarani; O. Phillips Agboola
2013-01-01
The present study investigates the effects of thermal radiation on turbulent free triangular jets. Finite volume method is applied for solving mass, momentum, and energy equations simultaneously. Discrete ordinate method is used to determine radiation transfer equation (RTE). Results are presented in terms of velocity, kinetic energy, and its dissipation rate fields. Results show that thermal radiation speeds the development of velocity on the jet axis and enhances kinetic energy; therefore, ...
Sznajd sociophysics model on a triangular lattice: ferro and antiferromagnetic opinions
Chang, Iksoo
2001-01-01
The Sznajd sociophysics model is generalized on the triangular lattice with pure antiferromagnetic opinion and also with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic opinions. The slogan of the trade union "united we stand, divided we fall" can be realized via the propagation of ferromagnetic opinion of adjacent people in the union, but the propagation of antiferromagnetic opinion can be observed among the third countries between two big super powers or among the family members of conflicting par...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed
Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations
Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-06-01
Ideal graphene antidot lattices are predicted to show promising band gap behavior (i.e., EG≃500 meV) under carefully specified conditions. However, for the structures studied so far this behavior is critically dependent on superlattice geometry and is not robust against experimentally realistic disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag-edged antidots give rise to large band gaps compared to armchair-edged antidots, irrespective of the rules which govern the existence of gaps in armchair-edged antidot lattices. In addition the zigzag-edged antidots appear more robust than armchair-edged antidots in the presence of geometrical disorder. The inclusion of spin polarization within a mean-field Hubbard approach gives rise to a large overall magnetic moment at each antidot due to the sublattice imbalance imposed by the triangular geometry. Half-metallic behavior arises from the formation of spin-split dispersive states near the Fermi energy, reducing the band gaps compared to the unpolarized case. This behavior is also found to be robust in the presence of disorder. Our results highlight the possibilities of using triangular perforations in graphene to open electronic band gaps in systems with experimentally realistic levels of disorder, and furthermore, of exploiting the strong spin dependence of the system for spintronic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this contribution recent results on selective and precise tailoring of triangular gold nanoparticles (NPs) using ns-pulsed laser light are presented. The NPs were prepared by nanosphere lithography and subsequently tailored with ns-pulsed laser light using different fluences and wavelengths. The method is based on the size and shape dependent localized surface plasmon polariton resonance (SPR) of the NPs. We will demonstrate that the gap size between triangular NPs can be tuned from approximately 102±14 nm to 122±11 nm, due to a shape change of the NP from triangular to oblate. These morphological changes are accompanied by a significant shift of the surface plasmon resonance from λSPR=730 nm to λSPR=680 nm. Most importantly if the laser wavelength is chosen such that the dipolar SPR is excited, the hexagonal order of the NPs remains intact after irradiation, in contrast to excitation via the quadrupole SPR or within the interband transition. A tuneable gap size and the conservation of the hexagonal order of the NP array is the precondition for applications, where the NPs should serve as anchor points, e.g. for functional molecular nanowires, which can be used to utilize molecular devices.
Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki
2016-04-01
Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [H. Asada, Phys. Rev. D 80, 064021 (2009)], the gravitational radiation reaction to Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution of the three-body problem is investigated in an analytic method. The previous work is based on the energy balance argument, which is sufficient for a two-body system because the number of degrees of freedom (the semimajor axis and the eccentricity in quasi-Keplerian cases, for instance) equals that of the constants of motion such as the total energy and the orbital angular momentum. In a system with three (or more) bodies, however, the number of degrees of freedom is more than that of the constants of motion. Therefore, the present paper discusses the evolution of the triangular system by directly treating the gravitational radiation reaction force to each body. The perturbed equations of motion are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. It is found that the triangular configuration is adiabatically shrinking and is kept in equilibrium by increasing the orbital frequency due to the radiation reaction if the mass ratios satisfy the Newtonian stability condition. Long-term stability involving the first post-Newtonian corrections is also discussed.
Analysis and characterization of triangular electrode structures for electrostatic energy harvesting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper investigates triangular electrode structures for electrostatic energy-harvesting devices. By analysis of the electrode geometry, we identified the angle α, which is half the angle defined by the two equal sides of the isosceles triangle, to be an important design parameter. Moreover, triangular electrodes provide a larger capacitance change per unit displacement and also a larger total capacitance change than area-overlap and gap-closing designs. Fabricated devices were characterized using two different circuit configurations. Our results show a nonlinear frequency response (softening behaviour) due to the nonlinear capacitance characteristic of the triangular electrodes. However, the nonlinear capacitance characteristic allows tuning the resonance frequency of the device. We also observed that a bias voltage as low as 8 V allows effective operation of the energy-harvesting device. Finally, we demonstrate successful charging of a 20 µF energy storage capacitor to a practical voltage level of 3.5 V. The harvested energy was applied to a low power transmission module which successfully transmitted a data communication protocol.
Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular subchannel in Zirconia-water nanofluid
Tandian, N. P.; Alkharboushi, A. A. K.; Kamajaya, K.
2015-09-01
Natural convection heat transfer in vertical triangular sub-channel has important role in cooling mechanism of the APWR and the PHWR nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, natural convection correlation equations for such geometry are scarcely available. Recent studies showed that ZrO2-water nanofluid has a good prospect to be used in the nuclear reactor technology due to its low neutron absorption cross section. Although several papers have reported transport properties of ZrO2-water nanofluids, practically there is no correlation equation for predicting natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel in ZrO2-water nanofluid. Therefore, a study for finding such heat transfer correlation equation has been done by utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics software and reported in this paper. In the study, natural convection heat transfer in a vertical triangular sub-channel has been simulated at several values of heat transfer flux within 9.1 to 30.9 kW/m2 range and ZrO2 concentrations of 0 (pure water), 0.27, and 3 volume-% of ZrO2. The study shows that the ZrO2 concentration has no significant influence to the natural convection heat transfer at those concentration levels. The obtained theoretical heat transfer correlation equations were verified through experiment, and they showed very similar results. The correlation equations are reported in this paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinous M. Hameed, Bashar Muslem Essa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Experimental and numerical investigation has been performed in this work to evaluate the performance for triangular finned tube heat exchanger. Experimental work included designing and manufacturing of shaped triangular fins from copper material of (10mm length, (10mm height, (1mm thickness, (22 mm distance between every two fins shaped and (15mm pitch between each two of fins which are install on the straight copper tube of (2m length having (20mm inner diameter and (22mm outer diameter. The inner tube is inserted inside the Perspex tube of (54mm inner diameter and (60mm outer diameter. Cold Air and hot water are used as working fluids in the shell side and tube side, respectively. Air at various mass flow rates (0.001875 to 0.003133 kg/sec flows through annuli and water at Reynold's numbers ranging from (10376.9 to 23348.03 flows through the inner tube. Performance of (smooth and finned tube heat exchanger was investigated experimentally. Experimental results showed that the enhancement of heat dissipation for triangular finned tube is (3.252 to4.502 times than that of smooth tube respectively. Numerical simulation has been carried out on present heat exchanger to analyze flow field and heat transfer using COMSOL computational fluid dynamic (CFD package model. The comparison between experimental work and numerical results showed good agreement.
Cascade, Triangular and Two Way Source Coding with degraded side information at the second user
Chia, Yeow Khiang; Weissman, Tsachy
2010-01-01
We consider the Cascade and Triangular rate-distortion problems where the same side information is available at the source node and User 1, and the side information available at User 2 is a degraded version of the side information at the source node and User 1. We characterize the rate-distortion region for these problems. For the Cascade setup, we showed that, at User 1, decoding and re-binning the codeword sent by the source node for User 2 is optimum. We then extend our results to the Two way Cascade and Triangular setting, where the source node is interested in lossy reconstruction of the side information at User 2 via a rate limited link from User 2 to the source node. We characterize the rate distortion regions for these settings. Complete explicit characterizations for all settings are also given in the Quadratic Gaussian case. We conclude with two further extensions: A triangular source coding problem with a helper, and an extension of our Two Way Cascade setting in the Quadratic Gaussian case.
Fluid-elastic instability in a normal triangular tube bundle subjected to air-water cross-flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the results of tests on the vibration of a normal triangular tube bundle subjected to air-water cross-flow. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the bundle is 1.5, and the tube diameter is 38 mm. The tubes were preferentially flexible in one direction. Both the lift and the drag direction were tested. A wide range of void fractions and fluid velocities was tested. Fluid-elastic instabilities and tube resonances were observed. The resonances induced significant vibration amplitudes at high void fractions in the lift direction. The results are compared with those obtained with a rotated triangular tube bundle. They show that the normal triangular configuration is more stable than the rotated triangular configuration. (authors)
Lim, Teik-Cheng
2016-05-01
For moderately thick plates, the use of First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) with a constant shear correction factor of 5/6 is sufficient to take into account the plate deflection arising from transverse shear deformation. For very thick plates, the use of Third order Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) is preferred as it allows the shear strain distribution to be varied through the plate thickness. Therefore no correction factor is required in TSDT, unlike FSDT. Due to the complexity involved in TSDT, this paper obtains a more accurate shear correction factor for use in FSDT of very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular plates based on the TSDT. By matching the maximum deflections for this plate according to FSDT and TSDT, a variable shear correction factor is obtained. Results show that the shear correction factor for the simplified TSDT, i.e. 14/17, is least accurate. The commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 in FSDT is valid only for very thin or highly auxetic plates. This paper provides a variable shear correction for FSDT deflection that matches the plate deflection by TSDT. This variable shear correction factor allows designers to justify the use of a commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 even for very thick plates as long as the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative.
Noriyuki Hirota, Tsutomu Ando, Ryo Tanaka, Hitoshi Wada and Yoshio Sakka
2009-01-01
We studied methods of controlling the spacing between particles in the triangular lattice formed by feeble magnetic particles through induced magnetic dipole interaction. Formation of a triangular lattice is described by the balance between the magnetic force and the interaction of induced magnetic dipoles. The intensity of the magnetic force is proportional to the volume of particles V and the difference in the magnetic susceptibilities between the particles and the surrounding medium Δχ. On...
Oluwatoyin Orhuamen, Elizabeth; Kehinde Stephen, Olorunmaiye; Christiana Oreoluwa, Adeyemi
2012-01-01
A study of the proximate analysis of two commonly grown and consumed leafy vegetables in Nigeria “fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare) was carried out. Leaves of the two vegetables were analysed in both wet and dry conditions with the aim of determining their nutrient contents and the effects of sun drying on these nutrients. The results revealed the presence of protein in the fresh leaves of Telfairia occidentalis and Talinum triangulare to be 8.31% an...
Ogbonnaya Eleazu Chinedum; Chinedum Eleazu Kate
2013-01-01
Background and Aim: Despite the pharmacological relevance of Water leaf (Talinum triangulare), there is paucity of information in literature on the effect of boiling on its pharmacopotency as well as nutritional properties. Methodology: The total chlorophyll, carotenoids, proximates, phytochemicals, minerals, vitamins and antioxidant assays of the leaves of the vegetable were performed using standard techniques. Results: The raw leaves of water leaf (Talinum triangulare) pos...
Jing Liu; Yushan Chen; Haoyuan Cai; Xiaoyi Chen; Changwei Li; Cheng-Fu Yang
2015-01-01
In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL) method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. S...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ewing, R.E.; Saevareid, O.; Shen, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1994-12-31
A multigrid algorithm for the cell-centered finite difference on equilateral triangular grids for solving second-order elliptic problems is proposed. This finite difference is a four-point star stencil in a two-dimensional domain and a five-point star stencil in a three dimensional domain. According to the authors analysis, the advantages of this finite difference are that it is an O(h{sup 2})-order accurate numerical scheme for both the solution and derivatives on equilateral triangular grids, the structure of the scheme is perhaps the simplest, and its corresponding multigrid algorithm is easily constructed with an optimal convergence rate. They are interested in relaxation of the equilateral triangular grid condition to certain general triangular grids and the application of this multigrid algorithm as a numerically reasonable preconditioner for the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas mixed triangular finite element method. Numerical test results are presented to demonstrate their analytical results and to investigate the applications of this multigrid algorithm on general triangular grids.
Powell, R. I.
2002-01-01
Shows how integer-sided triangles can be nested, each nest having a single enclosing isosceles triangle. Brings to light what can be seen as a relatively simple generalization of Pythagoras' theorem, a result that should be readily accessible to many secondary school pupils. (Author/KHR)
Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.
2013-01-01
In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.
The A2+Mn5(SO4)6 family of triangular lattice, ferrimagnetic sulfates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new family of anhydrous sulfates, A2+Mn5(SO4)6 (A=Pb, Ba, Sr) is reported. The crystal structures of PbMn5(SO4)6 and SrMn5(SO4)6 are solved by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. BaMn5(SO4)6 is isostructural. PbMn5(SO4)6 crystallizes with P3-bar symmetry and unit cell parameters of a=14.551(1) A and c=7.535(1) A. The structure has rich features, including dimers of face-sharing MnO6 octahedra, and two complementary triangular layers of Mn atoms. All compounds undergo a magnetic ordering transition at 10 K, below which, the magnetic susceptibility of the compounds varies systematically with the radius of the non-magnetic cation. Low temperature neutron diffraction shows that the complementary triangular layers result in a ferrimagnet with a net moment corresponding to one high spin Mn2+ per unit cell, correlating well with the magnetization data. The non-magnetic variant PbMg5(SO4)6 is also reported. - Graphical abstract: A new family sulfates, A2+Mn5(SO4)6 (A=Pb, Ba, Sr) is reported. Structures are solved by powder neutron diffraction. PbMn5(SO4)6 is trigonal with lattice parameters of a=14.551(1) A and c=7.535(1) A. The structure has dimers of face-sharing MnO6 octahedra, and two complementary triangular layers of Mn atoms that result in a ferrimagnet. All compounds magnetically order at 10 K. Low field susceptibility varies systematically with non-magnetic cation radius.
Enhancement of heat transfer by nanofluids and orientations of the equilateral triangular obstacle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The heat transfer is improved by nanofluids and orientations of the obstacle. • The role of solid volume fraction on the fluid flow and heat transfer is studied. • There is an upward drift in the vortices for the diagonal facing flow. • The maximum value of the average Nusselt number is for the vertex facing flow. - Abstract: This paper simulates the forced convective heat transfer of Al2O3–water nanofluid over an equilateral triangular obstacle. Computations are performed for different orientations of the triangular obstacle (side, vertex and diagonal facing flows). The ranges of Reynolds number (Re) and solid volume fractions of nanoparticles (φ) are 1 ⩽ Re ⩽ 200 and 0 ⩽ φ ⩽ 0.05, respectively. Two-dimensional unsteady conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy equations have been solved using finite volume method. The effects of Reynolds number, solid volume fractions of nanoparticles and different orientations of the triangular obstacle on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated in detail. Detailed results are presented for wake length, streamline, vorticity, temperature contours and time averaged Nusselt number. Finally, the value of time averaged Nusselt number has been investigated in three equations using least square method which the effects of solid volume fraction of nanoparticles and Reynolds numbers are taken into account. The calculated results revealed that the maximum effect of nanoparticles on heat transfer rate augmentation is for the side facing flow and the minimum is related to the vertex facing flow. Also, the required Reynolds numbers for wake formation decrease with increase in solid volume fraction
Thermal degradation mechanism of triangular Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles.
Gangishetty, Mahesh K; Scott, Robert W J; Kelly, Timothy L
2016-06-14
Triangular silver nanoparticles are promising materials for light harvesting applications because of their strong plasmon bands; these absorption bands are highly tunable, and can be varied over the entire visible range based on the particle size. A general concern with these materials is that they are unstable at elevated temperatures. When thermally annealed, they suffer from changes to the particle morphology, which in turn affects their optical properties. Because of this stability issue, these materials cannot be used in applications requiring elevated temperatures. In order to address this problem, it is important to first understand the degradation mechanism. Here, we measure the changes in particle morphology, oxidation state, and coordination environment of Ag@SiO2 nanotriangles caused by thermal annealing. UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM reveal that upon annealing the Ag@SiO2 nanotriangles in air, the triangular cores are truncated and smaller nanoparticles are formed. Ag K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) shows that the small particles consist of Ag(0), and that there is a decrease in the Ag-Ag coordination number with an increase in the annealing temperature. We hypothesize that upon annealing Ag in air, it is first oxidized to AgxO, after which it subsequently decomposes back to well-dispersed Ag(0) nanoparticles. In contrast, when the Ag@SiO2 nanotriangles are annealed in N2, since there is no possibility of oxidation, no small particles are formed. Instead, the triangular core rearranges to form a disc-like shape. PMID:26875498
Hu, Wen-Jun; Gong, Shou-Shu; Sheng, D. N.
2016-08-01
By using Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and variational Monte Carlo technique, we study the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg model with the first-neighbor (J1), second-neighbor (J2), and additional scalar chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) on the triangular lattice. In the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model with 0.08 ≲J2/J1≲0.16 , recent density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) studies [Zhu and White, Phys. Rev. B 92, 041105(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.041105 and Hu, Gong, Zhu, and Sheng, Phys. Rev. B 92, 140403(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140403] find a possible gapped spin liquid with the signal of a competition between a chiral and a Z2 spin liquid. Motivated by the DMRG results, we consider the chiral interaction JχSi.(Sj×Sk) as a perturbation for this nonmagnetic phase. We find that with growing Jχ, the gapless U(1) Dirac spin liquid, which has the best variational energy for Jχ=0 , exhibits the energy instability towards a gapped spin liquid with nontrivial magnetic fluxes and nonzero chiral order. We calculate topological Chern number and ground-state degeneracy, both of which identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with fractionalized Chern number C =1 /2 and twofold topological degeneracy. Our results indicate a positive direction to stabilize a chiral spin liquid near the nonmagnetic phase of the J1-J2 triangular model.
A collapse surface for a perforated plate with an equilateral triangular array of penetrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes the development of incipient yield and subsequent collapse surfaces for a plate containing a large number of small circular penetrations arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The collapse surface developed here is appropriate for formulating a generic elastic-plastic flow theory for perforated materials. A unit cell is defined to characterize the mechanical response of an equilateral triangular array of penetrations. An elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] finite element analysis [FEA] computer program is used to calculate the EPP response of the unit cell. A sufficient number of load cases are solved to define the complete incipient yield and collapse surfaces for the unit cell. A fourth order yield function is defined by squaring the Von Mises quadratic yield function and retaining only those terms that are required for the symmetry dictated by the triangular array. Curve fitting is used to determine the coefficients of the fourth order function to match the incipient yield and collapse data calculated for the unit cell by FEA. The incipient yield function in the plane of the plate incorporating the penetration pattern is shown to be almost rhomboidal in shape while the collapse curve is more elliptical. The fourth order yield function which passes through the incipient yield data possess regions where the surface is concave--a concern when developing a plasticity theory based on the function. Fitting the coefficients of the fourth order function to the collapse data results in a curve which is shown to be always convex thus having all positive outward normal vectors which is a required property for the development of plasticity flow theories
A collapse surface for a perforated plate with an equilateral triangular array of penetrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Hutula, D.N.; Banas, D.
1999-02-01
This paper describes the development of incipient yield and subsequent collapse surfaces for a plate containing a large number of small circular penetrations arranged in an equilateral triangular array. The collapse surface developed here is appropriate for formulating a generic elastic-plastic flow theory for perforated materials. A unit cell is defined to characterize the mechanical response of an equilateral triangular array of penetrations. An elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] finite element analysis [FEA] computer program is used to calculate the EPP response of the unit cell. A sufficient number of load cases are solved to define the complete incipient yield and collapse surfaces for the unit cell. A fourth order yield function is defined by squaring the Von Mises quadratic yield function and retaining only those terms that are required for the symmetry dictated by the triangular array. Curve fitting is used to determine the coefficients of the fourth order function to match the incipient yield and collapse data calculated for the unit cell by FEA. The incipient yield function in the plane of the plate incorporating the penetration pattern is shown to be almost rhomboidal in shape while the collapse curve is more elliptical. The fourth order yield function which passes through the incipient yield data possess regions where the surface is concave--a concern when developing a plasticity theory based on the function. Fitting the coefficients of the fourth order function to the collapse data results in a curve which is shown to be always convex thus having all positive outward normal vectors which is a required property for the development of plasticity flow theories.
Triangular facets of slope in the region of Tudela (Ebro Basin, Navarra, Spain)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some triangular slope facets are localized to the south of Bardenas Reales (central-west of Ebro Basin), elaborated on Tudela Formation deposits, Aragonian in age. Three of them have been dated by OSL resulting on ages of 35,588±2,488 yr. BP, 35,355±2,446 yr. BP and 40.185±2,411 yr. BP. The origin of these facets is ought to an alternation between accumulation and incision phases produced by vegetation cover variation percentage. Those vegetation cover changes are estimated to be due to climatic changes. (Author) 21 refs.
Analysis of Syetem Reliability in Manufacturing Cell Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Caibo; HAN Botang; SUN Changsen; XU Chunjie
2006-01-01
Due to lacking of test-data and field-data in reliability research during the design stage of manufacturing cell system. The degree of manufacturing cell system reliability research is increased. In order to deal with the deficient data and the uncertainty occurred from analysis and judgment, the paper discussed a method for studying reliability of manufacturing cell system through the analysis of fuzzy fault tree, which was based on triangular fuzzy number. At last, calculation case indicated that it would have great significance for ascertaining reliability index, maintenance and establishing keeping strategy towards manufacturing cell system.
Two-party Bell inequalities derived from combinatorics via triangular elimination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We establish a relation between the two-party Bell inequalities for two-valued measurements and a high-dimensional convex polytope called the cut polytope in polyhedral combinatorics. Using this relation, we propose a method, triangular elimination, to derive tight Bell inequalities from facets of the cut polytope. This method gives two hundred million inequivalent tight Bell inequalities from currently known results on the cut polytope. In addition, this method gives general formulae which represent families of infinitely many Bell inequalities. These results can be used to examine general properties of Bell inequalities
Experience with a new triangular doubly-curved element for shell analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In conjunction with the application of interactive computer graphics to shell analysis, a new, efficient, triangular, doubly-curved shell element has been developed. The formulation is based on the displacement method, and has 36 degrees of freedom per element. The motivation has been to establish an element that is computationally efficient, yet general enough to deal with any practical shell structure, and that may be extended to geometrically nonlinear analysis. The geometric definition of the shell surface required by the use of relatively high order interpolation scheme is made possible by an interactive surface approximation preprocessor. (orig.)
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the six vertex model with upper triangular K-matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a formulation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the six vertex model with non-diagonal open boundaries. Specifically, we study the case where both left and right K-matrices have an upper triangular form. We show that the main difficulty entailed by those forms of the K-matrices is the construction of the excited states. However, it is possible to treat this problem with the aid of an auxiliary transfer matrix and by means of a generalized creation operator. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nutan Singh
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the stability of triangular Lagrangian points in the elliptical restricted three body problem, under the effect of radiation pressure stemming from the more massive primary on the infinitesimal. We adopted a set of rotating pulsating axes centered at the centre of mass of the two primaries Sun and Jupiter. We have exploited method of averaging used by Grebenikov, throughout the analysis of stability of the system. The critical mass ratio depends on the radiation pressure, eccentricity and the range of stability decreases as the radiation parameter increases. Keywords: Dynamical system, elliptical restricted three body problems, lagrangian points, radiation pressure, and stability.
Wu, Xingxing; Yun, Maojin; Wang, Mei; Liu, Chao; Li, Kai; Qin, Xiheng; Kong, Weijin; Dong, Lifeng
2015-12-01
A kind of polarization beam splitter with triangular lattice of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays is designed and simulated. In the employed structure transverse-electric (TE) light is confined in the line defect with photonic band gap effect, while transverse-magnetic (TM) light is guided through it with extremely low diffraction. The performance of the designed polarization beam splitter is evaluated by utilizing optical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, finite element modeling of wave propagation and transmission through periodic arrays. Simulation results indicate that the designed polarization beam splitter has low loss and less cross talk, and thereby may have practical applications in the integrated optical field.
A New Accurate yet Simple Shear Flexible Triangular Plate Element with Linear Bending Strains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars; Pedersen, Ronnie
2010-01-01
The paper describes a new shear flexible triangular element. The formulation is based on displacement interpolation of the transverse displacement of the midsurface and the rotations of the cross-sections, and the element is fully compatible. The basic principle is to use a so-called balanced...... locking, which otherwise has to be eliminated by remedies as reduced or selective integration. The element has been tested in different ways and the convergence rate and accuracy are good. By introducing a small incompatibility the degrees of freedom can be reduced from 22 to 18 and the results are...
Spin superfluidity in the anisotropic XY model in the triangular lattice
Lima, L. S.
2016-07-01
We use the SU(3) Schwinger's boson theory to study the spin transport properties in the two-dimensional anisotropic frustrated Heisenberg model in the triangular lattice at T=0. We have investigated the behavior of the spin conductivity for this model which presents an single-ion anisotropy. We study the spin transport in the Bose-Einstein condensation regime where we have that the tz bosons are condensed and the following condition is valid: = = t . Our results show a metallic spin transport for ω > 0 and a superfluid spin transport in the limit of DC conductivity, ω → 0 , where σ(ω) tends to infinity in this limit of ω.
Triang: Soporte informático para la representación de diagramas triangulares
Martín de Jesús, Santiago
1989-01-01
RESUMEN: Se presenta un programa de ordenador para la realización de diagramas triangulares. Opcionalmente se pueden representar hasta cinco nubes de puntos diferentes en el mismo gráfico, teniendo la posibilidad de aumentar o disminuir sus dimensiones o colocar dentro una rejilla o no. Nos permite introducir los datos, bien como tantos por ciento ya calculados, o como números reales, calculando él los tanto por ciento automáticamente. Podemos grabar o leer triadas de datos de ficheros en cód...
Topological Aspects of Symmetry Breaking in Triangular-Lattice Ising Antiferromagnets
Smerald, Andrew; Korshunov, Sergey; Mila, Frédéric
2016-05-01
Using a specially designed Monte Carlo algorithm with directed loops, we investigate the triangular lattice Ising antiferromagnet with coupling beyond the nearest neighbors. We show that the first-order transition from the stripe state to the paramagnet can be split, giving rise to an intermediate nematic phase in which algebraic correlations coexist with a broken symmetry. Furthermore, we demonstrate the emergence of several properties of a more topological nature such as fractional edge excitations in the stripe state, the proliferation of double domain walls in the nematic phase, and the Kasteleyn transition between them. Experimental implications are briefly discussed.
Waveguide Bend of 90° in Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We design and realize a 90° waveguide bend in two-dimensional triangular lattice silicon photonic crystal slabs by connecting linear waveguides along the orthogonal Γ – K and Γ – M directions. A pass band of 70 nm is realized by optimizing the geometry of the Γ – M waveguide. The connection region of the waveguide bend is optimized to improve the transmission efficiency of infrared light through the two different kinds of waveguides. The transmission efficiency of an optimized single bend is about 75% in simulation and 45% in measurement. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Spectral Element Method for the neutron diffusion equation on a triangular mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Spectral Element Method to approximate the Lambda Modes problem for reactors with hexagonal geometry has been developed. This method is based on the expansion of the neutron flux in terms of the modified Dubiner's polynomials on a triangular mesh. This mesh is fixed and the accuracy of the method is improved increasing the degree of the polynomials expansions without the necessity of re-meshing. The performance of method has been tested obtaining the dominant Lambda modes of different 2D reactor benchmark problems. (authors)
Peak axial-velocity decay with multi-element rectangular and triangular nozzles
Groesbeck, D. E.; Vonglahn, U. H.; Huff, R. G.
1972-01-01
The aircraft noise created by the impingement of engine exhaust jet of STOL aircraft with externally blown flaps is discussed. It was determined that the jet-flap interaction noise can be lowered by reducing the impinging velocity of the jet. The reduction must occur at a specific distance from the flap to be effective. The peak axial-velocity decay obtained with rectangular and triangular single element mixer nozzles is presented. Equations are developed for estimating the peak axial velocity decay curves for a wide range of nozzle configurations.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Nayak; S Chakraverty
2015-10-01
In this paper, neutron diffusion equation of a triangular homogeneous bare reactor with uncertain parameters has been investigated. Here the involved parameters viz. geometry of the reactor, diffusion coefficient and absorption coefficient, etc. are uncertain and these are considered as fuzzy. Fuzzy values are handled through limit method which was defined for interval computations. The concept of fuzziness is hybridised with traditional finite element method to propose fuzzy finite element method. The proposed fuzzy finite element method has been used to obtain the uncertain eigenvalues of the said problem. Further these uncertain eigenvalues are compared with the traditional finite element method in special cases.
Exchange and spin Jahn-Teller distortions for triangular cluster of spin-1/2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the effects of magnetoelastic coupling on the degenerate ground state of the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model for a regular triangular spin cluster. Static displacement of spins spontaneously lifts the degeneracy of the ground state through the distance dependence of exchange coupling, i.e., a spin John-Teller mechanism takes place. On the other hand, dynamical displacement does not lift the degeneracy, although the cluster distorts spontaneously. The energy decrease obtained by dynamical theory is twice that obtained by static theory because of quantum fluctuation. (author)
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model
Cirilo António, N.; Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.
2014-12-01
We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model
António, N Cirilo; Salom, I
2014-01-01
We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the corresponding Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit.
A plotting system for three-dimensional oblique coordinates (triangular mesh) of CITATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A plotting system, which is able to plot the results obtained by three-dimensional oblique coordinates (triangular mesh) CITATION calculations was developed. In this system sub-routines for transformation from oblique coordinates to rectangular coordinates was added to the current plot programs for XYZ rectangular coordinates of CITATION. By this modification, calculated results of three-dimensional oblique coordinates CITATION calculations are easily represented by following figures; 1. One-dimensional distribution figure 2. Two-dimensional contour figure 3. Three-dimensional birds-eye view figure. (author)
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cirilo António, N., E-mail: nantonio@math.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Análise Funcional e Aplicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Manojlović, N., E-mail: nmanoj@ualg.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, PT-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Matemática, F.C.T., Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, PT-8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Salom, I., E-mail: isalom@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)
2014-12-15
We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model
INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVAULATION OF DESMODIUM TRIANGULARE (RETZ. MERR. ROOT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S. Jayaseelan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant potential of the root of Desmodium triangulare (Fabaceae. 70% Methanolic extract was screened by using in vitro by antioxidant activity screening models such as (DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity in all the models studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extract were also carried out and revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, fixed oils and fatty acids,
Numerical study of the effect of permeability on square and triangular microwave band gap structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the theoretical work on the photonic band gap structures suitable for microwave frequency region formed by magnetic materials (ε=9.87 and μ=2.17) using plane wave expansion method. The structures under analysis are two-dimensional square and triangular lattices. The calculated band gap between 10 and 20GHz region is anlaysed for the effect due to lattice spacing and the property of the material. The results are also compared with that of pure dielectric case. Obtained results indicate that both impedance and effective refractive index are responsible for the gap width and mid-gap frequency
Influence of hydrodynamic coefficients in the response behavior of triangular TLPs in regular waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandrasekaran, S.; Chandak, N.R. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering; Jain, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Department of Civil Engineering
2004-12-01
Triangular configuration tension leg platforms (TLPs) are used for deep-water oil/gas exploration. The mechanics of TLP is highly nonlinear due to larger structural displacements and fluid motion-structure interaction. Triangular TLP has major consideration for deep-water application also due to its relative insensitivity with increasing water depth, excellent station keeping characteristics, etc. which makes this as a most cost effective and practical production system for deep waters. This study focuses on the influence of hydrodynamic drag coefficient (C{sub d}) and hydrodynamic inertia coefficient (C{sub m}) on the nonlinear response behaviour or triangular TLP models under regular waves. Two typical triangular TLP models vis-a-vis TLP{sub 1} and TLP{sub 2} are taken for the study at 600 and 1200 m water depths, respectively. Hydrodynamic forces on these TLPs are evaluated using modified Morison equation under regular waves. Diffraction effects are neglected. Various nonlinearities arising due to relative velocity term in drag force, change the tether tension due to TLP movement, and set down effect are being considered in the analysis. The dynamic equation of motion has been solved in time-domain by employing Newmark's {beta} numerical integration technique. Based on the numerical study conducted, it is seen that the response evaluated using varying hydrodynamic coefficients through the water depth is significantly lesser in comparison to the response with constant coefficients in all activated degrees-of-freedom. However, sway, roll, and yaw degrees-of-freedom are not present due to the undirectional waveloading considered for the study. The influence of the hydrodynamic coefficients in wave period of 15 s is more in comparison with that of 10 s, and is nonlinear. The hydrodynamic coefficients also influence the plan dimension of TLP and its site location (geometry). Therefore, it may become essential to estimate the range of C{sub d}-C{sub m} values to
Hofstadter problem on the honeycomb and triangular lattices: Bethe ansatz solution
Kohmoto, M.; Sedrakyan, A.
2006-06-01
We consider Bloch electrons on the honeycomb lattice under a uniform magnetic field with 2πp/q flux per cell. It is shown that the problem factorizes to two triangular lattices. Treating magnetic translations as a Heisenberg-Weyl group and by the use of its irreducible representation on the space of theta functions, we find a nested set of Bethe equations, which determine the eigenstates and energy spectrum. The Bethe equations have simple form which allows us to consider them further in the limit p,q→∞ by the technique of thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and analyze the Hofstadter problem for the irrational flux.
Hofstadter Problem on the Honeycomb and Triangular Lattices: Bethe Ansatz Solution
Kohmoto, M.; Sedrakyan, A.
2006-01-01
We consider Bloch electrons on the honeycomb lattice under a uniform magnetic field with $2 \\pi p/q$ flux per cell. It is shown that the problem factorizes to two triangular lattices. Treating magnetic translations as Heisenberg-Weyl group and by the use of its irreducible representation on the space of theta functions, we find a nested set of Bethe equations, which determine the eigenstates and energy spectrum. The Bethe equations have simple form which allows to consider them further in the...
Voltage-Controlled Square/Triangular Wave Generator with Current Conveyors and Switching Diodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Janecek
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A novel relaxation oscillator based on integrating the diode-switched currents and Schmitt trigger is presented. It is derived from a known circuit with operational amplifiers where these active elements were replaced by current conveyors. The circuit employs only grounded resistances and capacitance and is suitable for high frequency square and triangular signal generation. Its frequency can be linearly and accurately controlled by voltage that is applied to a high-impedance input. Computer simulation with a model of a manufactured conveyor prototype verifies theoretic assumptions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Wei; DUAN Ya-li; LIU Ru-xun
2009-01-01
In this article a finite volume method is proposed to solve viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional regions with corners and curved boundaries. A hybrid collocated-grid variable arrangement is adopted, in which the velocity and pressure are stored at the centroid and the circumcenters of the triangular control cell, respectively. The cell flux is defined at the mid-point of the cell face. Second-order implicit time integration schemes are used for convection and diffusion terms. The second-order upwind scheme is used for convection fluxes. The present method is validated by results of several viscous flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We employ the second renormalization group method of tensor-network states to investigate thermodynamic properties of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic Potts model on triangular lattices. From the temperature dependence of the internal energy and the specific heat, both the critical temperatures and critical exponents are evaluated. For the q = 3 antiferromagnetic Potts model, the critical temperature is found to be Tc = 0.627163±0.000003, which is at least one order of magnitude more accurate than that obtained by other methods. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Bayn, I; Li, L; Goldstein, J A; Schröder, T; Zhang, J; Chen, E H; Gaathon, O; Lu, M; Stein, A; Ruggiero, C A; Salzman, J; Kalish, R; Englund, D
2014-01-01
A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q=2.51x10^6) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (Vm=1.062x({\\lambda}/n)^3), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q=3x103.
Ashkarran, Ali Akbar
2016-08-01
Triangular silver nanostructures represent a novel class of nanomaterials with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By controlling the size and geometry of these structures, their SPR peaks could be tuned from the visible to the near-infrared region with numerous applications in optoelectronic, sensors, nanomedicine and specially cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, triangular silver nanostructures were prepared by photoinducing of spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) with an average diameter of 10 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were used to characterize silver triangles. We have found that uniform triangular silver nanostructures can be obtained using an appropriate visible-light illumination to the primary spherical silver NPs. TEM images indicated that formation of triangular structures depends on the intensity of light source. The effect of intensity of visible-light source on the geometry and size distribution of silver triangles was investigated. It was found that formation of triangular structures in addition to their size and shape evolution strongly depends on the intensity of the light illumination. Furthermore, a comparative study on the antibacterial activities of silver triangles of different sizes reveals that silver triangles experience a size-dependent interaction with the gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Wan
2013-06-01
Full Text Available As part of a broader effort to develop next-generation models for numerical weather prediction and climate applications, a hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical core is developed as an intermediate step to evaluate a finite-difference discretization of the primitive equations on spherical icosahedral grids. Based on the need for mass-conserving discretizations for multi-resolution modelling as well as scalability and efficiency on massively parallel computing architectures, the dynamical core is built on triangular C-grids using relatively small discretization stencils. This paper presents the formulation and performance of the baseline version of the new dynamical core, focusing on properties of the numerical solutions in the setting of globally uniform resolution. Theoretical analysis reveals that the discrete divergence operator defined on a single triangular cell using the Gauss theorem is only first-order accurate, and introduces grid-scale noise to the discrete model. The noise can be suppressed by fourth-order hyper-diffusion of the horizontal wind field using a time-step and grid-size-dependent diffusion coefficient, at the expense of stronger damping than in the reference spectral model. A series of idealized tests of different complexity are performed. In the deterministic baroclinic wave test, solutions from the new dynamical core show the expected sensitivity to horizontal resolution, and converge to the reference solution at R2B6 (35 km grid spacing. In a dry climate test, the dynamical core correctly reproduces key features of the meridional heat and momentum transport by baroclinic eddies. In the aqua-planet simulations at 140 km resolution, the new model is able to reproduce the same equatorial wave propagation characteristics as in the reference spectral model, including the sensitivity of such characteristics to the meridional sea surface temperature profile. These results suggest that the triangular-C discretization provides a
Borovský, Michal; Weigel, Martin; Barash, Lev Yu.; Žukovič, Milan
2016-02-01
The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = -1). The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size
Multirresolución adaptativa de mallas triangulares basado en criterios de textura
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexánder Ceballos
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Los modelos 3D están generalmente compuestos por miles de polígonos. En ocasiones estas representaciones pueden obtenerse con la misma calidad visual pero con un menor número de polígonos. En este artículo se propone un método para reducir el tamaño de imágenes 3D texturadas basadas en mallas triangulares, conservando la calidad visual del modelo. Se introduce un criterio de textura que controla el proceso de decimación triangular. Para eliminar puntos sin necesidad de realizar una nueva triangulación, sobre la nube de puntos se usa un algoritmo poligonal de decimación. Para definir cuáles puntos deben ser removidos, se usa un filtro de Sobel 2D sobre la textura correspondiente. Se muestra que se puede usar el algoritmo para reducir los tiempos de carga, de renderización, de transferencia y de almacenamiento de una imagen 3D texturada
Time detector design for MeV particles. I. The electric field in a triangular domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe in this paper the methods used in the calculation of the electric potential and field in a triangular domain. These calculations are needed in the design of a time detector for high-energy particles. The electric field is created by three metal plates forming a triangular prism with different voltage applied to each of the plates. An analytical solution to the electric potential and field within the triangle is introduced. The method is based on the conformal mapping principle. The discovery of the analytical mapping functions which convert a triangle to a parallel band is of key importance to the solution. Although the methods described in this paper are given for right angled isosceles triangle, which is used in the time detector design, the method is in fact applicable to any triangles. The same problem has also been solved using the standard numerical method in which the electric potential is calculated on a set of grid points. The accuracy of the numerical solution depends on the size of the grid and the precision of iteration, which are generally limited by the computing resources. In comparison with the numerical method the analytical solution yields required information in a much more efficient and accurate way. (orig.)
Rise time of inverted triangular prism intruder in vibrating granular bed: Experiments and model
Nuraini, N.; Adriani, I. K.; Baladram, M. S.; Viridi, S.
2012-05-01
Experiment results and a qualitative model of the phenomenon called Brazil nut effect (BNE) with inverted triangular prism are reported in this work. The model is constructed by considering some forces (earth gravitational force, buoyant force, and fluid viscous force) and using Newton's second law of motion. The rise time of BNE T is defined as time needed for the intruder to be on granular surface with all of his parts (no part is still immersed in the granular bed). One side of the triangular base of the intruder l is varied from 1.5 to 5 cm with other two sides are kept in constant values (1 and 3 cm). It has been observed in experiment that l with value 3-4 cm gives the smaller rise time. Plot of T versus l has the form of concave up parabolic curve with minimum lies at l between 3-4 cm. This observation has been confirmed by the proposed model with the same order of magnitude and similar curve trend.
Effects of thin fin on natural convection in porous triangular enclosures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varol, Yasin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Oztop, Hakan F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Firat University, TR-23119, Elazig (Turkey); Varol, Asaf [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)
2007-10-15
A two-dimensional solution of natural convection in solid adiabatic thin fin attached to porous right triangular enclosures has been analyzed numerically. The vertical wall of the enclosure is insulated while the bottom and the inclined walls are isothermal. The temperature of the bottom wall is higher than the temperature of the inclined wall. Governing equations, which are written using Darcy model, are solved via the finite difference technique. The Successive Under Relaxation (SUR) method was used to solve linear algebraic equations. Dimensionless location of the thin fin from 0.2 to 0.6, the aspect ratio of triangular enclosure from 0.25 to 1, Rayleigh number from 100 to 1000 and the dimensionless height of the fin from 0.1 to 0.4 are used as governing parameters that are effective on heat transfer and fluid flow. Results for the mean Nusselt number, velocity profiles, the contour maps of the streamlines and isotherms are presented. It is observed that the thin fin can be used as a passive control element for flow field, temperature distribution and heat transfer. (author)
ELM elimination in high triangularity discharges as a function of Lithium dose in NSTX
Maingi, Rajesh; Canik, John; NSTX Team
2015-11-01
ELMs were eliminated gradually with increasing lithium dose in NSTX high triangularity, high performance discharges, similar to results from medium triangularity discharges. Analysis of the recycling and edge profiles was done with the SOLPS code to ascertain the divertor recycling coefficient with increasing Li pre-discharge deposition in highly shaped plasmas. The divertor peak heat flux, peak D-alpha intensity and measured upstream profiles of electron and ion density and temperature are used to constrain fits. Modeling indicates that the minimum divertor recycling coefficient at maximum pre-discharge lithium deposition is in the 0.85-0.90 range, and that the cross-field transport is strongly induced in a region just inside the separatrix, radially inward of the recycling source deposition region. Edge stability analysis indicates that the profile changes correlated with lithium conditioning increase the current-driven kink/peeling mode stability limit, allowing access to improved stability. Supported by U.S. D.o.E. contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Mean streamwise velocity measurements in a triple jet of equilateral triangular configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moustafa, G.H. (Menoufia Univ. (Egypt). Coll. of Engineering); Sundararajan, T. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rathakrishnan, E. (IIT Kanpur (India). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering)
1993-09-01
Multijet flows arise in several applications such as jet engine/rocket combustors, the thrust augmenting ejectors for VTOL/STOL aircraft, and industrial gas burners. In order to achieve proper combustion, thrust development, and reduction in the noise level, it is often desirable to control the inter-mixing between the jets and also the entrainment of the surrounding atmosphere. This, in turn, requires a detailed study of the behavior of high speed jets in multijet configuration. The situation of interest here is an array of three axisymmetric nozzles set in a common end wall with equal spacing in a triangular configuration. The reason why this particular configuration has been chosen is that it promotes bending of the jet axes toward each other, thus leading to greater mixing. In the present study, experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of stagnation pressure ratio and nozzle spacing upon the mean flow characteristic of compressible jets in triangular configuration. The individual flow features of the vertex jet and the base twin jet are analyzed and their contributions to the axis switching as well as the overall triple jet behavior are highlighted.
Multicritical point of Ising spin glasses on triangular and honeycomb lattices
de Queiroz, S. L. A.
2006-02-01
The behavior of two-dimensional Ising spin glasses at the multicritical point on triangular and honeycomb lattices is investigated with the help of finite-size scaling and conformal-invariance concepts. We use transfer-matrix methods on long strips to calculate domain-wall energies, uniform susceptibilities, and spin-spin correlation functions. Accurate estimates are provided for the location of the multicritical point on both lattices, which lend strong support to a conjecture recently advanced by Takeda, Sasamoto, and Nishimori. Correlation functions are shown to obey rather strict conformal-invariance requirements, once suitable adaptations are made to account for geometric aspects of the transfer-matrix description of triangular and honeycomb lattices. The universality class of critical behavior upon crossing the ferro-para-magnetic phase boundary is probed, with the following estimates for the associated critical indices: ν=1.49(2) , γ=2.71(4) , η1=0.183(3) , which are distinctly different from the percolation values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delmont Jean
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequential analysis enables repeated statistical analyses to be performed throughout a trial recruitment period, while maintaining a pre-specified power and type I error. Thus the trial can be stopped as soon as the information accumulated is considered sufficient to reach a conclusion. Sequential tests are easy to use and their statistical properties are especially suitable to trials with very straightforward objectives such as non-comparative phase II trials. We report on a phase II study based on the triangular test (TT aiming at assessing the effectiveness of azithromycin in preventing Plasmodium vivax relapses. Methods To test whether the P. vivax relapse rate was either P. vivax were treated with azithromycin, 1.2 g daily, for 7 days. The onset of a relapse infection was monitored. Results Five patients presenting with an acute P. vivax infection were included in the study. All the patients were initially cured. Three patients reported mild gastrointestinal adverse effects. When the third patient relapsed, the sample path crossed the upper boundary of the TT, and the trial was stopped. Conclusions Using the triangular test, with only a small number of patients, we concluded that azithromycin was not effective enough in preventing P. vivax relapses to warrant further evaluation in phase III. It is suggested that a wider use of sequential analysis in phase II anti-infective drugs trials may have financial and ethical benefits.
Brilhaus, Dominik; Bräutigam, Andrea; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Winter, Klaus; Weber, Andreas P M
2016-01-01
Drought tolerance is a key factor for agriculture in the 21st century as it is a major determinant of plant survival in natural ecosystems as well as crop productivity. Plants have evolved a range of mechanisms to cope with drought, including a specialized type of photosynthesis termed Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM is associated with stomatal closure during the day as atmospheric CO2 is assimilated primarily during the night, thus reducing transpirational water loss. The tropical herbaceous perennial species Talinum triangulare is capable of transitioning, in a facultative, reversible manner, from C3 photosynthesis to weakly expressed CAM in response to drought stress. The transcriptional regulation of this transition has been studied. Combining mRNA-Seq with targeted metabolite measurements, we found highly elevated levels of CAM-cycle enzyme transcripts and their metabolic products in T. triangulare leaves upon water deprivation. The carbohydrate metabolism is rewired to reduce the use of reserves for growth to support the CAM-cycle and the synthesis of compatible solutes. This large-scale expression dataset of drought-induced CAM demonstrates transcriptional regulation of the C3-CAM transition. We identified candidate transcription factors to mediate this photosynthetic plasticity, which may contribute in the future to the design of more drought-tolerant crops via engineered CAM. PMID:26530316
Winter, Klaus
2016-01-01
Drought tolerance is a key factor for agriculture in the 21st century as it is a major determinant of plant survival in natural ecosystems as well as crop productivity. Plants have evolved a range of mechanisms to cope with drought, including a specialized type of photosynthesis termed Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM is associated with stomatal closure during the day as atmospheric CO2 is assimilated primarily during the night, thus reducing transpirational water loss. The tropical herbaceous perennial species Talinum triangulare is capable of transitioning, in a facultative, reversible manner, from C3 photosynthesis to weakly expressed CAM in response to drought stress. The transcriptional regulation of this transition has been studied. Combining mRNA-Seq with targeted metabolite measurements, we found highly elevated levels of CAM-cycle enzyme transcripts and their metabolic products in T. triangulare leaves upon water deprivation. The carbohydrate metabolism is rewired to reduce the use of reserves for growth to support the CAM-cycle and the synthesis of compatible solutes. This large-scale expression dataset of drought-induced CAM demonstrates transcriptional regulation of the C3–CAM transition. We identified candidate transcription factors to mediate this photosynthetic plasticity, which may contribute in the future to the design of more drought-tolerant crops via engineered CAM. PMID:26530316
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)
2014-11-01
The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.
Xu, Shanzhi; Wang, Peng; Dong, Yonggui
2016-01-01
In order to measure the impedance variation process in electrolyte solutions, a method of triangular waveform voltage excitation is investigated together with principal component analysis (PCA). Using triangular waveform voltage as the excitation signal, the response current during one duty cycle is sampled to construct a measurement vector. The measurement matrix is then constructed by the measurement vectors obtained from different measurements. After being processed by PCA, the changing information of solution impedance is contained in the loading vectors while the response current and noise information is contained in the score vectors. The measurement results of impedance variation by the proposed signal processing method are independent of the equivalent impedance model. The noise-induced problems encountered during equivalent impedance calculation are therefore avoided, and the real-time variation information of noise in the electrode-electrolyte interface can be extracted at the same time. Planar-interdigitated electrodes are experimentally tested for monitoring the KCl concentration variation process. Experimental results indicate that the measured impedance variation curve reflects the changing process of solution conductivity, and the amplitude distribution of the noise during one duty cycle can be utilized to analyze the contact conditions of the electrode and electrolyte interface. PMID:27110787
El-Salam, F A Abd
2015-01-01
The multi-dissipative photogravitational triaxial elliptic restricted three body problem is treated. The perturbed locations of triangular points are computed. The stability of the triangular points under changing one or more perturbing parameter is investigated. The results revealed that at certain values of the considered perturbing parameters, we haven't triangular equilibrium points, or at least there exists but very far from the origin. The change in the stability/instability regions with eccentricity seems to be nonlinear. It seems that increasing the eccentricity the enlarge the stability regions and vice versa. It is revealed that we have two disjoint stability regions. The stability/instability regions for a new set of eccentricities are merged to one region. Consider a very high eccentricity stability region for the whole domain of the mass ratio except in the neighborhood of 0.3 is obtained. stability/asymptotic stability/instability regions due to certain photogravitational effects correspond are ...
Ding, Chengxiang; Fu, Zhe; Guo, Wenan; Wu, F Y
2010-01-01
In a recent paper (arXiv:0911.2514), one of us (FYW) considered the Potts model and bond and site percolation on two general classes of two-dimensional lattices, the triangular-type and kagome-type lattices, and obtained closed-form expressions for the critical frontier with applications to various lattice models. For the triangular-type lattices Wu's result is exact, and for the kagome-type lattices Wu's expression is under a homogeneity assumption. The purpose of the present paper is two-fo...
Guiding 2.94 μm using low-loss microstructured antiresonant triangular-core fibers
Chen, Yang; Saleh, Mohammed F.; Joly, Nicolas Y.; Biancalana, Fabio
2016-04-01
We introduce a new simple design of hollow-core microstructured fiber targeted to guide mid-infrared light at a wavelength of 2.94 μm. The fiber has a triangular-core supported via silica-glass webs enclosed by a large hollow capillary tube. The fiber specific dimensions are determined by the anti-resonant guiding mechanism. For a triangular-core with side length 100 μm, the fiber has a minimum transmission loss 0.08 ± 0.005 dB/m and dispersion 2.3 ps/km/nm at the operational wavelength of 2.94 μm.
Exploring Periodic Orbit Expansions and Renormalisation with the Quantum Triangular Billiard
Pisani, C
1996-01-01
A study of the quantum triangular billiard requires consideration of a boundary value problem for the Green's function of the Laplacian on a trianglar domain. Our main result is a reformulation of this problem in terms of coupled non--singular integral equations. A non--singular formulation, via Fredholm's theory, guarantees uniqueness and provides a mathematically firm foundation for both numerical and analytic studies. We compare and contrast our reformulation, based on the exact solution for the wedge, with the standard singular integral equations using numerical discretisation techniques. We consider in detail the (integrable) equilateral triangle and the Pythagorean 3-4-5 triangle. Our non--singular formulation produces results which are well behaved mathematically. In contrast, while resolving the eigenvalues very well, the standard approach displays various behaviours demonstrating the need for some sort of ``renormalisation''. The non-singular formulation provides a mathematically firm basis for the g...
Fitting polynomial surfaces to triangular meshes with Voronoi Squared Distance Minimization
Nivoliers, Vincent
2011-12-01
This paper introduces Voronoi Squared Distance Minimization (VSDM), an algorithm that fits a surface to an input mesh. VSDM minimizes an objective function that corresponds to a Voronoi-based approximation of the overall squared distance function between the surface and the input mesh (SDM). This objective function is a generalization of Centroidal Voronoi Tesselation (CVT), and can be minimized by a quasi-Newton solver. VSDM naturally adapts the orientation of the mesh to best approximate the input, without estimating any differential quantities. Therefore it can be applied to triangle soups or surfaces with degenerate triangles, topological noise and sharp features. Applications of fitting quad meshes and polynomial surfaces to input triangular meshes are demonstrated.
Novel FBG triangular filter for interrogating a FBG sensor in dynamic strain measurement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Li-yang; SONG Jian-fei; ZHANG A-ping; HE Sai-ling
2006-01-01
@@ We demonstrate the fabrication and the application of an in-fiber triangular filter (T-filter) based on a linearly chirped and apodized fiber Bragg grating (FBG).The theoretical analysis shows that this type of FBG T-filter has a good response in the demodulation of a wavelength-matched FBG sensor.For the first time to our knowledge,such an FBG T-filter has been realized in our laboratory,and utilized to interrogate the signal of dynamic strain by a specially designed measurement scheme.Experimental results have proved that the system has a good performance in the measurement of dynamic strain.Because of its compactness and passiveness,such type of the device can be integrated as a portable demodulation module.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inverse radiation analysis of a two-dimensional irregular configuration using unstructured triangular meshes is presented. In this study, an enclosure filled with an absorbing, emitting and scattering medium with diffusely emitting and reflecting opaque boundaries is considered. The finite volume method is applied to solve the radiative transfer equation in order to simulate the measured incident radiation values which are used as input data for the inverse analysis. The conjugate gradient method is adopted for the estimation of wall emissivities by minimizing the objective function at each iteration step. To verify the performance of the unstructured grid system, we compare the results with those using a structured grid system for the two-dimensional lopsided shape. The effect of measurement errors on the estimation accuracy is also investigated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q = 2.51 × 106) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (Vm = 1.062 × (λ/n)3), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q = 3 × 103
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We make a detailed study of the Lie algebras un, n≥2, of triangular polynomial derivations, their injective limit u∞, and their completion u-hat ∞. We classify the ideals of un (all of which are characteristic ideals) and use this classification to give an explicit criterion for Lie factor algebras of un and um to be isomorphic. We introduce two new dimensions for (Lie) algebras and their modules: the central dimension c.dim and the uniserial dimension u.dim, and show that c.dim(un)=u.dim(un)=ωn−1+ωn−2+⋯+ω+1 for all n≥2, where ω is the first infinite ordinal. Similar results are proved for the Lie algebras u∞ and u-hat ∞. In particular, u.dim(u∞)=ωω and c.dim(u∞)=0
Enhanced photocatalysis by coupling of anatase TiO2 film to triangular Ag nanoparticle island.
Xu, Jinxia; Xiao, Xiangheng; Ren, Feng; Wu, Wei; Dai, Zhigao; Cai, Guangxu; Zhang, Shaofeng; Zhou, Juan; Mei, Fei; Jiang, Changzhong
2012-01-01
In order to overcome the low utilization ratio of solar light and high electron-hole pair recombination rate of TiO2, the triangular Ag nanoparticle island is covered on the surface of the TiO2 thin film. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite system is observed. The increase of electron-hole pair generation is caused by the enhanced near-field amplitudes of localized surface plasmon of the Ag nanoparticles. The efficiently suppressed recombination of electron-hole pair caused by the metal-semiconductor contact can also enhance the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 film. PMID:22548875
An improvement of the lattice theory of dislocation for a two-dimensional triangular crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Shao-Feng
2005-01-01
The structure of dislocation in a two-dimensional triangular crystal has been studied theoretically on the basis of atomic interaction and lattice statics. The theory presented in this paper is an improvement to that published previously.Within a reasonable interaction approximation, a new dislocation equation is obtained, which remedies a fault existing in the lattice theory of dislocation. A better simplification of non-diagonal terms of the kernel is given. The solution of the new dislocation equation asymptotically becomes the same as that obtained in the elastic theory, and agrees with experimental data. It is found that the solution is formally identical with that proposed phenomenologically by Foreman et al, where the parameter can be chosen freely, but cannot uniquely determined from theory. Indeed, if the parameter in the expression of the solution is selected suitably, the expression can be well applied to describe the fine structure of the dislocation.
Study of energy eigenvalues and density of states of carriers in a triangular quantum wire
Deyasi, Arpan; Bhattacharyya, S.; Das, N. R.
2012-10-01
Energy eigenvalues and density of states of carriers in a finite barrier triangular quantum wire embedded inside a rectangular quantum wire are numerically investigated using finite difference technique (FD-Q). Time-independent Schrödinger's equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions for computation of lowest three eigenstates. The wire is made of lower bandgap GaAs material surrounded by wider bandgap AlxGa1-xAs, and the analysis is carried out by taking into consideration of the conduction band discontinuity and effective mass mismatch at the boundaries. The eigenvalues and the density of states are plotted as function of wire dimension and mole fraction (x). The results are also compared with those obtained using rectangular quantum wire.
Localized surface plasmons in face to face dimer silver triangular prism nanoparticles
Azarian, Abas; Babaei, Ferydon
2016-05-01
Using the discrete dipole approximation method, all plasmonic bands in 80 nm silver face to face dimer triangular prism nanoparticles were reported. The characteristics of plasmonics peaks were investigated with variations of dimer gap and refractive index of the surrounding medium of dimer. We found that there are three and four plasmonic bands, respectively, for dimer separation 2 and 4 nm. The extinction spectra and electric field distribution showed that the dipole-dipole interaction creates strong plasmonic band, but the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction relates to weak plasmonic band. The results revealed that the strong plasmonic bands have high sensitivity factors with respect to weak plasmonic bands. This study may be used in the synthesis of asymmetric dimers made of metal nanoparticles with new plasmonics properties.
Sobre relaciones laborales triangulares: La subcontratación y el suministro de trabajadores
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Ugarte Cataldo
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Las relaciones laborales triangulares puede adoptar, en lo fundamental, dos modalidades: la subcontratación laboral y el suministro de trabajadores por la vía de una empresa de trabajo temporal. La primera se refiere a la situación en que una empresa, dueña de una obra o faena, contrata a otra empresa, denominada contratista, mediante un contrato civil o comercial, para que ejecute a su cuenta y riesgo, con sus propios trabajadores, un determinado trabajo o servicio, pudiendo esta última a su turno, contratar a otra empresa, denominada subcontratista, para que lleve a cabo el trabajo o servicio requerido. La segunda, en cambio, consiste en que una empresa, cuyo giro corresponde al suministro de trabajadores (empresa suministradora o de trabajo temporal, pone a disposición de otra empresa (denominada usuaria, por el pago de un precio determinado, los servicios laborales de sus empleados, reteniendo para sí la calidad formal de empleador. En Chile, mientras la figura de la subcontratación laboral data de antiguo, y está regulada en la legislación vigente, el caso del suministro es distinto: sólo en los últimos años se presenta como un fenómeno de relevancia para la comunidad jurídica nacional, en directa relación con el momento de moda que vive la denominada descentralización productiva, que no se encuentra, por lo demás, reconocida en nuestra legislación laboral. La regulación de ambos tipos de relaciones triangulares es el objetivo al que va a la dirigido nueva ley de subcontratación: por una parte, se reconoce y regula por primera vez en Chile la figura del suministro de personal a través de lo que denomina empresas de servicios transitorios, y se perfecciona, por otra, la regulación de la subcontratación laboral mediante nuevas normas sobre la responsabilidad del dueño de la obraThe triangular labour relations could basically adopt two modalities: labour subcontracting and the supplying of workers by a temporary
Forced convection heat transfer to power-law non-Newtonian fluids inside triangular ducts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaves, Cleber; Quaresma, Joao; Macedo, Emanuel [Universidade Federal do Para, Campus Universitario do Guama, Chemical and Food Engineering Dept., Belem, PA (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Research and Development Inst., S.J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Joao [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Natal, RN (Brazil)
2004-07-01
A hybrid analytical-numerical approach based on the Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to simulate the laminar forced convection (hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing laminar flow) of power-law non-Newtonian fluids inside ducts with arbitrary shaped cross-sections. The analysis is illustrated through consideration of both right angularly and isosceles triangular ducts subjected to constant wall temperature as thermal boundary condition. Reference results for quantities of practical interest such as dimensionless average temperature and Nusselt numbers within the thermal entry region were produced for different values of power-law index and apex angles. Finally, critical comparisons are performed with results available in the literature for direct numerical and approximate approaches. (Author)
Unusual Charge Transport and Spin Response of Doped Bilayer Triangular Antiferromagnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Ying; MA Tian-Xing; FENG Shi-Ping
2003-01-01
Within the t-J model, the charge transport and spin response of the doped bilayer triangular antiferromagnetare studied by considering the bilayer interaction. Although the bilayer interaction leads to the band splitting in theelectronic structure, the qualitative behaviors of the physical properties are the same as in the single layer case. Theconductivity spectrum shows the low-energy peak and unusual midinfrared band, the temperature-dependent resistivityis characterized by the nonlinearity metallic-like behavior in the higher temperature range and the deviation from themetallic-like behavior in the lower temperature range and the commensurate neutron scattering peak near the half-fillingis split into six incommensurate peaks in the underdoped regime, with the incommensurability increasing with the holeconcentration at lower dopings, and saturating at higher dopings.
Design Coefficients and Cracking Paths of Circular, Elliptic and Triangular Isolated Slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juárez-Luna Gelacio
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Design coefficients and cracking paths for circular, elliptical and triangular labsare obtained by damage mechanics were determined. The nonlinear behavior of the reinforced concrete was simulated with a damage model which considers softening, whereas the behavior of the reinforcing steel was modeling with a bilinear plasticity model which has a Von Mises yield surface. The constitutive models and the finite element method were validated by comparing the computed numerical results with the experimental results of a rectangular slab reported in the scientific literature. The distribution of the reinforcing steel was proposed based on linear elastic analysis with plate elements. The coefficients were computed with elastic and nonlinear analyses, noticing that the last has a variation because of the stress redistribution. The crack paths are shown, which are dependent on the boundary conditions. The coefficients and the distribution of the reinforcing steel are a base on the regulation for the analysis and design of slabs with this kind of geometry.
Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization
Naff, R.L.
2012-01-01
A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Elliptic and Triangular Flow of Identified Particles from the AMPT Model at RHIC Energies
Sun, Xu; Schmah, Alexander; Shi, Shusu; Zhang, Jingbo; Huo, Lei; Jiang, Hanzhi
2015-01-01
The elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = $ 11.5, 39, and 200 GeV and triangular flow ($v_{3}$) at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = $ 200 GeV of identified particles ($\\pi^{\\pm}, K^{\\pm}, K^{0}_{S}, p, \\bar{p}, \\phi, \\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$) from 0\\%--80\\% central Au+Au collisions are analyzed using a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. It is shown that the experimental results from the $\\eta$-sub event plane method can be reproduced with a parton scattering cross section between 1.5 and 3 mb. We also studied the differential and integrated $v_{2}/v_{3}$ ratios and conclude that they are anti-corrected with the parton scattering cross section.
Parametric investigation of boundary layer control using triangular micro vortex generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bagheri Milad
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Improving the aerodynamic performance of an airfoil is one of the primary interests of the Aerodynamicists. Such performance improvement can be achieved using passive or active flow control devices. One of such passive devices having a compact size along with an effective performance is the Micro Vortex Generators (MVGs. A special type of MVGs, which has been recently introduced in the aerospace industry, is “Triangular Shape” MVGs and its impact on aerodynamic characteristics is the main interest of this study. This study will compare the effects of various configurations through which delay of the flow separation using boundary layer control will be analysed by experimental and theoretical approach. The experimental investigations have been conducted using subsonic wind tunnel and the theoretical analysis using ANSYS® 13.0 FLUENT of which the final results are compared with each other.
Fitting polynomial surfaces to triangular meshes with Voronoi squared distance minimization
Nivoliers, Vincent
2012-11-06
This paper introduces Voronoi squared distance minimization (VSDM), an algorithm that fits a surface to an input mesh. VSDM minimizes an objective function that corresponds to a Voronoi-based approximation of the overall squared distance function between the surface and the input mesh (SDM). This objective function is a generalization of the one minimized by centroidal Voronoi tessellation, and can be minimized by a quasi-Newton solver. VSDM naturally adapts the orientation of the mesh elements to best approximate the input, without estimating any differential quantities. Therefore, it can be applied to triangle soups or surfaces with degenerate triangles, topological noise and sharp features. Applications of fitting quad meshes and polynomial surfaces to input triangular meshes are demonstrated. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London.
On relative equilibria of mutually gravitating massive point and triangular rigid body
Nikonov, Vasily I.
2014-07-01
Planar motions of a triangular body and a massive point under the action of mutual Newtonian attraction are studied. For the first formulation the triangle is assumed to be composed of three massive points. For the second formulation it is constructed with three homogeneous rods. Some partial solutions are observed within the analysis of the geometry of mass distribution. The investigation is motivated by the problem of motion of spacecrafts near asteroid-like celestial objects possessing irregular mass distribution. Comparison of dynamical effects for two types of mass distribution is another goal of the research. Problems appearing because of irregularities in mass distributions have been known for a long time. Certain approaches to the description of motions under attraction as well as qualitative particulars of dynamics are discussed by Demin (1963), Burov & Karapetyan (1995), Buchin & Burov & Troger (2008), Burov & Guerman & Sulikashvili (2010), Kholshevnikov & Kuznetsov (2011), Beletsky & Rodnikov (2011) and Scheeres (2012).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakshi Gupta
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.
Specific features of thermodynamics of two-dimensional Heisenberg magnets on a triangular lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermodynamic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional Heisenberg ferro-and antiferromagnets with spin 1/2 on a triangular lattice are investigated theoretically. The models are treated with the use of two-time Green's functions and the decoupling procedure that takes into account explicitly a short-range order and does not require the existence of a long-range order in the system. The internal energy, heat capacity and susceptibility of the magnets are expressed in terms of the correlation functions which satisfy a system of self-consistent equations. The system is solved numerically in the whole temperature range At high- and low-temperature limits analytical asymptotes are found for the above thermodynamic quantities and correlation functions. The result obtained are correlated with similar data for square lattices and with the available literature results of high-temperature expansions
Li, Kuanguo; Jiang, Kang; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yong; Mao, Lei; Zeng, Jie; Lu, Yonghua; Wang, Pei
2016-04-22
Enhanced electromagnetic field in the tiny gaps between metallic nanostructures holds great promise in optical applications. Herein, we report novel out-of-plane nanogaps composed of micrometer-sized Ag triangular nanoplates (AgTN) on Ag films. Notably, the new coupled plasmonic structure can dramatically enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by visible laser excitation, although the micrometer-sized AgTN has localized plasmon resonance at infrared wavelength. This enhancement is derived from the gap plasmon polariton between the AgTN and Ag film, which is excited via the antenna effect of the corner and edge of the AgTN. Systematic SERS studies indicated that the plasmon enhancement was on the order of corner > edge > face. These results were further verified by theoretical simulations. Our device paves the way for rational design of sensitive SERS substrates by judiciously choosing appropriate nanoparticles and optimizing the gap distance. PMID:26939539
From Discreteness to Continuity: Dislocation Equation for Two-Dimensional Triangular Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Shao-Feng
2007-01-01
@@ A systematic method from the discreteness to the continuity is presented for the dislocation equation of the triangular lattice. A modification of the Peierls equation has been derived strictly. The modified equation includes the higher order corrections of the discrete effect which are important for the core structure of dislocation. It is observed that the modified equation possesses a universal form which is model-independent except the factors.The factors, which depend on the detail of the model, are related to the derivatives of the kernel at its zero point in the wave-vector space. The results open a way to deal with the complicated models because what one needs to do is to investigate the behaviour near the zero point of the kernel in the wave-vector space instead of calculating the kernel completely.
A Finite Volume Method with Unstructured Triangular Grids for Numerical Modeling of Tidal Current
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI Hong-da; LIU zhen
2005-01-01
The finite volume method (FVM) has many advantages in 2-D shallow water numerical simulation. In this study, the finite volume method is used with unstructured triangular grids to simulate the tidal currents. The Roe scheme is applied in the calculation of the intercell numerical flux, and the MUSCL method is introduced to improve its accuracy. The time integral is a two-step scheme of forecast and revision. For the verification of the present method, the Stoker's problem is calculated and the result is compared with the mathematically analytic solutions. The comparison indicates that the method is feasible. A sea area of a port is used as an example to test the method established here. The result shows that the present computational method is satisfactory, and it could be applied to the engineering fields.
Fabrication of a label-free plasmon immunosensor based on triangular silver nanoplates
Dong, Peipei; Lin, Yuanyuan; Di, Junwei
2013-08-01
In this work, we have firstly electrodeposited small gold seeds (average diameter of ~40 nm) onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film coated glass. Then silver triangular nanoplates with edge lengths of ~200 nm were fabricated using seed-mediated growth method. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak was located at ~700 nm. Finally, a label-free plasmon immunosensor was prepared by directly immobilizing goat anti-mouse IgG onto silver surface. The performance of the LSPR immunosensor was investigated. The red-shift of the biosensor was linearly proportional to mouse IgG concentration ranged from 5 ng/mL to 500 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 2 ng/mL. The label-free immunosensor was simple, sensitive and selective.
Gilroy, K. D.; Sundar, A.; Hajfathalian, M.; Yaghoubzade, A.; Tan, T.; Sil, D.; Borguet, E.; Hughes, R. A.; Neretina, S.
2015-04-01
Described is a straightforward procedure for forming organized substrate-immobilized nanoprisms which are single crystalline, surfactant-free and which form a heteroepitaxial relationship with the underlying substrate. The devised route utilizes truncated Au octahedrons formed through solid state dewetting techniques as high temperature heterogeneous nucleation sites for Ag adatoms which are arriving to the substrate surface in the vapour phase. Observed is a morphological and compositional transformation of the Au structures to triangular nanoprisms comprised of a homogeneous AuAg alloy. During this transformation, the localized surface plasmon resonance red-shifts, broadens and increases in strength. The shape transformation, which cannot be rationalized using thermodynamic arguments dependent on the surface energy minimization, is described in terms of a kinetically driven growth mode, previously predicted by molecular dynamic simulations. The so-formed structures, when coated with a thin layer of Pd, are demonstrated as plasmonic sensing elements for hydrogen detection.Described is a straightforward procedure for forming organized substrate-immobilized nanoprisms which are single crystalline, surfactant-free and which form a heteroepitaxial relationship with the underlying substrate. The devised route utilizes truncated Au octahedrons formed through solid state dewetting techniques as high temperature heterogeneous nucleation sites for Ag adatoms which are arriving to the substrate surface in the vapour phase. Observed is a morphological and compositional transformation of the Au structures to triangular nanoprisms comprised of a homogeneous AuAg alloy. During this transformation, the localized surface plasmon resonance red-shifts, broadens and increases in strength. The shape transformation, which cannot be rationalized using thermodynamic arguments dependent on the surface energy minimization, is described in terms of a kinetically driven growth mode
A Revision Restoring Projection after Nipple Reconstruction by Burying Four Triangular Dermal Flaps
Kim, Ji Hun
2016-01-01
Background Numerous techniques have been used to achieve long-term projection of the nipple following nipple-areola reconstruction. However, the reconstructed nipple loses projection over time. We describe a technique that uses local flaps to improve the lost projection of reconstructed nipples. Methods Between November 2013 and March 2015, nine patients (11 nipples) underwent revisional nipple reconstruction for lost projection. Only C–H nipple reconstructions were included in this study. The medical history of each patient was reviewed and photographs were taken in front and lateral views. All patients attended routine follow-up visits. Deepithelialized triangular flaps were made on all four sides of the nipple and buried in the opposite corners in order to augment the volume of the nipple. Anchoring sutures were used to attach each triangular flap on the side opposite their point of origin, and the resulting defects were closed directly. Results This procedure was used successfully in nine patients (11 nipples). Adequate projection was achieved in all patients and no complications occurred. The average nipple height was 3 mm before operation, 7 mm one day after operation, 5 mm at the six-month follow-up, and 5 mm at the 12-month follow-up. The average nipple-areolar angle was 164° before the operation, 111° one day after the operation, 130° at the six-month follow-up, and 133° at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusions The method described provides a solution to the loss of projection in reconstructed nipples. We recommend this technique because it leads to better projection, greater volume, and a more natural shape.
Hydration-induced spin-glass state in a frustrated Na-Mn-O triangular lattice
Bakaimi, Ioanna; Brescia, Rosaria; Brown, Craig M.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Green, Mark A.; Lappas, Alexandros
2016-05-01
Birnessite compounds are stable across a wide range of compositions that produces a remarkable diversity in their physical, electrochemical, and functional properties. These are hydrated analogs of the magnetically frustrated, mixed-valent manganese oxide structures, with general formula, N axMn O2 . Here we demonstrate that the direct hydration of layered rock-salt type α-NaMn O2 , with the geometrically frustrated triangular lattice topology, yields the birnessite type oxide, N a0.36Mn O2.0.2 H2O , transforming its magnetic properties. This compound has a much-expanded interlayer spacing compared to its parent α-NaMn O2 compound. We show that while the parent α-NaMn O2 possesses a Néel temperature of 45 K as a result of broken symmetry in the M n3 + sublattice, the hydrated derivative undergoes collective spin freezing at 29 K within the M n3 +/M n4 + sublattice. Scaling-law analysis of the frequency dispersion of the ac susceptibility, as well as the temperature-dependent, low-field dc magnetization confirm a cooperative spin-glass state of strongly interacting spins. This is supported by complementary spectroscopic analysis [high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy] as well as by a structural investigation (high-resolution TEM, x-ray, and neutron powder diffraction) that yield insights into the chemical and atomic structure modifications. We conclude that the spin-glass state in birnessite is driven by the spin frustration imposed by the underlying triangular lattice topology that is further enhanced by the in-plane bond-disorder generated by the mixed-valent character of manganese in the layers.
Numerical investigation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder at a low Reynolds number
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Huakun; Zhao, Dongliang; Yang, Wenyu; Yu, Guoliang, E-mail: yugl@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China (China)
2015-02-01
Flow-induced vibration (FIV) of a triangular cylinder is numerically investigated at a Reynolds number of Re = 100. The four-step fractional finite element method is employed to solve the two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The cylinder is endowed with a two-degree-of-freedom motion with the reduced mass ratio of M{sub r} = 2. Three typical flow incidence angles, α = 0°, 30° and 60°, are examined to identify the effect of incidence angle on the vibration characteristics of the cylinder. For each α, computations are conducted in a wide range of reduced velocities 2 U{sub r} ≤ 18. The numerical results show that at α = 0° and 30°, the responses of the cylinder are dominated by vortex-induced vibration which resembles that of a circular cylinder. At α = 0°, the peak amplitude of transverse vibration is the smallest among the three investigated α, and most of the cylinder motions exhibit a regular figure-eight trajectory. Some single-loop trajectories are observed at α = 30°, where the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is always identical to that in the transverse direction. At α = 60°, the triangular cylinder undergoes a typical transverse galloping with large amplitude and low frequency, and the vibration trajectories appear to be regular or irregular figure-eight patterns, which are strongly affected by the reduced velocity. (paper)
Foks, Nathan Leon
The interpretation of geophysical data plays an important role in the analysis of potential field data in resource exploration industries. Two categories of interpretation techniques are discussed in this thesis; boundary detection and geophysical inversion. Fault or boundary detection is a method to interpret the locations of subsurface boundaries from measured data, while inversion is a computationally intensive method that provides 3D information about subsurface structure. My research focuses on these two aspects of interpretation techniques. First, I develop a method to aid in the interpretation of faults and boundaries from magnetic data. These processes are traditionally carried out using raster grid and image processing techniques. Instead, I use unstructured meshes of triangular facets that can extract inferred boundaries using mesh edges. Next, to address the computational issues of geophysical inversion, I develop an approach to reduce the number of data in a data set. The approach selects the data points according to a user specified proxy for its signal content. The approach is performed in the data domain and requires no modification to existing inversion codes. This technique adds to the existing suite of compressive inversion algorithms. Finally, I develop an algorithm to invert gravity data for an interfacing surface using an unstructured mesh of triangular facets. A pertinent property of unstructured meshes is their flexibility at representing oblique, or arbitrarily oriented structures. This flexibility makes unstructured meshes an ideal candidate for geometry based interface inversions. The approaches I have developed provide a suite of algorithms geared towards large-scale interpretation of potential field data, by using an unstructured representation of both the data and model parameters.
Numerical investigation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder at a low Reynolds number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flow-induced vibration (FIV) of a triangular cylinder is numerically investigated at a Reynolds number of Re = 100. The four-step fractional finite element method is employed to solve the two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The cylinder is endowed with a two-degree-of-freedom motion with the reduced mass ratio of Mr = 2. Three typical flow incidence angles, α = 0°, 30° and 60°, are examined to identify the effect of incidence angle on the vibration characteristics of the cylinder. For each α, computations are conducted in a wide range of reduced velocities 2 Ur ≤ 18. The numerical results show that at α = 0° and 30°, the responses of the cylinder are dominated by vortex-induced vibration which resembles that of a circular cylinder. At α = 0°, the peak amplitude of transverse vibration is the smallest among the three investigated α, and most of the cylinder motions exhibit a regular figure-eight trajectory. Some single-loop trajectories are observed at α = 30°, where the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is always identical to that in the transverse direction. At α = 60°, the triangular cylinder undergoes a typical transverse galloping with large amplitude and low frequency, and the vibration trajectories appear to be regular or irregular figure-eight patterns, which are strongly affected by the reduced velocity. (paper)
Overbeek, Geertjan; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron; de Kemp, Raymond; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
2007-01-01
This study examined the psychometric properties of an adolescent version of the "triangular love scale" (TLS), which assesses three components of romantic relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using data from 435 Dutch adolescents aged 12-18 years, we found evidence for convergent validity, showing that dimensions of intimacy, passion,…
Koehrsen, Craig L. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A site database structure for storing elevation data for access by an application program being executed on a control system on a work machine. The data is stored in a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN). The elevation of a point on the work site based on the three points forming the triangle containing the point.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Lian-Liang; LI Shu-Shen
2005-01-01
@@ We theoretically investigate the energy spectra of two-electron two-dimensional (2e 2D) quantum dots (QDs)confined by triangular potentials and bowl-like potentials in a magnetic field by exact diagonalization in the framework of effective mass theory. An in-plane electric field is found to contribute to the singlet-triplet transition of the ground state of the 2e 2D QDs confined by triangular or bowl-like potentials in a perpendicular magnetic field. The stronger the in-plane electric field, the smaller the magnetic field for the total spin of the ground states in the dot systems to change from S = 0 to S = 1. However, the influence of anin-plane electric field on the singlettriplet transition of the ground state of two electrons in a triangular QD modulated by a perpendicular magnetic field is quite small because the triangular potential just deviates from the harmonic potential well slightly. We find that the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field needed for the spin singlet-triplet transition of the ground state of the QD confined by a bowl-like potential is reduced drastically by applying an in-plane electric field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noriyuki Hirota, Tsutomu Ando, Ryo Tanaka, Hitoshi Wada and Yoshio Sakka
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We studied methods of controlling the spacing between particles in the triangular lattice formed by feeble magnetic particles through induced magnetic dipole interaction. Formation of a triangular lattice is described by the balance between the magnetic force and the interaction of induced magnetic dipoles. The intensity of the magnetic force is proportional to the volume of particles V and the difference in the magnetic susceptibilities between the particles and the surrounding medium Δχ. On the other hand, the intensity of the induced magnetic dipole interaction depends on the square of V and Δχ. Therefore, altering the magnetic susceptibility difference by changing the susceptibility of the surrounding medium, volume of the particles, and intensity and spatial distribution of the applied magnetic field effectively controls the distance between the particles. In this study, these three methods were evaluated through experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. The distance between the particles, i.e. the lattice constant of the triangular lattice, was varied from 1.7 to 4.0 in units of the particle diameter. Formation of self-organized triangular lattice through the induced magnetic dipole interaction is based on magnetism, a physical property that all materials have. Therefore, this phenomenon is applicable to any materials of any size. Consequently, structure formation through induced magnetic dipole interaction is a potential way of fabricating materials with ordered structures.
Spin liquid state in the disordered triangular lattice Sc2Ga2CuO7 revealed by NMR
Khuntia, P.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. V.; Baenitz, M.; Furukawa, Y.
2016-04-01
We present microscopic magnetic properties of a two-dimensional triangular lattice Sc2Ga2CuO7 , consisting of single and double triangular Cu planes. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction J /kB≈35 K between Cu2 + (S =1 /2 ) spins in the triangular biplane is obtained from the analysis of intrinsic magnetic susceptibility data. The intrinsic magnetic susceptibility, extracted from 71Ga NMR shift data, displays the presence of AFM short range spin correlations and remains finite down to 50 mK, suggesting a nonsinglet ground state. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1 /T1 ) reveals a slowing down of Cu2 + spin fluctuations with decreasing T down to 100 mK. Magnetic specific heat (Cm) and 1 /T1 exhibit power law behavior at low temperatures, implying the gapless nature of the spin excitation spectrum. The absence of long range magnetic ordering down to ˜J /700 , nonzero spin susceptibility at low T , and the power law behavior of Cm and 1 /T1 suggest a gapless quantum spin liquid (QSL) state. Our results demonstrate that persistent spin dynamics induced by frustration maintain a quantum-disordered state at T →0 in this triangular lattice antiferromagnet. This suggests that the low energy modes are dominated by spinon excitations in the QSL state due to randomness engendered by disorder and frustration.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jagadish Singh; Joel John Taura
2014-06-01
We have examined the effects of oblateness up to 4 of the less massive primary and gravitational potential from a circum-binary belt on the linear stability of triangular equilibrium points in the circular restricted three-body problem, when the more massive primary emits electromagnetic radiation impinging on the other bodies of the system. Using analytical and numerical methods, we have found the triangular equilibrium points and examined their linear stability. The triangular equilibrium points move towards the line joining the primaries in the presence of any of these perturbations, except in the presence of oblateness up to 4 where the points move away from the line joining the primaries. It is observed that the triangular points are stable for 0 < < c and unstable for c ≤ ≤ $\\frac{1}{2}$, where c is the critical mass ratio affected by the oblateness up to 4 of the less massive primary, electromagnetic radiation of the more massive primary and potential from the belt, all of which have destabilizing tendencies, except the coefficient 4 and the potential from the belt. A practical application of this model could be the study of motion of a dust particle near a radiating star and an oblate body surrounded by a belt.
Schoedel, Alexander
2013-02-10
The self-assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks affords the first example of a trinodal family of metal-organic materials. Four examples of isoreticular expanded and functionalized frameworks are detailed. Gas adsorption experiments validated the permanent porosity of the parent structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nikitin, A. G.
2005-01-01
Group classification of systems of two coupled nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation with a general diffusion matrix started in papers math-ph/0411027,, math-ph/0411028 is completed in present paper where all non-equivalent equations with triangular diffusion matrix are classified. In addition, symmetries of diffusion systems with nilpotent diffusion matrix and additional first order derivative terms are described.
Triangular coupling of SCDAP/Lower Head/RELAP5 using parallel virtual machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present integrated SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD3.2 computer code is used for the simulation of reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic (T/H) response and core damage progression. Due to the size of the code (∼150,000 lines), maintenance and upgrades present a significant burden. For the user, the code structure and data communication is difficult to understand, thus making it difficult to track down problems that arise during severe accident analyses. Adding to this difficulty is the fact that typical simulations can take anywhere from a few days to several weeks to complete. Therefore, in an effort to reduce the maintenance burden and enhance code performance, a change in the code structure was required. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK), with technical assistance from SCIENTECH, Inc. and the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) initiated a concept of a triangular coupling of sub-modules within the SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD3.2 code: SCDAP, Lower Head (LOWHD), and RELAP5. The goal was to cleanly separate the SCDAP, LOWHD, and RELAP5 modules from the integrated SCDAP/RELAP5 code and then link these code modules using the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software package. This triangular coupling using PVM is now successfully completed, and will facilitate the coupling of SCDAP/LOWHD with the new generation of thermal hydraulic codes, such as TRAC-M. With regard to parallel performance, this work is only a first step towards obtaining significant performance improvements. Further efforts will be required to fully realize these parallel performance gains. These are the further goals the USNRC and HSK propose to follow in the near future. The coupled code was verified by comparing results with those of the original merged code (i.e. the code as it existed prior to separating the three codes). First, three relatively simple developmental assessment cases were run, including a bundle boil
A novel algorithm for explicit optimal multi-degree reduction of triangular surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
This paper introduces the algebraic property of bivariate orthonormal Jacobi polynomials into geometric approximation. Based on the latest results on the transformation formulae between bivariate Bernstein polynomials and Jacobi polynomials, we naturally deduce a novel algorithm for multi-degree reduction of triangular Bézier surfaces. This algorithm possesses four characteristics: ability of error forecast, explicit expression, less time consumption, and best precision. That is, firstly, whether there exists a multi-degree reduced surface within a prescribed tolerance is judged beforehand; secondly, all the operations of multi-degree reduction are just to multiply the column vector generated by sorting the series of the control points of the original surface in lexicographic order by a matrix; thirdly, this matrix can be computed at one time and stored in an array before processing degree reduction; fourthly, the multi-degree reduced surface achieves an optimal approximation in the norm L2. Some numerical experiments are presented to validate the effectiveness of this algorithm, and to show that the algorithm is applicable to information processing of products in CAD system.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K K Verma; K R Soni
2005-09-01
The radiation characteristics of a two-element array of equilateral triangular patch microstrip antenna on a ferrite substrate are studied theoretically by considering the presence of bias magnetic field in the direction of propagation of electromagnetic waves. It is found that the natural modes of propagation in the direction of magnetic field are left- and right-circularly polarized waves and these modes have different propagation constants. In loss-less isotropic warm plasma, this array antenna geometry excites both electromagnetic (EM) and electroacoustic plasma (P) waves in addition to a nonradiating surface wave. In the absence of an external magnetic field, the EM- and P-waves can be decoupled into two independent modes, the electroacoustic mode is longitudinal while the electromagnetic mode is transverse. The far-zone EM-mode and P-mode radiation fields are derived using vector wave function techniques and pattern multiplication approaches. The results are obtained in both plasma medium and free space. Some important antenna parameters such as radiation conductance, directivity and quality factor are plotted for different values of plasma-to-source frequency.
Calculation of the elastic properties of a triangular cell core for lightweight composite mirrors
Penado, F. Ernesto; Clark, James H., III; Walton, Joshua P.; Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.
2007-09-01
The use of composite materials in the fabrication of optical telescope mirrors offers many advantages over conventional methods, including lightweight, portability and the potential for lower manufacturing costs. In the construction of the substrate for these mirrors, sandwich construction offers the advantage of even lower weight and higher stiffness. Generally, an aluminum or Nomex honeycomb core is used in composite applications requiring sandwich construction. However, the use of a composite core offers the potential for increased stiffness and strength, low thermal distortion compatible with that of the facesheets, the absence of galvanic corrosion and the ability to readily modify the core properties. In order to design, analyze and optimize these mirrors, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the core is essential. In this paper, the mechanical properties of a composite triangular cell core (often referred to as isogrid) are determined using finite element analysis of a representative unit cell. The core studied offers many advantages over conventional cores including increased thermal and dimensional stability, as well as low weight. Results are provided for the engineering elastic moduli of cores made of high stiffness composite material as a function of the ply layup and cell size. Finally, in order to illustrate the use of these properties in a typical application, a 1.4-m diameter composite mirror is analyzed using the finite element method, and the resulting stiffness and natural frequencies are presented.
Franz, Silvio; Gradenigo, Giacomo; Spigler, Stefano
2016-03-01
We study how the thermodynamic properties of the triangular plaquette model (TPM) are influenced by the addition of extra interactions. The thermodynamics of the original TPM is trivial, while its dynamics is glassy, as usual in kinetically constrained models. As soon as we generalize the model to include additional interactions, a thermodynamic phase transition appears in the system. The additional interactions we consider are either short ranged, forming a regular lattice in the plane, or long ranged of the small-world kind. In the case of long-range interactions we call the new model the random-diluted TPM. We provide arguments that the model so modified should undergo a thermodynamic phase transition, and that in the long-range case this is a glass transition of the "random first-order" kind. Finally, we give support to our conjectures studying the finite-temperature phase diagram of the random-diluted TPM in the Bethe approximation. This corresponds to the exact calculation on the random regular graph, where free energy and configurational entropy can be computed by means of the cavity equations.
Wrześniewski, Kacper; Weymann, Ireneusz
2015-07-01
We analyze the spin-resolved transport properties of a triangular quantum dot molecule weakly coupled to external ferromagnetic leads. The calculations are performed by using the real-time diagrammatic technique up to the second-order of perturbation theory, which enables a description of both the sequential and cotunneling processes. We study the behavior of the current and differential conductance in the parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations, as well as the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and the Fano factor in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes. It is shown that the transport characteristics depend greatly on how the system is connected to external leads. Two specific geometrical configurations of the device are considered—the mirror one, which possesses the reflection symmetry with respect to the current flow direction and the fork one, in which this symmetry is broken. In the case of first configuration we show that, depending on the bias and gate voltages, the system exhibits both enhanced TMR and super-Poissonian shot noise. On the other hand, when the system is in the second configuration, we predict a negative TMR and a negative differential conductance in certain transport regimes. The mechanisms leading to those effects are thoroughly discussed.
Evolution of elliptic and triangular flow as a function of beam energy in a hybrid model
Auvinen, Jussi
2013-01-01
Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, one would expect the elliptic flow to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude in the energies between 7.7 and 39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann + hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable to investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the produ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, the numerical solution of two-dimensional incompressible viscid flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect and by using geometric conservation law (GCL) has been represented. In this analysis, after the mesh generation for physical model, for the purpose of adaption of meshes with physical condition, the mesh adaption method has been used. Also, for increasing the speed of results convergence, the Multigrid method has been applied to the solver of governing equations. Because of the movement of meshes in this analysis, by using a spring simulation, the generated meshes have been moved and in every time step for the purpose of controlling the quality of meshes, by considering the EquiAngle Skew coefficient (EAS) and the volume of each mesh, the meshes that had a large EAS and a volume more than and less than defined maximum and minimum value, have been removed and then regenerated. Also, because the continuity and momentum conservations law were insufficient to work with these moving grids, the geometric conservation law was combined with the other conservation laws and a general equation was obtained for the dynamic meshes. For solving this general equation, the Simple Algorithm has been used. According to the results, the dynamic ground effect causes unsteadiness and also the Lift coefficient is increased vibrationally. And with respect to the type of airfoil, the Drag coefficient can decrease or increase vibrationally. (author)
GPU acceleration of predictiion-based lower triangular transform for lossless compression
Wei, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Bormin
2012-10-01
The prediction-based lower triangular transform (PLT) features the same de-correlation and coding gain properties as the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT), but with a lower design and implementational cost. Unlike KLT, PLT has the perfect reconstruction property which allows its direct use for lossless compression. Our previous work has shown that PLT is good for lossless compression of ultraspectral sounder data with several thousands of channels. As the computation involves many operations on large matrices, this work will exploit the parallel compute power of graphics processing unit (GPU) to speed up the PLT encoding scheme. The CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) platform by NVidia will be used for comparison with a single threaded CPU core. The experimental result reveals that our GPU implementation of the PLT encoding scheme shows a speedup of 95x compared to its original Matlab implementation on CPU. Thus it is promising to apply the GPU-based PLT encoding scheme for ultraspectral sounder data compression.
Hasheminejad, S. M.
2016-01-05
A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out for a Reynolds number based on the pattern wavelength (λ) of 3080. The results depict the onset, development and breakdown of the vortical structures within the flat plate boundary layer. Moreover, the effect of one spanwise array of holes with diameter of 0.2λ (=3 mm) was examined. This investigation was done on two different flat plates with holes placed at the location x/λ = 2 downstream of the troughs and peaks. The presence of holes after troughs does not show any significant effect on the vortical structures. However, the plate with holes after peaks noticeably delays the vortex breakdown. In this case, the “mushroom-like” vortices move away from the wall and propagate downstream with stable vortical structures. The vortex growth is halted further downstream but start to tilt aside.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhuan Wei
2010-01-01
Full Text Available By taking equivalent thermal resistance, which reflects the average heat conduction effect and is defined based on entransy dissipation, as optimization objective, the "volume to point" constructal problem based on triangular element of how to discharge the heat generated in a fixed volume to a heat sink on the border through relatively high conductive link is re-analyzed and re-optimized in this paper. The constructal shape of the control volume with the best average heat conduction effect is deduced. For the same parameters, the constructs based on minimization of entransy dissipation and the constructs based on minimization of maximum temperature difference are compared, and the results show that the constructs based on entransy dissipation can decrease the mean temperature difference better than the constructs based on minimization of maximum temperature difference. But with the increase of the number of order, the mean temperature difference does not always decrease, and there exists some fluctuations. Because the idea of entransy describes heat transfer ability more suitably, the optimization results of this paper can be put to engineering applica tion of electronic cooling.
T2* weighted MR imaging for the diagnosis of the perforation of triangular fibrocartilage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perforation of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) has been considered an important factor in the etiology of pain in the ulnar wrist joint, and arthrography has been used conventionally to diagnose the perforation. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to diagnose TFC perforation. Gundy et al. examined cadaver wrists with Tl weighted imaging and arthrography, and obtained findings suggesting that arthrography provides a more accurate diagnosis of the TFC perforation. To our knowledge, no comparison has yet been made between T2* weighted imaging and arthrography in the diagnosis of TFC perforation. The present study compared the usefulness of T2*-weighted imaging and arthrography in the diagnosis of TFC perforation in 22 wrist joints of 11 cadavers (5 males and 6 females with ages ranging from 61 to 92 years and an average age of 78.8 years) fixed in 60% formalin. The specimens were firstly analyzed by a T2*-weighted 0.5T MRI scan and subsequently by arthrography. After diagnosing the image obtained by the two methods, the accuracy of the diagnosis was determined by comparison with the macroscopic findings of autopsy, including the presence and degree of TFC perforation. A T2*-weighted MRI scan of the TFC perforation showed high-intensity areas over the distal radio-ulnar joint, and demonstrated the same diagnostic accuracy as arthrography, providing correct diagnoses in all cases other than linear perforation. However, neither of the image diagnostic methods allowed definition of the type of perforation. (author)
Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of IGF-I from Triangular Bream(Megalobrama terminalis)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TONG Fu-dan; LIU Hong-yun
2004-01-01
The insulin-like growth factor Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)gene of triangular bream(Megalobrama terminalis)(GenBank No.AY247412)(Tb)was cloned for the first time from liver by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed the Tb IGF-Ⅰ cDNA consisted of 486 nucleotides and encoded 117 amino acids including B,C,A,D and E five domains. Analysis of E-domain indicated that cloned Tb IGF-Ⅰ belonged to IGF-Ⅰ Ea-2 subtype. Identity analysis showed the IGF-Ⅰ nucleotide sequence shared 99.8% homology with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass Carp,85.8% with common carp; the pre-IGF-Ⅰ amine acid sequence shared 99.4% with bluntnose bream,88.8% with grass carp,85.4% homology with common carp. In the Cyprinus Carpio,the higher homology of nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence in IGF-Ⅰshowed that the closer relationship the fishes have. These results could provide basic data for the research on Tb germplasm and the development and utilization of biological feed additives.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taoufik Ghabara
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Geometric optics approximation for emissivity from triangular surfaces was compared with exact scattering predictions from electromagnetic theory. Rigorous electromagnetic scattering theory was numerically formulated based on the differential method. We have used a numerical simulation of the emissivity of gold and tungsten for a wavelength equal 0.55 micron to explore the validity of the geometric optics. Surface parameter domains for the regions of accuracy of the geometric optics approximation are quantified and presented as functions of surface slope and roughness. Influence on the validity of the approximate method of multiple scattering, the shadowing effect and the cavity effect of metallic surface have been investigated. For the latter, our interest was focused on the mechanism that enhances the emissivity of an interface when ruling a grating. It has been seen that the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the emissivity depends very much on the period of the grating. For gratings with a period much smaller than the wavelength, the roughness essentially behaves as a transition layer with a gradient of the optical index. For different period / wavelength ratio, we have found a good agreement between the differential method and the homogenization regime when the period was smaller.
A Triangular Finite Element with First-derivative Continuity Applied to Fusion MHD Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe properties of the reduced quintic triangular finite element. The expansion used in the element will represent a complete quartic polynomial in two dimensions, and thus the error will be of order h5 if the solution is sufficiently smooth. The quintic terms are constrained to enforce C1 continuity across element boundaries, allowing their use with partial differential equations involving derivatives up to fourth order. There are only three unknowns per node in the global problem, which leads to lower rank matrices when compared with other high-order methods with similar accuracy but lower order continuity. The integrations to form the matrix elements are all done in closed form, even for the nonlinear terms. The element is shown to be well suited for elliptic problems, anisotropic diffusion, the Grad-Shafranov-Schlter equation, and the time-dependent MHD or extended MHD equations. The element is also well suited for 3D calculations when the third (angular) dimension is represented as a Fourier series
Controlled van der Waals epitaxy of monolayer MoS2 triangular domains on graphene.
Ago, Hiroki; Endo, Hiroko; Solís-Fernández, Pablo; Takizawa, Rina; Ohta, Yujiro; Fujita, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Tsuji, Masaharu
2015-03-11
Multilayered heterostructures of two-dimensional materials have recently attracted increased interest because of their unique electronic and optical properties. Here, we present chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of triangular crystals of monolayer MoS2 on single-crystalline hexagonal graphene domains which are also grown by CVD. We found that MoS2 grows selectively on the graphene domains rather than on the bare supporting SiO2 surface. Reflecting the heteroepitaxy of the growth process, the MoS2 domains grown on graphene present two preferred equivalent orientations. The interaction between the MoS2 and the graphene induced an upshift of the Raman G and 2D bands of the graphene, while significant photoluminescence quenching was observed for the monolayer MoS2. Furthermore, photoinduced current modulation along with an optical memory effect was demonstrated for the MoS2-graphene heterostructure. Our work highlights that heterostructures synthesized by CVD offer an effective interlayer van der Waals interaction which can be developed for large-area multilayer electronic and photonic devices. PMID:25695865
Structure and evolution of strange attractors in non-elastic triangular billiards
Arroyo, Aubin; Sanders, David P
2011-01-01
We study pinball billiard dynamics in an equilateral triangular table. In such dynamics, collisions with the walls are non-elastic: the outgoing angle with the normal vector to the boundary is a uniform factor $\\lambda < 1$ smaller than the incoming angle. This leads to contraction in phase space for the discrete-time dynamics between consecutive collisions, and hence to attractors of zero Lebesgue measure, which are almost always fractal strange attractors with chaotic dynamics, due to the presence of an expansion mechanism. We study the structure of these strange attractors and their evolution as the contraction parameter $\\lambda$ is varied. For $\\lambda$ in the interval (0, 1/3), we prove rigorously that the attractor has the structure of a Cantor set times an interval, whereas for larger values of $\\lambda$ the billiard dynamics gives rise to nonaccessible regions in phase space. For $\\lambda$ close to 1, the attractor splits into three transitive components, the basins of attraction of which have fra...
Laminar Natural Convection of Newtonian and Non Newtonian Fluids Inside Triangular Enclosure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ala?a Abbas Muhadi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, steady two dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids inside isosceles triangular enclosure has been analyzed numerically for a wide range of the modified Rayleigh numbers of (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105, with non-dimensional parameter (NE of Prandtl Eyring model ranging from (0 to 10, and modified Prandtl number take in the range (Pr* =1,10, and 100. Two types of boundary conditions have been considered. The first, when the inclined walls are heated with different uniform temperatures and the lower wall is insulated. The second, when the bottom wall is heated by applying a uniform heat flux while the inclined walls at the constant cold temperature. Also, the non-Newtonian fluids under consideration were assumed to obey the Prandtl Eyring model..The results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines to show the behavior of the fluid flow and temperature fields. In addition, some graphics are presented the relation between average Nusselt number and the various parameters. The results show the effect of non dimensional parameter (NE on the velocity and temperature profiles. They also show that the average Nusselt number is a strong function of modified Rayleigh number, modified Prandtl number, non-dimensional parameter, and the boundary conditions. Four different correlations have been made to show the dependence of the average Nusselt number on the non-dimensional parameter, the modified Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The variational nodal method (VNM) has been generalized to three dimensions and used to solve a set of five criticality problems, in Cartesian, triangular, and hexagonal geometries. The code is implemented within the IDF 3D neutronics production code on a Cray-XMP. The first four benchmarks are taken from Takeda and Ikeda, and the last is a simplified sixth-core model of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Comparisons are made to various SN codes, the other nodal methods, and Monte Carlo reference solutions. The VNM is based on a variational principle whose Euler-Lagrange equation is the even-parity transport equation. Nodal balance is imposed through the odd-parity fluxes used as a Lagrange multiplier on nodal interfaces. Even- and odd-parity fluxes are expanded in a classical Ritz procedure with complete sets of orthogonal polynomials in space and angle. The VNM is cast in response matrix form, and the even- and odd-parity fluxes are replaced by partial current moments on the nodal interfaces
Simulation study of random sequential adsorption of mixtures on a triangular lattice.
Loncarević, I; Budinski-Petković, Lj; Vrhovac, S B
2007-09-01
Random sequential adsorption of binary mixtures of extended objects on a two-dimensional triangular lattice is studied numerically by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The depositing objects are formed by self-avoiding random walks on the lattice. We concentrate here on the influence of the symmetry properties of the shapes on the kinetics of the deposition processes in two-component mixtures. Approach to the jamming limit in the case of mixtures is found to be exponential, of the form: theta(t) approximately theta jam - Deltatheta exp(- t/sigma), and the values of the parameter sigma are determined by the order of symmetry of the less symmetric object in the mixture. Depending on the local geometry of the objects making the mixture, jamming coverage of a mixture can be either greater than both single-component jamming coverages or it can be in between these values. Results of the simulations for various fractional concentrations of the objects in the mixture are also presented. PMID:17767373
Design of Compact EBG Structure and effect on Circularly Polarized Triangular Patch with Stub
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Snehalata Chokat,
2012-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the study of electromagnetic band gap (EBG structure using slot ring and its effect oncircularly polarized triangular patch antenna performance. The EBG structure has been designed on dielectricsubstrate εr=4.3 and thickness h=1.53mm. The EBG structure acts as resonator which attenuates the surfacewave propagation in a specific frequency range. A new single slot ring EBG structure is proposed whichexhibits surface wave attenuation better than 20 dB in the frequency range from 2.75 GHz to 3.2 GHz. Anantenna with center frequency of 2.8 GHz is designed with and without EBG. The peak gain and radiation efficiency of this antenna are mproved significantly when antenna is above EBG in comparison to ntenna without EBG. The simulated adiation patterns of the antenna xhibit reduction in backward adiation when antenna above EBG plane n comparison to radiation pattern without EBG. Keywords- ctromagnetic band gap (EBG, periodic structures, fractal geometry, platting through hole (PTH, microstrip antenna, and surface wave suppression.
Response properties in the adsorption-desorption model on a triangular lattice
Šćepanović, J. R.; Stojiljković, D.; Jakšić, Z. M.; Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.
2016-06-01
The out-of-equilibrium dynamical processes during the reversible random sequential adsorption (RSA) of objects of various shapes on a two-dimensional triangular lattice are studied numerically by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We focused on the influence of the order of symmetry axis of the shape on the response of the reversible RSA model to sudden perturbations of the desorption probability Pd. We provide a detailed discussion of the significance of collective events for governing the time coverage behavior of shapes with different rotational symmetries. We calculate the two-time density-density correlation function C(t ,tw) for various waiting times tw and show that longer memory of the initial state persists for the more symmetrical shapes. Our model displays nonequilibrium dynamical effects such as aging. We find that the correlation function C(t ,tw) for all objects scales as a function of single variable ln(tw) / ln(t) . We also study the short-term memory effects in two-component mixtures of extended objects and give a detailed analysis of the contribution to the densification kinetics coming from each mixture component. We observe the weakening of correlation features for the deposition processes in multicomponent systems.
Substitution effect on the two-dimensional triangular-lattice system CuCrS2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of polycrystalline CuCr1-xVxS2, the mother compound of which, CuCrS2, has a nearly two-dimensional structure in which the triangular-lattice CrS2 layer and the Cu-ion layer are stacked alternately. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility revealed that only the Cr ions have local magnetic moment, and the V ions are nonmagnetic. CuCrS2 shows a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering at TN = 39 K, which is found to be suppressed quickly by the V substitution. Above x = 0.2, the ordered state is replaced by a spin-glass behaviour with the transition temperature Tg decreasing gradually with increasing x. Tg is one order of magnitude smaller than the Weiss temperature θ, implying the dominant effect of geometrical frustration. The specific heat C of the spin-glass system, CuCr0.7V0.3S2 (x = 0.3), is found to vary as C ∝ T2 below 10 K, similarly to those two-dimensional spin-liquid systems
Hole Detection for Increasing Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Using Triangular Structure
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Shahram Babaie
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN is expected to provide a broad range of applications, such as battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart spaces and so on. The coverage problem is a fundamental issue in WSN, which mainly concerns with a fundamental question: How well a sensor field is observed by the deployed sensors? Mobility is exploited to improve area coverage in a kind of hybrid sensor networks. The main objective for using mobile sensor nodes is to heal coverage holes after the initial network deployment, when designing a hole healing algorithm, the following issues need to be addressed. First, how to decide the existence of a coverage hole and how to estimate the size of a hole. Second, what are the best target locations to relocate mobile nodes to repair coverage holes? We use the triangular oriented diagram (HSTT for aim to goal where its simple ,have low calculation among construction and it is great to calculate the size of hole exactly .
Photonic band gap of superconductor-medium structure: Two-dimensional triangular lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wan-guo; Pan, Feng-ming, E-mail: fmpan@nuaa.edu.cn; Cai, Li-wei
2014-05-15
Highlights: • Plane wave expansion is generalized to superconductor-medium periodic structure. • A wider band gap appears than that in conventional photonic crystals. • Part of original energy levels are rearranged upon consideration of the superconductivity. • Band gap width decreases monotonically with penetration length, but not with the filling factor. • Band gaps can be partially shut down or opened by adjusting filling factor. - Abstract: Based on London theory a general form of wave equation is formulated for both dielectric medium and superconductor. Using the wave equation and applying plane wave expansion, we have numerically calculated the band structures and density of states of a photonic crystal, whose intersection is constructed by a two-dimensional triangular lattice of superconductor padding in dielectric medium. Results indicate a wider band gap in the superconductor-medium photonic crystal than that in conventional photonic crystals. And part of original energy levels are found to be rearranged upon consideration of the superconductivity. The dependence of band gap on penetration length and filling factor is also discussed. Band gap width decreases monotonically with the penetration length, but not with the filling factor. Band gaps can be partially shut down or opened by adjusting filling factor.
Zeng, Qinghui; Li, Qin; Ji, Wenyu; Bin, Xue; Song, Jie
2016-05-01
With growing concerns about health issues worldwide, elegant sensors with high sensitivity and specificity for virus/antigens (Ag) detection are urgent to be developed. Homogeneous immunoassays (HIA) are an important technique with the advantages of small sample volumes requirement and pretreatment-free process. HIA are becoming more favorable for the medical diagnosis and disease surveillance than heterogeneous immunoassays. An important subset of HIA relies on the effect of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) via a donor-acceptor (D–A) platform, e.g., quantum dots (QDs) donor based FRET system. Being an excellent plasmonic material, silver triangular nanoplates (STNPs) have unique advantages in displaying surface plasmon resonance in the visible to near infrared spectral region, which make them a better acceptor for pairing with QDs in a FRET-based sensing system. However, the reported STNPs generally exhibited broad size distributions, which would greatly restrict their application as HIA acceptor for high detection sensitivity and specificity purpose. In this work, uniform STNPs and red-emitting QDs are firstly applied to construct FRET nanoplatform in the advanced HIA and further be exploited for analyzing virus Ag. The uniform STNPs/QDs nanoplatform based medical sensor provides a straightforward and highly sensitive method for Ag analysis in homogeneous form.
The Enigmatic Mushtikas and the Associated Triangular Terracotta Cakes: Some Observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Manuel
2010-12-01
Full Text Available For over four decades, now, mushtikas and its common associate, the triangular terracotta cakes have been believed to be part of ‘fire altars’. This is, in spite of the fact that, either or both of these have been found from hearths, ovens, kilns, as flooring material, on walls, in passages, streets, bathrooms and therefore obviously near commodes. Further, the great variety of central stele and construction material, size and shape, materials found within ‘fire altars’ suggest that, all the above were devoid of religious symbolism and used to achieve domestic or industrial objectives. The cakes being primarily associated with run of the mill economic activities ended up in diverse and defiling contexts. However, like many cultures across time and space Harappans may also have used the medium of fire for offering sacrifices. Therefore the existence of ‘fire altars’ is not denied as such, but these then should not have the ubiquitous cakes, at the least.
Hole Detection for Increasing Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Using Triangular Structure
Babaie, Shahram
2012-01-01
The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN) is expected to provide a broad range of applications, such as battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart spaces and so on. The coverage problem is a fundamental issue in WSN, which mainly concerns with a fundamental question: How well a sensor field is observed by the deployed sensors? Mobility is exploited to improve area coverage in a kind of hybrid sensor networks. The main objective for using mobile sensor nodes is to heal coverage holes after the initial network deployment, when designing a hole healing algorithm, the following issues need to be addressed. First, how to decide the existence of a coverage hole and how to estimate the size of a hole. Second, what are the best target locations to relocate mobile nodes to repair coverage holes? We use the triangular oriented diagram (HSTT) for aim to goal where its simple, have low calculation among construction and it is great to calculate the size of hole exactly .
Flow-induced oscillations of a prism with triangular cross-section placed in water
Carlson, Daniel; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya
2015-11-01
Flow-induced oscillations of a prism with a triangular cross-section was studied experimentally. The cylinder had one-degree-of-freedom to oscillate in the crossflow direction. The response of the cylinder in terms of the amplitudes of oscillations as well as the flow forces were studied at varying angles of attack in the range of α = 0° -60° and a reduced velocity range of U* =4-22. Depending on the angle of attack and the reduced velocity, the cylinder experienced either VIV or galloping. For small angles of attack of α35°, the amplitude of oscillations increased monotonically with increasing reduced velocity and the cylinder underwent galloping. Several different vortex shedding patterns were observed in the wake of the cylinder at different angles of attack and flow velocities. New, high-frequency shedding patterns with their corresponding high harmonic shedding frequencies in the flow force FFTs were observed in the regions where galloping occurred. This work is partially supported by the NSF-sponsored IGERT: Offshore Wind Energy Engineering, Environmental Science, and Policy (Grant Number 1068864).
TAILORING OF FLATTENED DISPERSION IN TRIANGULAR-LATTICE PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER
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Sandhir Kumar Singh
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The interest of researchers and engineers in several laboratories, since the1980s, has been attracted by the ability to structure materials on the scale of the optical wavelength, a fraction of micrometers or less, in order to develop new optical medium, known as photonic crystals . Photonic crystals rely on a regular morphological microstructure of air-holes, incorporated into the material, which radically alters its optical properties. In Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF it is possible to realize flat dispersion over a wide wavelength range that cannot be realized with a conventional single-mode fiber. In PCFs, the dispersion can be controlled and tailored with unprecedented freedom. In fact, due to the high refractive index difference between silica and air, and to the flexibility of changing air-hole sizes and patterns, the waveguide contribution to the dispersion parameter can be significantly changed, thus obtaining unusual position of the zero dispersion wavelength, as well as particular values of the dispersion curve slope. In particular, by manipulating the air- hole radius or the lattice period of the micro structured cladding, it is possible to control the zero-dispersion wavelength, which can be tuned over a very wide range, or the dispersion curves, which can be engineered to be ultra flattened. In this paper the geometric parameters of triangular PCF have been properly changed to optimize the dispersion compensation over a wide wavelength range.
Evolution of elliptic and triangular flow as a function of beam energy in a hybrid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, one would expect the elliptic flow to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude in the energies between 7.7 and 39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann + hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable to investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different values of beam energy. Extending the examined range down to 5 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision allows also making predictions for the CBM experiment at FAIR.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Ahmed
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, turbulent forced convection of nanofluids flow in triangular-corrugated channels is numerically investigated over Reynolds number ranges of 1000–5000. Four different types of nanofluids which are Al2O3, CuO, SiO2 and ZnO–water with nanoparticles diameters in the range of 30–70 nm and the range of nanoparticles volume fraction from 0% to 4% have been considered. The governing equations of mass, momentum and energy are solved using finite volume method (FVM. The low Reynolds number k–ε model of Launder and Sharma is adopted as well. It is found that the average Nusselt number, pressure drop, heat transfer enhancement, thermal–hydraulic performance increase with increasing in the volume fraction of nanoparticles and with decreasing in the diameter of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the SiO2–water nanofluid provides the highest thermal–hydraulic performance among other types of nanofluids followed by Al2O3, ZnO and CuO–water nanofluids. Moreover, the pure water has the lowest heat transfer enhancement as well as thermal–hydraulic performance.
Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: A Prospective Study.
Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Kovalsky, Don A; Lockstadt, Harry
2016-05-01
Study Design Prospective multicenter single-arm interventional clinical trial. Objective To determine the degree of improvement in sacroiliac (SI) joint pain, disability related to SI joint pain, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction who undergo minimally invasive SI joint fusion using triangular-shaped titanium implants. Methods Subjects (n = 172) underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion between August 2012 and January 2014 and completed structured assessments preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, including a 100-mm SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQOL-5D. Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 and 12 months. Results Mean SI joint pain improved from 79.8 at baseline to 30.0 and 30.4 at 6 and 12 months, respectively (mean improvements of 49.9 and 49.1 points, p disability, and quality of life in patients with SI joint dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis and SI joint disruption. PMID:27099817
Estudo nacional dos atributos psicométricos da Escala Triangular do Amor de Sternberg
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Vicente Cassepp-Borges
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A Escala Triangular do Amor de Sternberg (ETAS vem sendo a cada dia mais utilizada em pesquisas no Brasil. No entanto, todos seus estudos ocorreram a nível estadual. Este artigo teve como objetivo conhecer os atributos psicométricos da escala a nível nacional. A ETAS foi aplicada em uma amostra de 1.549 participantes de 13 Unidades da Federação brasileiras. Os resultados sugerem que a ETAS é um excelente teste, com a estrutura de três fatores prevista pela teoria e um elevado nível de precisão (α = 0,98. A Teoria de Resposta ao Item mostrou que a ETAS possui itens bastante discriminativos, avaliando uma boa faixa da população, embora com baixa dificuldade. Sugere-se a manutenção dos itens complexos na escala, com a finalidade de ter-se uma medida válida e precisa do amor.
Solution adaptive triangular meshes with application to the simulation of plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new discrete Laplace operator is constructed on a local mesh molecule, second order accurate on symmetric cell regions, based on local Taylor series expansions. This discrete Laplacian is then compared to the one commonly used in the literature. A truncation error analysis of gradient and Laplace operators calculated at triangle centroids reveals that the maximum bounds of their truncation errors are minimized on equilateral triangles, for a fixed triangle perimeter. A new adaptive strategy on arbitrary triangular grids is developed in which a uniform grid is defined with respect to the solution surface, as opposed to the x,y plane. Departures from mesh uniformity arises from a spacially dependent mean-curvature of the solution surface. The power of this new adaptive technique is applied to the problem of finding free-boundary plasma equilibria within the context of MHD. The geometry is toroidal, and axisymmetry in the toroidal direction is assumed. We are led to conclude that the grid should move, not towards regions of high curvature of magnetic flux, but rather towards regions of greater toroidal current density. This has a direct bearing on the accuracy with which the Grad-Shafranov equation is being approximated
Jacob, Jesly; R, Ajith; Mathew, Vincent
2011-11-20
The optical near-field surface plasmon effects of a triangular system of silver nanoshell cylinders are numerically studied using the two-dimensional finite difference time domain method. The dependence of interparticle distance, shell thickness of the cylinder, dielectric constant of shell core as well as embedding medium, and orientation of the optical source plane on the plasmonic resonances of the nanocylinder shells is studied. The plasmonic resonances are found to have strong dependence on the interparticle distance. As the size of the particle is increased, the field intensity peak shows a redshift. The resonance condition varies with the dielectric constant of the environment as well as the core. In addition, the orientation of the incident source plane has a significant role in the near-field intensity distribution. Since the near-field intensity has the same trend as that of the scattering cross section, the results can be used in the design of various applications like sensing, antennas, and waveguides. PMID:22108888
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luwang, Meitram Niraj, E-mail: mn.luwang@ncl.res.in
2014-01-30
The triangular prism shapes of SnO{sub 2}·xH{sub 2}O nanoparticles are prepared using microemulsion route. The effect of variation of water pool value on the formation of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied. There is the quantum size effect in absorption study of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. With the increase of the water pool value, there is a decrease in the band edge absorption energy suggesting the weak quantum confinement effect (QCE) in SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Quenching effect increases with increase of water to surfactant ratio in luminescence. There is no significant effect in lifetime values for SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles in both microemulsion and powder form. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles show green emission due to oxygen vacancy. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles when doped with Eu{sup 3+} ions give the enhanced luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to the surface mediated energy transfer from SnO{sub 2} to Eu{sup 3+} ion.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damkilde, Lars; Pedersen, Ronnie
2012-01-01
has been tested on a standard linear test such as Cook’s panel, and is shown as expected to be somewhat more flexible than the LST-element and the compatible quadratic strain element (QST). The extended element has also been applied to material non-linear geotechnical problems. Geotechnical problems......This paper describes a new triangular plane element which can be considered as a linear strain triangular element (LST) extended with incompatible displacement modes. The extended element will have a full cubic interpolation of strains and stresses. The extended LST-element is connected with other...... elements similar to the LST-element i.e. through three corner nodes and three mid-side nodes. The incompatible modes are associated with two displacement gradients at each mid-side node and displacements in the central node. The element passes the patch test and converges to the exact solution. The element...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K K Verma; K R Soni
2005-01-01
The radiation properties of 2 × 2 element planar array of equilateral triangular patch microstrip antenna in plasma medium are studied. The array factor and far-zone EM-mode and P-mode radiation fields of the array geometry are derived using vector wave function techniques and pattern multiplication approaches. The total field patterns and various characteristics of pattern such as half power beam width (HPBW), first null beam width (FNBW) and direction of maximum radiation are computed for two different values of progressive phase excitation difference between the elements. The results of this array geometry are obtained both in plasma medium and in free space and compared with those of single element equilateral triangular patch microstrip antenna.
Bello, Nakone; Singh, Jagadish
2016-01-01
We consider a version of the relativistic R3BP which includes the effects of oblateness of the primaries and radiation of the bigger primary as well on the stability of triangular points. We observe that the positions of the triangular points and their stability are affected by the relativistic effect apart from the radiation and oblateness of the primaries. It is further seen for these points that the range of stability region increases or decreases according as the part of the critical mass value, depending upon relativistic terms, radiation and oblateness coefficients, is positive or negative. A numerical exploration shows that in the Sun-Saturn, Sun-Uranus, Sun-Neptune systems, the oblateness has no influence on their positions and range of stability region; whereas it has a little influence on the Sun-Mars, Sun-Jupiter systems. On the other hand, we found that radiation pressure has an observable effect on the solar system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of planting and harvesting times on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of Talinum triangulare cultivated during two different seasons (winter or summer and harvested 30 or 60 days after seedling establishment. Polyphenol content was quantified with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and antioxidant activity was quantified with free-radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazina. The highest levels of polyphenols were obtained from winter planting and from harvesting at 30 days. Antioxidant activity differed significantly in response to variation in planting and harvesting times, reaching 56.97% in extracts of plants produced in the winter and harvested at 30 days after planting. The times of planting and harvesting markedly influenced the content of polyphenols, and thus the antioxidant activity, of T. triangulare.
Singh, Jagadish; Emmanuel, A. Balogun
2014-09-01
The stability of triangular equilibrium points in the framework of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) is investigated for a test particle of infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of two massive bodies (primaries), when the bigger primary is a source of radiation and the smaller one is a triaxial rigid body with one of the axes as the axis of symmetry and its equatorial plane coinciding with the plane of motion, under the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag effect as a result of the radiating primary. It is found that the involved parameters influence the position of triangular points and their linear stability. It is noted that these points are unstable in the presence of Poynting-Robertson drag effect and conditionally stable in the absence of it.
Quantum Monte Carlo study of long-range transverse-field Ising models on the triangular lattice
Humeniuk, Stephan
2016-03-01
Motivated by recent experiments with a Penning ion trap quantum simulator, we perform numerically exact Stochastic Series Expansion quantum Monte Carlo simulations of long-range transverse-field Ising models on a triangular lattice for different decay powers α of the interactions. The phase boundary for the ferromagnet is obtained as a function of α . For antiferromagnetic interactions, there is strong indication that the transverse field stabilizes a clock ordered phase with sublattice magnetization (M ,-M/2 ,-M/2 ) with unsaturated M disorder" similar to the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice. Connecting the known limiting cases of nearest-neighbor and infinite-range interactions, a semiquantitative phase diagram is obtained. Magnetization curves for the ferromagnet for experimentally relevant system sizes and with open boundary conditions are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mishra Satyanarayan
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A triangular V-Y type advancement flap on the finger has been designed, which advances skin from over the whole circumference of the finger, which includes both palmar and dorsal skin. The flap is sensate too. It is indicated for finger and thumb amputations proximal to the body of the nail. Six flaps were raised with five successes and one partial necrosis. This is a preliminary report on a new flap.
Li, Ranran
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study the global output regulation problem of a class of lower triangular systems under measurement output feedback. A novel high-gain filter is proposed to estimate the unmeasured states of the systems. Furthermore, we integrate the robust stabilisation technique and Nussbaumgain technique to achieve asymptotic regulation when the control direction is unknown. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Rycerz, Adam
2013-01-01
We investigate the effect of strain-induced gauge fields on statistical distribution of energy levels of triangular graphene nanoflakes with zigzag edges. In the absence of strain fields but in the presence of weak potential disorder such systems were found in Ref. [1] to display the spectral statistics of the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) due to the effective time-reversal (symplectic) symmetry breaking. Here show that, in the absence of disorder, strain fields may solely lead to spectral ...
Kiene J; Schulz AP; Hillbricht S; Jürgens Ch; Paech A
2009-01-01
Abstract The methods for ankle arthrodesis differ significantly, probably a sign that no method is clearly superior to others. In the last ten years there is a clear favour toward internal fixation. We retrospectively evaluate the technique and evaluate the clinical long term results of external fixation in a triangular frame. Patients and Methods From 1994 to 2001 a consecutive series of 95 patients with end stage arthritis of the ankle joint were treated. Retrospectively the case notes were...
Asl, Rahim Taghizadeh; Eshrati, Babak; Dell Colleen Anne; Taylor, Kelli; Afshar, Parviz; Kamali, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Ali
2013-01-01
Background Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among incarcerated injection drug users (IDU) is a health epidemic in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Triangular clinics (TCs) were established in prisons as a harm reduction measure to decrease the risk of HIV transmission and other blood-borne infections. The objective of this study was to assess the immediate outcomes of one TC among male IDUs in Iran’s Rajaee-Shahr prison. Methods This study was conducted in two stages betwee...
Xue, Hong; You, Wen; Nayga, Rodolfo M.
2011-01-01
This essay investigates the impacts of primary care giver’s (PCG) time allocation and food expenditure choices on childhood obesity using national panel study of income dynamic (PSID) data. A triangular system of equations is derived and estimated under parametric and semi-parametric model settings. The performances of the two modeling strategies are compared using predictive ability measures with the aid of bootstrap method. Test results suggest relatively better performance of the semi-para...
Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Lombardi, Edoardo
2011-01-01
Time–frequency analysis of the dynamics of different wake vorticity structures, generated from a triangular prism orientated with its apex edge against the incoming wind, is carried out. Time–frequency analysis of time-series obtained with hot-wire anemometry is performed through a procedure based on proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral components are extracted with a technique that provides an increased efficiency for fluid dynamic applications.