WorldWideScience

Sample records for chain valency controls

  1. Heparan sulfate chain valency controls syndecan-4 function in cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopal, Sandeep; Bober, Adam; Whiteford, James R;

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblasts null for the transmembrane proteoglycan, syndecan-4, have an altered actin cytoskeleton, compared to matching wild-type cells. They do not organize alpha-smooth muscle actin into bundles, but will do so when full length syndecan-4 is re-expressed. This requires the central V region of......-smooth muscle actin organization, being reduced where syndecan-4 function was compromised by a lack of multiple heparan sulfate chains.......Fibroblasts null for the transmembrane proteoglycan, syndecan-4, have an altered actin cytoskeleton, compared to matching wild-type cells. They do not organize alpha-smooth muscle actin into bundles, but will do so when full length syndecan-4 is re-expressed. This requires the central V region......, clustering of one-chain syndecan-4 forms with antibodies overcame the block, indicating that valency of interactions with ligands is a key component of syndecan-4 function. Measurements of focal contact/adhesion size and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation correlated with syndecan-4 status and alpha...

  2. Dissociable effects of valence and arousal in adaptive executive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Kuhbandner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on introspectionist, semantic, and psychophysiological experimental frameworks, it has long been assumed that all affective states derive from two independent basic dimensions, valence and arousal. However, until now, no study has investigated whether valence and arousal are also dissociable at the level of affect-related changes in cognitive processing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined how changes in both valence (negative vs. positive and arousal (low vs. high influence performance in tasks requiring executive control because recent research indicates that two dissociable cognitive components are involved in the regulation of task performance: amount of current control (i.e., strength of filtering goal-irrelevant signals and control adaptation (i.e., strength of maintaining current goals over time. Using a visual pop-out distractor task, we found that control is exclusively modulated by arousal because interference by goal-irrelevant signals was largest in high arousal states, independently of valence. By contrast, control adaptation is exclusively modulated by valence because the increase in control after trials in which goal-irrelevant signals were present was largest in negative states, independent of arousal. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that differential effects of two experimental factors on control and control adaptation can be dissociated if there is no correlation between empirical interference and conflict-driven modulation of interference, which was the case in the present data. Consequently, the observed effects of valence and arousal on adaptive executive control are indeed dissociable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that affective influences on cognitive processes can be driven by independent effects of variations in valence and arousal, which may resolve several heterogeneous findings observed in previous studies on affect-cognition interactions.

  3. Mixed valence character of anionic linear beryllium chains: a CAS-SCF and MR-CI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2009-12-31

    A theoretical investigation on the mixed valence behavior, or bistability, of a series of anionic linear chains composed of beryllium atoms is presented. Calculations on Be(N)- (with N = 7, ..., 13) were performed at CAS-SCF and MR-CI levels by using an ANO basis set containing 6s4p3d2f contracted orbitals for each atom. Our results show a consistent gradual shift between different classes of mixed valence compounds as the number of beryllium atoms increases, from strong coupling (class III) toward valence-trapped (class II). Indeed, in the largest cases (N > 10), the anionic chains were found to become asymptotically closer to class I, where the coupling vanishes. The intramolecular electron-transfer parameters V(ab), E(barr), and E(opt) were calculated for each atomic chain. It is shown that the decrease of V(ab) with increasing N follows an exponential pattern.

  4. Exact valence bond entanglement entropy and probability distribution in the XXX spin chain and the potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, J L; Saleur, H

    2008-02-29

    We determine exactly the probability distribution of the number N_(c) of valence bonds connecting a subsystem of length L>1 to the rest of the system in the ground state of the XXX antiferromagnetic spin chain. This provides, in particular, the asymptotic behavior of the valence-bond entanglement entropy S_(VB)=N_(c)ln2=4ln2/pi(2)lnL disproving a recent conjecture that this should be related with the von Neumann entropy, and thus equal to 1/3lnL. Our results generalize to the Q-state Potts model.

  5. Properties of the random-singlet phase: From the disordered Heisenberg chain to an amorphous valence-bond solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yu-Rong; Yao, Dao-Xin; Ke, Chih-Wei; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2016-11-01

    We use a strong-disorder renormalization group (SDRG) method and ground-state quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations to study S =1 /2 spin chains with random couplings, calculating disorder-averaged spin and dimer correlations. The QMC simulations demonstrate logarithmic corrections to the power-law decaying correlations obtained with the SDRG scheme. The same asymptotic forms apply both for systems with standard Heisenberg exchange and for certain multispin couplings leading to spontaneous dimerization in the clean system. We show that the logarithmic corrections arise in the valence-bond (singlet pair) basis from a contribution that cannot be generated by the SDRG scheme. In the model with multispin couplings, where the clean system dimerizes spontaneously, random singlets form between spinons localized at domain walls in the presence of disorder. This amorphous valence-bond solid is asymptotically a random-singlet state and only differs from the random-exchange Heisenberg chain in its short-distance properties.

  6. Valence Control of Ce Ions in Cerium-substituted Yttrium Iron Garnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Fengbing; LI Qiang; ZHONG Zhifeng

    2005-01-01

    Cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet(CexY3-xFe5O12, Ce∶YIG) was prepared via coprecipitation. The structure, morphology, valence state and constituent of Ce ions were investigated respectively. X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) analysis shows that Ce∶YIG was of single cubic YIG phase. The result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) indicates the Ce ions in Ce∶YIG were in the state of trivalence. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) demonstrates the conglobation of Ce∶YIG particles about 0.2μm scale.The magnetic properties were studied by a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) and the result exhibits that substitution of Ce3+ changes the magnetic parameters of YIG. The effects of doping content of Ce ions and synthesis temperature on valence control were discussed in detail.

  7. Novel Countercation in MMX-Type Mixed-Valence Chain Compound: Coexistence of Neutral and Protonated Amino Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Iguchi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first MMX-type quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D Pt chain complex (MMX chain that contains a mono-protonated diamine as countercation, {o-(H3NC6H4NH2}4[Pt2(pop4I]·H2O (pop = P2H2O52–, was synthesized. According to the crystal structural analysis, –NH2 group was hydrogen-bonded to either lattice H2O molecule or –NH3+ group in addition to typical hydrogen bond between –NH3+ group and pop ligand. To control the partial deprotonation of the countercation will be an important method for achieving the high-conductive MMX-chain polymer by the hole doping.

  8. Current Control Strategy of Chain Circuit STATCOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuan; FU Jian; TENG Letian; SUN Lijing; ZHAO Ruibin; WU Shouyuan; DENG Zhanfeng

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the current control strategy based on the chain circuit static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) dynamic model and the design control system with good stability and tracking accuracy, this paper applies the chain circuit STATCOM small signal AC model, and proposes the following assumptions:

  9. Markov processes and controlled Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Filar, Jerzy; Chen, Anyue

    2002-01-01

    The general theory of stochastic processes and the more specialized theory of Markov processes evolved enormously in the second half of the last century. In parallel, the theory of controlled Markov chains (or Markov decision processes) was being pioneered by control engineers and operations researchers. Researchers in Markov processes and controlled Markov chains have been, for a long time, aware of the synergies between these two subject areas. However, this may be the first volume dedicated to highlighting these synergies and, almost certainly, it is the first volume that emphasizes the contributions of the vibrant and growing Chinese school of probability. The chapters that appear in this book reflect both the maturity and the vitality of modern day Markov processes and controlled Markov chains. They also will provide an opportunity to trace the connections that have emerged between the work done by members of the Chinese school of probability and the work done by the European, US, Central and South Ameri...

  10. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  11. Controlling Synfire Chain by Inhibitory Synaptic Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Takashi; Câteau, Hideyuki; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Okada, Masato

    2007-04-01

    The propagation of highly synchronous firings across neuronal networks, called the synfire chain, has been actively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The temporal accuracy and remarkable stability of the propagation have been repeatedly examined in previous studies. However, for such a mode of signal transduction to play a major role in processing information in the brain, the propagation should also be controlled dynamically and flexibly. Here, we show that inhibitory but not excitatory input can bidirectionally modulate the propagation, i.e., enhance or suppress the synchronous firings depending on the timing of the input. Our simulations based on the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model demonstrate this bidirectional modulation and suggest that it should be achieved with any biologically inspired modeling. Our finding may help describe a concrete scenario of how multiple synfire chains lying in a neuronal network are appropriately controlled to perform significant information processing.

  12. Determination of Technetium-99 in Environmental Samples by Solvent Extraction at Controlled Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1989-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of technetium and ruthenium are determined under different conditions with CCl4, cyclohexanone, and 5% tri-isooctylamine (TIOA)/xylene. A method for analyzing 99Tc in environmental samples has been developed by solvent extraction in which the valences of technetium...... are subsequently separated by solvent extraction with cyclohexanone and 5% TIOA/xylene. The decontamination of the procedure is 1.35 .cntdot. 105 for 103Ru and 1.66 .cntdot. 105 for 110mAg. The chemical yield of technetium-99 is 55%....

  13. Study of the effect of shell stabilization of the collective isovector valence-shell excitations along the N=80 isotonic chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Wadsworth, R; Danchev, M T; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Leske, J

    It is proposed to initiate an experimental program to study the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs) of unstable nuclei from the N = 80 isotonic chain. The main aim of this program is to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the MSSs, an effect dubbed $\\textit{shell stabilization}$ of MSSs. This will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The MSSs of these nuclei will be identified experimentally by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in inverse kinematics Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions on light targets. As a first step of this program we apply for a beam time for the radioactive $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm beams at beam energy of 2.85 MeV/u. These beams will be used to determine the absolute B(E2;2$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow$ 0$_{1}^{+}$) values for $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm in Coulomb excit...

  14. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    is heated at 400-degrees-C and digested in aqua regia. Na2SO3 and NaNO2 have been applied to obtain the Pu4+ valence state in 0.571 N HN03 for different samples. Plutonium and thorium are coadsorbed on anionic resin from 8N HN03. The column is eluted with 8N HN03 containing fresh NaNO2 to keep the Pu4......+ state for uranium decontamination. The system of the column is changed from 8N HNO3 to concentrated HCl with 50 ml concentrated HCI containing a few milligrams of NaNO2. Further decontamination of thorium was achieved by elution with concentrated HCI instead of 9N HCl. The plutonium is successfully...

  15. Metal-insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  16. Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: Emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eStollstorff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias towards or away from emotional stimuli and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention towards negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with that towards positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Two groups, homozygous 5-HTTLPR long allele carriers or homozygous short allele carriers, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied with regards to the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic Stroop effect (slower responses for incongruent than congruent trials, which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the Long group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the "Short" group recruited these regions when task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognition is modulated, in part, by a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin

  17. High Valence, Normal Valence and Unknown Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul

    quality of single crystal multi frequency EPR is used to make a new model which is more physically accurate and which better describes the observed experimental behaviour. This has implications not just for the investigated chromium systems, but for exchange coupled systems in general. Chapter 3 details...... that the coordination of Ag(I) has no perceivable eect on the Ir ligand eld. Chapter 6 details the synthesis of new terminal ruthenium carbide complexes by ligand substitution on the Ru center. This approach to new, rationally tuned carbide complexes is virtually unexplored. The reaction of the known carbide complex...... [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] with cyanide aords the cyanide analogue [RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2]. The reaction kinetics are studied with NMR. It is also possible to exchange only one of the chloride ligands, with the intermediate [RuC(Cl)(NCCH3)(PCy3)2]+ and this control of the ligand environment opens up the possibility...

  18. Controlling the martensitic transformation temperature at constant valence electron concentration in Heusler based Ni-Mn-In alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda; Acet, Mehmet; Krenke, Thorsten; Wassermann, Eberhard [Experimentalphysik (AG- Farle), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Moya, Xavier; Manosa, Lluis; Planes, Antoni [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Although the martensitic transformation temperature M{sub s} increases linearly with increasing valence electron concentration e/a in Ni-Mn-X Heusler alloys (X: group III or IV element), the slope varies depending on the X-species, i.e., M{sub s} vs. e/a is not universal. This aspect can be favorably exploited to control Ms by holding e/a constant and replacing X{sup *} by an isoelectronic X{sup *}, where X and X{sup *}, are elements within the same group. Using this property we have substituted In in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} (M{sub s}{proportional_to}200 K) with Ga to bring M{sub s} close to room temperature. Here, we show how magnetic field induced phase transition properties and associated magnetocaloric effects in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} are modified in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}(In,Ga){sub 16}.

  19. Study of the effect of shell stabilization of the collective isovector valence-shell excitations along the N=80 isotonic chain

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations, the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs), an effect called shell stabilization of MSSs. This aim will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The first steps of this program have been undertaken in two subsequent REX-ISOLDE experiments (IS496) in which we have measured the B(E2; 2$^{+}_{1}$$\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}_{1}$) transition strengths in the radioactive nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. By using these data and the higher beam energy of HIE-ISOLDE we propose now to identify the MSSs of these nuclei by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions.

  20. Boundary-controlled spin chains for robust quantum state transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Zwick, Analia; Stolze, Joachim; Osenda, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Quantum state transfer in the presence of noise is one of the main challenges for building quantum computers. We compare the quantum state transfer properties for two classes of qubit chains under the influence of static randomness. In fully engineered chains all nearest-neighbor couplings are tuned in such a way that a single-qubit state can be transferred perfectly between the ends of the chain, while in boundary-controlled chains only the two couplings between the transmitting and receiving qubits and the remainder of the chain can be optimized. We study how the noise in the couplings affects the state transfer fidelity depending on the noise model and strength as well as the chain type and length. We show that the desired level of fidelity and transfer time are important factors in designing a chain. In particular we demonstrate that transfer efficiency comparable or better than that of the most robust engineered systems can also be reached in boundary-controlled chains without the demanding engineering o...

  1. Infinitely dimensional control Markov branching chains in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    First of all we introduce the concepts of infinitely dimensional control Markov branching chains in random environments (β-MBCRE) and prove the existence of such chains, then we introduce the concepts of conditional generating functionals and random Markov transition functions of such chains and investigate their branching property. Base on these concepts we calculate the moments of the β-MBCRE and obtain the main results of this paper such as extinction probabilities, polarization and proliferation rate. Finally we discuss the classification ofβ-MBCRE according to the different standards.

  2. Methods for Coordinated Inventory Control in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    and heuristic control methods for coordination. The numerical results obtained by simulation are compared with the solutions found when inventories in the supply chain are controlled independently of each other. Findings Coordinated inventory control can offer a significant potential for cost reduction...... in a supply chain. However, the resulting inventory allocations are not always obvious without thorough analyses of the coordination effects. Research limitations/implications Some of the conclusions are formed on the basis of numerical examples and future research could involve investigation of a wider set...

  3. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  4. A control model for object virtualization in supply chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Reijers, H.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the emergence of the Internet of Things, supply chain control can increasingly be based on virtual objects instead of on the direct observation of physical objects. Object virtualization allows the decoupling of control activities from the handling and observing of physical products and resou

  5. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  6. Cybernetic Control in a Supply Chain: Wave Propagation and Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Dozier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The cybernetic control and management of production can be improved by an understanding of the dynamics of the supply chains for the production organizations. This paper describes an attempt to better understand the dynamics of a linear supply chain through the application of the normal mode analysis technique of physics. A model is considered in which an organization's response to a perturbation from the steady state is affected by the inertia which the company naturally exhibits. This inertia determines how rapidly an organization can respond to deviations from the steady state of its own inventories and those of the two organizations immediately preceding and following it in the chain. The model equations describe the oscillatory phenomena of the naturally occurring normal modes in the chain, in which waves of deviations from the steady state situation travel forward and backwards through the chain. It would be expected that the most effective cybernetic control occurs when resonant interventions cause either amplification or damping of the deviations from the steady state.

  7. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra;

    2013-01-01

    directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...

  8. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...

  9. Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sluga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real- world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.

  10. Valency and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cartmell, E

    1977-01-01

    Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction t

  11. Control of enterprise interfaces for supply chain enterprise modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macfarlane, J.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.

    1995-04-01

    There is a current trend for manufacturing enterprises in a supply chain of a particular industry to join forces in an attempt to promote efficiencies and improve competitive position. Such alliances occur in the context of specific legal and business agreements such that each enterprise retains a majority of its business and manufacturing information as private and shares other information with its trading partners. Shared information may include enterprise demand projections, capacities, finished goods inventories, and aggregate production schedules. Evidence of the trend toward information sharing includes the recent emphases on vendor-managed inventories, quick response, and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The increased competition brought on by the global marketplace is driving industries to consider the advantages of trading partner agreements. Aggregate-level forecasts, supply-chain production smoothing, and aggregate-level inventory policies can reduce holding costs, record-keeping overhead, and lead time in product development. The goal of this research is to orchestrate information exchange among trading partners to allow for aggregate-level analysis to enhance supply chain efficiency. The notion of Enterprise Interface Control (EIC) is introduced as a means of accomplishing this end.

  12. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  13. The dynamic relation between management control and governance structure in a supply chain context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van P.M.G.; Verdaasdonk, P.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that local management control systems within supply chain organisations and the governance of supply chains are intertwined and that local control systems and governance structure have an important effect on the functioning of the supply chain. Design/m

  14. Gate-controlled zero-magnetic-field spin splitting in the valence band of asymmetric AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirmer, Michael; Hirmer, Marika; Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; Korn, Tobias; Schueller, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Zero-magnetic-field-spin-splitting (ZMFSS) in two-dimensional quantum wells (QW) induced by the structure inversion asymmetry, and its control, are of major importance for both fundamental research and spintronic applications, due to its influence on the dynamics and manipulation of the spin. In hole systems the asymmetry leads to a ZMFSS of the heavy hole (HH) states in third order of the in-plane wave vector k {sub parallel}. In our experiments, we focus on highly p-doped asymmetric 2D AlGaAs/GaAs quantum wells (QW). with different QW widths and spacer thicknesses and the manipulation of the Rashba spin splitting via top gates. We utilize electronic intersubband Raman measurements in backscattering geometry at 4.2 K. Using polarization selection rules, one can distinguish between charge-density excitation (CDE, polarized spectra) and spin-density excitation (SDE, depolarized spectra) in the Raman spectra. In all samples we observe a low-energy SDE with excitation energies in the range of 0-2 meV. Comparing these excitation energies to 8 band k.p calculations of the valence subbands, the SDE can be interpreted as an intersubband excitation of the spin-split HH ground state, reflecting directly the ZMFSS.

  15. Valence bond and von Neumann entanglement entropy in Heisenberg ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallin, Ann B; González, Iván; Hastings, Matthew B; Melko, Roger G

    2009-09-11

    We present a direct comparison of the recently proposed valence bond entanglement entropy and the von Neumann entanglement entropy on spin-1/2 Heisenberg systems using quantum Monte Carlo and density-matrix renormalization group simulations. For one-dimensional chains we show that the valence bond entropy can be either less or greater than the von Neumann entropy; hence, it cannot provide a bound on the latter. On ladder geometries, simulations with up to seven legs are sufficient to indicate that the von Neumann entropy in two dimensions obeys an area law, even though the valence bond entanglement entropy has a multiplicative logarithmic correction.

  16. Production planning and control of closed-loop supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Inderfurth (Karl); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMore and more supply chains emerge that include a return flow of materials. Many original equipment manufacturers are nowadays engaged in the remanufacturing business. In many process industries, production defectives and by-products are reworked. These closed-loop supply chains deserve

  17. Fluorescence-based temperature control for polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Lindsay N; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately monitor solution temperature is important for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Robust amplification during PCR is contingent on the solution reaching denaturation and annealing temperatures. By correlating temperature to the fluorescence of a passive dye, noninvasive monitoring of solution temperatures is possible. The temperature sensitivity of 22 fluorescent dyes was assessed. Emission spectra were monitored and the change in fluorescence between 45 and 95°C was quantified. Seven dyes decreased in intensity as the temperature increased, and 15 were variable depending on the excitation wavelength. Sulforhodamine B (monosodium salt) exhibited a fold change in fluorescence of 2.85. Faster PCR minimizes cycling times and improves turnaround time, throughput, and specificity. If temperature measurements are accurate, no holding period is required even at rapid speeds. A custom instrument using fluorescence-based temperature monitoring with dynamic feedback control for temperature cycling amplified a fragment surrounding rs917118 from genomic DNA in 3min and 45s using 35 cycles, allowing subsequent genotyping by high-resolution melting analysis. Gold-standard thermocouple readings and fluorescence-based temperature differences were 0.29±0.17 and 0.96±0.26°C at annealing and denaturation, respectively. This new method for temperature cycling may allow faster speeds for PCR than currently considered possible.

  18. Breaking the cycle of desire : Mindfulness and executive control weaken the relation between an implicit measure of alcohol valence and preoccupation with alcohol-related thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D.; Kassman, K.T.; Wessel, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli with strong affective valence capture attention. This can impede the self-regulation of impulses. That is, preoccupation with a tempting stimulus such as alcohol may lead to a continued activation of automatic affective responses to that stimulus, increasing the likelihood of approach and co

  19. Controlling chaos with localized heterogeneous forces in oscillator chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Ricardo

    2006-10-01

    The effects of decreasing the impulse transmitted by localized periodic pulses on the chaotic behavior of homogeneous chains of coupled nonlinear oscillators are studied. It is assumed that when the oscillators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the chains display chaotic dynamics. It is shown that decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses of the two free end oscillators results in regularization with the whole array exhibiting frequency synchronization, irrespective of the chain size. A maximum level of amplitude desynchrony as the pulses of the two end oscillators narrow is typically found, which is explained as the result of two competing universal mechanisms: desynchronization induced by localized heterogeneous pulses and oscillation death of the complete chain induced by drastic decreasing of the impulse transmitted by such localized pulses. These findings demonstrate that decreasing the impulse transmitted by localized external forces can suppress chaos and lead to frequency-locked states in networks of dissipative systems.

  20. Hybrid Control of Supply Chains: a Structured Exploration from a Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. P. J. Grefen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused by larger numbers of participating companies in supply chains because of increasing complexity of products and services. Increasing requirements to control are caused by developments like mass-customization, pressure on delivery times, and smaller margins for waste. Maintaining well-structured strategic, tactic, and operational control over these complex supply chains is not an easy task – certainly as they are pressured by end-to-end synchronization requirements and just-in-time demands. Things become even more complex when chains need to be flexible to react to changing requirements to the products or services they deliver. To enable design of well-structured control, clear models of control topologies are required. In this paper, we address this need by exploring supply chain control topologies in an organized fashion. The exploration is based on integrating a supply chain model and a control model in two alternative ways to obtain two extreme models for supply chain control. These two models are next combined to obtain a hybrid chain control model in which control parameters can be adapted to accommodate different circumstances, hence facilitating agility in supply chains and networks. We apply the developed model to a number of case studies to show its usability. The contribution of this paper is the structured analysis of the design space for chain-level control models - not the description of individual new models.

  1. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  2. Biotemplated fabrication of size controlled palladium nanoparticle chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xingfei; Zheng, Lifei; Li, Rong; Li, Bin; Pillai, Saju; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles exhibit unique size- and spatial organization-dependent physical and chemical properties, and have a wide range of applications in various areas including single electron devices, chemical catalysts and biomedicines. In this paper, chains of palladium nanoparticles were obtained

  3. Impact of Integration of Manufacturaing Planning and Control Systems on Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAI, Ayako; SATO, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing planning and control systems (MPCSs, for short) are an essentialelement for supply chain processes today. However, there are few researches whichinclude planning information systems in supply chain models and optimize the wholestructure holistically in spite of the social importance of MPCSs for supply chainmanagement. At present, we do not have any ideas even about process behaviorwhen organizations which have MPCSs are linked in a supply chain. To clarifyfundamental properties...

  4. [Software and hardware design for the temperature control system of quantitative polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xian-bo; Yuan, Jing-qi; Li, Qi

    2005-07-01

    A temperature control system for quantitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is presented in the paper with both software and hardware configuration. The performance of the control system has been improved by optimizing the software and hardware design according to the system's properties. The control system has been proven to have a good repeatability and reliability as well as high control precision.

  5. Evaluating the modus operandi of construction supply chains using organisation control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Jagtap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are omnipresent. However, the modus operandi of the construction supply chainis not clearly established in the literature. This might be attributable to the character of construction projects and the structure of the construction industry. Formal and informal control mechanisms are well established in retail and manufacturing supply chains which is evident in improved product performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the construction supply chain especially at identifying the interplay of control mechanisms and their relationship with project performance. In the case of large and complex construction projects, the client-contractor relationship requires input control, behaviour control and output control for successful project delivery. In the light of organisation control theory and the existing literature on construction supply chains, this study evaluates the modus operandi of the client-contractor relationship based on three control mechanisms: input control (project risk and reward power, and intra-project communication, behaviour control (opportunism and output control (project performance using a structural equation model. A survey data of 258 construction professionals working on construction projects in India was collected. The study findings reveal that input control, in terms of project risk and reward power, and intraproject communication, largely influence behaviour control in terms of opportunism. However, behaviour controls do not directly affect output control in terms of project performance; rather, a direct effect of the input control mechanism of output control is particularly evident.

  6. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  7. Microbes versus microbes: control of pathogens in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kieran; Dalmasso, Marion; Zentek, Juergen; Mader, Anneluise; Bruggeman, Geert; Wallace, John; De Medici, Dario; Fiore, Alfonsina; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella; Lukac, Maja; Axelsson, Lars; Holck, Askild; Ingmer, Hanne; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2014-12-01

    Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Pose control of the chain composed of magnetic particles using external uniform and gradient magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J. F., E-mail: zhoujianfeng@njtech.edu.cn; Shao, C. L.; Gu, B. Q. [Nanjing Tech University, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic particles (MPs) are known to respond to a magnetic field and can be moved by magnetic force, which make them good carriers in bioengineering and pharmaceutical engineering. In this paper, a pose control method for the straight chain composed of MPs is proposed, and the chain with one pose can be moved to another position with another pose using alternately employed uniform and gradient magnetic fields. Based on computer simulations, it is revealed that in the uniform magnetic field, the MPs form a straight chain with the same separation space along the field lines, and once the uniform magnetic field rotates, the chain also rotates with the field. In the gradient magnetic field, the MPs move toward the higher field so that the translation of the chain can be realized. The simulation results indicate that while the uniform magnetic field is rotating, there exists certain hysteresis between the chain and the field, and the chain is not straight anymore. So the uniform magnetic field should rest at the target angle for a period to make the chain fully relax to be straight. For nanoMP, its magnetic moment directly determines the gradient magnetic force which is much smaller than the dipole–dipole force among MPs. Therefore, the translation of the chain is much more time-consuming than rotation. To enlarge the translational velocity, it is suggested to increase the size of MPs or the magnetic field gradient.

  9. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2011-11-23

    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  10. Risk management abilities in multimodal maritime supply chains: Visibility and control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilko, Jyri; Ritala, Paavo; Hallikas, Jukka

    2016-11-29

    Supply chain complexity and disintegration lead to increased uncertainty from a stakeholders' perspective, which is emerging as one of the major challenges of risk management. The ability to identify risks has weakened, as the responsibility of supply chain risk management is handed over to outside service providers. Regardless, the risks, their visibility and their impact depend on the position of the companies in the supply chain. The actors in the chain must therefore collaborate to create effective risk management conditions. This challenging situation is especially pronounced in multimodal maritime supply chains, where the risks and actor focality are high. This paper contributes to current risk management literature by providing a holistic and systemic view of risk visibility and control in maritime supply chains. The study employs broad-based, qualitative interview data collected from actors operating in southern Finland and the Gulf of Finland as well as an expert-panel assessment of the related risk management abilities. The results show a high level of variance in the level of risk identification and visibility between the actors in question. This further suggests that collaboration in supply chain risk management is essential, as an awareness of the risks and their control mechanisms do not necessarily reside in the same company.

  11. Control Theory Concepts Applied to Retail Supply Chain: A System Dynamics Modeling Environment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Janamanchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control theory concepts have been long used to successfully manage and optimize complex systems. Using system dynamics (SD modeling methodology, which is continuous deterministic simulation modeling methodology, we apply control theory concepts to develop a suitable performance functional (or objective function that optimizes the performance of a retail supply chain. The focus is to develop insights for inventory management to prevent stock-outs and unfilled orders and to fill customer orders at the lowest possible cost to supply chain partners under different scenarios, in a two-player supplier-retailer supply chain. Moderate levels of inventory, defining appropriate performance functional, appear to be crucial in choosing the right policies for managing retail supply chain systems. The study also demonstrated how multiple objectives can be combined in a single performance functional (or objective function by carefully assigning suitable weights to the components of objectives based on their priority and the existence of possible trade off opportunities.

  12. H∞ Control of Supply Chain Based on Switched Model of Stock Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhi Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of H∞ control for a class of discrete supply chain systems. A new method based on network control technique is presented to address this issue. Supply chain systems are modeled as networked systems with stochastic time delay. Sufficient conditions for H∞ controller design are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities, based on which the mean-square asymptotic stability as well as H∞ performance is satisfied for such systems. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Design of a Yellow-Emitting Phosphor with Enhanced Red Emission via Valence State-control for Warm White LEDs Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Yangai; Mei, Lefu; Peng, Peng; Cheng, Qijin; Liu, Haikun

    2016-08-01

    The phosphor-converted warm W-LED have being rapidly developed due to the stringent requirements of general illumination. Here, we utilized a strategy to synergistically enhance the red region and emission intensity of novel Eu-activated yellow-emitting LaSiO2N phosphors. This was realized by predicting optimum crystal structure, and governing the concentration of doping ions as well as preparation temperature. By using these straight-forward methods, we were able to vary the valence to enhance the red region and improve the quantum efficiency of LaSiO2N phosphor. The warm W-LED lamp fabricated with this red region enhanced LaSiO2N:Eu phosphor exhibited high CRI (Ra = 86), suitable CCT (5783 K) and CIE chromaticity (0.33, 0.36), indicating this synergistically enhanced strategy could be used for design of yellow-emitting phosphor materials to obtain warm W-LEDs.

  14. Meta-QC-Chain: comprehensive and fast quality control method for metagenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Jing, Gongchao; Ning, Kang

    2014-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has revolutionized and significantly impacted metagenomic research. However, the NGS data usually contains sequencing artifacts such as low-quality reads and contaminating reads, which will significantly compromise downstream analysis. Many quality control (QC) tools have been proposed, however, few of them have been verified to be suitable or efficient for metagenomic data, which are composed of multiple genomes and are more complex than other kinds of NGS data. Here we present a metagenomic data QC method named Meta-QC-Chain. Meta-QC-Chain combines multiple QC functions: technical tests describe input data status and identify potential errors, quality trimming filters poor sequencing-quality bases and reads, and contamination screening identifies higher eukaryotic species, which are considered as contamination for metagenomic data. Most computing processes are optimized based on parallel programming. Testing on an 8-GB real dataset showed that Meta-QC-Chain trimmed low sequencing-quality reads and contaminating reads, and the whole quality control procedure was completed within 20 min. Therefore, Meta-QC-Chain provides a comprehensive, useful and high-performance QC tool for metagenomic data. Meta-QC-Chain is publicly available for free at: http://computationalbioenergy.org/meta-qc-chain.html.

  15. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  16. Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-arm Manipulators with Closed Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Tianliang Liu; Yan Lei; Liang Han; Wenfu Xu; Huaiwu Zou

    2016-01-01

    When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual‐arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position‐level, velocity‐level and acceleration‐level resolved motion control methods. The desi...

  17. The reference model of supply chain operational controlling in value management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The systemic approach of the controlling function to supporting the operations management results from its complex analysis of the supply chain business and operating results and from influencing the operations management factors - products, processes and resources that determine the achieved result (revenues, costs, profitability and assets turnover as well as the return on invested capital. All product features which stand for customer value and its competitiveness are the basis for designing, planning and controlling the interconnected processes responsible for manufacturing and delivery of products. The effectiveness of methods applied in developing products, processes and resources depends on the precise analysis and appraisal of the operating conditions that justify their application. Supporting the operations management, focused on the product value and improving the company's financial result, apart from financial, technical and economic analyses requires transferring the product value to activities control methods and to developing the resources in the product supply chain already at the stage of planning. As a result of an analysis of requirements supporting the development of processes and resources in the supply chain, a reference model of operational controlling in product value management was developed. The multicriterion selection and appropriate application of material flow management methods in the supply chain is each time preceded by an operating and financial analysis as well as by an appraisal of operating conditions that influence the choice of control methods.

  18. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to b

  19. Some strong limit theorems for nonhomogeneous Markov chains indexed by controlled trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Peng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a kind of infinite, local finite tree T, named a controlled tree, is introduced. Some strong limit properties, such as the strong law of large numbers and the asymptotic equipartition property, for nonhomogeneous Markov chains indexed by T, are established. The outcomes are the generalizations of some well-known results.

  20. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten;

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into r...

  1. On the hierarchical optimal control of a chain of distributed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Befekadu, Getachew K.; Pasiliao, Eduardo L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a chain of distributed systems governed by a degenerate parabolic equation, which satisfies a weak H\\"{o}rmander type condition, with a control distributed over an open subdomain. In particular, we consider two objectives that we would like to accomplish. The first one being of a controllability type that consists of guaranteeing the terminal state to reach a target set starting from an initial condition; while the second one is keeping the state trajectory of the o...

  2. Distribution of controlled substances in the U.S. supply chain: where does the compass point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2012-09-01

    Recent administrative actions taken by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in Florida have prompted an articulate and detailed discussion of the pharmaceutical supply chain for controlled substances. Current practices in commercial distribution systems may have a partial nexus to the proliferation of opioid prescription drug abuse in Florida. No single factor or entity is responsible for this abuse proliferation, and there is no intent to harm consumers; however, distribution practices are adding risk to public health. This commentary extends a discussion on supply chain practices that seem misaligned in the promotion of legitimate business objectives and advancing public health.

  3. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Infected breeder pigs and contaminated feed represent potential sources of Salmonella introduction to fattening pig herds and may thereby cause human infections acquired via consumption of contaminated pork. Modelling approaches such as quantitative microbial risk assessment could improve the design of strategies for control and tracing of Salmonella in the feed chain. However, the construction of such models requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the feed chain, including production processes, microbial processes and transport logistics. The present article illustrates a conceptual model of Salmonella in the pig feed chain and explores the possibilities for quantitative modelling including identifying major gaps in data. Information was collected from peer-reviewed scientific journals, official documents and reports and by means of interviews with experts from authorities and the feed industry. Data on prevalence of Salmonella in different parts of the feed chain are difficult to compare as observed prevalence may be biased by variations in sampling procedures as well as limitations of the detection methods. There are almost no data on numbers of Salmonella in commodities of the feed chain, which often makes it difficult to evaluate risks, intervention strategies and sampling plans in a quantitative manner. Tracing the source of Salmonella contamination is hampered by the risk of cross-contamination as well as various mixing and partitioning events along the supply chain, which sometimes makes it impossible to trace the origin of a lot back to a batch or producer. Available information points to contaminated feed materials, animal vectors and persistent contamination of production environments as important sources of Salmonella in feed production. Technological procedures such as hydrothermal or acid treatment can be used to control Salmonella in feed production. However, a large fraction of pig feed is produced without decontamination procedures

  4. Expertise in video game playing is associated with reduced valence-concordant emotional expressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In carefully selected groups of video game playing (VGP) experts and nonexperts, we examined valence-concordant emotional expressivity. We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity over the corrugator supercilii muscle while participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures. Potential group differences concerning valence-concordant expressivity may arise from differences concerning the participants' emotional reactivity. To control for such differences, we concomitantly measured skin conductance response (SCR) and, in a separate affect misattribution procedure (AMP), valence transfer from the same set of stimuli. Importantly, we found attenuated valence-concordant EMG activity over the corrugator supercilii muscle in VGP experts compared to nonexperts, but no differences were evident concerning SCR or valence transfer in the AMP. The findings suggest that expertise in VGP is particularly associated with reduced valence-concordant emotional expressivity.

  5. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  6. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources.

  7. Social learning modulates the lateralization of emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-08-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas recognition of complex social emotions is processed preferentially by the left PFC. Experiment 1 assessed the ability of healthy controls and patients with right and left PFC lesions to recognize basic and complex emotions. Experiment 2 modeled the patient's data of Experiment 1 on healthy participants under lateralized displays of the emotional stimuli. Both experiments support the Type as well as the Valence Hypotheses. However, our findings indicate that the Valence Hypothesis holds for basic but less so for complex emotions. It is suggested that, since social learning overrules the basic preference of valence in the hemispheres, the processing of complex emotions in the hemispheres is less affected by valence.

  8. Coordinated Resolved Motion Control of Dual-arm Manipulators with Closed Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianliang Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When applied to some tasks, such as payload handling, assembling, repairing and so on, the two arms of a humanoid robot will form a closed kinematic chain. It makes the motion planning and control for dual‐arm coordination very complex and difficult. In this paper, we present three types of resolved motion control methods for a humanoid robot during coordinated manipulation. They are, respectively, position‐level, velocity‐level and acceleration‐level resolved motion control methods. The desired pose, velocity and acceleration of each end‐effector are then resolved according to the desired motion of the payload and the constraints on the closed‐chain system without consideration of the internal force. Corresponding to the three cases above, the joint variables of each arm are then calculated using the inverse kinematic equations, at position‐level, velocity‐level or acceleration‐level. Finally, a dynamic modelling and simulation platform is established based on ADAMS and Matlab software. The proposed methods are verified by typical cases. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can realize the dual‐arm coordinated operation and the internal force of the closed chain during the operation is controlled in a reasonable range at the same time.

  9. Bullwhip Entropy Analysis and Chaos Control in the Supply Chain with Sales Game and Consumer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandong Lou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a supply chain system which consists of one manufacturer and two retailers including a traditional retailer and an online retailer. In order to gain a larger market share, the retailers often take the sales as a decision-making variable in the competition game. We devote ourselves to analyze the bullwhip effect in the supply chain with sales game and consumer returns via the theory of entropy and complexity and take the delayed feedback control method to control the system’s chaotic state. The impact of a statutory 7-day no reason for return policy for online retailers is also investigated. The bounded rational expectation is adopt to forecast the future demand in the sales game system with weak noise. Our results show that high return rates will hurt the profits of both the retailers and the adjustment speed of the bounded rational sales expectation has an important impact on the bullwhip effect. There is a stable area for retailers where the bullwhip effect doesn’t appear. The supply chain system suffers a great bullwhip effect in the quasi-periodic state and the quasi-chaotic state. The purpose of chaos control on the sales game can be achieved and the bullwhip effect would be effectively mitigated by using the delayed feedback control method.

  10. An Inventory Controlled Supply Chain Model Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is a key factor for reducing supply chain cost and increasing customer satisfaction. However, prediction of inventory level is a challenging task for managers. As one of the widely used techniques for inventory control, standard BP neural network has such problems as low convergence rate and poor prediction accuracy. Aiming at these problems, a new fast convergent BP neural network model for predicting inventory level is developed in this paper. By adding an error offset, this paper deduces the new chain propagation rule and the new weight formula. This paper also applies the improved BP neural network model to predict the inventory level of an automotive parts company. The results show that the improved algorithm not only significantly exceeds the standard algorithm but also outperforms some other improved BP algorithms both on convergence rate and prediction accuracy.

  11. Multi-objective design of fuzzy logic controller in supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Unlike commonly used methods, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach for designing fuzzy controllers. In this approach, we have simultaneously optimized both objective functions of a supply chain over a two-dimensional space. Then, we have obtained a spectrum of optimized points, each of which represents a set of optimal parameters which can be chosen by the manager according to the importance of objective functions. Our used supply chain model is a member of inventory and order-based production control system family, a generalization of the periodic review which is termed `Order-Up-To policy.' An auto rule maker, based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, has been applied to the experimental initial fuzzy rules. According to performance measurement, our results indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. An improved arbitrated quantum signature protocol based on the key-controlled chained CNOT encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new quantum encryption based on the key-controlled chained CNOT operations, which is named KCCC encryption, is proposed. With the KCCC encryption, an improved arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol is presented. Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol can effectively prevent forgery attacks and disavowal attacks. Moreover, only single state is required in the protocol. We hope it is helpful to further research in the design of AQS protocols in future.

  13. Effects of 4f Electron Characteristics and Alternation Valence of Rare Earths on Photosynthesis: Regulating Distribution of Energy and Activities of Spinach Chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoqing; Su Mingyu; Liu Chao; Zhang Yi; Si Wenhui; Hong Fashui

    2007-01-01

    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach treated with LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3. Because of owning 4f electron characteristics and alternation valence, Ce treatment presented the highest enhancement in light absorption, energy transfer from LHCⅡ to PSⅡ, excitation energy distribution from PSⅠto PSⅡ, and fluorescence quantum yield around 680 nm. Compared with Ce treatment, Nd treatment resulted in relatively lower enhancement in these physiological indices, as Nd did not have alternation valence. La treatment presented the lowest enhancement, as La did not have either 4f electron or alternation valence. The increase in activities of whole chain electron transport, PSⅡ DCPIP photoreduction, and oxy gen evolution of chloroplasts was of the following order: Ce>Nd>La>control. However, the photoreduction activities of spinach PSⅠ almost did not change with La, Ce, or Nd treatments. The results suggested that 4f electron characteristics and alternation valence of rare earths had a close relationship with photosynthesis improvement.

  14. In-Medium Pion Valence Distribution Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the quark-based model for nuclear matter, and some pion properties in medium presented in our previous works, we report new results for the pion valence wave function as well as the valence distribution amplitude in medium, which are presented in our recent article. We find that both the in-medium pion valence distribution and the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  15. In-Medium Pion Valence Distribution Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, K.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.

    2017-03-01

    After a brief review of the quark-based model for nuclear matter, and some pion properties in medium presented in our previous works, we report new results for the pion valence wave function as well as the valence distribution amplitude in medium, which are presented in our recent article. We find that both the in-medium pion valence distribution and the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  16. Applications of chaos control techniques to a three-species food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A.A. [CBPF, R.Xavier Sigaud, 150, RJ, CEP 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Manica, E. [Department of Mathematics, 301 Thackeray Hall, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)], E-mail: evm4@pitt.edu; Varriale, M.C. [Instituto de Matematica, UFRGS, RS, CEP 91509-900 (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    We achieve control of deterministic chaos in an ecosystem model, involving three first-order nonlinear differential equations with a control parameter, recently proposed by Hastings and Powell (HP) in order to describe the dynamical behavior of a three-species food chain. After identifying a chaotic attractor corresponding to a particular value of the parameter of this ecological model, we locate periodic saddle orbits embedded in it. By applying the Ott-Grebogi-Yorke (OGY) method of controlling chaos, which introduces small time-dependent perturbations on the system parameter, we stabilize two of the saddle orbits. Furthermore, we check the versatility of the OGY method, as the system behavior is allowed to switch between 'no control' and 'control' about one or other of different stabilized periodic orbits.

  17. Contractual Control and Labour-Related CSR Norms in the Supply Chain: Dutch Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Vytopil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational companies attempt to gain contractual control of their supply chain, in the face of possible reputational and legal risks with regard to corporate social responsibility. This article sets out the choices that fourteen Dutch multinational companies make: do they choose contracts, general terms and conditions and/or codes of conduct to regulate CSR in their supply chains? Furthermore, it explores the possibilities and limitations of these choices in terms of contract law. A model with three possible options that companies may choose is proposed. It is concluded that most Dutch multinationals do not rely on codes of conduct alone; nearly all anchor their codes of conduct by means of contractual mechanisms. Furthermore, nearly all 'strong' choices include perpetual clauses in relation to sub-tier suppliers.

  18. Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)

  19. Global Control Methods for GHZ State Generation on 1-D Ising Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaoting; Bose, Sougato; Schirmer, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    We discuss how to prepare an Ising chain in a GHZ state using a single global control field only. This model does not require the spins to be individually addressable and is applicable to quantum systems such as cold atoms in optical lattices, some liquid- or solid-state NMR experiments, and many nano-scale quantum structures. We show that GHZ states can always be reached asymptotically from certain easy-to-prepare initial states using adiabatic passage, and under certain conditions finite-time reachability can be ensured. To provide a reference useful for future experimental implementations three different control strategies to achieve the objective, adiabatic passage, Lyapunov control and optimal control are compared, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed, in particular in the presence of realistic imperfections such as imperfect initial state preparation, system inhomogeneity and dephasing.

  20. Metabolic transistor strategy for controlling electron transfer chain activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Tuli, Leepika; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy to finely control a large metabolic flux by using a "metabolic transistor" approach was established. In this approach a small change in the level or availability of an essential component for the process is controlled by adding a competitive reaction that affects a precursor or an intermediate in its biosynthetic pathway. The change of the basal level of the essential component, considered as a base current in a transistor, has a large effect on the flux through the major pathway. In this way, the fine-tuning of a large flux can be accomplished. The "metabolic transistor" strategy was applied to control electron transfer chain function by manipulation of the quinone synthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. The achievement of a theoretical yield of lactate production under aerobic conditions via this strategy upon manipulation of the biosynthetic pathway of the key participant, ubiquinone-8 (Q8), in an E. coli strain provides an in vivo, genetically tunable means to control the activity of the electron transfer chain and manipulate the production of reduced products while limiting consumption of oxygen to a defined amount.

  1. Valence bands, oxygen in planes and chains, and surface changes for single crystals of M/sub 2/CuO/sub 4/ and MBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ (M = Pr,Nd,Eu,Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, J.H.; Meyer H.M. III; Wagener, T.J.; Hill, D.M.; Gao, Y.; Peterson, D.; Fisk, Z.; Arko, A.J.

    1988-09-01

    X-ray photoemission results for single crystals of M/sub 2/CuO/sub 4/ (M = Pr,Eu,Gd), MBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ (M = Nd,Gd), and CuO are sintered La/sub 1.85/Sr/sub 0.15/CuO/sub 4/ and YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 6.9/ show valence-band spectra within 10 eV of the Fermi energy that are remarkably similar in appearance, with contributions that reflect Cu-O hybrid states and the rare-earth 4f states. For Pr/sub 2/CuO/sub 4/ and NdBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/, there are two distinct 4f features due to ligand screening in the photoemission final state. The rare-earth 5p core-level emission overlaps the O 2s emission and reveals complex 5p-4f multiplet interactions. All O 1s spectra show a dominant peak at /similar to/528 eV that can be resolved into features separated by /similar to/0.7 eV. These reflect inequivalent oxygen bonding configurations in the lattice and are associated with the planes and chains for the 1:2:3 compounds and the planes and off-planes for the 2:1:4 compounds. The lower-binding-energy feature is associated with the Cu-O chains of the 1:2:3 compounds and the Cu-O planes of the 2:1:4 compounds. In addition to the O 1s main line for the Cu-O planes there is also a weak satellite. Time dependent studies of the Cu 2p and O 1s emission indicate surface modification, dependent upon the quality of the cleave. The effects of surface changes and the presence of imperfections are discussed in the context of surface studies and surface superconductivity.

  2. Options for reducing food waste by 'Quality Controlled Logistics' using intelligent packaging along the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, Jenneke K; Claassen, G D H; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-04-04

    Optimizing supply chain management can help to reduce food waste. This article describes how intelligent packaging can be used to reduce food waste when used in supply chain management based on Quality Controlled Logistics (QCL). Intelligent packaging senses compounds in the package that correlate with the critical quality attribute of a food product. The information on the quality of each individual packaged food item that is provided by the intelligent packaging can be used for QCL. In a conceptual approach is explained that monitoring food quality by intelligent packaging sensors makes it possible to obtain information about the variation in the quality of foods and use a dynamic expiration date (IP-DED) on a food package. The conceptual approach is supported by quantitative data from simulations on the effect of using the information of intelligent packaging in supply chain management with the goal to reduce food waste. This simulation shows that QCL by using the information on the quality of products that is provided by intelligent packaging can substantially reduce food waste. When QCL is combined with dynamic pricing based on the predicted expiry dates a further waste reduction is envisaged.

  3. FROM MANUFACTURING SCHEDULING TO SUPPLY CHAIN COORDINATION:THE CONTROL OF COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter B. LUH; Weidong FENG

    2003-01-01

    With time-based competition and rapid technology advancements, effective manufacturing scheduling and supply chain coordination are critical to quickly respond to changing market conditions. These problems, however, are difficult in view of inherent complexity and various uncertainties involved. Based on a series of results by the authors, decomposition and coordination by using Lagrangian relaxation is identified in this paper as an effective way to control complexity and uncertainty. A manufacturing scheduling problem is first formulated within the job shop context with uncertain order arrivals, processing times, due dates, and part priorities as a separable optimization problem. A solution methodology that combines Lagrangian relaxation, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed. Method improvements to effectively solve large problems are also highlighted. To extend manufacturing scheduling within a factory to coordinate autonomic members across chains of suppliers, a decentralized supply chain model is established in the second half of this paper. By relaxing cross-member constraints, the model is decomposed into member-wise subproblems, and a nested optimization structure is developed based on the job shop scheduling results. Coordination is performed through the iterative updating of cross-member prices without accessing other members' private information or intruding their decision-making authorities, either with or without a coordinator. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Future prospects to overcome problem inseparability and improve computing efficiency are then discussed.

  4. "Plug-and-go" strategy to manipulate streptavidin valencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Montiel, Daniel; Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2014-08-20

    The streptavidin-biotin set is one of the most widely utilized conjugation pairs in biotechnological applications. The tetravalent nature of streptavidin and its homologues, however, tends to result in such undesirable complications as cross-linking or ill-defined stoichiometry. Here, we describe a mutagenesis-free strategy to manipulate the valencies of wild-type streptavidin that only requires commercially available reagents. The basic idea is simple: one obtains the desired streptavidin valency by blocking off unwanted binding sites using ancillary biotin ("plug"); this way, the extraordinary fM-biotin-binding affinity is fully retained for the remaining sites in streptavidin. In the present implementation, the ancillary biotin is attached to an auxiliary separation handle, negatively charged DNA or His-tagged protein, via a photochemically or enzymatically cleavable linker. Mixing streptavidin with the ancillary biotin construct produces a distribution of streptavidin valencies. The subsequent chromatographic separation readily isolates the construct of desired streptavidin valency, and the auxiliary handles are easily removed afterward ("go"). We demonstrate how this "plug-and-go" strategy allows a precise control for the compositions of streptavidin-biotin conjugates at the single-molecule level. This low-entry-barrier protocol could further expand the application scope of the streptavidin technology.

  5. A respiratory chain controlled signal transduction cascade in the mitochondrial intermembrane space mediates hydrogen peroxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Heide Christine; Gerbeth, Carolin; Thiru, Prathapan; Vögtle, Nora F; Knoll, Marko; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Huang, Cher X; Harden, Mark Michael; Song, Rui; Chen, Cynthia; Kao, Jennifer; Shi, Jiahai; Salmon, Wendy; Shaul, Yoav D; Stokes, Matthew P; Silva, Jeffrey C; Bell, George W; MacArthur, Daniel G; Ruland, Jürgen; Meisinger, Chris; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-10-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) govern cellular homeostasis by inducing signaling. H2O2 modulates the activity of phosphatases and many other signaling molecules through oxidation of critical cysteine residues, which led to the notion that initiation of ROS signaling is broad and nonspecific, and thus fundamentally distinct from other signaling pathways. Here, we report that H2O2 signaling bears hallmarks of a regular signal transduction cascade. It is controlled by hierarchical signaling events resulting in a focused response as the results place the mitochondrial respiratory chain upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn, Lyn upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase SYK (Syk), and Syk upstream of numerous targets involved in signaling, transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation. The active mediators of H2O2 signaling colocalize as H2O2 induces mitochondria-associated Lyn and Syk phosphorylation, and a pool of Lyn and Syk reside in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Finally, the same intermediaries control the signaling response in tissues and species responsive to H2O2 as the respiratory chain, Lyn, and Syk were similarly required for H2O2 signaling in mouse B cells, fibroblasts, and chicken DT40 B cells. Consistent with a broad role, the Syk pathway is coexpressed across tissues, is of early metazoan origin, and displays evidence of evolutionary constraint in the human. These results suggest that H2O2 signaling is under control of a signal transduction pathway that links the respiratory chain to the mitochondrial intermembrane space-localized, ubiquitous, and ancient Syk pathway in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells.

  6. NOVEL SYNTHESIS OF LONG MULTI-BLOCK HETEROPOLYMER CHAINS WITH AN ORDERED SEQUENCE AND CONTROLLABLE BLOCK LENGTHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Wu; Zuo-wei Xie; Guang-zhao Zhang; Guo-fu Zi

    2001-01-01

    It had very long been a dream in polymer science to synthesize long multi-block polymer chains with an ordered chain sequence and controllable block lengths. Using ionic or living free radical polymerization or furnishing each end of polymer blocks with a reactive functional group, one can only prepare heteropolymer chains with few long blocks, such as diblock and triblock copolymers. The most plausible result so far was a pentablock copolymer. Recently, using a combination of polymer physics and synthetic chemistry, we have invented self-assembly assisted polycondensation (SAAP). This communication reports the results of using this novel method to connect 10-100 triblock polymer chains together to form long multi-block heteropolymer chains with an ordered sequence and controllable block lengths.``

  7. Bifurcation and chaos of a pest-control food chain model with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou Zhejiang 325000 (China) and College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Lu Zhengyi [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou Zhejiang 325000 (China)

    2009-02-28

    According to biological and chemical control strategy for pest control, we investigate the dynamics of a predator-prey food chain with impulsive effect, periodic releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticide at different fixed times, by using impulsive differential equation. Choose pest birth rate r{sub 2} as control parameter, we show that there exists a stable pest-eradication periodic solution when r{sub 2} is less than some critical value r{sub 2}* and the system is permanence when r{sub 2} is larger than the critical value r{sub 2}*. By use of standard techniques of bifurcation theory, we prove that above this threshold there are periodic oscillations in prey, middle-predator and top predator. Furthermore, bifurcation diagrams have shown that there exists complexity for the pulsed system including periodic doubling cascade.

  8. Optimal Control for Fast and Robust Generation of Entangled States in Anisotropic Heisenberg Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by some recent results of the optimal control (OC) theory, we study anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chains with control fields acting on a single spin, with the aim of exploring how maximally entangled state can be prepared. To achieve the goal, we use a numerical optimization algorithm (e.g., the Krotov algorithm, which was shown to be capable of reaching the quantum speed limit) to search an optimal set of control parameters, and then obtain OC pulses corresponding to the target fidelity. We find that the minimum time for implementing our target state depending on the anisotropy parameter Δ of the model. Finally, we analyze the robustness of the obtained results for the optimal fidelities and the effectiveness of the Krotov method under some realistic conditions.

  9. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  10. Development of Remote Plutonium Valence State Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, the separation of uranium and plutonium depends on the capability extracting state plutonium ions with various valence by TBP. The separate degree of

  11. Controlling influenza disease: Comparison between discrete time Markov chain and deterministic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novkaniza, F.; Ivana, Aldila, D.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical model of respiratory diseases spread with Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) and deterministic approach for constant total population size are analyzed and compared in this article. Intervention of medical treatment and use of medical mask included in to the model as a constant parameter to controlling influenza spreads. Equilibrium points and basic reproductive ratio as the endemic criteria and it level set depend on some variable are given analytically and numerically as a results from deterministic model analysis. Assuming total of human population is constant from deterministic model, number of infected people also analyzed with Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model. Since Δt → 0, we could assume that total number of infected people might change only from i to i + 1, i - 1, or i. Approximation probability of an outbreak with gambler's ruin problem will be presented. We find that no matter value of basic reproductive ℛ0, either its larger than one or smaller than one, number of infection will always tends to 0 for t → ∞. Some numerical simulation to compare between deterministic and DTMC approach is given to give a better interpretation and a better understanding about the models results.

  12. The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John J

    2012-09-01

    The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law.

  13. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  14. Verbal pragmatics following unilateral stroke: emotional content and valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borod, J C; Rorie, K D; Pick, L H; Bloom, R L; Andelman, F; Campbell, A L; Obler, L K; Tweedy, J R; Welkowitz, J; Sliwinski, M

    2000-01-01

    Verbal pragmatic aspects of discourse production were examined in 16 right brain-damaged (RBD), 16 left brain-damaged (LBD), and 16 normal control right-handed adults. The facilitation effect of emotional content, valence hypothesis, and relationship between pragmatics and emotion were evaluated. Participants produced monologues while recollecting emotional and nonemotional experiences. Transcribed monologues were rated for appropriateness on 6 pragmatic features: conciseness, lexical selection, quantity, relevancy, specificity, and topic maintenance. Overall, brain-damaged groups were rated as significantly less appropriate than normals. Consistent with the facilitation effect, emotional content enhanced pragmatic performance of LBD aphasic participants yet suppressed performance of RBD participants. Contrary to the valence hypothesis, RBD participants were more impaired for positive emotions and LBD participants for negative emotions. Pragmatic appropriateness was not strongly correlated with a measure of emotional intensity.

  15. AUTOMATED DYNAMIC LOAD CONTROL BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF A BUCKET-CHAIN EXCAVATOR IN THE COURSE OF SCOOPING

    OpenAIRE

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2012-01-01

    Methods and algorithms of control of the tension of lifting and towing ropes of bucket-chain excavators are proposed in the article. They are based on the non-linear dependence of the current path length and intensity of excavation efforts. Three automatic control modes, including scooping, correction signals and automatic overload protection, are implemented. Two independent control loops in charge of tension of lifting and towing ropes are developed. The proposed automated control syste...

  16. Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-10-20

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental factors of temperature, water availability and intergranular gas composition, and preservatives which are added to conserve moist grain for animal feed. Thus knowledge of the key critical control points during harvesting, drying and storage stages in the cereal production chain are essential in developing effective prevention strategies post-harvest. Studies show that very small amounts of dry matter loss due to mould activity can be tolerated. With contamination and downgrading of lots can occur. The key mycotoxigenic moulds in partially dried grain are Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin) in damp cool climates of Northern Europe, and Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxin) and some Fusarium species (fumonisins, trichothecenes) on temperate and tropical cereals. Studies on the ecology of these species has resulted in modelling of germination, growth and mycotoxin minima and prediction of fungal contamination levels which may lead to mycotoxin contamination above the tolerable legislative limits (e.g. for ochratoxin). The effect of modified atmospheres and fumigation with sulphur dioxide and ammonia have been attempted to try and control mould spoilage in storage. Elevated CO2 of >75% are required to ensure that growth of mycotoxigenic moulds does not occur in partially dried grain. Sometimes, preservatives based on aliphatic acids have been used to prevent spoilage and mycotoxin contamination of stored commodities, especially feed. These are predominantly

  17. Positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative novel metaphoric processes by enhancing medial prefrontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Beeman, Mark; Faust, Miriam; Mashal, Nira

    2013-01-01

    A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors) and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the right inferior parietal lobe (RIPL). Specifically, positively valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively valenced metaphors when compared to negatively valenced metaphors. Positively valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes) by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration, and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language, and successful social functioning in general.

  18. Valence space electron momentum spectroscopy of diborane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Feng [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Vic. 3122 (Australia)]. E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.au; Pang Wenning [Department of Physics, Polarization Physics Laboratory, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang Ming [Department of Physics, Polarization Physics Laboratory, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-05-15

    A non-classical mechanism of binding in diborane (B{sub 2} H{sub 6}) is derived quantum-mechanically (B3LYP/6-311++G**) using a dual-space analysis. High-resolution binding-energy spectra of diborane, generated using an outer-valence Green's-function and density-functional theory with a statistical average of model orbital potentials (SAOP), agree satisfactorily with experiment. Electron-correlation energies of diborane produce orbital-based variations in ionization energy in the valence space, but with negligible impact on the shape of only a{sub g} symmetry orbitals as indicated in momentum space. The present work indicates quantitatively that (a) the pair of three-centre banana-shaped B-H{sub b}-B bonds are more accurately described as one diamond-shaped bond with B-H{sub b}-B-H{sub b}, (b) all bonds in diborane are electron-deficient including the four equivalent B-H{sub t} bonds, (c) there is no pure B?B bond but contributions from all valence orbitals form an unconventional electron-deficient B-B bond, and (d) only two innermost valence orbitals - 2a{sub g} and 2b{sub 1u} - are sp{sup 2}-hybridized and no evidence indicates other valence orbitals of diborane to be hybridized.

  19. Optimal control of fast and high-fidelity quantum state transfer in spin-1/2 chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong-Peng; Shao, Bin; Hu, Shuai; Zou, Jian; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-12-01

    Spin chains are promising candidates for quantum communication and computation. Using quantum optimal control (OC) theory based on the Krotov method, we present a protocol to perform quantum state transfer with fast and high fidelity by only manipulating the boundary spins in a quantum spin-1/2 chain. The achieved speed is about one order of magnitude faster than that is possible in the Lyapunov control case for comparable fidelities. Additionally, it has a fundamental limit for OC beyond which optimization is not possible. The controls are exerted only on the couplings between the boundary spins and their neighbors, so that the scheme has good scalability. We also demonstrate that the resulting OC scheme is robust against disorder in the chain.

  20. Mixed valency and site-preference chemistry for cerium and its compounds: A predictive density-functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Aftab [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Laboratory

    2014-06-01

    Cerium and its technologically relevant compounds are examples of anomalous mixed valency, originating from two competing oxidation states—itinerant Ce4+ and localized Ce3+. Under applied stress, anomalous transitions are observed but not well understood. Here we treat mixed valency as an “alloy” problem involving two valences with competing and numerous site-occupancy configurations. We use density-functional theory with Hubbard U (i.e., DFT+U) to evaluate the effective valence and predict properties, including controlling the valence by pseudoternary alloying. For Ce and its compounds, such as (Ce,La)2(Fe,Co)14B permanent magnets, we find a stable mixed-valent α state near the spectroscopic value of νs=3.53. Ce valency in compounds depends on its steric volume and local chemistry. For La doping, Ce valency shifts towards γ-like Ce3+, as expected from steric volume; for Co doping, valency depends on local Ce-site chemistry and steric volume. Our approach captures the key origins of anomalous valency and site-preference chemistry in complex compounds.

  1. Optimal Ordering Policy and Coordination Mechanism of a Supply Chain with Controllable Lead-Time-Dependent Demand Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ming Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ordering decisions and coordination mechanism for a distributed short-life-cycle supply chain. The objective is to maximize the whole supply chain's expected profit and meanwhile make the supply chain participants achieve a Pareto improvement. We treat lead time as a controllable variable, thus the demand forecast is dependent on lead time: the shorter lead time, the better forecast. Moreover, optimal decision-making models for lead time and order quantity are formulated and compared in the decentralized and centralized cases. Besides, a three-parameter contract is proposed to coordinate the supply chain and alleviate the double margin in the decentralized scenario. In addition, based on the analysis of the models, we develop an algorithmic procedure to find the optimal ordering decisions. Finally, a numerical example is also presented to illustrate the results.

  2. Side-chain-controlled self-assembly of polystyrene-polypeptide miktoarm star copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Junnila, Susanna

    2012-03-27

    We show how the self-assembly of miktoarm star copolymers can be controlled by modifying the side chains of their polypeptide arms, using A 2B and A 2B 2 type polymer/polypeptide hybrids (macromolecular chimeras). Initially synthesized PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2 (PS, polystyrene; PBLL, poly(ε-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine) ) miktoarms were first deprotected to PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2 miktoarms (PLLHCl, poly(l-lysine hydrochloride)) and then complexed ionically with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (DS) to give the supramolecular complexes PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2. The solid-state self-assemblies of these six miktoarm systems were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS). The side chains of the polypeptide arms were observed to have a large effect on the solubility, polypeptide conformation, and self-assembly of the miktoarms. Three main categories were observed: (i) lamellar self-assemblies at the block copolymer length scale with packed layers of α-helices in PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2; (ii) charge-clustered polypeptide micelles with less-defined conformations in a nonordered lattice within a PS matrix in PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2; (iii) lamellar polypeptide-surfactant self-assemblies with β-sheet conformation in PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2 which dominate over the formation of block copolymer scale structures. Differences between the 3- and 4-arm systems illustrate how packing frustration between the coil-like PS arms and rigid polypeptide conformations can be relieved by the right number of arms, leading to differences in the extent of order. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Portable gliadin-immunochip for contamination control on the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; de Feo, Francesco; Primiceri, Elisabetta; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; de Benedetto, Giuseppe Egidio; Pennetta, Antonio; Rinaldi, Ross; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common digestive disorders caused by an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. So far there are no available therapies, the only solution is a strict gluten-free diet, which however could be very challenging as gluten can be hidden in many food products. Furthermore an additional problem is related to cross-contamination of nominal gluten-free foods with gluten-based ones during manufacturing. Here we propose a lab on chip platform as a powerful tool to help food manufacturers to evaluate the real amount of gluten in their products by an accurate in-situ control of the production chain and maybe to specify the real gluten content in packages labeling. Our portable gliadin-immunochips, based on an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy transduction method, were first calibrated and then validated for both liquid and solid food matrixes by analyzing different beers and flours. The high specificity of our assay was also demonstrated by performing control experiments on rice and potatoes flours containing prolamin-like proteins. We achieved limit of quantification of 0.5 ppm for gliadin that is 20 times lower than the worldwide limit established for gluten-free food while the method of analysis is faster and cheaper than currently employed ELISA-based methods. Moreover our results on food samples were validated through a mass spectrometry standard analysis.

  4. Control Structures in supply chains as a way to manage unpredictable cyber-risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda Estay, Daniel Alberto; Khan, Omera

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain growth, and their dependence on Information Technology (IT), is making cyber risks an increasingly unmanageable threat through traditional risk assessment methods. Systemic analysis methods have been identified as alternatives to trad itional methods. This paper analyzes the application of a systemic risk analysis methodology to understand cyber risks in the supply chain. A generic supply chain is analyzed, and information flows, dynamic structures and the influence of cyber-atta...

  5. Rom2-dependent Phosphorylation of Elo2 Controls the Abundance of Very Long-chain Fatty Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel K.; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and sphingoid long-chain bases, which are amide linked to form ceramide and further processed by addition of various headgroups. Little is known concerning the regulation of VLCFA levels and how cells coordinate their synthesis with the availability of long-chain bases for sphingolipid synthesis. Here we show that Elo2, a key enzyme of VLCFA synthesis, is controlled by signaling of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rom2, initiating at the plasma membrane. This pathway controls Elo2 phosphorylation state and VLCFA synthesis. Our data identify a regulatory mechanism for coordinating VLCFA synthesis with sphingolipid metabolism and link signal transduction pathways from the plasma membrane to the regulation of lipids for membrane homeostasis. PMID:25519905

  6. Integrated supply chain inventory model with quality improvement involving controllable lead time and backorder price discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past four decades the integrated vendor and buyer supply chain inventory model has been an interesting topic, but quality improvement of defective items in the integrated inventory model with backorder price discount involving controllable lead time has been rarely discussed. The aim of this paper is to minimize the total related cost in the continuous review model by considering the order quantity, reorder point, lead time, process quality, backorder price discount and number of shipment as decision variables. Moreover, we assume that an investment function is used to improve the process quality. The lead time demand follows a normal distribution. In addition, the buyer offers backorder price discount to motivate the customers for possible backorders. There are some defective items in the arrival lot, so its treatment is also taken in account in this paper. We develop an iterative procedure for finding the optimal values of decision variables and numerical example is presented to illustrate the solution procedure. Additionally, sensitivity analysis with respect to major parameters is also carried out.

  7. Infection control in IV therapy: a review of the chain of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Irene

    The aim of this article is to review the principles of infection control relating to intravenous (IV) therapy. IV therapy and peripheral IV cannulation are common procedures. Zingg and Pittet (2009) noted that as many as 80% of hospitalized patients will have a cannula in situ, and Hart (2008) suggested that patients who require IV therapy are often seriously ill and immunocompromised, thus are more susceptible to infection. The Department of Health (DH) (2007a) estimated that 6000 patients acquire a catheter-related bloodstream infection every year in the UK. Robust standards of practice are therefore paramount to ensure safe and competent practice, both in peripheral IV cannulation and IV care. Using the chain of infection as a framework to review practice will enable practitioners to ensure thorough standards of practice, and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (2005) stated that only trained and competent staff using strict aseptic techniques should be involved in IV or cannulae care. Furthermore, the Code (Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), (2008) stipulates all practitioners must deliver care based on the best available evidence and/or best practice, and that knowledge and skills for safe and effective practice must be kept up-to-date throughout each health professional's working life.

  8. Biophysical interactions control the size and abundance of large phytoplankton chains at the Ushant tidal front.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Landeira

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are usually dominated by chain-forming diatom species that can alter food pathways from primary producers to predators by reducing the interactions between intermediate trophic levels. The food-web modifications are determined by the length of the chains; however, the estimation is biased because traditional sampling strategies damage the chains and, therefore, change the phytoplankton size structure. Sedimentological studies around oceanic fronts have shown high concentrations of giant diatom mats (>1 cm in length, suggesting that the size of diatom chains is underestimated in the pelagic realm. Here, we investigate the variability in size and abundance of phytoplankton chains at the Ushant tidal front (NW France using the Video Fluorescence Analyzer (VFA, a novel and non-invasive system. CTD and Scanfish profiling characterized a strong temperature and chlorophyll front, separating mixed coastal waters from the oceanic-stratified domain. In order to elucidate spring-neap variations in the front, vertical microstructure profiler was used to estimate the turbulence and vertical nitrate flux. Key findings were: (1 the VFA system recorded large diatom chains up to 10.7 mm in length; (2 chains were mainly distributed in the frontal region, with maximum values above the pycnocline in coincidence with the maximum chlorophyll; (3 the diapycnal fluxes of nitrate enabled the maintenance of the bloom in the frontal area throughout the spring-neap tidal cycle; (4 from spring to neap tide the chains length was significantly reduced; (5 during neap tide, the less intense vertical diffusion of nutrients, as well as the lower turbulence around the chains, intensified nutrient-depleted conditions and, thus, very large chains became disadvantageous. To explain this pattern, we suggest that size plasticity is an important ecological trait driving phytoplankton species competition. Although this plasticity behavior is well known from

  9. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  10. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohr, M.; Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific em

  11. Input estimation for drug discovery using optimal control and Markov chain Monte Carlo approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Magnus; Chappell, Michael J; Ahnmark, Andrea; Lindén, Daniel; Evans, Neil D; Gennemark, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Input estimation is employed in cases where it is desirable to recover the form of an input function which cannot be directly observed and for which there is no model for the generating process. In pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, input estimation in linear systems (deconvolution) is well established, while the nonlinear case is largely unexplored. In this paper, a rigorous definition of the input-estimation problem is given, and the choices involved in terms of modelling assumptions and estimation algorithms are discussed. In particular, the paper covers Maximum a Posteriori estimates using techniques from optimal control theory, and full Bayesian estimation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approaches. These techniques are implemented using the optimisation software CasADi, and applied to two example problems: one where the oral absorption rate and bioavailability of the drug eflornithine are estimated using pharmacokinetic data from rats, and one where energy intake is estimated from body-mass measurements of mice exposed to monoclonal antibodies targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1c. The results from the analysis are used to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used when applied to sparsely sampled data. The presented methods for optimal control are fast and robust, and can be recommended for use in drug discovery. The MCMC-based methods can have long running times and require more expertise from the user. The rigorous definition together with the illustrative examples and suggestions for software serve as a highly promising starting point for application of input-estimation methods to problems in drug discovery.

  12. Hacking cyber-risks back in their tracks: to identify the right supply chain controls, look at the system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda, Daniel; Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    A more comprehensive way of looking at cyber-risks in supply chains is required, when considering the increasing complexity of the supply networks and the exposure to unexpected disruptions, caused by cyber-attacks. This article describes some of the reasons why current risk assessment methods...... are insufficient. The article provides an analogy for understanding the dynamic effects in a company. It describes in general terms what it means to understand cyber-risks from the control perspective, and it describes a new way to understand supply chain resilience. The focus is changed from the reliability...

  13. Bond valence at mixed occupancy sites. I. Regular polyhedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Ferdinando

    2014-10-01

    Bond valence sum calculations at mixed occupancy sites show the occurrence of systematic errors leading to apparent violations of the Valence Sum Rule (bond valence theory) in regular and unstrained bonding environments. The systematic deviation of the bond valence from the expected value is observed in the long-range structure, and is discussed from geometric and algebraic viewpoints. In the valence-length diagram, such a deviation arises from discrepancies between the intersection points of the long-range bond valences and the theoretical bond valences with the valence-length curves of involved cations. Three factors cause systematic errors in the bond valences: difference in atomic valences, bond valence parameters Ri (the length of a bond of unit valence) and bond valence parameters bi (the bond softness) between the involved cations over the same crystallographic site. One important consequence strictly related to the systematic errors is that they lead to erroneous bond strain values for mixed occupancy sites indicating underbonding or overbonding that actually does not exist.

  14. Rom2-dependent phosphorylation of Elo2 controls the abundance of very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Daniel K; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain;

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA...

  15. Control Structures in supply chains as a way to manage unpredictable cyber-risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda Estay, Daniel Alberto; Khan, Omera

    Supply chain growth, and their dependence on Information Technology (IT), is making cyber risks an increasingly unmanageable threat through traditional risk assessment methods. Systemic analysis methods have been identified as alternatives to trad itional methods. This paper analyzes the applicat......Supply chain growth, and their dependence on Information Technology (IT), is making cyber risks an increasingly unmanageable threat through traditional risk assessment methods. Systemic analysis methods have been identified as alternatives to trad itional methods. This paper analyzes...... the application of a systemic risk analysis methodology to understand cyber risks in the supply chain. A generic supply chain is analyzed, and information flows, dynamic structures and the influence of cyber-attack on these are identified. This paper argues that a systemic approach is more efficient in detecting...

  16. Enhancement of entanglement transfer in a spin chain by phase shift control

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, K; Nori, F

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of a phase shift on the amount of transferrable two-spin entanglement in a spin chain. We consider a ferromagnetic Heisenberg/XY spin chain, both numerically and analytically, and two mechanisms to generate a phase shift, the Aharonov-Casher effect and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. In both cases, the maximum attainable entanglement is shown to be significantly enhanced, suggesting its potential usefulness in quantum information processing.

  17. Breaking the chain: Rift Valley fever virus control via livestock vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Nichol, Stuart T

    2012-06-01

    Rift Valley fever virus is a mosquito-borne pathogen of livestock and humans that causes widespread and devastating outbreaks of severe and often fatal disease throughout Africa and portions of the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks can involve tens to hundreds of thousands of human cases, and millions of livestock. The severity of the disease varies by species, but in sheep and cattle 'abortion storms', high neonatal (∼70%), and adult mortality (20-30%) are features. Human cases are generally self-limiting, but severe complications such as hepatitis, retinitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, or a hemorrhagic syndrome with a case fatality of 10-20% can occur. There are no commercially available human vaccines. Livestock provide key ecological links between the Aedes sp. mosquito vector and humans. High viremias in livestock lead to spillover of RVFV into other anthrophillic vectors (Culex and Anopheles sp. mosquitoes), and, importantly, close contact with infected animal tissues and fluids or aborted fetal materials from these animals is a major risk factor for severe and lethal human infections. Vaccination programs targeting livestock during non-epidemic periods or as an early countermeasure against nascent outbreaks could therefore eliminate one of the main sources of human infection and limit the overall scope of epidemics. To this end, research groups have recently reported novel next generation RVFV vaccines that are safe for use in pregnant and young animals. Preventing RVFV infection of livestock by vaccination is a key element in breaking the chain of human epidemics, and could lead to control of this significant public health threat.

  18. A simple and versatile electronic control system for a picosecond Nd:YLF oscillator - Nd:glass amplifier laser chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, C. P.; Ansari, M. S.; Upadhyay, J.; Sreedhar, N.; Chandra, R.; Bundel, H. R.; Moorti, A.; Gupta, P. D.

    1997-11-01

    An electronic control system, developed for power conditioning of a picosecond Nd:YLF - Nd:glass laser oscillator - amplifier chain is described. The system generates charging and firing signals required for a commercial picosecond oscillator operated in a repetitive mode, and also carries out a charging and firing sequence of external amplifiers for single-shot operation. The system also controls a mechanical shutter to selectively pass a laser pulse from the oscillator for subsequent amplification. The laser chain includes a Faraday isolator incorporated with a safety check. A control signal is generated by this unit when conditions suitable for a sufficient level of isolation are achieved, and the same is used for gating the oscillator pulse. Good synchronization is confirmed from the measurements of amplifier gain as a function of the relative time delay in firing of different stages. The electronics developed is simple and modular, with sufficient scope for expansion of the system, and resistant to electromagnetic interference.

  19. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  20. Electronic bistability in linear beryllium chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Wissam; Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2009-04-30

    A theoretical investigation on the mixed-valence behavior (bistability) of a series of cationic linear chains composed of beryllium atoms, Be(N)(+) (with N = 6,..., 12), is presented. The calculations were performed at CAS-SCF and MR-CI levels by using an ANO basis set containing 6s4p3d2f orbitals for each atom. Our results show a consistent gradual shift between different classes of mixed-valence compounds as the number of beryllium atoms increases, from class III strong coupling toward class II valence trapped. Indeed, in the largest cases (N > 10), the cationic chains were found to be closer to class I, where the coupling vanishes. The intramolecular electron transfer parameters V(ab), E(a), and E(opt) were calculated for each atomic chain. It is shown that the decrease of V(ab) with increasing N follows an exponential pattern.

  1. Pion valence-quark parton distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the Dyson–Schwinger equation formulation of QCD, a rainbow ladder truncation is used to calculate the pion valence-quark distribution function (PDF. The gap equation is renormalized at a typical hadronic scale, of order 0.5 GeV, which is also set as the default initial scale for the pion PDF. We implement a corrected leading-order expression for the PDF which ensures that the valence-quarks carry all of the pion's light-front momentum at the initial scale. The scaling behavior of the pion PDF at a typical partonic scale of order 5.2 GeV is found to be (1−xν, with ν≃1.6, as x approaches one.

  2. Janus Nematic Colloids with Designable Valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Čopar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Janus nematic colloids based on various morphologies of particle surface patches imposing homeotropic and planar surface anchoring are demonstrated. By using mesoscopic numerical modeling, multiple types of Janus particles are explored, demonstrating a variety of novel complex colloidal structures. We also show binding of Janus particles to a fixed Janus post in the nematic cell, which acts as a seed and a micro-anchor for the colloidal structure. Janus colloidal structures reveal diverse topological defect configurations, which are effectively combinations of surface boojum and bulk defects. Topological analysis is applied to defects, importantly showing that topological charge is not a well determined topological invariant in such patchy nematic Janus colloids. Finally, this work demonstrates colloidal structures with designable valence, which could allow for targeted and valence-conditioned self-assembly at micro- and nano-scale.

  3. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Michaela; Degner, Juliane; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific emotion. In three studies, we investigated the specificity of emotion processing under conditions of limited awareness using a modified variant of an affective priming task. Faces with happy, angry, sad, fearful, and neutral expressions were presented as masked primes for 33 ms (Study 1) or 14 ms (Studies 2 and 3) followed by emotional target faces (Studies 1 and 2) or emotional adjectives (Study 3). Participants' task was to categorise the target emotion. In all three studies, discrimination of targets was significantly affected by the emotional primes beyond a simple positive versus negative distinction. Results indicate that specific aspects of emotions might be automatically disentangled in addition to valence, even under conditions of subjective unawareness.

  4. The Importance of Systems for Controlling Logistics Costs in the Supply Chain: A Case Study from the Slovenian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan Škerlič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Participating in the automotive industry brings new responsibilities for suppliers who, in order to meet customer demands, must strive towards improving business processes, while at the same time reducing costs. These demands can disrupt the operations of companies that do not have a system for controlling logistics costs. On the other hand, customer demands can be the cause of other types of disruptions in companies that have such a system in place, stemming from an excessive focus on cost reduction. To tackle this problem, a survey was conducted on a sample of 30 Slovenian companies that operate as suppliers in the automotive industry. Its objective was to determine how different customer demands along the supply chain can affect the business processes of suppliers and the level of logistics costs. The survey revealed that companies that use a system for controlling logistics costs experience fewer disruptions in their business processes in their efforts to satisfy customer demands. These companies also display a higher level of integration of business processes and use a different approach when dealing with the various participants of the supply chain. The survey also sets clear participation guidelines for suppliers in the supply chain of the automotive industry and points out how companies can benefit from using a system for controlling logistics costs in other ways, aside from the cost controlling aspect.

  5. 5th International Conference on Valence Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, S

    1987-01-01

    During the Koln meeting (August 28-31, 1984), Irdia was chosen as the venue for the next International Conference on Valence Fluctuations. lhis was in recognition ard appreciation of the work done, both experimental ard theoretical, by the Irdian scientists in this area during the last decade. We decided to hold this Conference in the month of January, 1987 at Bangalore. lhe subject of Valence Fluctuations has kept itself alive ard active as it has provided many shocks ard suprises particularly among the Ce- ard U-based intermetallies. lhe richness of many interesting physical phenomena occurring in mixed valent materials, the flexibility of modifying their physical properties (by alloying, for example) ard the possibility of synthesizing a wide variety of new such materials seem to be the key factors in this regard. Barely six months before this Conference, an International Conference on Anomalous Rare Earths and Actinides (ICAREA) had been held at Grenoble (July, 1986) which also focussed on mixed valence a...

  6. Stark spectroscopy of mixed-valence systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Lisa N; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Treynor, Thomas P; Boxer, Steven G

    2008-01-13

    Many mixed-valence systems involve two or more states with different electric dipole moments whose magnitudes depend upon the charge transfer distance and the degree of delocalization; these systems can be interconverted by excitation of an intervalence charge transfer transition. Stark spectroscopy involves the interaction between the change in dipole moment of a transition and an electric field, so the Stark spectra of mixed-valence systems are expected to provide quantitative information on the degree of delocalization. In limiting cases, a classical Stark analysis can be used, but in intermediate cases the analysis is much more complex because the field affects not only the band position but also the intrinsic bandshape. Such non-classical Stark effects lead to widely different bandshapes. Several examples of both classes are discussed. Because electric fields are applied to immobilized samples, complications arise from inhomogeneous broadening, along with other effects that limit our ability to extract unique parameters in some cases. In the case of the radical cation of the special pair in photosynthetic reaction centres, where the mixed-valence system is in a very complex but structurally well-defined environment, a detailed analysis can be performed.

  7. Memory transfer for emotionally valenced words between identities in dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Peters, Madelon L.; Woertman, Liesbeth; van der Hart, Onno; Postma, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine interidentity retrieval of emotionally valenced words in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Twenty-two DID patients participated together with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Two wordlists A and B were constructed including neutr

  8. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain.

  9. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo algorithms defined on trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschner, Andreas; Sørensen, Erik S

    2014-09-01

    We present a class of algorithms for performing valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo of quantum spin models. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo is a projective T=0 Monte Carlo method based on sampling of a set of operator strings that can be viewed as forming a treelike structure. The algorithms presented here utilize the notion of a worm that moves up and down this tree and changes the associated operator string. In quite general terms, we derive a set of equations whose solutions correspond to a whole class of algorithms. As specific examples of this class of algorithms, we focus on two cases. The bouncing worm algorithm, for which updates are always accepted by allowing the worm to bounce up and down the tree, and the driven worm algorithm, where a single parameter controls how far up the tree the worm reaches before turning around. The latter algorithm involves only a single bounce where the worm turns from going up the tree to going down. The presence of the control parameter necessitates the introduction of an acceptance probability for the update.

  10. H∞ control of dynamic supply chain network%动态供应链网络的H∞控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐君群

    2012-01-01

    The control and elimination of bullwhip effect is an important topic in supply chain management. For a supply chain network consisting of several manufacturers and distributors, the closed dynamical supply chain network model with uncertain demand is established. The robust operation of the network is discussed based on the H∞ control and linear matrix inequality scheme. The effect of the uncertainty is suppressed under a feedback controller related to the inventory. Meanwhile, the operation cost of the closed supply chain network is controlled to an ideal level. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.%牛鞭效应的抑制与消除问题是供应链管理的重要课题.针对具有多个生产商和分销商的供应链网络,建立具有需求不确定性的闭环供应链网络动态模型,利用鲁棒H∞控制策略和线性矩阵不等式方法,处理供应链网络的鲁棒运作问题.通过设计依赖于库存状态的反馈控制器,抑制闭环供应链网络中不确定性的影响,使得闭环供应链网络系统运作达到理想的总成本.最后,通过仿真计算验证所提出方法的有效性.

  11. Emotion perception and functional outcome in schizophrenia: the importance of negative valence and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Philip J; Ffytche, Dominic H; Surguladze, Simon A

    2012-12-30

    A substantial body of work has demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have a deficit in the perception of emotional stimuli. More recently this deficit has been linked to poor functional outcomes (FO) in this group. The current research investigated the perception of emotional stimuli in a group of 64 schizophrenia patients and 65 matched healthy controls. In the patient group, across two different emotion perception tasks and a social perception task, small deficits were found in the perception of negative, positive and neutrally valenced stimuli. Only the ability to perceive negative and neutrally valenced stimuli significantly correlated with a set of FO measures in the patients, with one task indicating these associations were strongest for the perception of fear. Subsequent regression modelling, controlling for the effects of symptomatology, demonstrated that for each of the three tasks, the measure of negative valence perception accounted for a similar but small amount (4%) of the variance seen in the functional status of the patients.

  12. Evidence-based policy for controlling antimicrobial resistance in the food chain in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Pieter; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2014-01-01

    was stimulated. Complications of alarming high levels of AMR in animals, and a general discontent about this situation (including farmers and vets) demanded a solution. National surveillance in DANMAP involving all stakeholders from the farm-to-fork food chain was setup to counteract scientific unknowns...

  13. A framework for early warning and proactive control systems in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Kramer, M.R.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is inherent to food supply chain networks that performance deviations occur occasionally due to variations in product quality and quantity. To reduce losses, one wants to be informed about such deviations as soon as possible, preferably even before they occur. Then it is possible to take actions

  14. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  15. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...... in the food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....

  16. A simulation environment for the design of food supply chain networks: modeling quality controlled logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.; Zee, van der D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, many industries are confronted with intensified global competition as well as advances in information and process technology. They create both the need and opportunity for a coordinated approach of industrial partners to establish effective and efficient supply chains. Simulation tools are

  17. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety: A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and doctors to provide real-time technical services so as to control the abuse of drugs; thirdly, realizes the supervision of local veterinary drugs and diseases. Thus the quality of animal products is guaranteed, and the model is worthy to be popularized.

  18. Genetic control of conventional labeling through the bovine meat production chain by single nucleotide polymorphisms using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Rossana; Bongioni, Graziella; Galli, Andrea; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2006-08-01

    Since January 2002, the European Union has adopted precise guidelines aimed at protecting the safety of meat and controlling the production chain. To this purpose, the conventional traceability of livestock and meat represents the main tool, but verification of traceability requires genetic support. At present, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most innovative molecular markers in genotyping studies. The aim of this study was to verify correct labeling in a bovine meat production chain by a real-time PCR protocol based on SNP analysis. Reference hair samples from 5,000 animals were randomly collected from 22 farms. Twelve hundred meat samples were collected at different steps of the bovine meat production chain. In particular, 1,000 meat samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and 200 samples from the same animals directly at the butcher's shop. The protocol was optimized and validated by testing a set of 16 SNP markers on 95 DNA samples from bovine sires of different breeds. Thereafter, the genotyping of 2,200 samples was conducted with a set of 12 selected SNPs to verify traceability of the meat production chain at three different stages: farm, slaughterhouse, and butcher's shop. Irregularities in conventional traceability were evidenced directly in 1.87% of the samples at the slaughterhouse. This percentage increased to 3.25% when sampling was conducted at the butcher's shop. This study demonstrates that despite the precautions adopted over the meat production chain, some critical points still exist that cause the loss of a correct association between registration numbers and samples.

  19. Surface segregation of fluorinated moieties on random copolymer films controlled by random-coil conformation of polymer chains in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongwu; Wang, Xinping; Ni, Huagang; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Gi

    2009-02-17

    The relationship between solution properties, film-forming methods, and the solid surface structures of random copolymers composed of butyl methacrylate and dodecafluorheptyl methylacrylate (DFHMA) was investigated by contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy, and surface tension measurements. The results, based on thermodynamic considerations, demonstrated that the random copolymer chain conformation at the solution/air interface greatly affected the surface structure of the resulting film, thereby determining the surface segregation of fluorinated moieties on films obtained by various film-forming techniques. When the fluorinated monomer content of the copolymer solution was low, entropic forces dominated the interfacial structure, with the perfluoroalkyl groups unable to migrate to the solution/air interface and thus becoming buried in a random-coil chain conformation. When employing this copolymer solution for film preparation by spin-coating, the copolymer chains in solution were likely extended due to centrifugal forces, thereby weakening the entropy effect of the polymer chains. Consequently, this resulted in the segregation of the fluorinated moieties on the film surface. For the films prepared by casting, the perfluoroalkyl groups were, similar to those in solution, incapable of segregating at the film surface and were thus buried in the random-coil chains. When the copolymers contained a high content of DFHMA, the migration of perfluoroalkyl groups at the solution/air interface was controlled by enthalpic forces, and the perfluoroalkyl groups segregated at the surface of the film regardless of the film-forming technique. The aim of the present work was to obtain an enhanced understanding of the formation mechanism of the chemical structure on the surface of the polymer film, while demonstrating that film-forming methods may be used in practice to promote the segregation of fluorinated

  20. Airlift Cargo Hub Port Hold Times: Controlling Variations in Defense Supply Chain Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    SUPPLY CHAIN DELIVERY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Brandon A. Casey, Major, USAF AFIT/IMO/ENS/10-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this graduate research project are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy of the United States Air Force, Department of

  1. Controlling the mode of operation of organic transistors through side-chain engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Giovannitti, Alexander

    2016-10-11

    Electrolyte-gated organic transistors offer low bias operation facilitated by direct contact of the transistor channel with an electrolyte. Their operation mode is generally defined by the dimensionality of charge transport, where a field-effect transistor allows for electrostatic charge accumulation at the electrolyte/semiconductor interface, whereas an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) facilitates penetration of ions into the bulk of the channel, considered a slow process, leading to volumetric doping and electronic transport. Conducting polymer OECTs allow for fast switching and high currents through incorporation of excess, hygroscopic ionic phases, but operate in depletion mode. Here, we show that the use of glycolated side chains on a thiophene backbone can result in accumulation mode OECTs with high currents, transconductance, and sharp subthreshold switching, while maintaining fast switching speeds. Compared with alkylated analogs of the same backbone, the triethylene glycol side chains shift the mode of operation of aqueous electrolyte-gated transistors from interfacial to bulk doping/transport and show complete and reversible electrochromism and high volumetric capacitance at low operating biases. We propose that the glycol side chains facilitate hydration and ion penetration, without compromising electronic mobility, and suggest that this synthetic approach can be used to guide the design of organic mixed conductors.

  2. Who controls the logistics emissions? Challenges in making fragmented supply chains environmentally sustainable from logistics service providers’ perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam; Sternberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    of logistics activities in the supply chain? Design/methodology/approach The methodology of this paper is a literature review, a qualitative interview survey, and three case studies. A framework on sustainability challenges in supply chains derived from the literature is used to structure and analyze...... that impact the cost and time requirements from customers of logistics services are not yet a reality. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This paper implies that LSP sustainability cannot be investigated in isolation if a company does not manage proprietary resources. Practical implications (if...... applicable) Our findings imply that environmental policies between different LSPs appear similar, but in practice differs, which stresses the importance of follow-up control by environmentally aware logistics service buyers. Originality/value This paper represents a novel approach as to how LSP environmental...

  3. Reveal of small alkanes and isomers using calculated core and valence binding energy spectra and total momentum cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zejin

    2013-01-01

    The present study revealed quantum mechanically that the C1s binding energy spectra of the small alkanes (upto six carbons) provide a clear picture of isomeric chemical shift in linear alkanes and branched isomers, whereas the valence binding energy spectra contain more sensitive information regarding the length of the carbon chains. Total momentum cross sections of the alkanes exhibit the information of the chain length as well as constitutional isomers of the small alkanes. The C1s binding energies of small alkanes (including isomers) are position specific and the terminal carbons have the lowest energies. The length of an alkane chain does not apparently affect the C1s energies so that the terminal carbons (289.11 eV) of pentane are almost the same as those of hexane. The valence binding energy spectra of the alkanes are characterized by inner valence and outer valence regions which are separated by an energy gap at approximately 17 eV. The intensities of the total momentum cross sections of the alkanes ar...

  4. Reactive Force Fields via Explicit Valency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Seyit

    Computational simulations are invaluable in elucidating the dynamics of biological macromolecules. Unfortunately, reactions present a fundamental challenge. Calculations based on quantum mechanics can predict bond formation and rupture; however they suffer from severe length- and time-limitations. At the other extreme, classical approaches provide orders of magnitude faster simulations; however they regard chemical bonds as immutable entities. A few exceptions exist, but these are not always trivial to adopt for routine use. We bridge this gap by providing a novel, pseudo-classical approach, based on explicit valency. We unpack molecules into valence electron pairs and atomic cores. Particles bear ionic charges and interact via pairwise-only potentials. The potentials are informed of quantum effects in the short-range and obey dissociation limits in the long-range. They are trained against a small set of isolated species, including geometries and thermodynamics of small hydrides and of dimers formed by them. The resulting force field captures the essentials of reactivity, polarizability and flexibility in a simple, seamless setting. We call this model LEWIS, after the chemical theory that inspired the use of valence pairs. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, we initially focus on the properties of water. Chapter 2 considers gas phase clusters. To transition to the liquid phase, Chapter 3 describes a novel pairwise long-range compensation that performs comparably to infinite lattice summations. The approach is suited to ionic solutions in general. In Chapters 4 and 5, LEWIS is shown to correctly predict the dipolar and quadrupolar response in bulk liquid, and can accommodate proton transfers in both acid and base. Efficiency permits the study of proton defects at dilutions not accessible to experiment or quantum mechanics. Chapter 6 discusses explicit valency approaches in other hydrides, forming the basis of a reactive organic force field. Examples of simple

  5. Thermal Recombination: Beyond the Valence Quark Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, B; Bass, S A

    2005-01-01

    Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree well with data on hadron production at intermediate transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss the implications for our understanding of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  6. AUTOMATED DYNAMIC LOAD CONTROL BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF A BUCKET-CHAIN EXCAVATOR IN THE COURSE OF SCOOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods and algorithms of control of the tension of lifting and towing ropes of bucket-chain excavators are proposed in the article. They are based on the non-linear dependence of the current path length and intensity of excavation efforts. Three automatic control modes, including scooping, correction signals and automatic overload protection, are implemented. Two independent control loops in charge of tension of lifting and towing ropes are developed. The proposed automated control system may be integrated both into new bucket-chain excavators and into those excavators that are already in operation. The new system does not require any substantial alterations in electric drive control systems in charge of lifting and towing, if integrated into excavators in operation. The author has performed the non-linearity analysis; he has also designed, developed and implemented the models that are capable of taking an adequate account of the system peculiarities identified in the course of the project implementation. The system parameters are adjustable to specific conditions of the excavator operation, including the hardness of the rock extracted by the excavator, etc. The automatic overload control system attached to the electric drives in control of lifting and towing ensures maximal responsiveness of the system based on the commutation-related limitations imposed by power-driven elements, maximal over-control values and variability of the transition process. Prevention of any rope slacks in the course of scooping of any hard rock is assured by the loop of regulation of minimal tension of lifting cables. The service life of lifting and towing ropes goes up by eight to ten weeks, if the system proposed by the author is implemented.

  7. Reducing the negative valence of stressful memories through emotionally valenced, modality-specific tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadmor, Avia; McNally, Richard J; Engelhard, Iris M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People who perform a cognitively demanding secondary task while recalling a distressing memory often experience the memory as less emotional, vivid, or accurate during subsequent recollections. In this experiment, we tested whether the emotional valence (positive versus ne

  8. Positively-valenced stimuli facilitate creative novel metaphoric processes by enhancing medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna eSubramaniam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively-valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL. Specifically, positively-valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively-valenced metaphors when compared to negatively-valenced metaphors. Positively-valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively-valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively-valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language and successful social functioning in general.

  9. Controlled and selective placement of boron subphthalocyanines on either chain end of polymers synthesized by nitroxide mediated polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît H. Lessard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we synthesized the first organic light emitting diode (OLED using boron subphthalocyanines (BsubPcs based polymers. When designing new polymer materials for organic electronic applications such as OLEDs or organic photovoltaic (OPV devices it is important to consider not only the contribution of each monomer but also the polymer chain ends. In this paper we establish a post-polymerization strategy to couple BsubPcs onto either the α- or the ω-chain end using chemically selective BsubPc derivatives. We outline how the chain ends of two representative polymers, poly(styrene (PS and poly(n-butylacrylate (BA, synthesized by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP, using BlocBuilder-MA as the initiating species, can be chemically modified by the incorporation of BsubPc chromophores. The addition of the BsubPc chromophore was confirmed through the use of a photodiode array detector (PDA connected in-line with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC setup. These findings represent the first reported method for the controlled and selective placement of a BsubPc chromophores on either end of a polymer produced by NMP. This strategy will therefore be utilized to make next generation BsubPc polymers for OLEDs and OPV devices. The extremely high molar extinction coefficient of BsubPc also make these polymers ideally suited for dye-labelling of polymers.

  10. The immediate effect of unilateral lumbar Z-joint mobilisation on posterior chain neurodynamics: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlezak, Adam Michael; Georgilopoulos, Peter; Bullock-Saxton, Joanne Elizabeth; Steele, Michael Craig

    2011-12-01

    Hamstring strain (HS) is a common musculoskeletal condition and abnormal neurodynamics has been shown to influence HS and delay recovery. The efficacy of stretching for preventing and treating HS remains uncertain despite extensive research and wide-spread use. The effects of cervical spine mobilisation on peripheral nervous system function, neurodynamics and muscle force in the upper limb have been reported. Very few studies have reported effects of lumbar spine mobilisation on these variables in the lower limb. This study aimed to determine immediate effects of either a unilateral zygopophyseal joint posteroanterior mobilisation or a static posterior chain muscle stretch on the range of passive straight leg raise (SLR) in comparison to a non-treatment control. Using a single-blinded, randomised controlled study design, 36 healthy participants were allocated into one of three groups (control; mobilisation; static posterior chain muscle stretch). Measures of SLR were taken before and after intervention for each group on the day of testing. A General Linear Model (GLM) and a paired sample t-test showed a significant difference between base line and post-intervention for the mobilisation group only (p neurodynamics.

  11. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  12. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  13. Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.

  14. Is remote stretching based on myofascial chains as effective as local exercise? A randomised-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Vogt, L; Niederer, D; Banzer, W

    2016-11-07

    Lower limb stretching based on myofascial chains has been demonstrated to increase cervical range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal plane. It is, however, unknown whether such remote exercise is as effective as local stretching. To resolve this research deficit, 63 healthy participants (36 ± 13 years, ♂32) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: remote stretching of the lower limb (LLS), local stretching of the cervical spine (CSS) or inactive control (CON). Prior (M1), immediately post (M2) and 5 min following intervention (M3), maximal cervical ROM was assessed. Non-parametric data analysis (Kruskal-Wallis tests and adjusted post hoc Dunn tests) revealed significant differences between the disposed conditions. With one exception (cervical spine rotation after CSS at M2, P > .05), both LLS and CSS increased cervical ROM compared to the control group in all movement planes and at all measurements (P  .05). Lower limb stretching based on myofascial chains induces similar acute improvements in cervical ROM as local exercise. Therapists might consequently consider its use in programme design. However, as the attained effects do not seem to be direction-specific, further research is warranted in order to provide evidence-based recommendations.

  15. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  16. Plasma vitamin D-binding protein (GC) factors, immunoglobulin G heavy chain (GM) allotypes and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM1) allotype in patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Thymann, Mariann; Graudal, Niels

    2002-01-01

    and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (KM) allotype differed significantly from the distribution in healthy subjects. METHODS: GC 1S, 1F, 2 allotypes, GM 1, 2, 5 allotypes, and KM1 allotype were assessed in 44 patients with sarcoidosis and in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: There were no significant differences...

  17. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Collignon, P.

    2008-01-01

    licensing, removing financial incentives, banning or restricting the use of certain drugs, altering prescribers behavior, improving animal health, improving hygiene and implementing microbial criteria for certain types of resistant pathogens for use in the control of trade of both food animals and food....... quantification of the transmission difficult. The exposure of humans to antimicrobial resistance from food animals can be controlled by either limiting the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage or by limiting the spread of the bacteria/genes. A number of control options are reviewed, including drug...

  18. Computational Experiment Approach to Controlled Evolution of Procurement Pattern in Cluster Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies have been aware of the benefits of developing Cluster Supply Chains (CSCs, and they are spending a great deal of time and money attempting to develop the new business pattern. Yet, the traditional techniques for identifying CSCs have strong theoretical antecedents, but seem to have little traction in the field. We believe this is because the standard techniques fail to capture evolution over time, nor provide useful intervention measures to reach goals. To address these problems, we introduce an agent-based modeling approach to evaluate CSCs. Taking collaborative procurement as research object, our approach is composed of three parts: model construction, model instantiation, and computational experiment. We use the approach to explore the service charging policy problem in collaborative procurement. Three kinds of service charging polices are compared in the same experiment environment. Finally, “Fixed Cost” is identified as the optimal policy under the stable market environment. The case study can help us to understand the workflow of applying the approach, and provide valuable decision support applications to industry.

  19. Atoms in Valence Bond. Method, implementation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The Atoms in Valence Bond (AiVB) approach is presented. The main goal was to develop a new and innovative approach, within the existing Valence Bond framework, to build and analyze the molecular VB wave function in terms of atoms and their atomic states, in a very user-friendly environment. The nece

  20. Prediction of valence and arousal from music features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Brinker, A.C.; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mood is an important attribute of music and knowledge on mood can beused as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems. Moods are assumed to be dominantly determined by two dimensions:valence and arousal. An experiment was conducted to attain data forsong-based ratings of valence

  1. Valency, Secondary Frequency, and Lexical Access: A Japanese Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Kayamoto, Yuriko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined the effects of valency (associative value representing the number of two-kanji words containing the first-positional kanji of the word) on recognition of two-kanji words in Japanese. Frequency and valency of the first constituent kanji were significant factors for word recognition, and frequency of the first constituent kanji was…

  2. A Back-stepping Based Trajectory Tracking Controller for a Non-chained Nonholonomic Spherical Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Qiang; Liu Zengbo; Cai Yao

    2008-01-01

    Spherical robot has good static and dynamic stability, which provides it with strong viability in hostile environment, but the lack of effective control methods has hindered its application and development. This article deals with the dynamic trajectory tracking problem of the spherical robot BHQ-2 designed for unmanned environment exploration. The dynamic model of the spherical robot is established with a simplified Boltzmann-Hamel equation, based on which a trajectory tracking controller is designed by using the back-stepping method. The convergence of the controller is proved with the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations show that with the controller the robot can globally and asymptotically track desired trajectories, both linear and circular.

  3. Entanglement and SU(n) symmetry in one-dimensional valence bond solid states

    CERN Document Server

    Orus, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Here we evaluate the many-body entanglement properties of a generalized SU(n) valence bond solid state on a chain. Our results follow from a derivation of the transfer matrix of the system which, in combination with symmetry properties, allows for a new, elegant and straightforward evaluation of different entanglement measures. In particular, the geometric entanglement per block, correlation length, von Neumann and R\\'enyi entropies of a block, localizable entanglement and entanglement length are obtained in a very simple way. All our results are in agreement with previous derivations for the SU(2) case.

  4. Invariant density analysis: modeling and analysis of the postural control system using Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Pilwon; Shorter, K Alex; Mehta, Prashant G; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel analysis technique, invariant density analysis (IDA), is introduced. IDA quantifies steady-state behavior of the postural control system using center of pressure (COP) data collected during quiet standing. IDA relies on the analysis of a reduced-order finite Markov model to characterize stochastic behavior observed during postural sway. Five IDA parameters characterize the model and offer physiological insight into the long-term dynamical behavior of the postural control system. Two studies were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of IDA. Study 1 showed that multiple short trials can be concatenated to create a dataset suitable for IDA. Study 2 demonstrated that IDA was effective at distinguishing age-related differences in postural control behavior between young, middle-aged, and older adults. These results suggest that the postural control system of young adults converges more quickly to their steady-state behavior while maintaining COP nearer an overall centroid than either the middle-aged or older adults. Additionally, larger entropy values for older adults indicate that their COP follows a more stochastic path, while smaller entropy values for young adults indicate a more deterministic path. These results illustrate the potential of IDA as a quantitative tool for the assessment of the quiet-standing postural control system.

  5. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain by Available Time Limitation of the Production Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alden Ghasimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important competitive criteria in the global marketplace is keeping the customer satisfaction. Timely delivery and cost of finished goods are two important factors for satisfaction of customers. In this study, we proposed a mathematical model to improve inventory control of defective goods supply chain by Available Time Limitation (ATL of the production facilities. The defective goods are reworking able parts and the rest are considered as scraps. The aim of the model is to optimize the total costs of production, maintenance, freight, reworking, the quantity of scrap goods and shortage in retailers for three level supply chains. The uniqueness is that it can anticipate the active manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of goods that must be exchanged between them. Finally, the model determines the Economic Production Quantity (EPQ and appropriate ATL of any production facilities. Our proposed model is novel and we used CPLEX and LINGO to solve the problem. It can be ascertained that based on the results of the model validated the correctness and fine function of the model.

  6. Nodal-chain metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, Quansheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain—a chain of connected loops in momentum space—along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF4), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  7. VALENCY AND SYNTACTICAL RELATION IN BIMANESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sri Satyawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the findings and descriptions of the replies to severalproblems that have not been completely and deeply discussed in the researchespreviously conducted on Bimanese. The problems are related to micro-linguistic factors,namely valency and syntactical relation in Bimanese. Both deductive and inductiveapproaches were applied to obtain satisfactory results. The main theory employed in thisstudy is Role and Reference Grammar Theory (RRG by Van Valin and J. Lapolla. It wasemployed to completely analyze the collected data in accordance with the problemsproposed in this research, and the inductive approach was employed to analyze the datain order to get novelties.In this study, clause structure is given the first priority to discuss, followed by thediscussion on operator, voice markers, nominalizers, and definiteness. Based on thepredicate category, the clause in Bimanese can be constructed with the constituents thatare under the categories of verb, noun, adjective, number, and adverb (prepositionalphrase. Based on the clause analysis, it has been found that in Bimanese there are severaloperators, each of which has different functional boundary in marking the clausemeaning. One operator may only sign nucleus, core (nucleus and argument, or core andperiphery. Bimanese has also been identified to have four linguistic states expressed byverbs that are made to make sense based on state (Aktisontrat, achievement, andaccomplishment. RRG classifies verbs into ten instead of four. However, in this study, tomake the analysis easier, verbs are classified into four. The predicate in Bimanese can beboth serial verbs and secondary verbs. It has also been found that the mechanism ofchange in valency is marked by the attachment of markers to the verbs resulting incausativity, applicativity, and resultivity. From those syntactical constructions, thesyntactical relation in Bimanese can be clearly identified. The discussion on syntacticalrelation

  8. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain - Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; Koeijer AA de; Wit GA de; LEI; Animal Sciences Group; PZO; MGB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the costs-of-illnes

  9. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW) control. Glycerine (init. conc. = 1.0%; w/v), was used as the primary carbon source in batch-culture fermentations with varying concentrations (0 to 0.85...

  10. Chain-branching control of the atomic structure of alkanethiol-based gold-sulfur interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong; Hush, Noel S; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-09-28

    Density functional theory structure calculations at 0 K and simulations at 300 K of observed high-resolution in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images reveal three different atomic-interface structures for the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three isomeric butanethiols on Au(111): direct binding to the Au(111) surface without pitting, binding to adatoms above a regular surface with extensive pitting, and binding to adatoms with local surface vacancies and some pitting. Thermal motions are shown to produce some observed STM features, with a very tight energy balance controlling the observed structures. Variation of the degree of substitution on the α carbon is found to significantly change the relative energies for interaction of the different types of adatom structures with the surface, while the nature of the surface cell, controlled primarily by inter-adsorbate steric interactions, controls substrate reorganization energies and adsorbate distortion energies. Most significantly, by manipulating these features, chemical control of the adsorbate can produce stable interfaces with surface pitting eliminated, providing new perspectives for technological applications of SAMs.

  11. Structure control for fine tuning fluorescence emission from side-chain azobenzene polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, P; Asha, S K

    2007-06-14

    New fluorescent azobenzene dyes and side-chain polymers have been synthesized and characterized and their photophysical properties studied. A series of azobenzene dyes having different fluorophores such as phenol (S1), phenylphenol (S2) and naphthol (S3) incorporated in them were synthesized. S2 had unusually high fluorescence with a quantum yield of phi f = 0.2 recorded in dichloromethane (DCM), whereas S1 and S3 were found to be weakly fluorescent. The azobenzene dyes were converted into methacrylate monomers having short ethyleneoxy spacers and then free radically polymerized. Phenylphenol-based azobenzene polymer (P2) continued to show fluorescence, whereas fluorescence was completely quenched in the case of phenol (P1)- and naphthol (P3)-based polymers. Phenylphenol, though twisted in the ground state is known to have a more planar geometry in the excited state--a factor that enables it to retain its fluorescence behavior even when it is incorporated as part of an azobenzene unit. In contrast, naphthol, which is a better fluorophore compared to phenylphenol, loses much of its emissive behavior upon coupling to the azobenzene unit. The extent of trans to cis photoisomerization in solution was very low (approximately 17%) for P2 after 30 min of continuous irradiation using 365 nm light, in contrast to approximately 40% for P1 under identical conditions. This is attributed to the steric repulsion brought about by the bulky phenylphenol units that restrict rotation. A 2-fold enhancement in fluorescence emission was observed for P2 upon irradiation by UV light at 360 nm, which relaxed to the original intensity in about 7 day's time. The higher emission of the cis azobenzenes is generally attributed to an inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. The emission of P2 showed a concentration dependence which increased initially and then decreased in intensity with the formation of a new red-shifted peak at higher concentration due to aggregation

  12. Evaluation of air pollution control policies in Mexico City using finite Markov chain observation model

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Hoyos; Pedro Lara; Elba Ortiz; Rafael López; Jesús González

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov observation based model, where the transition matrix is formulated using air quality monitoring data for specific pollutant emissions, with the primary objective to analyze the corresponding stationary distributions and evaluate sceneries for the air quality impact of pollution control policies. The model is non predictive and could be applied to every source of pollutant emissions included in air monitoring data. Two cases of study are presented, ozone and sulfur...

  13. Performance optimization of a photovoltaic chain conversion by the PWM control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezoug, M. R.; Chenni, R.

    2017-02-01

    The interest of the research technique of maximum power point tracking, exposed by this article, lays in the fact of work instantly on the real characteristic of the photovoltaic module. This work is based on instantaneous measurements of its terminals' current & voltage as well as the exploitation of the characteristic "Power - Duty Cycle" to define rapidly the Duty cycle in which power reaches its maximum value. To ensure instantaneous tracking of the point of maximum power, we use "DC/DC Converter" based on "Pulse Wave Modulation's (PWM) Command" controlled by an algorithm implanted in a microcontroller's memory. This algorithm responds to the quick changes in climate (sunlight and temperature). To identify the control parameters "VPV & IPV" at any change in operating conditions, sensors are projected. this algorithm applied to the Duty cycle of the static converter enables the control of power supplied by the photovoltaic generator thanks to oscillatory movement around the MPP. Our article highlights the importance of this technique which lays in its simplicity and performance in changing climatic conditions. This efficiency is confirmed by experimental tests and this technique will improve its predecessors.

  14. Positron annihilation with core and valence electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G

    2015-01-01

    $\\gamma$-ray spectra for positron annihilation with the core and valence electrons of the noble gas atoms Ar, Kr and Xe is calculated within the framework of diagrammatic many-body theory. The effect of positron-atom and short-range positron-electron correlations on the annihilation process is examined in detail. Short-range correlations, which are described through non-local corrections to the vertex of the annihilation amplitude, are found to significantly enhance the spectra for annihilation on the core orbitals. For Ar, Kr and Xe, the core contributions to the annihilation rate are found to be 0.55\\%, 1.5\\% and 2.2\\% respectively, their small values reflecting the difficulty for the positron to probe distances close to the nucleus. Importantly however, the core subshells have a broad momentum distribution and markedly contribute to the annihilation spectra at Doppler energy shifts $\\gtrsim3$\\,keV, and even dominate the spectra of Kr and Xe at shifts $\\gtrsim5$\\,keV. Their inclusion brings the theoretical ...

  15. One Way to Design a Valence-Skip Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kawashima, K.

    2017-02-01

    Valence-skip compound is a good candidate with high T c and low anisotropy because it has a large attractive interaction at the site of valence-skip atom. However, it is not easy to synthesize such compound because of (i) the instability of the skipping valence state, (ii) the competing charge order, and (iii) that formal valence may not be true in some compounds. In the present study, we show several examples of the valence-skip compounds and discuss how we can design them by first principles calculations. Furthermore, we calculated the electronic structure of a promising candidate of valence skipping compound RbTlCl3 from first principles. We confirmed that the charge-density wave (CDW) is formed in this compound, and the Tl atoms in two crystallographic different sites take the valence Tl1+ and Tl3+. Structure optimization study reveals that this CDW is stable at the ambient pressure, while this CDW gap can be collapsed when we apply pressure with several gigapascals. In this metallic phase, we can expect a large charge fluctuation and a large electron-phonon interaction.

  16. Control of quantum interference of an excitonic wave in a chlorophyll chain with a chlorophyll ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog-Woo [Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yeon, Kyu-Hwang [Chungbuk National University, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The quantum interference of an excitonic wave and its coherent control in a nanochain with a nanoring are studied. The nanochain is comprised of six chlorophylls, where four chlorophylls compose the nanoring and two chlorophylls are attached at two opposite sites on the nanoring. The exciton dynamics and the correlation of the excitation between chlorophylls are analyzed for a given configurational arrangement and dipolar orientation of the chlorophylls. The results of this study show that the excitation at specified chlorophylls is suppressed or enhanced by destructive or constructive interference of the excitonic wave in the chlorophyll nanochain.

  17. Valence Parity Renders z•-Type Ions Chemically Distinct

    OpenAIRE

    Hubler, Shane L.; Jue, April; Keith, Jason; McAlister, Graeme C.; Craciun, Gheorghe; Coon, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    Here we report that the odd electron z•-type ions formed by the electron-based peptide dissociation methods (electron capture or transfer, ECD or ETD) have distinctive chemical compositions from other common product ion types. Specifically, b-, c-, and y-type ions have an odd number of atoms with an odd valence (e.g., N and H), while z•-type ions contain an even number of atoms with an odd valence. This tenet, referred to as the valence parity rule, mandates that no c-type ion shall have the ...

  18. Valence electron theory of graphite spheroidizing in primary crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志林; 孙振国; 李志林

    1995-01-01

    Bond-length-difference (BLD) analysis results show that austenrte and cementite containing Mg, Zr. S have very different valence electron structures from Fe -C austenite and cementite. We find that this difference is the tie of absorption hypothesis, surface tension hypothesis, undercooling hypothesis in graphite spheroidizing theory. By using "the model of valence electron theory of drag-like effect" in our previous paper in crystallization theory, the spheroidizing effect of Mg and Zr and the anti-spheroidizing effect of S can be explained with the valence electron structure data of phases. Therefore, electron theory of graphite spheroidizing can be advanced.

  19. Trait valence and the better-than-average effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ron S; Brown, Mark G

    2011-12-01

    People tend to regard themselves as having superior personality traits compared to their average peer. To test whether this "better-than-average effect" varies with trait valence, participants (N = 154 students) rated both themselves and the average student on traits constituting either positive or negative poles of five trait dimensions. In each case, the better-than-average effect was found, but trait valence had no effect. Results were discussed in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's prospect theory.

  20. 供应链管理环境下的库存控制研究%The Research of Inventory Control under Supply Chain Management Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉香; 李志刚

    2013-01-01

    It is important that the study of enterprise inventory control methods under supply chain management environment can save the cost of the supply chain and improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain. This article started from the analysis of inventory control problems in practice under the supply chain management environment. And also expounded new characteristics of inventory control under supply chain environment, targeted raised strategy and methods to resolve questions.%  研究供应链管理环境下企业库存控制方法,对于节约供应链成本、提高供应链整体效率有重要意义。本文从分析供应链管理环境下库存控制在实践中所出现的各种问题入手,阐述了供应链环境下库存控制的新特点,有针对性地提出解决问题的策略和方法。

  1. On the valence fluctuation in the early actinide metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderlind, P., E-mail: soderlind@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Landa, A.; Tobin, J.G.; Allen, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Medling, S.; Booth, C.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bauer, E.D.; Cooley, J.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We make a connection between experimentally observed valence fluctuations and density functional theory. • We present a new model for valence fluctuations. • We present new experimental data for uranium and valence fluctuations. - Abstract: Recent X-ray measurements suggest a degree of valence fluctuation in plutonium and uranium intermetallics. We are applying a novel scheme, in conjunction with density functional theory, to predict 5f configuration fractions of states with valence fluctuations for the early actinide metals. For this purpose we perform constrained integer f-occupation calculations for the α phases of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium metals. For plutonium we also investigate the δ phase. The model predicts uranium and neptunium to be dominated by the f{sup 3} and f{sup 4} configurations, respectively, with only minor contributions from other configurations. For plutonium (both α and δ phase) the scenario is dramatically different. Here, the calculations predict a relatively even distribution between three valence configurations. The δ phase has a greater configuration fraction of f{sup 6} compared to that of the α phase. The theory is consistent with the interpretations of modern X-ray experiments and we present resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy results for α-uranium.

  2. Emotional valence and the free-energy principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Joffily

    Full Text Available The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world.

  3. Emotional valence and the free-energy principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world.

  4. 关键链项目进度控制技术综合分析研究%Analysis on Critical Chain Project Comprehensive Schedule Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊亭

    2015-01-01

    Critical chain project management(CCPM)is an important breakthrough in the development of project management, but critical chain project schedule controlling technology based on buffer mechanism is not comprehensive enough,and lacks of important control sector,and has no association with traditional project schedule control technology and so on. This paper analyzes the fundamental of CCPM schedule control method and traditional project schedule control technology. Based on buffer time management it proposes buffer time consumption ratio,buffer consumption & critical chain completion ratio,and critical chain project schedule control technology based on earned value. Based on resource management it puts forward three principles for critical chain project schedule control with CCPM characteristics. As a whole,this paper brings forward a comprehensive critical chain project schedule control technology,and provides a foundation for critical chain project control system.%关键链项目管理是现代项目管理理论的一个重要突破,但是基于缓冲机制的关键链项目进度控制技术还不够全面、存在部分控制环节缺失、未能与传统项目进度控制技术融合等问题.通过分析关键链项目进度控制基础和传统的项目进度控制技术,基于缓冲时间管理提出缓冲区消耗比例、缓冲区消耗与关键链完成比率和关键链挣值进度控制技术;基于资源管理提出具有关键链项目特色的3个进度控制准则,为系统研究关键链项目进度控制体系奠定了基础.

  5. Affective Valence, Stimulus Attributes, and P300: Color vs. Black/White and Normal vs. Scrambled Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Maya E.; Class, Quetzal A.; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were selected to manipulate affective valence (unpleasant, neutral, pleasant) while keeping arousal level the same. The pictures were presented in an oddball paradigm, with a visual pattern used as the standard stimulus. Subjects pressed a button whenever a target was detected. Experiment 1 presented normal pictures in color and black/white. Control stimuli were constructed for both the color and black/white conditions by randomly rearranging 1 cm square fragments of each original picture to produce a “scrambled” image. Experiment 2 presented the same normal color pictures with large, medium, and small scrambled condition (2, 1, and 0.5 cm squares). The P300 event-related brain potential demonstrated larger amplitudes over frontal areas for positive compared to negative or neutral images for normal color pictures in both experiments. Attenuated and nonsignificant valence effects were obtained for black/white images. Scrambled stimuli in each study yielded no valence effects but demonstrated typical P300 topography that increased from frontal to parietal areas. The findings suggest that P300 amplitude is sensitive to affective picture valence in the absence of stimulus arousal differences, and that stimulus color contributes to ERP valence effects. PMID:18708099

  6. A new approach to e-commerce customs control in China: Integrated supply chain - A practical application towards large-scale data pipeline implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hu (Rong); Yao-Hua Tan (Yao Hua); F. Heijmann (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDevelopments in e-commerce are presenting new challenges in customs control and China's customs agency is developing a new approach to how it addresses these challenges. China Customs has adopted an integrated supply chain approach to secure international trade lanes and to facilitate le

  7. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte

    2013-01-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  8. Character Disposition and Behavior Type: Influences of Valence on Preschool Children's Social Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elaine F.; Tobias, Marvin; Pauley, Danielle; Thomson, Nicole Renick; Johnson, Shawana Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied the influences of valence information on preschool children's (n = 47) moral (good or bad), liking (liked or disliked by a friend), and consequence-of-behavior (reward or punishment) judgments. The authors presented 8 scenarios describing the behavior valence, positive valence (help, share), negative valence (verbal insult,…

  9. Multidimensional X-Ray Spectroscopy of Valence and Core Excitations in Cysteine

    CERN Document Server

    Biggs, Jason D; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    Several nonlinear spectroscopy experiments which employ broadband x-ray pulses to probe the coupling between localized core and delocalized valence excitation are simulated for the amino acid cysteine at the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen and the K and L-edges of sulfur. We focus on two dimensional (2D) and 3D signals generated by two- and three-pulse stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) with frequency-dispersed probe. We show how the four-pulse x-ray signals $\\boldsymbol{k}_\\mathrm{I}=-\\boldsymbol{k}_1+\\boldsymbol{k}_2+\\boldsymbol{k}_3$ and $\\boldsymbol{k}_\\mathrm{II}=\\boldsymbol{k}_1-\\boldsymbol{k}_2+\\boldsymbol{k}_3$ can give new 3D insight into the SXRS signals. The coupling between valence- and core-excited states can be visualized in three dimensional plots, revealing the origin of the polarizability that controls the simpler pump-probe SXRS signals.

  10. Continuum limit of overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Herdoiza, Gregorio [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Jansen, Karl [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC

    2010-12-15

    We study a lattice QCD mixed action with overlap valence quarks on two flavours of Wilson maximally twisted mass sea quarks. Employing three different matching conditions to relate both actions to each other, we investigate the continuum limit by using three values of the lattice spacing ranging from a{approx}0.05 fm to 0.08 fm. A particular emphasis is put on the effect on physical observables of the topological zero modes appearing in the valence overlap operator. We estimate the region of parameter space where the contribution from these zero modes is sufficiently small such that their effects can be safely controlled and a restoration of unitarity of the mixed action in the continuum limit is reached. (orig.)

  11. Effects of valence, geometry and electronic correlations on transport in transition metal benzene sandwich molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, M.; Jacob, D.

    2016-11-01

    We study the impact of the valence and the geometry on the electronic structure and transport properties of different transition metal-benzene sandwich molecules bridging the tips of a Cu nanocontact. Our density-functional calculations show that the electronic transport properties of the molecules depend strongly on the molecular geometry which can be controlled by the nanocontact tips. Depending on the valence of the transition metal center certain molecules can be tuned in and out of half-metallic behaviour facilitating potential spintronics applications. We also discuss our results in the framework of an Anderson impurity model, indicating cases where the inclusion of local correlations alters the ground state qualitatively. For Co and V centered molecules we find indications of an orbital Kondo effect.

  12. Social Annotation Valence: The Impact on Online Informed Consent Beliefs and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Orit; Okerlund, Johanna; Westendorf, Lauren; Ball, Madeleine; Nov, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media, mobile and wearable technology, and connected devices have significantly expanded the opportunities for conducting biomedical research online. Electronic consent to collecting such data, however, poses new challenges when contrasted to traditional consent processes. It reduces the participant-researcher dialogue but provides an opportunity for the consent deliberation process to move from solitary to social settings. In this research, we propose that social annotations, embedded in the consent form, can help prospective participants deliberate on the research and the organization behind it in ways that traditional consent forms cannot. Furthermore, we examine the role of the comments’ valence on prospective participants’ beliefs and behavior. Objective This study focuses specifically on the influence of annotations’ valence on participants’ perceptions and behaviors surrounding online consent for biomedical research. We hope to shed light on how social annotation can be incorporated into digitally mediated consent forms responsibly and effectively. Methods In this controlled between-subjects experiment, participants were presented with an online consent form for a personal genomics study that contained social annotations embedded in its margins. Individuals were randomly assigned to view the consent form with positive-, negative-, or mixed-valence comments beside the text of the consent form. We compared participants’ perceptions of being informed and having understood the material, their trust in the organization seeking the consent, and their actual consent across conditions. Results We find that comment valence has a marginally significant main effect on participants’ perception of being informed (F2=2.40, P=.07); specifically, participants in the positive condition (mean 4.17, SD 0.94) felt less informed than those in the mixed condition (mean 4.50, SD 0.69, P=.09). Comment valence also had a marginal main effect on the

  13. Environmental and Climatic Control on the Occurrence and Abundance of Long Chain Alkenones in Lakes of the Interior United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S.; Baker, P. A.; Grimm, E. C.; Nyren, P.; Theroux, S.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Long chain alkenones are a class of temperature sensitive lipids with great potential for quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions from continental locations. We have surveyed 57 lacustrine core-top sediments in the in the interior US for alkenones in order to constrain the environmental conditions that control the occurrence of alkenone-producing haptophytes in lakes and determine the possibility of using lacustrine alkenones to reconstruct temperature. Thirteen out of the 57 sites surveyed contain alkenones in surface sediments. Three of the 13 lakes contain abundant C37:4 alkenones as commonly found in lake sediments, whereas the rest of the lakes show a surprising absence of C37:4 alkenone. 18S Ribosomal DNA sequences amplified from the C37:4 containing lakes suggests the alkenone-producing haptophyte falls amongst the Isochrysis spp. and showcases a strong similarity to a haptophyte derived from Ace Lake, Antarctica, whereas the other lakes probably contain a different species. We also find cold, oligosaline conditions with high concentrations of sodium and sulfate promote high concentrations of alkenones. Salinity serves as a threshold control on the C37:4 alkenone such that C37:4 is only found in lakes with salinity above 2.74 g / L. Sites with the C37:4 alkenone plot along a previously published calibration. We also create a new alkenone temperature calibration using water column filters from Lake George spanning a temperature range of 8 to 24 degrees C. In addition, we obtain an alkenone- inferred temperature record from Lake George, ND for the instrumental period and a high-resolution (~20 year resolution) Holocene length record from Brush Lake, MT, in order to further assess the applicability of lacustrine alkenones for continental paleo-temperature reconstructions.

  14. Optimization and Validation of a Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction with RNA Internal Control to Detect Rubella RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to a report from WHO, cases of rubella infection in Indonesia has increased up to 10-fold from 2007 to 2011. Despite no data of congenital rubella syndrome in the report, there are approximately 45,000 cases of babies born with heart failure and 0.1-0.3% live births with congenital deafness in Indonesia. Allegedly, rubella infection during pregnancy may play a role in this condition. This study aimed to optimize and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR method to detect rubella virus RNA as an aid for the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection. METHODS: Method optimization was conducted using nucleic acids extracted from Trimovax Merieux vaccine with the High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit. One step RT-qPCR was performed with Quantifast Multiplex RTPCR+R Kit. Target synthetic DNA was designed and used to determine the sensitivity of the method. RNA internal control was synthesized to control the process of extraction and amplification. RESULTS: The analytical sensitivity of this method was as low as 5 copies target synthetic DNA/μl. The mean Coefficient of Variation (CV % of the critical threshold (Ct obtained were 2.71%, 1.20%, 1.62%, and 1.59% for within run, between run, between kit lots, and between operators, respectively. Recovery of the target synthetic DNA from amniotic fluid was 100.51% (by the log copies/μl at the concentration of 1,000,000 copies/μl. CONCLUSIONS: RT-qPCR is successfully used for the detection of rubella virus RNA in vaccine and synthetic nucleic acid. With its high sensitivity, good precision and recovery, this method offers a means to improve the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in developing countries like Indonesia. KEYWORDS: congenital rubella, RT-qPCR, prenatal diagnosis, amniotic fluid.

  15. The acoustic correlates of valence depend on emotion family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The voice expresses a wide range of emotions through modulations of acoustic parameters such as frequency and amplitude. Although the acoustics of individual emotions are well understood, attempts to describe the acoustic correlates of broad emotional categories such as valence have yielded mixed results. In the present study, we analyzed the acoustics of emotional valence for different families of emotion. We divided emotional vocalizations into "motivational," "moral," and "aesthetic" families as defined by the OCC (Ortony, Clore, and Collins) model of emotion. Subjects viewed emotional scenarios and were cued to vocalize congruent exclamations in response to them, for example, "Yay!" and "Damn!". Positive valence was weakly associated with high-pitched and loud vocalizations. However, valence interacted with emotion family for both pitch and amplitude. A general acoustic code for valence does not hold across families of emotion, whereas family-specific codes provide a more accurate description of vocal emotions. These findings are consolidated into a set of "rules of expression" relating vocal dimensions to emotion dimensions.

  16. Stackelberg Decision in a Supply Chain Based on Controllable Lead Time%基于可控交货期的供应链Stackelberg决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何景师; 戴航; 张智勇

    2012-01-01

    Time is a bottle-neck element of the supply chain agile operation in practice. In Stackelberg model of a supply chain between the upstream and downstream stages, a supply chain model based on controllable lead time was constructed. Through calculation of the supply chain model, this paper analyzed the influence lead time crashing cost sharing and the delay penalty impact on the lead time, order quantity and supply cost. It is pointed out that optimal lead time and order quantity decision-making existed in a supply chain, which could get the supply chain optimal decision. The result from an example revealed that the model could optimize the decision making of the supply chain upstream and downstream enterprises. Therefore, it provided a piece of scientific evidence for the planners to develop effective solutions.%时间已成为供应链敏捷运作的瓶颈要素。在供应商和分销商供应链上下游的Stackelberg模型中,本文构建了基于可变交货期的供应链决策模型。通过对供应链决策模型的计算,分析了考虑压缩交货期费用分担和延迟交货惩罚对交货期、订货量、供应链成本的影响,认为在供应商和分销商中存在最优的交货期和订货批量,可得到供应链最优的决策。算例的计算结果表明,该模型可以优化供应链上下游企业的决策,从而为规划决策者提供科学依据。

  17. Chain Sprockets Manufacturing, on Vertical Machining Center GDV400PM1F4 Updated with Numerical Control NCT®2000M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Francisc Fekete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper content comprise a few aspects regarding processing of chain sprockets on vertical processing center GDV400PM1F4 updated by changing the original equipment CNC-2S42-65 (1Я3.035.090 with NCT®2000M, which includes in short characteristics of two CNC, the old and the new one, the constructive elements of chain sprockets processed, enunciation of mains stages of manufacturing process adopted. The aim is to manufacture chain sprockets with classic tools, bypassing the need to design and build a sprocket hob in accordance with specified chain sprockets geometry, processing is performed on a machine which technological parameters have been improved.

  18. 装备项目型供应链风险控制策略%Equipment Project Supply Chain Risk Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义; 钟斌

    2015-01-01

    Project supply chain management mode can effectively realize advantages complementary between the players in equipment project,and make optimization configuration of resource,which can improve the overall benefit in supply chain,at the same time,all kinds of uncertainty factors can lead to the occurrence of risk transfer behavior between supply chain players. In order to provide effective risk control measures,by means of considering the node position importance and node attribute importance,the project supply chain node importance evaluation model is constructed. To measure supply chain players risk recognition and risk control effort level,the supply chain players anti-risk effort level evaluation method is offed,finally a project supply chain profit distribution strategy based on node importance and anti-risk effort level is put forward. This strategy can effectively encourage active behavior of players in risk identification and risk control,which is a risk-sharing,benefit-sharing project supply chain cooperative game strategy.%项目型供应链管理模式能有效实现装备研制过程中行为主体间的优势互补和资源的优化配置,利于供应链整体效益的提高,但各种不确定性因素会导致主体间风险传递行为的发生。为提供风险控制有效对策,通过考虑节点位置重要度和属性重要度,构建了项目型供应链节点重要度评估模型;通过衡量行为主体风险识别和风险控制的努力程度,给出了行为主体抗风险努力程度的评价方法,最后提出了一种基于节点重要度和抗风险努力程度的项目型供应链利益分配策略,该策略能有效促使行为主体主动进行风险识别和风险控制,是一种“风险共担、利益共享”的项目型供应链合作博弈策略。

  19. Falling chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  20. Poly(glycidyl ether)-Based Monolayers on Gold Surfaces: Control of Grafting Density and Chain Conformation by Grafting Procedure, Surface Anchor, and Molecular Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Silke; Weinhart, Marie

    2017-03-07

    For a meaningful correlation of surface coatings with their respective biological response reproducible coating procedures, well-defined surface coatings, and thorough surface characterization with respect to layer thickness and grafting density are indispensable. The same applies to polymeric monolayer coatings which are intended to be used for, e.g., fundamental studies on the volume phase transition of surface end-tethered thermoresponsive polymer chains. Planar gold surfaces are frequently used as model substrates, since they allow a variety of straightforward surface characterization methods. Herein we present reproducible grafting-to procedures performed with thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) copolymers composed of glycidyl methyl ether (GME) and ethyl glycidyl ether (EGE). The copolymers feature different molecular weights (2 kDa, 9 kDa, 24 kDa) and are equipped with varying sulfur-containing anchor groups in order to achieve adjustable grafting densities on gold surfaces and hence control the tethered polymers' chain conformation. We determined "wet" and "dry" thicknesses of these coatings by QCM-D and ellipsometry measurements and deduced anchor distances and degrees of chain overlap of the polymer chains assembled on gold. Grafting under cloud point conditions allowed for higher degrees of chain overlap compared to grafting from a good solvent like ethanol, independent of the used sulfur-containing anchor group for polymers with low (2 kDa) and medium (9 kDa) molecular weights. By contrast, the achieved grafting densities and thus chain overlaps of surface-tethered polymers with high (24 kDa) molecular weights were identical for both grafting methods. Monolayers prepared from an ethanolic solution of poly(glycidyl ether)s equipped with sterically demanding disulfide-containing anchors revealed the lowest degrees of chain overlap. The ratio of the radius of gyration to the anchor distance (2 Rg/l) of the latter coating was found to be lower than 1

  1. Are Age Effects in Positivity Influenced by the Valence of Distractors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Maryam; von Hippel, William; Henry, Julie D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2015-01-01

    An age-related 'positivity' effect has been identified, in which older adults show an information-processing bias towards positive emotional items in attention and memory. In the present study, we examined this positivity bias by using a novel paradigm in which emotional and neutral distractors were presented along with emotionally valenced targets. Thirty-five older and 37 younger adults were asked during encoding to attend to emotional targets paired with distractors that were either neutral or opposite in valence to the target. Pupillary responses were recorded during initial encoding as well as a later incidental recognition task. Memory and pupillary responses for negative items were not affected by the valence of distractors, suggesting that positive distractors did not automatically attract older adults' attention while they were encoding negative targets. Additionally, the pupil dilation to negative items mediated the relation between age and positivity in memory. Overall, memory and pupillary responses provide converging support for a cognitive control account of positivity effects in late adulthood and suggest a link between attentional processes and the memory positivity effect.

  2. Valence-specific modulation in the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to visual scene recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Schettino

    Full Text Available Visual scene recognition is a dynamic process through which incoming sensory information is iteratively compared with predictions regarding the most likely identity of the input stimulus. In this study, we used a novel progressive unfolding task to characterize the accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to scene recognition, and its potential modulation by the emotional valence of these scenes. Our results show that emotional (pleasant and unpleasant scenes led to slower accumulation of evidence compared to neutral scenes. In addition, when controlling for the potential contribution of non-emotional factors (i.e., familiarity and complexity of the pictures, our results confirm a reliable shift in the accumulation of evidence for pleasant relative to neutral and unpleasant scenes, suggesting a valence-specific effect. These findings indicate that proactive iterations between sensory processing and top-down predictions during scene recognition are reliably influenced by the rapidly extracted (positive emotional valence of the visual stimuli. We interpret these findings in accordance with the notion of a genuine positivity offset during emotional scene recognition.

  3. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Wah Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM. Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF forming and rupture process. However, the conduction mechanism of resistive switching memory varies considerably depending on the material used in the dielectric layer and selection of electrodes. Among the popular observations are the Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT and hopping conduction. In this article, we will conduct a survey on several published valence change resistive switching memories with a particular interest in the I-V characteristic and the corresponding conduction mechanism.

  4. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  5. Recognizing the emotional valence of names: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional valence only for nouns. This might reflect automatic attention directed towards emotional stimuli. The absence of such an effect for names supports the notion that the emotional meaning carried by names is accessed after word recognition and person identification. In addition, both names with negative valence and emotional nouns elicited late positive effects, which have been associated with evaluation of emotional significance. This positive effect started earlier for nouns than for names, but with similar durations. Our results suggest that distinct neural systems are involved in the retrieval of names' and nouns' emotional meaning.

  6. Bond valence parameterslinearly dependent on the molybdenum oxidation states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the available crystal data, a linear correlation between R0, the bond valence parameter for a Mo-containing chemical bond, and the Mo oxidation state n was developed for the first time. Using the "universal" value of the parameter B = 0.037 nm, the linear equations of R0-n for Mo-X (X: O, S, N, Cl and F) bonds were established. The oxidation-state independent Mo-O bond valence parameters, R0 = 0.18788 nm and B = 0.03046 nm, published recently have been shown to be a special case of the linearly correlated functions. Some bond valence sum calculations in compounds containing only Mo-O bonds using these para- meters are presented.

  7. Charge transfer and mixed-valence behavior in phtalocyanine-dimer cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monari, Antonio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2010-09-28

    Phtalocyanine compounds deserved a considerable interest in recent times, particularly because of their possible use in the field of nanoelectronics. In particular, the charge mobility (of both electrons and holes) in phtalocyanine stacked arrangements has been recently extensively investigated. The present work focuses on the study of the hole-transfer mechanism between two phtalocyanine monomers. For an interdisk distance larger than 4.5 bohrs, the eclipsed dimer exhibits a mixed-valence behavior, with a saddle point transition state separating two equivalent minima. This behavior, however, is strongly dependent on the relative angle between the disks. In particular, the mixed-valence character of the compound is strongly enhanced for arrangements that are far from the eclipsed geometry. Moreover, for values of the angle close to π/8 and 3π/8, the ground and excited transition states have exactly the same energy, thus implying the presence of a conical intersection. These results can have deep implication in the charge transfer along phtalocyanine chains.

  8. Bond—Valence Sum and Distortion of Coordination Polyhedra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章礼明

    1993-01-01

    By using the Lagrange's intermediate value theorem,it is derived mathematically that the structur-al distortion of a coordination polyhedron may lead to an increase in bond-valence sum of the cen-tral atom of ion .The applicabilities of the bond-valence model are discussed in the following two cases:the modeling of crystal structure ,and the indication of distortion degree of a coordination polyhedron.Also it is shown that a distorted polyhedron should be in favor of a longer average bond length or a smaller coordination number.

  9. Lattice anomalies in CeNi unstable valence compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazukov, V.N.; Nefeodova, E.V.; Alekseev, P.A.; Nemkovski, K.S.; Sadikov, I.P.; Tiden, N.N. [RRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sikolenko, V.V. [JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Staub, U.; Pradervand, C. [SLS, PSI, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Braden, M. [LLB, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); INFP Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Soderholm, L. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Il-60439 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Neutron diffraction and X-ray absorption measurements have been performed to study the changes in the structure and the Ce valence between 10 K and 295 K. No evidence for a phase transition was obtained, but some nearest-neighbour distances have clear peculiarities in the temperature range of 100 K to 150 K. The valence of Ce increases continuously with decreasing temperature, which can explain neither the lattice anomalies nor the previously observed temperature dependence of the phonon frequencies. A correlation between the gap-like magnetic excitation spectrum formed at low temperatures and observed lattice anomalies is discussed. (orig.)

  10. 基于价值链管理的内部控制构建思想%Constructing Thoughts of Internal Control Based on Value Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其镇

    2011-01-01

    Development and application of information technology and value chain theory provide a good opportunity to improve the management level of enterprise and gain a competitive advantage. This paper, combining with the value chain theory, analyzes the key steps to build the internal control which can adapt to the management of value chain under the guidance of the internal control structure. This paper .argues that internal control should be value-added activities which take getting a competitive advantage as the strategic goal, take theall kinds of "flow" in business as the main line of control and constantly self-perfect.%信息技术与价值链理论的发展与应用,为提高企业管理水平,获得竞争优势提供了一个良好的契机.本文结合价值链理论,分析了在内部控制结构指导下构建一个能适应价值链管理的内部控制的关键步骤.本文认为,内部控制应是一个以获取竞争优势为战略目标,以企业内各种"流"为控制主线并能不断自我完善的增值活动.

  11. 可编程控制器的上位链接实验研究%Study on Superior Chaining Experiment of Programmable Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀琴; 赵金宪; 桑玉军

    2000-01-01

    This article introduced the wire-splicing method of superior chaining between pro-grammable logic controller and computer, control command style of superior machine andstyle of response to superior machine's control command of inferior one.%介绍了可编程控制器与计算机进行上位链接的接线方法,上位机的控制命令格式,下位机对上位机控制命令的响应格式。

  12. 考虑产品质量控制的供应链契约模型%Supply Chain Coordination Contract Model Considering Product Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董仲慧; 梁工谦; 张群

    2015-01-01

    A non-cooperative game model for the supply chain quality management is built to solve the supply chain coordination problem with the product qualification ratio and inspection level introduced. The paper studies the optimal product qualification ratio and inspection level of supply chain enterprises under the centralized decision.In the decentralized decision,the effectiveness of different contracts in the supply chain coordination aiming at quality control is verified.Results show that the revenue sharing contract,the buyback contract and the after-sale guarantee contract all can achieve supply chain coordination,and that the product qualification ratio and the inspection level have a significant impact on the contracts ' supply chain coordination.The numerical case demonstrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.%针对考虑企业质量决策的供应链协调问题,构建了供应链质量管理非合作博弈模型,在模型中引入产品合格率及检测水平两变量.研究了在集中决策下实现供应链协调的最优产品合格率与最优检测水平;在分散决策下,证明了在考虑产品质量控制时不同契约在供应链协调中的有效性,结果表明收益共享契约、回购契约及售后担保三种契约均能实现供应链协调,产品合格率与检测水平对契约协调能力有着显著影响.并通过算例验证所得结论的有效性和可行性.

  13. A Research on Coordination of VMI & TPL Supply Chain under Centralized Control%集中控制型VMI&TPL供应链的协调研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 赵道致; 何龙飞

    2012-01-01

    以基本的RS契约为基础,研究了如何实现随机需求下集中控制型VMI&TPL供应链的协调.鉴于基本的RS契约失效,设计了一种由各成员共担库存风险的风险共担型RS契约,进一步提出了基于不对称Nash协商的风险共担型RS契约.研究表明,风险共担型RS契约仅能实现供应链整体期望收益的Pareto最优,而基于不对称Nash协商的风险共担型RS契约则能同时实现供应链整体期望收益的Pareto最优和各成员期望收益的Pareto改进.%The coordination problem of a supply chain under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode with third party logistics (TPL) is studied in this paper. In the supply chain, the demands are subject to random disturbance. It is assume that the supply chain is coordinated by revenue sharing (RS) contract and it is operated under centralized control mode. Consider that the basic RS contract is no longer effective, an RS contract with the stock risk shared by retailer, supplier, and TPL is proposed to coordinate the supply chain. This contract is further extended to the RS contract combined with risk-sharing under Asymmetric Nash Negotiation. With these contracts, analysis is carried out. Results show that while the RS contract with risk-sharing can maximize the expected revenue of whole supply chain, the one with risk-sharing under Asymmetric Nash Negotiation can coordinate the supply chain well and at the same time the Pareto improvement for every member's expected revenue can be achieved.

  14. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  15. Unwrapping Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Cambou, A D; Hamm, E; Hanna, J A; Menon, N; Santangelo, C D; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    A loop of chain can move along its own tangents, maintaining a steady shape. An open-ended chain undergoing a nontrivial motion must change its shape. One consequence is that chains pulled around objects will fail to follow the contours of the objects, unwrapping themselves instead. This short note accompanies a fluid dynamics video submission (83068) to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2012.

  16. Adsorption of weak polyelectrolytes on charged nanoparticles. Impact of salt valency, pH, and nanoparticle charge density. Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Fabrice; Stoll, Serge

    2011-10-27

    Complex formation between a weak flexible polyelectrolyte chain and one positively charged nanoparticle in presence of explicit counterions and salt particles is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of parameters such as the nanoparticle surface charge density, salt valency, and solution property such as the pH on the chain protonation/deprotonation process and monomer adsorption at the nanoparticle surface are systematically investigated. It is shown that the nanoparticle presence significantly modifies chain acid/base and polyelectrolyte conformational properties. The importance of the attractive electrostatic interactions between the chain and the nanoparticle clearly promotes the chain deprotonation leading, at high pH and nanoparticle charge density, to fully wrapped polyelectrolyte at the nanoparticle surface. When the nanoparticle bare charge is overcompensated by the polyelectrolyte charges, counterions and salt particles condense at the surface of the polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle complex to compensate for the excess of charges providing from the adsorbed polyelectrolyte chain. It is also shown that the complex formation is significantly affected by the salt valency. Indeed, with the presence of trivalent salt cations, competition is observed between the nanoparticle and the trivalent cations. As a result, the amount of adsorbed monomers is less important than in the monovalent and divalent case and chain conformations are different due to the collapse of polyelectrolyte segments around trivalent cations out of the nanoparticle adsorption layer.

  17. Falling chains

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C W; Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional falling motion of a bungee chain suspended from a rigid support and of a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Their Lagrangians are found to contain no explicit time dependence. As a result, these falling chains are conservative systems. Each of their Lagrange's equations of motion is shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show in particular that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when the transferred link is emitted by the emitting subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling bungee chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. In the simplified one-dimensional treatment, the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the falling bungee chain is found to be converted by the chain tension at the rigid support into the internal kinetic energy of the chain. However, as t...

  18. Fresh Electricity Supplier Cold-chain Logistics Cost Control%生鲜电商冷链物流的成本控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学工; 齐美丽

    2016-01-01

    It becomes normal for domestic e-business industry to set foot in the fresh food market nowadays, but fresh food cold-chain logistics has become a bottleneck restraining its development. The article first analyzed the current development of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics, the factors contributing to it and three main cold-chain operation models used;then, the article revealed that the fresh food cold-chain logistics had low level and absence problems in infrastructure, market degree and standardization systems in China, which led to non-profit of 95%e-business;in addition, the article divided and found out logistics cost structures of different types according to the process structure of the fresh food cold-chain logistics, analyzed the reasons why the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics of different types had high costs, adopted the activity cost method to clear up and calculate the cost of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics, gave the calculation example of e-business calculating the cold-chain logistics costs, and hence arrived at the solution that effective costs control of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics needed to optimize the storage, transportation frequency and transportation distance etc. through the example; finally, according to the situation, the costs of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics were high all the way, the article pertinently brought up strategies and suggestions about how to control the costs of the fresh food e-business cold-chain.%尽管国内电商产业涉足生鲜品已成为常态,但生鲜品冷链物流成为制约其发展的瓶颈。剖析生鲜电商冷链物流发展现状、成因及目前主要采用的三种冷链运营模式。揭示我国生鲜品冷链物流存在基础设施落后、市场化程度偏低及标准化体系缺位等问题,导致95%生鲜电商处于亏损状态。根据生鲜品冷链物流流程构造,划分并找出不同类型物流成本

  19. Voice and Valency in San Luis Potosi Huasteco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Ledo Yanez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the system of transitivity, voice and valency alternations in Huasteco of San Luis Potosi (Mayan) within a functional-typological framework. The study is based on spoken discourse and elicited data collected in the municipalities of Aquismon and Tancanhuitz de Santos in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The…

  20. Raman Sideband Cooling of Two-Valence-Electron Fermionic Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-Hui; XU Xin-Ye

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for laser cooling two-valence-electron fermionic atoms. Our protocol employs resolved-sideband cooling on the stimulated Raman transition between the two magnetic sublevels (m = F and m = F - 1) of the ground state with total anguiar momentum F. The optical pumping from m = F - 1 to 1 Pi are used to decouple atoms in the m = F - 1 state. We calculate the Raman coupling generated by an engineered optical lattice. The result shows that it is possible to laser cool the two-valence-electron fermionic atoms to the ground state. The atoms in the ground state provide a new system for quantum optics.%@@ We propose a method for laser cooling two-valence-electron fermionic atoms.Our protocol employs resolved- sideband cooling on the stimulated Raman transition between the two magnetic sublevels (m=F and m = F- 1) of the ground state with total angular momentum F.The optical pumping from m = F - 1 to p are used to decouple atoms in the m = F - 1 state.We calculate the Raman coupling generated by an engineered optical lattice.The result shows that it is possible to laser cool the two-valence-electron fermionic atoms to the ground state.The atoms in the ground state provide a new system for quantum optics.

  1. Resonance and Aromaticity : An Ab Initio Valence Bond Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H.; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Resonance energy is one of the criteria to measure aromaticity. The effect of the use of different orbital models is investigated in the calculated resonance energies of cyclic conjugated hydrocarbons within the framework of the ab initio Valence Bond Self-Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. The VB wav

  2. Contrastive Verb Valency and Conceptual Structures in the Verbal Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Filip; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on research consisting of compiling a contrastive verb valency dictionary of Dutch, French, and English whose main strength lies in depicting semantic differences between its entries and conceptual differences between languages. Using these analyses, one can start to discern nuclear and peripheral meanings, analyze possible meaning…

  3. Valence Induction with a Head-Lexicalized PCFG

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, G; Carroll, Glenn; Rooth, Mats

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment in learning valences (subcategorization frames) from a 50 million word text corpus, based on a lexicalized probabilistic context free grammar. Distributions are estimated using a modified EM algorithm. We evaluate the acquired lexicon both by comparison with a dictionary and by entropy measures. Results show that our model produces highly accurate frame distributions.

  4. Spin Dynamics and Magnetic Ordering in Mixed Valence Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, S. M.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Axe, J. D.;

    1978-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements are reported on the mixed valence compounds Ce//1// minus //xTh//x and TmSe. The chi double prime (Q, omega ) as derived from the inelastic spectra of Ce//0//. //7//4Th//0//. //2//6 shows a peak in the gamma phase near 20. 0 meV and shifts abruptly to greater than ...

  5. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  6. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders, and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193 were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%, EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%, and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96% and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%. Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107. Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0 and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0. Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA.

  7. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery, Hajar; Stonehouse, Welma; Delshad, Maryam; Kruger, Marlena C.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; von Hurst, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA) for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders), and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193) were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%), EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%), and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96%) and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%). Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107). Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0) and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0). Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA. PMID:28218722

  8. Controlling the Morphology and Efficiency of Hybrid ZnO : Polythiophene Solar Cells Via Side Chain Functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhout, Stefan D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; van Bavel, Svetlana S.; Loos, Joachim; Stenzel, Ole; Thiedmann, Ralf; Schmidt, Volker; Campo, Bert; Cleij, Thomas J.; Lutzen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Wienk, Martijn M.; Janssen, Rene A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of polymer - metal oxide hybrid solar cells depends critically on the intimacy of mixing of the two semiconductors. The effect of side chain functionalization on the morphology and performance of conjugated polymer:ZnO solar cells is investigated. Using an ester-functionalized side ch

  9. Contractual Control in the Supply Chain. On Corporate Social Responsibility, Codes of Conduct, Contracts and (Avoiding) Liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vytopil, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses a number of questions that have been raised in the wake of the Rana Plaza factory collapse. It focuses on the extent of the legal responsibility and liability for CSR violations in the supply chains of MNCs in the Netherlands, England and California (United States). Many MNCs

  10. Effects of diaphragm stretching on posterior chain muscle kinematics and rib cage and abdominal excursion: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. González-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Few studies have explored the effects of stretching techniques on diaphragm and spine kinematics. Objective To determine whether the application of diaphragm stretching resulted in changes in posterior chain muscle kinematics and ribcage and abdominal excursion in healthy subjects. Method Eighty healthy adults were included in this randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, which received a diaphragmatic stretching technique, or the placebo group, which received a sham-ultrasound procedure. The duration of the technique, the position of participants, and the therapist who applied the technique were the same for both treatments. Participant assessment (cervical range of movement, lumbar flexibility, flexibility of the posterior chain, and rib cage and abdominal excursion was performed at baseline and immediately after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Results The mean between-group difference [95% CI] for the ribcage excursion after technique at xiphoid level was 2.48 [0.97 to 3.99], which shows significant differences in this outcome. The remaining between-group analysis showed significant differences in cervical extension, right and left flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level (p<0.05 in favor of the experimental group. Conclusion Diaphragm stretching generates a significant improvement in cervical extension, right and left cervical flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level compared to a placebo technique in healthy adults.

  11. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. pri

  12. Synthesis and spectral characterization of trinuclear, oxo-centered, carboxylate-bridged, mixed-valence iron complexes with Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atresh Kumar; Singh, Alok Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Some novel trinuclear, oxo-centered, carboxylate-bridged, mixed-valence iron complexes of the general formula [Fe(3)O(OOCR)(3)(SB)(3)L(3)] (where R=C(13)H(27), C(15)H(31) or C(17)H(35,) HSB=Schiff bases and L=Ethanol) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitutions of acetate ions from μ(3)-oxo-hexa(acetato)tri(aqua)iron(II)diiron(III), first with straight chain carboxylic acids and then with Schiff bases. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight determinations and spectral (electronic, infrared, FAB mass, Mössbauer and powder XRD) studies. Molar conductance measurements indicated the complexes to be non-electrolytes in nitrobenzene. Bridging nature of carboxylate and Schiff base anions in the complexes was established by their infrared spectra. Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicated two quadrupole-split doublets due to Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions at 80, 200 and 295K, confirming the complexes are mixed-valence species. This was also supported by the observed electronic spectra of the complexes. Magnetic susceptibility measurements displayed octahedral geometry around iron in mixed-valence state and a net antiferromagnetic exchange coupling via μ-oxo atom. Trinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed by their molecular weight determination and FAB mass spectra. A plausible structure for these complexes has been established on the basis of spectral and magnetic moment data.

  13. Hemispheric processing of differently valenced and self-relevant attachment words in middle-aged married and separated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Nicola J; Rowe, Angela C; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The reliance in experimental psychology on testing undergraduate populations with relatively little life experience, and/or ambiguously valenced stimuli with varying degrees of self-relevance, may have contributed to inconsistent findings in the literature on the valence hypothesis. To control for these potential limitations, the current study assessed lateralised lexical decisions for positive and negative attachment words in 40 middle-aged male and female participants. Self-relevance was manipulated in two ways: by testing currently married compared with previously married individuals and by assessing self-relevance ratings individually for each word. Results replicated a left hemisphere advantage for lexical decisions and a processing advantage of emotional over neutral words but did not support the valence hypothesis. Positive attachment words yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the right hemisphere, while emotional words (irrespective of valence) yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the left hemisphere. Both self-relevance manipulations were unrelated to lateralised performance. The role of participant sex and age in emotion processing are discussed as potential modulators of the present findings.

  14. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. primary inputs, operations) in different stages of FSCN. By applying Data Mining (DM) methods on those data sets, managers can identify the causes of encountered new problems, and also predict and pre...

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2...

  16. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under...

  17. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  18. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents…

  19. Speed Adaptive Inversion Control of PMSM for Chain Gun%链式炮PMSM电机转速自适应反演控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文彬; 张铭; 秦鹏飞; 彭金伟

    2011-01-01

    The speed stability of external power motor affects fire ratio of chain gun heavily. The adaptive inversion controller is designed to satisfy the high performance of rotate speed of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) for chain gun system. Real-time adaptive parameter estimation is combined to restrain the effect of parametric uncertainty and load torque disturbance. Through design input control law to stator resistance, moment of inertia, friction coefficient, load torque, etc progress online estimation in the light of adaptive estimation law. The simulation results show the control strategy is perfect efficient to reduce the effect of variable parameter and load. This robust approach should be adopted in controlling of chain gun.%链式炮外能源电机转速稳定性对其射速影响很大.提出交流永磁同步电机(permanent magnet synchronous motor,PMSM)的变参自适应反演速度稳定控制器设计方案,采用实时在线的自适应参数估计和反演控制相结合的方法,通过设计恰当的输入控制律,并对定子电阻、转动惯量、摩擦系数、负载转矩等参数按照设计的自适应估计律在线估计.试验结果表明:该控制策略能有效地抑制多参数摄动和负载扰动对转速的影响,可以作为一种较好的鲁棒方法在链炮伺服电机控制中采用.

  20. Seizure control by derivatives of medium chain fatty acids associated with the ketogenic diet show novel branching-point structure for enhanced potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pishan; Zuckermann, Alexandra M E; Williams, Sophie; Close, Adam J; Cano-Jaimez, Marife; McEvoy, James P; Spencer, John; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2015-01-01

    The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet is a major treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy but is problematic, particularly in adults, because of poor tolerability. Branched derivatives of octanoic acid (OA), a medium chain fat provided in the diet have been suggested as potential new treatments for drug-resistant epilepsy, but the structural basis of this functionality has not been determined. Here we investigate structural variants of branched medium chain fatty acids as new seizure-control treatments. We initially employ a series of methyl-branched OA derivatives, and using the GABAA receptor antagonist pentylenetetrazol to induce seizure-like activity in rat hippocampal slices, we show a strong, branch-point-specific activity that improves upon the related epilepsy treatment valproic acid. Using low magnesium conditions to induce glutamate excitotoxicity in rat primary hippocampal neuronal cultures for the assessment of neuroprotection, we also show a structural dependence identical to that for seizure control, suggesting a related mechanism of action for these compounds in both seizure control and neuroprotection. In contrast, the effect of these compounds on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, associated with teratogenicity, shows no correlation with therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, small structural modifications of the starting compounds provide active compounds without HDAC inhibitory effects. Finally, using multiple in vivo seizure models, we identify potent lead candidates for the treatment of epilepsy. This study therefore identifies a novel family of fatty acids, related to the MCT ketogenic diet, that show promise as new treatments for epilepsy control and possibly other MCT ketogenic diet-responding conditions, such as Alzheimer disease.

  1. Configuration of the valence neutrons of 17B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng; MAO Rui-Shi; ZHANG Hong-Bin; ZHAO Tie-Cheng; XU Zhi-Guo; WANG Yue; CHEN Ruo-Fu; HUANG Tian-Heng; GAO Hui; JIA Fei; FU Fen; HU Zheng-Guo; GAO Qi; HAN Jian-Long; ZHANG Xue-Heng; ZHENG Chuan; YU Yu-Hong; FAN Rui-Rui; LI Bo; GUO Zhong-Yan; XU Hu-Shan; SUN Zhi-Yu; WANG Jian-Song; XIAO Guo-Qing; ZHAN Wen-Long; ZHANG Xue-Ying; LI Chen

    2008-01-01

    The reaction cross section of 17B on 12C target at (43.7±2.4) MeV/u has been measured at the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL). The root-mean-square matter radius (Rrms) was deduced to be (2.92±0.10) fm, while the Rrms of the core and the valence neutron distribution are 2.28 fm and 5.98 fm respectively. Assuming a "core plus 2n" structure in 17B, the mixed configuration of (2s1/2) and (1d5/2) of the valence neutrons is studied and the s-wave spectroscopic factor is found to be (80±21)%.

  2. Realistic estimate of valence transversity from dihadron production

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We have updated our extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. The most recent COMPASS data for proton and deuteron targets, complemented by previous HERMES data on the proton, make it possible to perform a flavor separation of the valence components of the transversity distribution, using di-hadron fragmentation functions taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The $e^+ e^-$ data from BELLE have been reanalyzed to reach a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function. Our results represent the most accurate estimate of the uncertainties on the valence components of the transversity distribution currently available.

  3. Covert face recognition relies on affective valence in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Sarah; Haslam, Catherine; Jansari, Ashok; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2009-06-01

    Dominant accounts of covert recognition in prosopagnosia assume subthreshold activation of face representations created prior to onset of the disorder. Yet, such accounts cannot explain covert recognition in congenital prosopagnosia, where the impairment is present from birth. Alternatively, covert recognition may rely on affective valence, yet no study has explored this possibility. The current study addressed this issue in 3 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia, using measures of the scanpath to indicate recognition. Participants were asked to memorize 30 faces paired with descriptions of aggressive, nice, or neutral behaviours. In a later recognition test, eye movements were monitored while participants discriminated studied from novel faces. Sampling was reduced for studied--nice compared to studied--aggressive faces, and performance for studied--neutral and novel faces fell between these two conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that (a) positive emotion can facilitate processing in prosopagnosia, and (b) covert recognition may rely on emotional valence rather than familiarity.

  4. Realistic estimate of valence transversity distributions from inclusive dihadron production

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Guagnelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets make it possible to perform a flavor separation of the valence components of the transversity distribution, using di-hadron fragmentation functions taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in e+e- annihilation. The e+e- data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. Then, the transversity distribution has been extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for deep-inelastic scattering off proton targets. Our results represent the most accurate estimate of the uncertainties on the valence components of the transversity distribution currently available.

  5. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  6. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  7. Valence holes observed in nanodiamonds dispersed in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Pflüger, Mika; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Xiao, Jie; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-02-21

    Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp(2)-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed.

  8. Characterization of the valence and conduction bands in Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, T.; Terminello, L.; Chase, L.; Callcott, T.; Grush, M.

    1998-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals with a mean diameter between 1 and 4 nm were produced by thermal evaporation of Si in Ar buffer gas and deposited on a substrate. The size-distribution and diameter of the clusters were characterized by atomic force microscopy. The valence and conduction band edges of the Si nanocrystals were measured in-situ using soft x-ray emission (SXE) and absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The valence band of the smallest Si nanocrystals is shifted by much as 0.7 eV relative to bulk Si. Significant changes in the shape of the spectra are also observed between the Si nanocrytals and bulk Si. We interpret the shift and changes in the spectra of the valence band as resulting from an altered electronic band structure in the confined Si structures. A smaller but proportional shift of the conduction band to higher energy is also observed in the XAS spectra of the silicon nanostructures. We compare the experimentally measured bandgap to recent electronic structure calculations and find, that the experimentally measured bandgap is smaller than that predicted by theory. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Sciences, under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  9. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow–ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, qπ(x; namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, qπ(x∼(1−x2 for x≳0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.

  10. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mezrag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs, it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL truncation of QCD's Dyson–Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, Hπv(x,ξ,t. Our analysis focuses primarily on ξ=0, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting Hπv(x,ξ=±1,t with the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for Hπv(x,0,t, expressed as the Radon transform of a single amplitude. Therewith we obtain results for Hπv(x,0,t and the associated impact-parameter dependent distribution, qπv(x,|b→⊥|, which provide a qualitatively sound picture of the pion's dressed-quark structure at a hadronic scale. We evolve the distributions to a scale ζ=2 GeV, so as to facilitate comparisons in future with results from experiment or other nonperturbative methods.

  11. Nucleus-Dependent Valence-Space Approach to Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroberg, S. R.; Calci, A.; Hergert, H.; Holt, J. D.; Bogner, S. K.; Roth, R.; Schwenk, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a nucleus-dependent valence-space approach for calculating ground and excited states of nuclei, which generalizes the shell-model in-medium similarity renormalization group to an ensemble reference with fractionally filled orbitals. Because the ensemble is used only as a reference, and not to represent physical states, no symmetry restoration is required. This allows us to capture three-nucleon (3 N ) forces among valence nucleons with a valence-space Hamiltonian specifically targeted to each nucleus of interest. Predicted ground-state energies from carbon through nickel agree with results of other large-space ab initio methods, generally to the 1% level. In addition, we show that this new approach is required in order to obtain convergence for nuclei in the upper p and s d shells. Finally, we address the 1+/3+ inversion problem in 22Na and 46V. This approach extends the reach of ab initio nuclear structure calculations to essentially all light- and medium-mass nuclei.

  12. Valence parity renders z(*)-type ions chemically distinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Shane L; Jue, April; Keith, Jason; McAlister, Graeme C; Craciun, Gheorghe; Coon, Joshua J

    2008-05-21

    Here we report that the odd electron z (*) -type ions formed by the electron-based peptide dissociation methods (electron capture or transfer, ECD or ETD) have distinctive chemical compositions from other common product ion types. Specifically, b-, c-, and y-type ions have an odd number of atoms with an odd valence (e.g., N and H), while z (*)-type ions contain an even number of atoms with an odd valence. This tenet, referred to as the valence parity rule, mandates that no c-type ion shall have the same chemical composition, and by extension mass, as a z (*) -type ion. By experiment we demonstrate that nearly half of all observed c- and z (*) -type product ions resulting from 226 ETD product ion spectra can be assigned to a single, correct, chemical composition and ion type by simple inspection of the m/ z peaks. The assignments provide (1) a platform to directly determine amino acid composition, (2) an input for database search algorithms, or (3) a basis for de novo sequence analysis.

  13. The valence and spectral properties of rare-earth clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, L; Litsarev, M S; Katsnelson, A Delin M I; Kirilyuk, A; Johansson, B; Sanyal, B; Eriksson, O

    2016-01-01

    The rare-earths are known to have intriguing changes of the valence, depending on chemical surrounding or geometry. Here we make predictions from theory that combines density functional theory with atomic multiplet-theory, on the transition of valence when transferring from the atomic divalent limit to the trivalent bulk, passing through different sized clusters, of selected rare-earths. We predict that Tm clusters show an abrupt change from pure divalent to pure trivalent at a size of 6 atoms, while Sm and Tb clusters are respectively pure divalent and trivalent up to 8 atoms. Larger Sm clusters are argued to likely make a transition to a mixed valent, or trivalent, configuration. The valence of all rare-earth clusters, as a function of size, is predicted from interpolation of our calculated results. We argue that the here predicted behavior is best analyzed by spectroscopic measurements, and provide theoretical spectra, based on dynamical mean field theory, in the Hubbard-I approximation, to ease experiment...

  14. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Mezrag, C; Moutarde, H; Roberts, C D; Rodriguez-Quintero, J; Sabatie, F; Schmidt, S M

    2014-01-01

    In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs), it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL) truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, $H_\\pi^{\\rm v}(x,\\xi,t)$. Our analysis focuses primarily on $\\xi=0$, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting $H_\\pi^{\\rm v}(x,\\xi=\\pm 1,t)$ with the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for $H_\\pi^{\\rm v}(x,0,t)$, expressed as th...

  15. 电煤供应链多级库存控制策略研究%Study on power coal supply chain inventory control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆建; 滕川川

    2013-01-01

    本文分析了电煤供应链库存系统的现状以及存在的问题,阐述了现有的库存控制策略及其优缺点,并在此基础上提出了基于第三方物流的电煤供应链库存管理模式,分析了该模式的优点及目标,并讨论了构建Web服务模式的系统构架,最后得出结论该模式有利于提高物流运营效率,增强电煤供应链的竞争力。%This paper analyzes the current situation and existing problems of coal supply chain inventory system in China. The advantages and disadvantages of existing inventory control strategy have been expounded in detail. And then, the third party logistics supply chain inventory management model has been put forward. The advantages and objectives of the model have also been analyzed. The system framework of Web service model establishment has been discussed. Final y this paper comes to a conclusion that the model can improve the ef iciency of logistics operations, and enhance the competitiveness of the coal supply chain.

  16. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain with Imperfect Quality of Commodity Components in Uncertain State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alden Ghasimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a mathematical model for four-level defective goods supply chain with imperfect quality of commodity components in an uncertain state to maximize profit of supply chain. It is assumed that the inspection of incoming parts in suppliers is randomly done and incomplete. This lead some of the manufactured products will not be properly manufactured because of defective parts and are considered as defective goods and in most cases, the defective products can be repaired by replacing with the good parts. The defective parts will be collected and then returned to the suppliers for repairing. Out proposed model considers defective parts problem by optimizing the costs of production, maintenance, shipping, reworking on the defective goods and parts, shortage in retailers due to the production of defective goods and cost of capital incurred by the companies. The model can anticipate the active suppliers/manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of parts and goods that must be exchanged between them. Our proposed model is novel and we used MINOS solver and LINGO software to solve the problem. The results ascertained the correctness and fine function of the proposed model.

  17. The effect of cerium valence states at cerium oxide nanoparticle surfaces on cell proliferation

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-05-01

    Understanding and controlling cell proliferation on biomaterial surfaces is critical for scaffold/artificial-niche design in tissue engineering. The mechanism by which underlying integrin ligates with functionalized biomaterials to induce cell proliferation is still not completely understood. In this study, poly-l-lactide (PL) scaffold surfaces were functionalized using layers of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), which have recently attracted attention for use in therapeutic application due to their catalytic ability of Ce4+ and Ce3+ sites. To isolate the influence of Ce valance states of CNPs on cell proliferation, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured on the PL/CNP surfaces with dominant Ce4+ and Ce3+ regions. Despite cell type (hMSCs and MG63 cells), different surface features of Ce4+ and Ce3+ regions clearly promoted and inhibited cell spreading, migration and adhesion behavior, resulting in rapid and slow cell proliferation, respectively. Cell proliferation results of various modified CNPs with different surface charge and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, indicate that Ce valence states closely correlated with the specific cell morphologies and cell-material interactions that trigger cell proliferation. This finding suggests that the cell-material interactions, which influence cell proliferation, may be controlled by introduction of metal elements with different valence states onto the biomaterial surface. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Excitations of one-valence-proton, one-valence-neutron nucleus {sup 210}Bi from cold-neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Fornal, B.; Szpak, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Leoni, S.; Bottoni, S. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bocchi, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Simpson, G. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ur, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 02-681, Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The low-spin structure of one-proton, one-neutron {sup 210}Bi nucleus was investigated in cold-neutron capture reaction on {sup 209}Bi. The γ-coincidence measurements were performed with use of EXILL array consisted of 16 HPGe detectors. The experimental results were compared to shell-model calculations involving valence particles excitations. The {sup 210}Bi nucleus offers the potential to test the effective proton-neutron interactions because most of the states should arise from the proton-neutron excitations. Additionally, it was discovered that a few states should come from the couplings of valence particles to the 3{sup −} octupole vibration in {sup 208}Pb which provides also the possibility of testing the calculations involving the core excitations.

  19. Key Control Points in Banana Supply Chain Quality and Safety Management%香蕉供应链质量安全关键控制点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴梅; 张耀荔; 陈静; 韩雅菘

    2011-01-01

    利用HACCP质量管理体系综合评价香蕉供应链各个环节中潜在的危害,并且对产地选择、生产管理、贮藏运输及销地催熟4个关键控制点进行了研究.%The paper uses the HACCP quality management system to evaluate comprehensively the potential risks in the various links of the banana supply chain and studies the four key control points, namely growing place selection, good growing practice, storage and transportation, and sales place ripening.

  20. Decision-making deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Iowa Gambling Task and Prospect Valence Learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myung-Sun Kim,1 Bit-Na Kang,1 Jae Young Lim2 1Department of Psychology, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Medical Foundation, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, Republic of Korea Purpose: Decision-making is the process of forming preferences for possible options, selecting and executing actions, and evaluating the outcome. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL model to investigate deficits in risk-reward related decision-making in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and to identify decision-making processes that contribute to poor IGT performance in these patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls participated. Decision-making was measured by total net score, block net scores, and the total number of cards selected from each deck of the IGT. PVL parameters were estimated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme in OpenBugs and BRugs, its interface to R, and the estimated parameters were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U-test.Results: The schizophrenia group received significantly lower total net scores compared to the control group. In terms of block net scores, an interaction effect of group × block was observed. The block net scores of the schizophrenia group did not differ across the five blocks, whereas those of the control group increased as the blocks progressed. The schizophrenia group obtained significantly lower block net scores in the fourth and fifth blocks of the IGT and selected cards from deck D (advantageous less frequently than the control group. Additionally, the schizophrenia group had significantly lower values on the utility-shape, loss-aversion, recency, and consistency parameters of the PVL model. Conclusion: These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia experience deficits in decision-making, possibly due to failure in learning the expected value of each deck

  1. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material.

  2. Structural determination of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) containing high degree of controlled long-chain branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Susanta; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg

    2009-01-01

    This work highlights an attempt to characterize the degree and nature of long-chain branching (LCB) in an unknown sample of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM). Two EPDM rubbers selected for this study were comparable in comonomer compositions but significantly different with respect to molar...... mass and the presence of LCB. Both rubbers contained 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) as diene. Solution cast films of pure EPDM samples were used for different characterization techniques. 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR were used for assessing the comonomer ratios and LCB. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC...... findings and the available theories, an attempt was made to identify the chemical nature and degree of LCB. This study reveals the possibility of detailed characterization of molecular architecture of EPDM containing LCB by comparing with an essentially linear EPDM in light of an existing theory. © 2009...

  3. Chain Gang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters. Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  4. Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Localized via Chained Fusion of Discrete and Continuous Epipolar Geometry, IMU and Odometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy.

  5. 随机环境中受控分枝过程的稳定性%STABILITY OF CONTROLLED BRANCHING CHAINS IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟刚; 胡迪鹤

    2009-01-01

    本文研究了控制函数独立同分布,并且第n代的繁殖情况取决于环境的随机环境中分枝过程.给出了该模型稳定的充分条件,当环境平稳遍历时,得到了过程几乎处处灭绝的充分条件.%We consider controlled branching chains in random environments, that the controlled functions are i.i.d. random variables and the reproduction of an individual in the n-th season depends on the environments. Some results on process stability are shown. The extinction probabilities are given when environments are stationary and ergodic.

  6. Modular magnetic field on the z-direction on a chain of nuclear spin system and quantum Not and Controlled-Not gates

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, G V

    2012-01-01

    We study the simulation of a single qubit rotation and Controlled-Not gate in a solid state one-dimensional chain of nuclear spins system interacting weakly through an Ising type of interaction with a modular component of the magnetic field in the z-direction, characterized by $B_z(z,t)=Bo(z)\\cos\\delta t$. These qubits are subjected to electromagnetic pulses which determine the transition in the one or two qubits system. We use the fidelity parameter to determine the performance of the Not (N) gate and Controlled-Not (CNOT) gate as a function of the frequency parameter $\\delta$. We found that for $|\\delta|\\le 10^{-3} MHz$, these gates still have good fidelity.

  7. Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment: effects of valence and magnitude manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M R; Locke, H M; Stenger, V A; Fiez, J A

    2003-03-01

    The goal of this research was to further our understanding of how the striatum responds to the delivery of affective feedback. Previously, we had found that the striatum showed a pattern of sustained activation after presentation of a monetary reward, in contrast to a decrease in the hemodynamic response after a punishment. In this study, we tested whether the activity of the striatum could be modulated by parametric variations in the amount of financial reward or punishment. We used an event-related fMRI design in which participants received large or small monetary rewards or punishments after performance in a gambling task. A parametric ordering of conditions was observed in the dorsal striatum according to both magnitude and valence. In addition, an early response to the presentation of feedback was observed and replicated in a second experiment with increased temporal resolution. This study further implicates the dorsal striatum as an integral component of a reward circuitry responsible for the control of motivated behavior, serving to code for such feedback properties as valence and magnitude.

  8. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as (1 -x )2 when Bjorken-x →1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U (3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion's light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  9. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-18

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson’s momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as ( 1 - x ) 2 when Bjorken- x → 1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U ( 3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion’s light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  10. Valence-band photoemission intensities in thorium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, W.P.; Boring, A.M.; Cox, L.E.; Cowan, R.D.; Arko, A.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Allen, J.W. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Physics); Pate, B.B.; Lindau, I. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Synchrotron Radiation Lab.)

    1989-11-01

    Resonant photoemission spectra of the O 2p-derived valence band of insulating ThO{sub 2} are compared to linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) density-of-state (DOS) and XPS intensity calculations. At Th 5d core-level threshold energies (85 {le} hv {le} 120 eV), resonance is greatest at the bottom of the O 2p band where calculated p/d hybrid states are greatest; p/f hybrid content is weak by comparison. We conclude that the dominant hybridization is between O 2p states and Th 6d. (author).

  11. 1D valence bond solids in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2015-09-01

    A Valence bond solid (VBS) is a nonmagnetic, long-range ordered state of a quantum spin system where local spin singlets are formed in some regular pattern. We here study the competition between VBS order and a fully polarized ferromagnetic state as function of an external magnetic field in a one-dimensional extended Heisenberg model—the J-Q2 model— using stochastic series expansion (SSE) quantum Monte Carlo simulations with directed loop updates. We discuss the ground state phase diagram.

  12. Electron Momentum Spectroscopy of Ethanethiol Complete Valence Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-xia Xue; Mi Yan; Fang Wu; Xu Shan; Ke-zun Xu; Xiang-jun Chen

    2008-01-01

    The binding energy spectra and electron momentum distributions for the complete valence orbitals of ethanethiol were measured for the first time by binary (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy employing non-coplanar symmetric kinematics at an impact energy of 1200 eV plus binding energy. The experimental results are generally consistent with the theoretical calculations using density functional theory and Hartree-Fock methods with various basis sets. A possible satellite line at 17.8 eV in binding energy spectrum was observed and studied by electron momentum spectroscopy.

  13. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  14. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  15. A shrimp pacifastin light chain-like inhibitor: molecular identification and role in the control of the prophenoloxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Chomwong, Sudarat; Senapin, Saengchan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti

    2016-01-01

    Pacifastin is a recently classified family of serine proteinase inhibitors that play essential roles in various biological processes, including in the regulation of the melanization cascade. Here, a novel pacifastin-related gene, termed PmPacifastin-like, was identified from a reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library created from hemocytes of the prophenoloxidase PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The full-length sequences of PmPacifastin-like and its homologue LvPacifastin-like from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that both sequences contained thirteen conserved pacifastin light chain domains (PLDs), followed by two putative kunitz domains. Expression analysis demonstrated that the PmPacifastin-like transcript was expressed in all tested shrimp tissues and larval developmental stages, and its expression responded to Vibrio harveyi challenge. To gain insight into the functional roles of PmPacifastin-like protein, the in vivo RNA interference experiment was employed; the results showed that PmPacifastin-like depletion strongly increased PO activity. Interestingly, suppression of PmPacifastin-like also down-regulated the expression of the proPO-activating enzyme PmPPAE2 transcript; the PmPacifastin-like transcript was down-regulated after the PmproPO1/2 transcripts were silenced. Taken together, these results suggest that PmPacifastin-like is important in the shrimp proPO system and may play an essential role in shrimp immune defense against bacterial infection. These results also expand the knowledge of how pacifastin-related protein participates in the negative regulation of the proPO system in shrimp.

  16. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  17. Development of a temperature control system; Mise en oeuvre d'une chaine de regulation de temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolabdjian, Ch.; Robbes, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-UPRES A-6072), 14 - Caen (France); Pigeon, E.; Gehan, O. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Commande des Procedes, ISMRA, 14 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The ability of superconducting devices in the field of bolometer applications is well known. However, the over-all system performances in the low frequency domain may be limited by the temperature fluctuations of the sample holder. We present a temperature control system of such sample holder cooled by a liquid nitrogen bath at ambient pressure. It allows a noise rejection of more than 35 dB at 0.001 Hz. A 24 bit analog to digital converter was a generalized predictive control law. The control design is based on sensitivity functions shaping procedure that has shown to provide a satisfying performance/robustness compromise provided that the underlying system identification has been made appropriately. (authors)

  18. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers.

  19. Valence holes observed in nanodiamonds dispersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Pflüger, Mika; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Xiao, Jie; Aziz, Emad F.

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed.Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, details on XAS/XES normalization and background correction procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06639a

  20. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ..omega.. less than or equal 175 is discussed.

  1. Neutron scattering studies of mixed-valence semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignot, J.M. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alekseev, P.A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering experiments on the mixed-valence (MV) compounds SmB{sub 6} are reported. The inelastic magnetic response of SmB{sub 6} at T = 2 K, measured on a double-isotope single crystal,displays a strongly damped peak at 35 meV corresponding to the inter multiplet transition of Sm{sup 2+}. At lower energies ( h.{omega} {approx_equal} 14 meV), a narrow magnetic excitation is observed, with remarkable scattering-vector and temperature dependences of its intensity. This novel feature is discussed in terms of recent theoretical works describing the formation of an anisotropic local bound state in semiconducting MV materials. If the average samarium valence is decreased by substituting La for Sm, a peak is found to appear at high energies. The elastic magnetic form factor of SmB{sub 6} was determined using polarised neutrons and no significant difference is observed in its Q-dependence with respect to that of pure divalent samarium. This surprising behaviour is constant with previous measurements on the gold (high-pressure) phase of SmS. The above results are compared to those already reported for other MV materials. In particular existing information for TmSe is supplemented by recent inelastic scattering measurements carried out on a large stoichiometric single crystal. (author). 44 refs., 7 figs.

  2. +2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

  3. 工程供应链风险源的识别与控制策略研究%Construction Supply Chain Risks Identifying and Control Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程书萍; 张德华; 李真

    2012-01-01

    工程项目的复杂性造成了工程风险的普遍性,风险管理是工程管理的主要内容.本文针对传统的工程风险管理与控制的不足,基于工程供应链的视角,立足于工程生命周期角度重新审视了工程风险.从系统的观点出发,工程供应链是一个复杂系统,可划分为供应商管理、供应链运作管理、“制造商”管理三个子系统,系统或子系统在系统内生因素和外生因素的干扰下会产生中断和延迟两种风险结果,因此共形成六种工程供应链风险组合.本文在建立了多维度风险识别框架的基础上,从上述六方面识别了工程供应链风险的来源,并提出了应对策略.%The complexity of the project caused the universality of risks, and Risk Management is key problem in Construction Management. According to insufficient of traditional Risk Management , the paper re-examined Construction Risk from perspective of Construction Supply Chain ( CSC) , based on the construction life cycle. CSC is a complex system, composed by three sub-systems: Supplier Management, Supply Chain Operation Management and Manufacturers Management, and interruption and delayed risks are resulted by internal and external factors of system or sub-system, so there are six components of Construction Supply Chain Risk. In this paper, a framework of multidimensional identifying Construction Supply Chain Risk was built, risk sources are identified form the above six components and control strategies are proposed.

  4. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...... stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively...

  5. Modelling the coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertenbach, J.-D.; Varendorff, R. von [Knowledge Based Engineering, Sandton (South Africa)

    1999-03-01

    Managing the supply chain in an integrated coal operation involves many operation and control options often too complex for the human mind to comprehend and react to. By integrating all the knowledge of a supply chain into an expert system, both off-line and on-line real time decisions are possible. Knowledge Based Engineering based in South Africa, has gained valuable experience in modelling such mining operations. The article discusses the methodologies that the company has implemented. KBE uses Gensym`s G2 Real Time Expert System as the foundation of the system and the knowledge base is developed modularly.

  6. Reliability Measurement for Software with Variable Length Markov Control Transfer Chain%VLMC控制流软件可靠性度量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞曼; 潘冠华; 方建勇

    2014-01-01

    The classical software reliability model of Cheung based on architecture analysis is imperfect when applied to soft-ware which has non-uniqueness terminal node because of ideal assumptions. In order to handle this problem, an improved model is established through two improvement as follows:first, probability matrix of control transfer from start node to other inner nodes in a given software is computed independently of control transfer within inner nodes on the assumptions that the start node is inaccessible to control transfer from any inner nodes;and then, probability matrixes of control transfer within in-ner nodes are reconfigured by weaken the difference between inner nodes and ending nodes. In order to measure the reliability of software with VLMC control transfer flow, the variable length Markov control sequence chain is converted to simple Markov chain by node expansion and conditional transfer probability redistribution. By using deductive inference, a formal proof for the new model is given in this essay. In the end, effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed method is verified by a software example.%针对现有软件可靠性模型普遍不适用于实际软件的问题,分析了软件内部模块间控制转移机理,通过分离入口模块,提取一阶控制转移概率矩阵;弱化内部模块与出口模块间差异,重构二阶以上转移概率矩阵,在改进Cheung模型的基础上建立一个更符合软件实际的可靠性度量模型。针对变阶依赖( VLMC)控制转移导致的可靠性度量难问题,通过对导致复杂依赖的多入多出模块进行节点扩展,将VLMC控制流转化为Markov链,利用所建立的软件可靠性模型对VLMC控制流软件进行可靠性度量。研究利用演绎推理对所建立模型进行了正确性形式化证明。最后给出了方法的实例验证。

  7. Glucose/lipid mixed substrates as a means of controlling the properties of medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, R D; Solaiman, D K; Foglia, T A; Liu, C K

    2001-01-01

    Glucose-triacylglycerol (TAG) mixed substrates were used to modulate the physical and mechanical properties of medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs). Pseudomonas resinovorans NRRL B-2649 grew and produced mcl-PHAs on glucose and TAGs (coconut oil, C; soybean oil, S) after 24 h in a shake flask culture. However, with the exception of coconut oil, maximum cell productivity was not reached in any of the cultures until 72 h post-inoculation. Here, 50:50 mixtures of glucose and coconut oil (glc/C) or glucose and soybean oil (glc/S) resulted in intermediate cell productivities with a maximum of 57% and 48% of the CDW at 72 h, respectively. In addition, mixed substrates resulted in mcl-PHAs with compositions that varied slightly over time. PHA-glc/C and PHA-glc/S were composed of 7 mol % and 8 mol % 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid (C(12:1)), respectively at 72 h. These concentrations were intermediate to the C(12:1) concentration of PHA-glc and respective PHA-TAG. Also, significant amounts of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (C(14:0)), 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid (C(14:1)), and 3-hydroxytetradecadienoic acid (C(14:2)) were present in PHA-glc/C and PHA-glc/S, which were derived from the respective TAG, as glucose resulted in almost no C(14:)(X) monomers. The molar masses of each of the polymers remained relatively constant between 24 and 96 h. At 72 h, the number-average molar masses (M(n)) of PHA-glc/C and PHA-glc/S were 178,000 and 163,000 g/mol, respectively, which were also intermediate to the M(n) of PHA-glc (225,000 g/mol) and the respective PHA-TAG (PHA-C = 153,000 g/mol; PHA-S = 75,000 g/mol). These physical differences caused variations in the mechanical properties of mcl-PHA films, thus providing a new and effective method of modifying their properties.

  8. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindh Magnus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit and after 10 days (follow-up visit. Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202 of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204 (P = 0.005 of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202 in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204 in the delayed result group (P

  9. Optogenetic dissection of neural circuits underlying emotional valence and motivated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Edward H; Kim, Sung-Yon; Namburi, Praneeth; Tye, Kay M

    2013-05-20

    The neural circuits underlying emotional valence and motivated behaviors are several synapses away from both defined sensory inputs and quantifiable motor outputs. Electrophysiology has provided us with a suitable means for observing neural activity during behavior, but methods for controlling activity for the purpose of studying motivated behaviors have been inadequate: electrical stimulation lacks cellular specificity and pharmacological manipulation lacks temporal resolution. The recent emergence of optogenetic tools provides a new means for establishing causal relationships between neural activity and behavior. Optogenetics, the use of genetically-encodable light-activated proteins, permits the modulation of specific neural circuit elements with millisecond precision. The ability to control individual cell types, and even projections between distal regions, allows us to investigate functional connectivity in a causal manner. The greatest consequence of controlling neural activity with finer precision has been the characterization of individual neural circuits within anatomical brain regions as defined functional units. Within the mesolimbic dopamine system, optogenetics has helped separate subsets of dopamine neurons with distinct functions for reward, aversion and salience processing, elucidated GABA neuronal effects on behavior, and characterized connectivity with forebrain and cortical structures. Within the striatum, optogenetics has confirmed the opposing relationship between direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs), in addition to characterizing the inhibition of MSNs by cholinergic interneurons. Within the hypothalamus, optogenetics has helped overcome the heterogeneity in neuronal cell-type and revealed distinct circuits mediating aggression and feeding. Within the amygdala, optogenetics has allowed the study of intra-amygdala microcircuitry as well as interconnections with distal regions involved in fear and anxiety. In this review, we

  10. In-Medium Pion Valence Distributions in a Light-Front Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Ahmed, I

    2016-01-01

    Pion valence distributions in nuclear medium and vacuum are studied in a light-front constituent quark model. The in-medium input for studying the pion properties is calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. We find that the in-medium pion valence distribution, as well as the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  11. The Role of Fermi Resonance in Formation of Valence Band of Water Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Burikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Fermi resonance in formation of valence band of water Raman scattering was investigated. Simultaneous measurement of characteristics of bending and valence bands of water in D2O solutions, KBr, and KCl and using genetic algorithms in conjunction with variation methods allowed increasing accuracy of estimation of Fermi resonance coupling constant and of Fermi resonance contribution into formation of water Raman valence band.

  12. Integrating the healthcare supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C D

    1998-01-01

    Today's integrated delivery systems (IDSs) require efficient supply chain processes to speed products to users at the lowest possible cost. Most excess costs within the supply chain are a result of inefficient and redundant processes involved in the transport and delivery of supplies from suppliers to healthcare providers. By integrating and assuming control of these supply chain processes, improving supply chain management practices, and organizing and implementing a disciplined redesign plan, IDSs can achieve substantial savings and better focus their organizations on their core patient care mission.

  13. 基于输出反馈的非完整链式系统跟踪控制研究%GlobalК-exponential Tracking Control of Nonholonomic Systems in Chained-form by Output Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹科才

    2009-01-01

    The output tracking control problem of nonholonomic chained form systems is studied in this paper and global a time-varying coordinate transformation is introduced to avoid manipulating exponentially converging signals. Then, with the help feature of the proposed controller is that the output tracking control problem of nonholonomic chained form systems is also resolvble without the popular condition of persistent excitation or not converging to zero on reference signals in the previous works. The proposed method is demonstrated and discussed by means of nonholonomic mobile robots and cars with one trailer.

  14. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  15. Chain folding controlled by an isomeric repeat unit: helix formation versus random aggregation in acetylene-bridged carbazole-bipyridine co-oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H; Philips, Divya S; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2013-07-01

    An unprecedented, positional effect of the isomeric repeat unit on chain folding in donor–acceptor-linked oligomers, which contain alternating bipyridine and carbazole moieties that are connected through an acetylinic linkage, is reported. 4,4′-Linked oligomer 1 adopts an intrachain helical conformation (CD-active) in CHCl3/MeCN (20:80 v/v), whereas oligomer 2, which contains an isomeric 6,6′-linkage, forms interchain randomly coiled aggregates (CD-inactive). The substitution position plays a significant role in controlling the variations in electronic effects and dipole moments around the bipyridyl moiety, which are responsible for this observed phenomenon. Two model compounds of oligomers 1 and 2 (3 and 4, respectively) were prepared and their properties were compared. A systematic investigation of the photophysical and CD properties of these structures, as well as theoretical studies, support our conclusions.

  16. Mood and the DRM paradigm: An investigation of the effects of valence and arousal on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies regarding the effect of mood on the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) illusion have not been able to clearly establish yet whether valence or arousal is most critical in determining susceptibility to false memories, nor what the underlying processes are. In three experiments, both the valence and the level of arousal of participants' mood were manipulated. Six conditions were used: positive mood with high/low arousal, negative mood with high/low arousal, neutral mood, and a control condition. Memory was tested by means of immediate and delayed recognition and immediate free recall. The mood induction procedure was effective. For recognition memory, there was an effect of arousal on the endorsement of critical lures. Low-arousal moods elicited more false recognition than high-arousal moods, regardless of valence. Based on signal detection analyses, the effect was attributed to more liberal response criteria with low arousal, in combination with a tendency towards improved item-specific memory with high arousal.

  17. [Valences of self-evaluation and approach-avoidance tendencies: research based on regulatory focus theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuka; Karasawa, Kaori

    2011-12-01

    Four studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between valences of self-evaluation and approach-avoidance tendencies. Based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998), we predicted that positivity of self-evaluation is related to the tendency to approach gains, while negativity of self-evaluation is related to the tendency to avoid losses. In Study 1, a self-report measure of behavioral tendencies for approaching gains and avoiding losses was developed. In Studies 2 to 4, correlations between these approach/avoidance tendencies and various kinds of self-evaluations were examined. Overall, the authors' predictions were supported. The results suggest that the self-evaluation system and the self-regulation system work in close cooperation with each other in controlling human behavior.

  18. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments: Percutaneous Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Valence topological charge-transfer (CT indices are applied to the calculationof dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum CT indices are defined. Thecombination of CT indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model isgeneralized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the descriptionof the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipolemoments of homologous series of percutaneous enhancers (phenyl alcohols and4-alkylanilines. Linear and quadratic correlation models are obtained. CT indicesimprove the multivariable quadratic regression equations for the dipole moment. Thevariance decreases 97% (4-alkylanilines. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jkand GkV–JkV pairs is observed in the fits, which diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Theinclusion of the heteroatom in the π-electron system is beneficial for the description ofthe dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by theheteroatom or the role of steric factors in the π-electron conjugation. Inclusion of aconjugated double bond in the alkyl chain lends to more rigid structures with dipolemoment variations lower than1%.

  19. Signaling Efficiency of the T Cell Receptor Controlled by a Single Amino Acid in the β Chain Constant Region

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckström, B Thomas; Hausmann, Barbara T.; Palmer, Ed

    1997-01-01

    A single amino acid residue, Gln136, located within the connecting peptide domain of Cβ controls the ability of the α/β TCR to transmit a full signal. TCRs in which this Cβ residue is mutated to Phe, the residue found in TCR-γ, are unresponsive to antigenic ligands. Interestingly, this Cβ residue is either polar or charged in every species studied thus far, including the trout and the skate. In contrast, the analogous residue in Cγ is always hydrophobic. In spite of their compromised antigen ...

  20. Use of palivizumab and infection control measures to control an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K

    2011-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potentially life-threatening infection in premature infants. We report an outbreak involving four infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital that occurred in February 2010. RSV A infection was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Palivizumab was administered to all infants in the NICU. There were no additional symptomatic cases and repeat RSV surveillance confirmed that there was no further cross-transmission within the unit. The outbreak highlighted the infection control challenge of very high bed occupancy in the unit and the usefulness of molecular methods in facilitating detection and management.

  1. Nature of the Frequency Shift of Hydrogen Valence Vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhyganiuk, I V

    2015-01-01

    The physical nature of a frequency shift of hydrogen valence vibrations in a water molecule due to its interaction with neighbor molecules has been studied. Electrostatic forces connected with the multipole moments of molecules are supposed to give a dominating contribution to the intermolecular interaction. The frequency shift was calculated in the case where two neighbor molecules form a dimer. The obtained result is in qualitative agreement with the frequency shifts observed for water vapor, hexagonal ice, and liquid water, as well as for aqueous solutions of alcohols. This fact testifies to the electrostatic nature of H-bonds used to describe both the specific features of the intermolecular interaction in water and the macroscopic properties of the latter.

  2. Adsorption mechanism and valency of catechol-functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Krysiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nature often serves as a model system for developing new adhesives. In aqueous environments, mussel-inspired adhesives are promising candidates. Understanding the mechanism of the extraordinarily strong adhesive bonds of the catechol group will likely aid in the development of adhesives. With this aim, we study the adhesion of catechol-based adhesives to metal oxides on the molecular level using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The comparison of single catechols (dopamine with multiple catechols on hyperbranched polyglycerols (hPG at various pH and dwell times allowed us to further increase our understanding. In particular, we were able to elucidate how to achieve strong bonds of different valency. It was concluded that hyperbranched polyglycerols with added catechol end groups are promising candidates for durable surface coatings.

  3. Valence electronic structure of tantalum carbide and nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; ChangZeng

    2007-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of tantalum carbide (TaC) and tantalum nitride (TaN) are studied by using the empirical electronic theory (EET). The results reveal that the bonds of these compounds have covalent, metallic and ionic characters. For a quantitative analysis of the relative strength of these components, their ionicities have been calculated by implanting the results of EET to the PVL model. It has been found that the ionicity of tantalum carbide is smaller than that of tantalum nitride. The EET results also reveal that the covalent electronic number of the strongest bond in the former is larger than that of the latter. All these suggest that the covalent bond of TaC is stronger than that of TaN, which coincides to that deduced from the first-principles method.……

  4. Valence electronic structure of tantalum carbide and nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The valence electronic structures of tantalum carbide (TaC) and tantalum nitride (TaN) are studied by using the empirical electronic theory (EET). The results reveal that the bonds of these compounds have covalent, metallic and ionic characters. For a quantitative analysis of the relative strength of these components, their ionicities have been calculated by implanting the results of EET to the PVL model. It has been found that the ionicity of tantalum carbide is smaller than that of tantalum nitride. The EET results also reveal that the covalent electronic number of the strongest bond in the former is larger than that of the latter. All these suggest that the covalent bond of TaC is stronger than that of TaN, which coincides to that deduced from the first-principles method.

  5. Paired-permanent approach to valence bond theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玮; 吴安安; 莫亦荣; 张乾二

    1996-01-01

    A new function called paired-permanent is defined and widely discussed, and a practicable procedure for evaluations of paired-permanents is proposed, which is similar to the Laplace method for determinants. Using the concept of paired-permanents, an efficient algorithm is presented for evaluating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements in the spin-free form of valence bond (VB) theory. With the new algorithm, a spin-free wavefunction is simply written as a paired-permanent, and an overlap matrix element may be obtained by evaluating a corresponding paired-permanent. Meanwhile, the Hamiltonian matrix element is expressed in terms of the summation of the products of electronic integrals and the corresponding sub-paired-permanents

  6. Valence framing of political preferences and resistance to persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the "valence framing effect": an assumption that negatively conceptualized attitudes (as opposing the non-preferred alternative are more resistant to later persuasion attempts. In the experiment we created choice between two political candidates and experimental subjects were led to conceptualize their political preferences in one of two possible ways: either as supporting the preferred candidate or as opposing the non-preferred candidate. The data indicate that negative preferences show less overall change when exposed to counterarguments. This finding can be incorporated in two theoretical frameworks: dual process theories of attitude change (Elaboration likelihood model and descriptive decision making theories (Prospect theory. Results are discussed for their implications for the efficacy of political communication. .

  7. Plaquette valence bond theory of high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Malte; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.

    2016-09-01

    We present a strong-coupling approach to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity based on the observation of a quantum critical point in the plaquette within the t ,t' Hubbard model. The crossing of ground-state energies in the N =2 -4 sectors occurs for parameters close to the optimal doping. The theory predicts the maximum of the dx2-y2-wave order parameter at the border between localized and itinerant electron behaviors and gives a natural explanation for the pseudogap formation via the soft-fermion mode related to local singlet states of the plaquette in the environment. Our approach follows the general line of resonating valence-bond theory stressing a crucial role of singlets in the physics of high-Tc superconductors but focuses on the formation of local singlets, similar to phenomena observed in frustrated one-dimensional quantum spin models.

  8. Quantum electrodynamic corrections for valence electrons in Eka-Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, O. A.; Goidenko, I. A.; Tupitsyn, I. I.

    2008-05-01

    The quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections to the coupling energy of valence electrons in heavy and superheavy nuclei are calculated in the effective local-potential approximation, as well as by the Hartree-Fock-Dirac self-consistent method. It is clearly shown that the contribution from the QED corrections is within the accuracy of modern calculations, which do not take into account QED effects. It is shown that, in certain cases, to exactly calculate the coupling energy of electrons in heavy and superheavy atoms, it is necessary to take into account the self-consistency, which shows that the inaccuracy of the use of the method of the effective local potential in calculations of QED effects can exceed 10%, which is also within the limits of calculations of the coupling energy without taking into account QED effects.

  9. Kaon semileptonic decay form factors with HISQ valence quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Gamiz, E; Bazavov, A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We report on the status of our kaon semileptonic form factor calculations using the highly-improved staggered quark (HISQ) formulation to simulate the valence fermions. We present results for the form factor f_+^{K \\pi}(0) on the asqtad N_f=2+1 MILC configurations, discuss the chiral-continuum extrapolation, and give a preliminary estimate of the total error. We also present a more preliminary set of results for the same form factor but with the sea quarks also simulated with the HISQ action; these results include data at the physical light quark masses. The improvements that we expect to achieve with the use of the HISQ configurations and simulations at the physical quark masses are briefly discussed.

  10. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Roberts, Craig D; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed-quarks carry all a meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanishing as $(1-x)^2$ when Bjorken-$x\\to 1$. Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of SU(3)-flavour symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavour dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulae may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison...

  11. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  12. Dynamically Tracking Anxious Individuals' Affective Response to Valenced Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fua, Karl C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-30

    Past research has shown that an individual's feelings at any given moment reflect currently experienced stimuli as well as internal representations of similar past experiences. However, anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of interrelated valenced information (vs. reactions to static stimuli that are arguably less ecologically valid) are rarely tracked. The present study provided a first examination of the newly developed Tracking Affect Ratings Over Time (TAROT) task to continuously assess anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of information that systematically change valence. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed the TAROT task in which they listened to narratives containing positive, negative, and neutral physically- or socially-relevant events, and indicated how positive or negative they felt about the information they heard as each narrative unfolded. The present study provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the task. Within scenarios, participants higher (vs. lower) in anxiety showed many expected negative biases, reporting more negative mean ratings and overall summary ratings, changing their pattern of responding more quickly to negative events, and responding more negatively to neutral events. Furthermore, individuals higher (vs. lower) in anxiety tended to report more negative minimums during and after positive events, and less positive maximums after negative events. Together, findings indicate that positive events were less impactful for anxious individuals, whereas negative experiences had a particularly lasting impact on future affective responses. The TAROT task is able to efficiently capture a number of different cognitive biases, and may help clarify the mechanisms that underlie anxious individuals' biased negative processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Resonance and aromaticity: an ab initio valence bond approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zahid; van Lenthe, Joop H; Havenith, Remco W A

    2012-05-17

    Resonance energy is one of the criteria to measure aromaticity. The effect of the use of different orbital models is investigated in the calculated resonance energies of cyclic conjugated hydrocarbons within the framework of the ab initio Valence Bond Self-Consistent Field (VBSCF) method. The VB wave function for each system was constructed using a linear combination of the VB structures (spin functions), which closely resemble the Kekulé valence structures, and two types of orbitals, that is, strictly atomic (local) and delocalized atomic (delocal) p-orbitals, were used to describe the π-system. It is found that the Pauling-Wheland's resonance energy with nonorthogonal structures decreases, while the same with orthogonalized structures and the total mean resonance energy (the sum of the weighted off-diagonal contributions in the Hamiltonian matrix of orthogonalized structures) increase when delocal orbitals are used as compared to local p-orbitals. Analysis of the interactions between the different structures of a system shows that the resonance in the 6π electrons conjugated circuits have the largest contributions to the resonance energy. The VBSCF calculations also show that the extra stability of phenanthrene, a kinked benzenoid, as compared to its linear counterpart, anthracene, is a consequence of the resonance in the π-system rather than the H-H interaction in the bay region as suggested previously. Finally, the empirical parameters for the resonance interactions between different 4n+2 or 4n π electrons conjugated circuits, used in Randić's conjugated circuits theory or Herdon's semi-emprical VB approach, are quantified. These parameters have to be scaled by the structure coefficients (weights) of the contributing structures.

  14. Entropically patchy particles: engineering valence through shape entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Greg; Ahmed, N Khalid; Smith, Ross; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2014-01-28

    Patchy particles are a popular paradigm for the design and synthesis of nanoparticles and colloids for self-assembly. In "traditional" patchy particles, anisotropic interactions arising from patterned coatings, functionalized molecules, DNA, and other enthalpic means create the possibility for directional binding of particles into higher-ordered structures. Although the anisotropic geometry of nonspherical particles contributes to the interaction patchiness through van der Waals, electrostatic, and other interactions, how particle shape contributes entropically to self-assembly is only now beginning to be understood. The directional nature of entropic forces has recently been elucidated. A recently proposed theoretical framework that defines and quantifies directional entropic forces demonstrates the anisotropic-that is, patchy-nature of these emergent, attractive forces. Here we introduce the notion of entropically patchy particles as the entropic counterpart to enthalpically patchy particles. Using three example "families" of shapes, we show how to modify entropic patchiness by introducing geometric features to the particles via shape operations so as to target specific crystal structures assembled here with Monte Carlo simulations. We quantify the emergent entropic valence via a potential of mean force and torque. We show that these forces are on the order of a few kBT at intermediate densities below the onset of crystallization. We generalize these shape operations to shape anisotropy dimensions, in analogy with the anisotropy dimensions introduced for enthalpically patchy particles. Our findings demonstrate that entropic patchiness and emergent valence provide a way of engineering directional bonding into nanoparticle systems, whether in the presence or absence of additional, non-entropic forces.

  15. Mixed-valence copper coordination polymers based on CuSCN or CuN3 as bridging motifs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Guang; GAO Shengli; CHEN Sanping; ZENG Minghua; XIE Gang

    2005-01-01

    Two novel mixed valence copper coordination polymers, [Cu(2-pac)2(CuN3)(H2O)]n (1) and [Cu(2-pac)2(CuSCN)2]n (2), have been prepared through hydrothermal synthesis and analyzed for structure determination, which exhibit two- and three-dimensional structures respectively. In complex (1), zigzag chains of [CuN3]n running parallel to the c direction are interconnected by Cu(2pac)2 to form a two-dimensional layer structure. In complex (2), the arrangement of μ-1,1,3 bridging thiocyanate ligand leads to the formation of ten-membered Cu-SCN- Cu-S-Cu-NCS rings, and each Cu atom is further linked by Cu(2-pac)2 to afford a three-dimensional configuration.

  16. Research on the Risk and Control Countermeasures of Supply Chain Finance of Chinese Commercial Banks in China%我国商业银行供应链金融风险及控制对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红涛; 袁博

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain finance to SMEs in the backdrop of the supply chain into account , to weaken the restrictions on the nodes of the supply chain. Supply Chain Finance has created a competition between the contemporary enterprise supply chain competition, the competition between the core enterprise is not just the supply chain, but the entire supply chain col-laboration in competition, in which commercial banks which act as important role. This paper analyzes the main risks in the financial business of the supply chain of China's commercial banks to explore the problems in the supply chain and financial risk management in commercial banks in China, and based on the targeted risk control countermeasures.%供应链金融将中小企业置于供应链的大背景下综合考虑,弱化了对供应链节点上的企业本身的限制。供应链金融造就了当代企业之间的竞争是供应链的竞争,不仅仅是供应链中的核心企业之间的竞争,而是整条供应链协作状况的竞争,其中商业银行在其中充当了重要角色。分析了我国商业银行供应链金融业务中的主要风险,探讨了我国商业银行供应链金融风险管理中存在的问题,并提出了针对性的风险控制对策。

  17. Solid-state phosphorescence of trans-bis(salicylaldiminato)platinum(II) complexes bearing long alkyl chains: morphology control towards intense emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Naruyoshi; Itami, Nao; Naota, Takeshi

    2013-07-15

    Morphology control for intense solid-state phosphorescence of non-emissive, but potentially emissive crystals of platinum complexes and the mechanistic rationale are described. A series of trans-bis(salicylaldiminato)platinum(II) complexes bearing linear alkyl chains (1a: n=5; 1b: n=8; 1c: n=12; 1d: n=14; 1e: n=16; 1f: n=18) was synthesized and the solid-state emission properties were examined by using crystals/aggregates prepared under various precipitation conditions. Crystals of 1e, prepared using "kinetic" conditions including rapid cooling, high concentrations, and poor solvents, emit intensive yellow phosphorescence (λ(max)=545 nm) under UV irradiation at 298 K with an absolute quantum efficiency of 0.36, whereas all the crystals of 1a-1f prepared using "thermodynamic" conditions including slow cooling, low concentrations, and good solvents were either non- or less emissive with Φ(298K) values of 0.12 (1a), 0.11 (1b), 0.10 (1c), 0.07 (1d), 0.02 (1e), and 0.02 (1f) under the same measurement conditions. The amorphous solid 1e, prepared by rapid cooling and freeze-drying, was also non-emissive (Φ(298K)=0.02, 0.02). Temperature-dependent emission spectra showed that the kinetic crystals of 1e exhibit high heat-resistance towards emission decay with increasing temperature, whereas the amorphous solid 1e is entirely heat-quenchable. This is a rare example of the change from a non-emissive crystal into a highly emissive crystal by morphology control through crystal engineering. Emission spectra and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the emissive, kinetic crystals of 1e are clearly distinct from those of the less emissive, thermodynamic crystals of 1a-1f. Single-crystal XRD unequivocally establishes that the thermodynamic crystals of 1d have a multilayered lamellar structure supported by highly regulated, consecutive π-stacking interactions between imine moieties, whereas the kinetic crystals of 1e have a face-to-edge lamellar structure with less

  18. Risk-based surveillance for avian influenza control along poultry market chains in South China: The value of social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Marshall, Edith; Jia, Beibei; Fusheng, Guo; FrancoDixon, Mary Ann; DeHaan, Nicoline; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the poultry sector in China went through a phase of tremendous growth as well as rapid intensification and concentration. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong province, South China and started spreading throughout Asia in early 2004. Since then, control of the disease in China has relied heavily on wide-scale preventive vaccination combined with movement control, quarantine and stamping out. This strategy has been successful in drastically reducing the number of outbreaks during the past 5years. However, HPAIV H5N1 is still circulating and is regularly isolated in traditional live bird markets (LBMs) where viral infection can persist, which represent a public health hazard for people visiting them. The use of social network analysis in combination with epidemiological surveillance in South China has identified areas where the success of current strategies for HPAI control in the poultry production sector may benefit from better knowledge of poultry trading patterns and the LBM network configuration as well as their capacity for maintaining HPAIV H5N1 infection. We produced a set of LBM network maps and estimated the associated risk of HPAIV H5N1 within LBMs and along poultry market chains, providing new insights into how live poultry trade and infection are intertwined. More specifically, our study provides evidence that several biosecurity factors such as daily cage cleaning, daily cage disinfection or manure processing contribute to a reduction in HPAIV H5N1 presence in LBMs. Of significant importance is that the results of our study also show the association between social network indicators and the presence of HPAIV H5N1 in specific network configurations such as the one represented by the counties of origin of the birds traded in LBMs. This new information could be used to develop more targeted and effective control interventions.

  19. Valence-Bond Concepts in Coordination Chemistry and the Nature of Metal-Metal Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the valence-bond method, applying it to some coordination compounds of metals, especially those involving metal-metal bonds. Suggests that transition metals can form as many as nine covalent bonds, permitting valence-theory to be extended to transition metal compounds in a more effective way than has been possible before. (JN)

  20. Atoms in Valence Bond – AiVB : synopsis and test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Atoms in Valence Bond (AiVB) method, a new approach in the Valence Bond, is introduced. This approach combines the ideas behind the early Atoms in Molecules (AIM) developments, e.g. by Moffit [21], to understand a molecular wave function in terms of proper atomic wave functions, with the availab

  1. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  2. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  3. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  4. Valence isomerization of cyclohepta-1,3,5-triene and its heteroelement analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The valence isomerization of the all-carbon and heteroelement analogues of cyclohepta-1,3,5-triene into the corresponding bicyclo[4.1.0]hepta-2,4-dienes is reviewed to show the impact of the heteroatom on the stability of both valence isomers. The focus is on the parent systems and their synthetic applications.

  5. Development of an Analytical System for Rapid, Remote Determining Concentration and Valence of Uranium and Plutonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations and valence of U and Pu directly shows whether the Purex process is under normal conditions or not. It is necessary to monitor concentrations and valence of U and Pu in real-time.Purposes of this work is to develop an analytical

  6. SPIN POLARIZATION AND MAGNETIC DICHROISM IN PHOTOEMISSION FROM CORE AND VALENCE STATES IN LOCALIZED MAGNETIC SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    THOLE, BT; VANDERLAAN, G

    1991-01-01

    Using group theory we derive a general model for spin polarization and magnetic dichroism in photo-emission in the presence of atomic interactions between the hole created and the valence holes. We predict strong effects in the photoemission from core levels and localized valence levels of transitio

  7. Emotions and language about motion: Differentiating affective dominance with syntax from valence with semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Esteban, José; Dru, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    Motion as encoded in linguistic cues is used to differentiate affective valence and dominance. Participants were invited to rate their affective responses to different words along valence and dominance scales. The words were nouns describing static cues and verbs describing motion, connected to DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues. The results of three studies showed that valence and dominance could be differentiated through syntax and semantics of motion. On one hand, dominance feelings, compared to valence ones, are particularly influenced by motion encoded in syntactic classes (verbs vs. nouns). On the other hand, valence feelings, compared to dominance ones, are influenced by a semantics of motion through DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues, considered as polarities. A polarity correspondence effect is proposed to explain these results.

  8. Examining the role of emotional valence of mind wandering: All mind wandering is not equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Welhaf, Matthew S; Hood, Audrey V B; Boals, Adriel; Tartar, Jaime L

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the role of emotional valence on the impact of mind wandering on working memory (WM) and sustained attention, we reanalyzed data from three independently conducted studies that examined the impact of stress on WM (Banks & Boals, 2016; Banks, Welhaf, & Srour, 2015) and sustained attention (Banks, Tartar, & Welhaf, 2014). Across all studies, participants reported the content of their thoughts at random intervals during the WM or sustained attention task. Thought probes in all studies included a core set of response options for task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that were negatively, positively, or neutrally emotionally valenced. In line with theories of emotional valenced stimuli on capture of attention, results suggest negatively valenced TUTs, but not positively valenced TUTs, were related to poorer WM and sustained attention in two studies. Neutral TUTs were related to poorer WM but not sustained attention performance. Implications for models of mind wandering are discussed.

  9. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence.

  10. Calcineurin-NFAT Signaling and Neurotrophins Control Transformation of Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms in Rat Soleus Muscle in Response to Aerobic Treadmill Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liu, Gan Chen, Fanling Li, Changfa Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the role of CaN-NFAT signaling and neurotrophins on the transformation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber following aerobic exercise training. To do so, we examined the content and distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber, the activity of CaN and expression of NFATc1 in these fibers, and changes in the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neutrophin-3 (NT-3 in the soleus and striatum following high-and medium-intensity aerobic treadmill training. Specific pathogen-free 2 month old male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control group (Con, n = 8, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (M-Ex, n = 8 and high-intensity aerobic exercise group (H-Ex, n = 8. We used ATPase staining to identify the muscle fiber type I and II, SDS-PAGE to separate and analyze the isoforms MyHCI, MyHCIIA, MyHCIIB and MyHCIIx, and performed western blots to determine the expression of NFATc1, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. CaN activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. In the soleus muscle, 8 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise can induce transformation of MyHC IIA and MyHC IIB to MyHC IIX and MyHC I (p < 0.01, while high-intensity treadmill exercise can induce transform MyHC IIx to MyHC IIB, MyHC IIA and MyHC I (p < 0.01. In comparison to the control group, CaN activity and NFATcl protein level were significantly increased in both the M-Ex and H-Ex groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, with a more pronounced upregulation in the M-Ex group (p < 0.05. Eight weeks of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise induced the expression of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 in the soleus muscle and the striatum (p < 0.01, with the most significant increase in the H-Ex group (p < 0.01. In the rat soleus muscle, (1 CaN–NFATcl signaling contributes to the conversion of MyHC I isoform in response to moderate-intensity exercise; (2

  11. Effects of alkyl side chains on properties of aliphatic amino acids probed using quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Aravindhan; Wang, Feng; Brunger, Michael; Prince, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    Effects of alkyl side chains (R-) on the electronic structural properties of aliphatic amino acids are investigated using quantum mechanical approaches. The carbon (C 1s) binding energy spectra of the aliphatic amino acids are derived from the C 1s spectrum of glycine (the parent spectrum) by the addition of spectral peaks, depending on the alkyl side chains, appearing in the lower energy region IP aliphatic amino acids owing to perturbations depending on the size and structure of the alkyl chains. The pattern of the N 1s and O 1s spectra in glycine is retained in the spectra of the other amino acids with small shifts to lower energy, again depending on the alkyl side chain. The Hirshfeld charge analyses confirm the observations. The alkyl effects on the valence binding energy spectra of the amino acids are concentrated in the middle valence energy region of 12-16 eV, and hence this energy region of 12-16 eV is considered as the `fingerprint' of the alkyl side chains. Selected valence orbitals, either inside or outside of the alkyl fingerprint region, are presented using both density distributions and orbital momentum distributions, in order to understand the chemical bonding of the amino acids. It is also observed that the HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of the aliphatic amino acids are reduced with the growth of the alkyl side chain.

  12. Influence of extrinsic factors on electron transfer in a mixed-valence Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) complex: experimental results and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, C; Bominaar, E L; Staples, R J; Münck, E; Holm, R H

    2001-08-13

    The crystal structure of the mixed-valence complex (NEt(4))[Fe(2)(salmp)(2)].xMeCN(crystal) (x = 2,3) [1].xMeCN(crystal) was determined at temperatures between 153 and 293 K. The complex shows distinct Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) sites over this temperature interval. Variable temperature Mössbauer spectra confirm the valence-localized character of the complex. In contrast, spectroscopic investigation of powder samples generated from [1].xMeCN(crystal) indicate the presence of a valence-averaged component at temperatures above 150 K. To elucidate this apparent contradiction we have conducted a variable-temperature Mössbauer investigation of different forms of 1, including [1].xMeCN(crystal), [1].2DMF(crystal), [1].yMeCN(powder), and solution samples of 1 in acetonitrile. The low-temperature Mössbauer spectra of all forms are virtually identical and confirm the valence-localized nature of the S = (9)/(2) ground state. The high-temperature spectra reveal a subtle control of electron hopping by the environment of the complexes. Thus, [1].xMeCN(crystal) has valence-localized spectra at all explored temperatures, [1].2DMF(crystal) exhibits a complete collapse into a valence-averaged spectrum over a narrow temperature range, the powder exhibits partial valence averaging over a broad temperature interval, and the solution sample shows at 210 K the presence of a valence-averaged component in a minor proportion. The spectral transformations are characterized by a coexistence of valence-localized and valence-averaged spectral components. This phenomenon cannot be explained by intramolecular electron hopping between the valence-localized states Fe(A)(2+)Fe(B)(3+) and Fe(A)(3+)Fe(B)(2+) in a homogeneous ensemble of complexes, but requires relaxation processes involving at least three distinguishable states of the molecular anion. Hopping rates for [1].2DMF(crystal) and [1].yMeCN(powder) have been determined from spectral simulations, based on stochastic line shape theory. Analysis of

  13. I. Enabling Single-Chain Surfactants to Form Vesicles by Nonamphiphilic Liquid Crystals in Water II. Controlling Attachment and Ligand-Mediated Adherence of Candida albicans on Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Nisha

    This dissertation describes a fundamental study of weak noncovalent interactions and surface forces that exist at the interfaces of various interacting moieties (small molecules or microbes), and its relevance to colloidal and material chemistry. Chapter 1 presents an emulsion system that enables single-chain anionic or nonionic surfactants to sequester and encapsulate certain water-soluble organic salts, leading to the formation of vesicles in water. The water-soluble organic salt in the system comprises of disodium cromoglycate crystals that are emulsified by surfactants in water to form stable liquid crystal droplets. The work provides an exception to the rule of geometric packing factor that dictates formation of micelles by the surfactants in water. Chapter 2 shows that the odd or even number of carbon atoms present in the aliphatic chain of surfactants affect the ability of surfactants to emulsify aqueous-based liquid crystals of disodium cromoglycate. Such an odd-even effect is frequently observed for solid state properties like melting point, heat of fusion and refractive index but is rarely observed for molecules present in solution. When mixed in water, anionic single-chain surfactants with odd number of carbon atoms emulsifies disodium cromoglycate to form liquid crystal droplets, while surfactants with even number of carbon atoms fail to emulsify disodium cromoglycate. Chapter 3 Bolaamphiphiles usually form vesicles only in extreme conditions or in the presence of surfactants. Here, we explore the co-assembly system of synthesized bolaamphiphiles and disodium cromoglycate in water. The combination of the self-assembly forces of the bolaamphiphile and self-associating property of disodium cromoglycate liquid crystals act together at the interface form a unique microemulsion of liquid crystal droplets of disodium cromoglycate embedded in liquid crystal phase. Chapter 4 describes a key event (adhesion) that precedes infections caused by Candida albicans

  14. Uncertainty quantification for Markov chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidani, Hadi; Ghanem, Roger

    2012-12-01

    Transition probabilities serve to parameterize Markov chains and control their evolution and associated decisions and controls. Uncertainties in these parameters can be associated with inherent fluctuations in the medium through which a chain evolves, or with insufficient data such that the inferential value of the chain is jeopardized. The behavior of Markov chains associated with such uncertainties is described using a probabilistic model for the transition matrices. The principle of maximum entropy is used to characterize the probability measure of the transition rates. The formalism is demonstrated on a Markov chain describing the spread of disease, and a number of quantities of interest, pertaining to different aspects of decision-making, are investigated.

  15. A novel duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of hepatitis C viral RNA with armored RNA as internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV genome is extremely heterogeneous. Several HCV infections can not be detected using currently available commercial assays, probably because of mismatches between the template and primers/probes. By aligning the HCV sequences, we developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using 2 sets of primers/probes and a specific armored RNA as internal control. The 2 detection probes were labelled with the same fluorophore, namely, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM, at the 5' end; these probes could mutually combine, improving the power of the test. Results The limit of detection of the duplex primer/probe assay was 38.99 IU/ml. The sensitivity of the assay improved significantly, while the specificity was not affected. All HCV genotypes in the HCV RNA Genotype Panel for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques could be detected. In the testing of 109 serum samples, the performance of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was identical to that of the COBAS AmpliPrep (CAP/COBAS TaqMan (CTM assay and superior to 2 commercial HCV assay kits. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is an efficient and effective viral assay. It is comparable with the CAP/CTM assay with regard to the power of the test and is appropriate for blood-donor screening and laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection.

  16. 社会责任思想在供应链质量控制中的应用%The application of the idea of social responsibility in the quality control of supply chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常广庶

    2013-01-01

    国际标准化组织新近发布了社会责任指南标准ISO26000,强调组织要实现可持续发展,就必须履行其社会责任.论文阐述了ISO26000社会责任思想的七个核心主题在供应链质量控制中的应用,以帮助企业按照ISO26000的社会责任思想来影响和规范供应链质量控制体系,使所有供应链成员企业都能够主动参与质量工作,并对整个供应链体系进行有效的质量监督与控制.%Recently, ISO published ISO26000 which emphasizes that the organization must perform its social responsibility to realize sustainable development. This paper analyzed the application of the seven core subiects of ISO26000 in quality control of supply chain so as to perfect the quality control system of supply chain according to the social responsibility idea of ISO26000, promote all the supply chain members participating into the quality control actively, and implement effective quality supervision and control over the whole supply chain system.

  17. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putz Mihai V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework.

  18. Two Meson Systems with Ginsparg-Wilson Valence Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J W; Walker-Loud, A; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Connell, Donal O'; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Unphysical effects associated with finite lattice spacing and partial quenching may lead to the presence of unphysical terms in chiral extrapolation formulae. These unphysical terms must then be removed during data analysis before physical predictions can be made. In this work, we show that through next-to-leading order, there are no unphysical counterterms in the extrapolation formulae, expressed in lattice-physical parameters, for meson scattering lengths in theories with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks. Our work applies to essentially any sea quark discretization, provided that chiral perturbation theory is a valid approximation. We demonstrate our results with explicit computations and show that, in favorable circumstances, the extrapolation formulae do not depend on the unknown constant C_Mix appearing at lowest order in the mixed action chiral Lagrangian. We show that the I=1 K-K scattering length does not depend on C_Mix in contrast to the I = 3/2 K-pi scattering length. In addition, we show that these ...

  19. The Polarised Valence Quark Distribution from semi-inclusive DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dafni, T.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, A.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.E.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.P.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Reggiani, D.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schonmeier, P.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The semi-inclusive difference asymmetry A^{h+ - h-} for hadrons of opposite charge has been measured by the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The data were collected in the years 2002-2004 using a 160 GeV polarised muon beam scattered off a large polarised 6-LiD target and cover the range 0.006 < x < 0.7 and 1 < Q^2 < 100 (GeV/c)^2. In leading order QCD (LO) the asymmetry A_d^{h+ - h-} measures the valence quark polarisation and provides an evaluation of the first moment of Delta u_v + Delta d_v which is found to be equal to 0.40 +- 0.07 (stat.) +- 0.05 (syst.) over the measured range of x at Q^2 = 10 (GeV/c)^2. When combined with the first moment of g_1^d previously measured on the same data, this result favours a non-symmetric polarisation of light quarks Delta u-bar = -Delta d-bar at a confidence level of two standard deviations, in contrast to the often assumed symmetric scenario Delta u-bar = Delta d-bar = Delta s-bar = Delta s.

  20. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  1. High and low roads to odor valence? A choice response-time study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Bowman, Nicholas E; Gottfried, Jay A

    2013-10-01

    Valence and edibility are two important features of olfactory perception, but it remains unclear how they are read out from an olfactory input. For a given odor object (e.g., the smell of rose or garlic), does perceptual identification of that object necessarily precede retrieval of information about its valence and edibility, or alternatively, are these processes independent? In the present study, we studied rapid, binary perceptual decisions regarding odor detection, object identity, valence, and edibility for a set of common odors. We found that decisions regarding odor-object identity were faster than decisions regarding odor valence or edibility, but slower than detection. Mediation analysis revealed that odor valence and edibility decision response times were predicted by a model in which odor-object identity served as a mediator along the perceptual pathway from detection to both valence and edibility. According to this model, odor valence is determined through both a "low road" that bypasses odor objects and a "high road" that utilizes odor-object information. Edibility evaluations are constrained to processing via the high road. The results outline a novel causal framework that explains how major perceptual features might be rapidly extracted from odors through engagement of odor objects early in the processing stream.

  2. [XPS study on the influence of calcination conditions to cerium ion valence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yan, Jian-ping; Nie, Zuo-ren

    2010-01-01

    For the system of Ce(NO3)2.6H2O and urea solution during homogeneous precipitation method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrum (IR) and especially X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study and characterize the product structure, variety of cerium ion valence, compound surface character and kernel electronic configurations. The results of XRD and IR showed that calcination temperature had a great effect on the cerium ion valence. The products are orthorhombic Ce2 O(CO3)2.H2O with valence III by using homogeneous precipitation method directly. When heated from the temperature 200 degrees C to 250 degrees C, the product of CeO(CO3)2.H2O with valence VI was finally changed into stable CeO2 with valence IV. XPS was used to study the surface character and kernel electronic configurations of the three different compounds through fine scanning of O(1s), Ce(3d) and Ce(4d) apices, and the results approved that the compounds with different valences are caused by the different valence electronic configurations of the products.

  3. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  4. Valence bond phases in S = 1/2 Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad H; Mosadeq, Hamid; Shahbazi, Farhad; Jafari, S A

    2014-11-12

    The phase diagram of the Kane-Mele-Heisenberg model in a classical limit [47] contains disordered regions in the coupling space, as the result of competition between different terms in the Hamiltonian, leading to frustration in finding a unique ground state. In this work we explore the nature of these phases in the quantum limit, for a S = 1/2. Employing exact diagonalization in Sz and nearest neighbour valence bond bases, and bond and plaquette valence bond mean field theories, we show that the disordered regions are divided into ordered quantum states in the form of plaquette valence bond crystals and staggered dimerized phases.

  5. Complex materials for molecular spintronics applications: cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomers, from molecules to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Arrigo; Chen, Yifeng; Lewis, Geoffrey F; Dougherty, Daniel B; Shultz, David; Nardelli, Marco Buongiorno

    2012-11-01

    Using first principles calculations, we predict a complex multifunctional behavior in cobalt bis(dioxolene) valence tautomeric compounds. Molecular spin-state switching is shown to dramatically alter electronic properties and corresponding transport properties. This spin state dependence has been demonstrated for technologically relevant coordination polymers of valence tautomers as well as for novel conjugated polymers with valence tautomeric functionalization. As a result, these materials are proposed as promising candidates for spintronic devices that can couple magnetic bistability with novel electrical and spin conduction properties. Our findings pave the way to the fundamental understanding and future design of active multifunctional organic materials for spintronics applications.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, FTS

    2002-01-01

    Supply chain management has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage in different industries. For years, researchers have investigated the various processes within supply chain. There has been an increasing attention placed on performance, design and analysis of supply chain. However, the supply chain is a complex model so it is difficult to analyze the performance of a supply chain philosophically. To evaluate the control mechanism for a supply chain, simulation is o...

  7. 供应链中断风险的管理与控制%Management and Control of Supply Chain Disruption Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾毅

    2013-01-01

      由于自然灾害、人为因素和政治经济波动等原因,供应链常常面临着无法预测的中断风险。本文阐述了供应链中断风险的概念和类型,讨论了供应链中断风险的管理体系,最后给出了供应链中断风险的应对措施。%Due to natural disasters, human factors and political and economic fluctuation, the supply chain often are faced with the risk of unpredictable disruptions. This paper expounds the concept and type of supply chain disruption risks, interruption of supply chain risk management system is discussed, finally the measures of supply chain disruption risks are given.

  8. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  10. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  11. Dairy Logistics Supply Chain Dynamic Model and Robust HI Control%乳制品物流供应链动态模型及其鲁棒H∞控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜轩; 尹春华

    2016-01-01

    文中针对乳制品物流供应链系统实际运作过程中存在的时滞、参数和外部环境输入等不确定性问题,建立了相应的乳制品物流供应链动态模型,采用鲁棒H∞控制的方法和线性矩阵不等式(LMI )算法处理了乳制品物流供应链系统实际运作问题。借助乳制品物流供应链库存状态的静态反馈控制,使供应链动态系统达到克制不确定性因素干扰的作用,并使供应链系统实际运作总成本达到最优。最后,通过Matlab仿真计算验证了所得结果。%Aiming uncertainty Delay dairy supply chain logistics systems that exist in the actual operation of the process, the input parameters and the external environment,the establishment of the corresponding dairy logistics supply chain dynamic model using the method of robust H∞ control and linear matrix inequality (LMI)algorithm processing the dairy supply chain logistics system is actually functioning.With the dairy supply chain logistics static feedback control inventory status,dynamic supply chain system to achieve the role of restraint uncertainties interference,and the actual operation of the supply chain system to achieve optimal total cost.Finally,Matlab simulation to verify the results obtained.

  12. Study of iron valence state and position in sub-site by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Lim, Jae Cheong; KIm, Chul Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Kwang Jae [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The magnetic ordering temperature and the magnitude of the magnetic fields at the iron sites of YIG can be influenced by substituting, either partially or totally, the Fe{sup 3+} ions at the octahedral and/or the tetrahedral sites with magnetic or diamagnetic ions, and/or by substitution the Y{sup 3+} ions at the dodecahedral sites with magnetic rare earth ions. It has been known for some time that Moessbauer spectroscopy is a powerful method by which iron-containing garnets can be studied. We report here on the synthesis of the compounds with garnet-related structures of composition Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} and its examination by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The chromium in compounds of the Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} is distributed at an octahedral site. The Moessbauer spectra can be analyzed using 3 or 4 sets of six Lorentzians with increasing amount of Cr{sup 3+} compounds in this system. It results from the distribution ({sub 4}C{sub n}) of Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} at an octahedral site. A comparative study of ferrous tablets of Dynabi was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed the presence of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) gluconate and ferrous fumarate in a sample. This observation is important to better control the iron state in such medicaments because their pharmaceutical effect in the body is related to the form and valence of iron. The Cr-containing yttrium iron garnet (YIG), and the exchange interactions and site distributions were studied using {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed the presence of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) gluconate and ferrous fumarate in the sample. This observation is important better control the iron state in such medicaments because their pharmaceutical effect in the body is related to the form and valence of iron.

  13. Controllable preparation of complex polymer chains and novel materials%复杂聚合物链结构的可控制备与新材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英武

    2013-01-01

    自由基聚合与配位聚合的产物通常为宽分子量分布的均聚物或无规共聚物.近二十年来,活性/可控自由基聚合、活性/可控配位聚合、链穿梭聚合的研究取得突破.这些方法使得几乎所有的乙烯基单体,特别是廉价易得的单体,都可用作原料来制备原来无法制备得到的两嵌段、多嵌段共聚物、梯度共聚物等更为复杂聚合链结构.合理设计这些复杂的链结构,有望得到高性能、高附加值合成材料.介绍了这些新型聚合原理的机理、新进展,讨论了它们潜在的应用前景.%The product from free radical and coordination polymerization generally are homopolymer or random copolymer with broad molecular weight distribution. In the past two decades, the breakthroughs in controlled/living radical and coordination polymerization and shuttling polymerization make it possible to use almost all vinyl monomers, particularly those cheap monomers, to produce more complex chain structures like di-, tri-block copolymer and gradient copolymers. With rational design, these copolymers might be high performance and high added value synthetic materials. The mechanisms and the up-to-date progress of these polymerization methods were introduced, and their possible applications were discussed.

  14. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with two internal controls for the detection of Brucella species in tissues, blood, and feces from marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Inga F; Dunn, J Lawrence; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Carlson, Jolene; Frasca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis has emerged as a disease of concern in marine mammals in the last 2 decades. Molecular detection techniques have the potential to address limitations of other methods for detecting infection with Brucella in these species. Presented herein is a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the Brucella genus-specific bcsp31 gene. The method also includes a target to a conserved region of the eukaryotic mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess suitability of extracted DNA and a plasmid-based internal control to detect failure of PCR due to inhibition. This method was optimized and validated to detect Brucella spp. in multiple sample matrices, including fresh or frozen tissue, blood, and feces. The analytical limit of detection was low, with 95% amplification at 24 fg, or an estimated 7 bacterial genomic copies. When Brucella spp. were experimentally added to tissue or fecal homogenates, the assay detected an estimated 1-5 bacteria/µl. An experiment simulating tissue autolysis showed relative persistence of bacterial DNA compared to host mitochondrial DNA. When used to screen 1,658 field-collected marine mammal tissues in comparison to microbial culture, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 70.4% and 98.3%, respectively. In addition to amplification in fresh and frozen tissues, Brucella spp. were detected in feces and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from culture-positive animals. Results indicate the utility of this real-time PCR for the detection of Brucella spp. in marine species, which may have applications in surveillance or epidemiologic investigations.

  15. Overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea. A case study for mixed action lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Garcia-Ramos, Elena [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Herdoiza, Gregorio [UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UAM/CSIC Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2012-11-15

    We discuss a Lattice QCD mixed action investigation employing Wilson maximally twisted mass sea and overlap valence fermions. Using four values of the lattice spacing, we demonstrate that the overlap Dirac operator assumes a point-like locality in the continuum limit. We also show that by adopting suitable matching conditions for the sea and valence theories a consistent continuum limit for the pion decay constant and light baryon masses can be obtained. Finally, we confront results for sea-valence mixed meson masses and the valence scalar correlator with corresponding expressions of chiral perturbation theory. This allows us to extract low energy constants of mixed action chiral perturbation which characterize the strength of unitarity violations in our mixed action setup.

  16. Determination of the bulk cobalt valence state of co-perovskites containing surface-adsorbed impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, O; Ludwig, Chr; Wokaun, A

    2006-10-15

    We used thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction and iodometric titration to determine the bulk valence state of cobalt in Co-perovskites containing surface carbonate hydroxide or hydroxyl groups. It could be shown that thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction experiments are very sensitive to volatile surface groups, but due to their volatility, they can be specified and the bulk valence state of cobalt can still be deduced from these experiments. The iodometric titration is less sensitive to small volatile surface impurities, but precaution has to be taken that oxygen or iodine does not escape from the solution during dissolution of the sample. Best results were obtained if the sample was titrated during dissolution in a closed argon floated titration apparatus. We tested the two methods using LaCoO3 perovskite as a sample with a known valence state. Both methods delivered satisfactory results, and the valence state could be determined with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  17. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  18. Delocalized mixed-valence bi- and trinuclear complexes with short Cu-Cu bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Powell, Douglas R; Klein, Eric L; Grohmann, Andreas; Houser, Robert P

    2007-08-20

    Two mixed-valence copper complexes were synthesized with ligands N-(2-pyridylmethyl)acetamide (Hpmac) and N,N'-(2-methyl-2-pyridylpropan-1,3-diyl)bis(acetamide) (H2pp(ac)2). Dimer [Cu2(pmac)2]OTf and trimer [Cu3(pp(ac)2)2].NaOTf both contain fully delocalized, mixed-valence Cu(1.5)Cu(1.5) moieties.

  19. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  20. Mixed-Valence Porphyrin π-Cation Radical Derivatives: Electrochemical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, W Robert; Buentello, Kristin E; Ehlinger, Noelle; Cinquantini, Arnaldo; Fontani, Marco; Laschi, Franco

    2008-05-05

    The electrochemistry of [Cu(OEP)] and [Ni(OEP)] are compared with the mixed-valence π-cations [Cu(OEP•/2)]2+and[Ni(OEP•/2)]2+. These electrochemical studies, carried out with cyclic voltametry and hydrodynamic voltametry, show that the mixed valence π-cations have distinct electrochemical properties, although the differences between the [M(OEP)](+/0) and [M(OEP•/2)]2+/0 processes are subtle.

  1. Modelling of Ion Transport in Solids with a General Bond Valence Based Force-Field

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, S.; R.P. Rao

    2010-01-01

    Empirical bond length - bond valence relations provide insight into the link between structure of and ion transport in solid electrolytes. Building on our earlier systematic adjustment of bond valence (BV) parameters to the bond softness, here we discuss how the squared BV mismatch can be linked to the absolute energy scale and used as a general Morse-type interaction potential for analyzing low-energy pathways in ion conducting solid or mixed conductors either by an energy landscape approach...

  2. Research and Optimization of Enterprise Inventory Control Based on Supply Chain%基于供应链的企业库存成因及优化控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 孔令夷

    2013-01-01

    基于企业全面库存管理思想,运用供应链系统理论作为研究方法,分析了库存管理现状及产生原因,从优化生产管理、整合企业内部供应链和跨企业供应链的角度提出库存控制的对策,以实现全面的库存优化,提高经营效益。%Based on the idea of a comprehensive enterprise inventory management, the inventory cost, inventory control experience, the optimization of inventory system management and the results of previous studies were analyzed.By using inventory management concepts and methods of advanced enterprises, to large manufacturing enterprise as the core research object, on the set of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors for the integration of the supply chain as the foundation of the research framework, using the supply chain system theory as research method, the authors analyze the inventory management present situation, affecting factors and reasons, put forward the corresponding countermeasures of inventory control from the optimization of production management, the integration of internal supply chain and inter enterprise supply chain perspective in order to achieve inventory optimization of comprehensive and improve operational efficiency.

  3. A general valence asymmetry in similarity: Good is more alike than bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alex; Alves, Hans; Krüger, Tobias; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The density hypothesis (Unkelbach, Fiedler, Bayer, Stegmüller, & Danner, 2008) claims a general higher similarity of positive information to other positive information compared with the similarity of negative information to other negative information. This similarity asymmetry might explain valence asymmetries on all levels of cognitive processing. The available empirical evidence for this general valence asymmetry in similarity suffers from a lack of direct tests, low representativeness, and possible confounding variables (e.g., differential valence intensity, frequency, familiarity, or concreteness of positive and negative stimuli). To address these problems, Study 1 first validated the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) as a similarity measure. Using SpAM, Studies 2-6 found the proposed valence asymmetry in large, representative samples of self- and other-generated words (Studies 2a/2b), for words of consensual and idiosyncratic valence (Study 3), for words from 1 and many independent information sources (Study 4), for real-life experiences (Study 5), and for large data sets of verbal (i.e., ∼14,000 words reported by Warriner, Kuperman, & Brysbaert, 2013) and visual information (i.e., ∼1,000 pictures reported in the IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005; Study 6). Together, these data support a general valence asymmetry in similarity, namely that good is more alike than bad. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Logistic chain modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to n

  5. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  6. Dietary restraint, ambivalence toward eating, and the valence and content of spontaneous associations with eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; van der Horst, Klazine

    2013-03-01

    In a random sample of the German-speaking population of Switzerland (N=1388, 730 women), the technique of spontaneous associations was used to examine the relationship between valence (positive, negative) and content of participants' spontaneous associations with the term "eating" and dietary restraint, ambivalence toward eating, and health consciousness. Regression analysis revealed ambivalence to be the most important and food health consciousness the second most important predictor of restrained eating. Correspondence analysis of the content of the spontaneous associations revealed high-restrained eaters to have fewer associations with eating than unrestrained eaters. High-restrained eaters most often had negative associations with diet and positive associations with health. Unrestrained eaters mentioned a variety of positive associations, such as community, comfort and well-being, preparation of food, aesthetics, and various specific foods (e.g., starchy side dishes, and sweets). Results support the notion that the conflict between weight control and eating enjoyment is rather pronounced in high-restrained eaters, resulting in ambivalence toward eating, and the inhibition of associations with palatable foods. This was less pronounced, but still present, in medium-restrained eaters. In contrast, unrestrained eaters seemed to have a balanced and conflict-free relationship with eating. However, restrained eating also seemed to be driven by health considerations.

  7. Mothering Experiences: How Single Parenthood and Employment Structure the Emotional Valence of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed.

  8. Dissociable neural systems underwrite logical reasoning in the context of induced emotions with positive and negative valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen W; Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    How emotions influence syllogistic reasoning is not well understood. fMRI was employed to investigate the effects of induced positive or negative emotion on syllogistic reasoning. Specifically, on a trial-by-trial basis participants were exposed to a positive, negative, or neutral picture, immediately prior to engagement in a reasoning task. After viewing and rating the valence and intensity of each picture, participants indicated by keypress whether or not the conclusion of the syllogism followed logically from the premises. The content of all syllogisms was neutral, and the influence of belief-bias was controlled for in the study design. Emotion did not affect reasoning performance, although there was a trend in the expected direction based on accuracy rates for the positive (63%) and negative (64%) versus neutral (70%) condition. Nevertheless, exposure to positive and negative pictures led to dissociable patterns of neural activation during reasoning. Therefore, the neural basis of deductive reasoning differs as a function of the valence of the context.

  9. Dissociable neural systems underwrite logical reasoning in the context of induced emotions with positive and negative valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Walton Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How emotions influence syllogistic reasoning is not well understood. fMRI was employed to investigate the effects of induced positive or negative emotion on syllogistic reasoning. Specifically, on a trial-by-trial basis participants were exposed to a positive, negative, or neutral picture, immediately prior to engagement in a reasoning task. After viewing and rating the valence and intensity of each picture, participants indicated by keypress whether or not the conclusion of the syllogism followed logically from the premises. The content of all syllogisms was neutral, and the influence of belief-bias was controlled for in the study design. Emotion did not affect reasoning performance, although there was a trend in the expected direction based on accuracy rates for the positive (63% and negative (64% versus neutral (70% condition. Nevertheless, exposure to positive and negative pictures led to dissociable patterns of neural activation during reasoning. Therefore, the neural basis of deductive reasoning differs as a function of the valence of the context.

  10. Research on Robustness of Complex Supply Chain Networks Based on Network Quality Control%基于网络质量控制的复杂供应链网络稳健性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴; 李仁旺; 吴新丽; 刘海霞

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the management of a network structure was proposed based on the network quality control.The topology of supply chain network was constructed.Combining with the scale-free network model,the hub and the robustness of the supply chain network were defined from perspective of network quality control.The dynamic robustness and vulnerability were revealed during the growth of the supply chain network.The research focused on robustness enhancement method of complex supply chain networks.The auto parts enterprises supply chain network in Zhejiang Province was presented to verify the effectiveness of the method.%提出了一种基于网络质量控制的复杂供应链网络结构管理的新方法。构建了供应链网络的拓扑结构,并结合无标度网络模型,从网络质量控制的角度阐释了网络中枢节点和稳健性供应链网络。揭示了供应链网络在增长过程中的动态稳健性和脆弱性,重点研究了增强复杂供应链网络稳健性的方法。最后以浙江省汽车零部件企业的供应链网络为例验证了所提方法的有效性。

  11. Characterization of Topological Phases of Spin-1/2 Frustrated Ferromagnetic-Antiferromagnetic Alternating Heisenberg Chains by Entanglement Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Kazuo

    2016-02-01

    The topological classification of a series of frustration-induced spin-gap phases in the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain with next-nearest-neighbour interaction reported in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 82, 064703 (2013) is confirmed using two kinds of entanglement spectra defined by different divisions of the whole chain. For the numerical calculation, the iDMRG method is used. The results are consistent with the valence bond solid picture proposed in the previous paper.

  12. Análise das práticas de planejamento e controle da produção em fornecedores da cadeia automotiva brasileira Manufacturing planning and control practices: a survey research on the Brazilian automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Mesquita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As empresas do segmento automotivo estão inseridas em um mercado bastante competitivo e sujeito às oscilações da economia. As montadoras, agentes de maior poder na cadeia de suprimentos, aderiram às práticas just-in-time e, posteriormente, ao lean production, visando aumento da eficiência e redução de estoques. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise das práticas de planejamento e controle da produção dos fornecedores da cadeia automotiva brasileira. Neste propósito, realizou-se um survey junto aos fornecedores de primeira e segunda camada, utilizando-se como instrumento de coleta de dados um questionário auto-aplicado. Dentre os resultados obtidos, destacam-se: (i ausência de diferenças significativas entre fornecedores nível um e dois; (ii necessidade de aprimorar a coordenação cliente-fornecedor; (iii busca de "ferramentas" mais eficientes para programação da produção ("programação finita"; (iv grande lacuna entre teoria e prática em programação da produção, atividade crítica para o desempenho dos fornecedores.Automotive suppliers are part of a constantly changing business environment that is subject to oscillations in the economy. Automobile assemblers, the major influence over the rest of the supply chain, have adopted some Japanese management practices (JIT, lean production etc in order to achieve higher efficiency and lower inventories. This work aims to identify how suppliers along the chain have adjusted to this new situation concerning, mainly, production and inventory planning as well as control. A research was conducted showing that, nonuniformly, suppliers fulfill demand requests satisfactorily in spite of the poor coordination of their nearest clients, low inventory accuracy, and high stock level of raw materials and finished goods. It was also detected that there are no significant performance differences between first and second tier suppliers. It is particularly noteworthy to highlight a special need

  13. 具有外包选择的闭环供应链切换模型及其鲁棒控制%Closed-loop supply chain switching model with outsourcing selection and its robust control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛汝刚; 黄小原

    2009-01-01

    建立了一类具有外包选择的闭环供应链切换系统模型,包括自行同收再制造和外包两个子系统,以及基于成本的切换信号向量.为了抑制闭环供应链系统在自行回收再制造和外包切换过程中产牛的运作波动和牛鞭效应,应用鲁棒控制理论方法给出了供应链切换系统的控制律,分析了闭环供应链切换系统运作过程,并进行了控制律计算和系统仿真,验证了鲁棒控制律的有效性.%A type of closed-loop supply chain switching models with outsourcing selection were proposed, which were consisted of remanufacturing self-recall and outsourcing subsystems as well as a cost-based switching signal vector. To inhibit operation fluctuation caused by inventory switching processes in the supply chain systems and bullwhip effect induced by uncertain parameters and external demand, the control law of the closed-loop supply chain switching system was presented by using robust control theory and method. The operation process of closed-loop supply chain switching system was analyzed. Moreover, computation of the control law and a system simulation were performed. Results verified the effectiveness of the control law.

  14. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2014-01-01

    Background The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Methods Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into s...

  15. Studies on exposure status of inhabitants to water-arsenic valence states in areas with endemic arsenism in the Datong basin in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; GAO Jianguo; CHENG Xiaotian; WANG Zhenghui; WEN Xinping; HAN Lingling; SANG Zhiping; ZHANG Jie; DUAN Hushun; LIANG Binfeng

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the distribution of water-arsenic(As)valence states and its relationship to areas with endemic arsenism in the Datong basin.Drinking water samples of patients with endemic arsenism and a control group were examined using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry(HG-AFS).We analyzed the data using SPSS10.0 for Windows.The As(Ⅲ)/As ratio was 52.1%in the water sample,exceeding the national standard of 0.05 mg/L.The As(Ⅲ)/As ratio significantly varied among the difierent stages in the disease-state groups,and with the control group(X2=22.4,P<0.01).The As(Ⅲ)/As(Ⅴ)ratio significantly varied in the four groups(X2=26.19,P<0.01),with a tendency to increase along with the seriousncss of the disease state.The most common type of drinking water arsenic valence state was As(Ⅲ)in the endemic diseaseareas.Endemic arsenism was positively correlated with As(Ⅲ).This led us to conclude that the fraction of each water-arsenic valence state should be studied when determining the arsenic content of drinking water.

  16. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-03-02

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The present study did so by repeated assessment of declarative memory in 386 children (45% boys) aged 9-11 years through an online word-pair task. Children were randomly assigned to either a morning or evening learning session of 30 unrelated word-pairs with positive, neutral or negative valenced cues and neutral targets. After immediately assessing baseline recognition, delayed recognition was recorded either 12 or 24 h later, resulting in four different assessment schedules. One week later, the procedure was repeated with exactly the same word-pairs to evaluate whether effects differed for relearning versus original novel learning. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to evaluate how the probability of correct recognition was affected by sleep, valence, arousal, novelty and their interactions. Both immediate and delayed recognition were worse for pairs with negatively valenced or less arousing cue words. Relearning improved immediate and delayed word-pair recognition. In contrast to these effects, sleep did not affect recognition, nor did sleep moderate the effects of arousal, valence and novelty. The findings suggest a robust inclination of children to specifically forget the pairing of words to negatively valenced cue words. In agreement with a recent meta-analysis, children seem to depend less on sleep for the consolidation of information than has been reported for adults, irrespective of the emotional valence, arousal and novelty of word-pairs.

  17. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polcari Ann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP recorded during a neutral and an upsetting memory were used to assess HEV in 28 (20 F right-handed subjects who were either victims of childhood maltreatment (N = 12 or healthy controls. In a sub-population, we determined HEV by emotional response to lateral visual field stimulation (LVFS, in which vision is limited to one, then the other hemifield. We compare a number of morphometric and functional brain measures between individuals who have right-negative versus left-negative HEV. Results Using AEPs to determine HEV, we found 62% of controls and 67% of maltreated subjects had right negative HEV. There was a strong interaction between HEV-laterality and gender, which together accounted for 60% of individual variability in total grey matter volume (GMV. HEV-laterality was associated with differences in hippocampal volume, amygdala/hippocampal ratios, and measures of verbal, visual and global memory. HEV-laterality was associated also with different constellations of symptoms comparing maltreated subjects to controls. Emotional response to LVFS provided a convenient and complementary measure of HEV-laterality that correlated significantly with the HEVs determined by AEPs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that HEV-laterality, like handedness or gender, is an important individual difference with significant implications for brain and behavioral research, and for guiding lateralized treatments such as rTMS.

  18. Attenuating age-related learning deficits: emotional valenced feedback interacts with task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Giguère, Gyslain; Glass, Brian D; Nix, Brittany N; Mather, Mara; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-04-01

    Previous research reveals that older adults sometimes show enhanced processing of emotionally positive stimuli relative to negative stimuli, but that this positivity bias reverses to become a negativity bias when cognitive control resources are less available. In this study, we test the hypothesis that emotionally positive feedback will attenuate well-established age-related deficits in rule learning whereas emotionally negative feedback will amplify age deficits-but that this pattern will reverse when the task involves a high cognitive load. Experiment 1 used emotional face feedback and revealed an interaction among age, valence of the feedback, and task load. When the task placed minimal load on cognitive control resources, happy-face feedback attenuated age-related deficits in initial rule learning and angry-face feedback led to age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting. However, when the task placed a high load on cognitive control resources, we found that angry-face feedback attenuated age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting whereas happy-face feedback led to age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting. Experiment 2 used less emotional point feedback and revealed age-related deficits in initial rule learning and set shifting under low and high cognitive load for point-gain and point-loss conditions. The research presented here demonstrates that emotional feedback can attenuate age-related learning deficits-but only positive feedback for tasks with a low cognitive load and negative feedback for tasks with high cognitive load.

  19. Quality controlled logistics in vegetable supply chain networks: how can an individual batch reach an individual consumer in hte optimal state?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Kooten, van O.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Marcelis, W.J.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Western-European consumers have become demanding on product availability in retail outlets and vegetable attributes such as quality, integrity, safety. When (re)designing vegetable supply chain networks one has to take these demands into consideration, next to traditional efficiency and responsivene

  20. Supply Chain Collaboration Risk Evaluation Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wen; Wei Zhao; Rui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are confronted with more complicated risks on the current financial crisis, as makes risk control in supply chain management more exigent. Supply chain collaboration, as the important part of supply chain management, is the key method of improving supply chains profits. This study introduces risk management into the mechanism of supply chain collaboration. In supply chain risk management, supply chain collaboration risk is recognized as an important section which can help SCM mo...

  1. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda......A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  2. Finite Time Control of the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chain Network System%供应链网络系统牛鞭效应的有限时间控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 孙业国

    2013-01-01

    文章主要讨论供应链网络系统牛鞭效应的有限时间控制策略问题。首先,构建了不确定环境下供应链库存网络系统状态转移模型;其次,运用有限时间稳定性理论,结合线性矩阵不等式方法,对供应链库存网络系统进行有限时间稳定性分析;再次,基于得到的稳定性结果,设计出使得供应链库存网络系统有限时间稳定的控制策略;最后,数值例子表明有限时间控制策略的有效性。%This paper mainly studies tactful policy related to finite time control of the bullwhip effect supply chain network system. Firstly, it constructs a state transition model of supply chain inventory network system in an uncertain environment. Secondly, it carries out finite time stability analysis on supply chain inventory network system by applying the finite time control theory combined with linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Thirdly, the control strategy is designed based on the results, which aims to make supply chain inventory network system finite time stable. Finally, a numerical example is given to dem-onstrate the effectiveness of finite time tactful policy.

  3. The temporal dynamics of reversal learning: P3 amplitude predicts valence-specific behavioral adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Kayla R; Ait Oumeziane, Belel; Hélie, Sebastien; Foti, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Adapting behavior to dynamic stimulus-reward contingences is a core feature of reversal learning and a capacity thought to be critical to socio-emotional behavior. Impairment in reversal learning has been linked to multiple psychiatric outcomes, including depression, Parkinson's disorder, and substance abuse. A recent influential study introduced an innovative laboratory reversal-learning paradigm capable of disentangling the roles of feedback valence and expectancy. Here, we sought to use this paradigm in order to examine the time-course of reward and punishment learning using event-related potentials among a large, representative sample (N=101). Three distinct phases of processing were examined: initial feedback evaluation (reward positivity, or RewP), allocation of attention (P3), and sustained processing (late positive potential, or LPP). Results indicate a differential pattern of valence and expectancy across these processing stages: the RewP was uniquely related to valence (i.e., positive vs. negative feedback), the P3 was uniquely associated with expectancy (i.e., unexpected vs. expected feedback), and the LPP was sensitive to both valence and expectancy (i.e., main effects of each, but no interaction). The link between ERP amplitudes and behavioral performance was strongest for the P3, and this association was valence-specific. Overall, these findings highlight the potential utility of the P3 as a neural marker for feedback processing in reversal-based learning and establish a foundation for future research in clinical populations.

  4. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  5. Differential Activation of Amygdala Arc Expression By Positive and Negatively Valenced Emotional Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eYoung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine is released in the amygdala following negatively arousing learning conditions. This event initiates a cascade of changes including the transcription of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc expression, an early-immediate gene associated with memory encoding. Recent evidence suggests that the valence of emotionally laden encounters may generate lateralized, as opposed to symmetric release of this transmitter in the right or left amygdala. It is currently not clear if valence-induced patterns of selective norepinephrine output across hemispheres are also reproduced in downstream pathways of cellular signaling necessary for memory formation. This question was addressed by determining if Arc expression is differentially distributed across the right and left amygdala following exposure to positively or negatively valenced learning conditions respectively. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups exposed to the Homecage only, 5 auditory tones only, or 5 auditory tones paired with footshock (0.35mA during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Western blot analysis revealed that Arc expression in the right amygdala was elevated significantly above that observed in the left amygdala 60 and 90 minutes following fear conditioning. Similarly, subjects exposed to a a negatively valenced outcome consisting of an unexpected reduction in food rewards showed a greater level of Arc expression in only the right, but not left basolateral amygdala. Presenting a positively valenced event involving an unexpected increase in food reward magnitude following bar pressing, resulted in significantly greater Arc expression in the left, but not right basolateral amygdala (p

  6. The effective valence shell Hamiltonian calculations of spin-orbit splittings in small diatomic hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye Won; Sun, Hosung

    2008-12-18

    Recently, the size extensive, ab initio effective valence shell Hamiltonian method for spin-orbit coupling has been suggested. In essence, this effective Hamiltonian method is equivalent to the quasidegenerate perturbation theory. But the difference lies in transforming the original Hamiltonian into an effective Hamiltonian acting within a relatively small valence in the effective valence shell Hamiltonian method. One advantage of the method is that the spin-orbit coupling energies of all valence states for both the neutral species and its ions are simultaneously determined with a similar accuracy from a single computation of the effective spin-orbit coupling operator. Thus, fine structure splittings are predicted for a number of states of each system for which neither experiment nor theory is available. To assess the accuracy of the effective Hamiltonian method more extensively, test calculations are performed for the spin-orbit splittings in the valence states of small diatomic hydrides and their ions. The calculated spin-orbit splittings are generally in good agreement with experiments and with other ab initio computations.

  7. Verbal instructions targeting valence alter negative conditional stimulus evaluations (but do not affect reinstatement rates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-01-31

    Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.

  8. Rare beryllium icosahedra in the intermediate valence compound CeBe13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zakiya S; Macaluso, Robin T; Bauer, E D; Smith, J L; Thompson, J D; Fisk, Z; Stanley, George G; Chan, Julia Y

    2004-11-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments show that the Be atoms in CeBe13 form a Be12 icosahedra, which is a very unusual structural feature due, in part, to the remarkably low valence electron count of Be. Magnetization studies show that CeBe13 displays intermediate valence behavior, in which valence fluctuations between the Ce 4f0 and 4f1 states give rise to enhanced electronic specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. Calculations using ab initio theory were used to determine the electronic structure and bonding and to give insight into the relationship between the crystal structure, the bonding, and the intermediate valence behavior of CeBe13. The hybridization between the localized f electrons and the conduction electrons is responsible for the large values of the electronic specific heat coefficient (gamma approximately 100 mJ/mol K2) and magnetic susceptibility (chi approximately 1 x 10-3 emu/mol), which is in marked contrast to those of ordinary metals that have gamma approximately 1 mJ/mol K2 and chi approximately 1 x 10-5 emu/mol values. The magnetic susceptibility, chi = M/H versus T, of a single crystal of CeBe13 exhibits a broad maximum at Tmax approximately 130 K and is typical of intermediate valence systems with an unusually large energy scale (Kondo), TK approximately 500 K.

  9. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  10. Risk Analysis and Control of Aquatic Product Supply Chain Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的水产品供应链风险分析与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大冬; 严凌

    2016-01-01

    Along with the production and trade of volume of aquatic products in china increasing, supply chain risk issues of aquatic products are increasingly concerned. Since the development of the Internet of things technology, the supply chain of aquatic products is moving from the traditional to the modern. New technology to improve the value of the supply chain also brought new risks. According to three levels of Internet of things identify the supply chain risk of aquatic product, by using AHP method analysis the risk factors ,and puts forward the risk management and control measures in the water supply chain of the Internet of things.%随着我国水产品贸易量与生产量的不断增加,由此带来的水产品供应链风险问题越来越被重视。近年来,由于物联网技术的广泛使用使得水产品供应链模式正从传统走向现代。它在改变传统风险的同时也带来了新风险。文中把水产品供应链风险按照物联网的层次进行划分,运用层次分析法评估风险指标,找出影响水产品供应链的风险因素,最后提出了风险管控措施建议。

  11. 基于供应链视域下的生产运营计划制订和管控研究%Based on the Concept of Production from the Supply Chain Operation Plan and Control Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 吴炬文; 马桂花

    2015-01-01

    分析了当前企业生产运营计划与控制的状况,指出其在交货期控制、信息集成等方面存在的诸多问题,提出了构建基于供应链环境下的生产运营计划系统和信息平台模型。通过统一上下游资源、优化供应链流程,快速应对市场的变化;通过生产同步化,提高生产运营计划系统的柔性和灵敏性,有效降低过程运营成本,使供应链效能最大化。%This paper analyzes the current enterprise production operation plan and control the situation, points out its control, information integration, as well as to the date of delivery problems, put forward the building of production operation planning system based on supply chain environment and information platform model. With uniform upstream and downstream resources, optimize supply chain processes, rapid response to market changes;Through the synchronization of production, improve the flexi-bility and agility of production operation plan system, effectively reduce the process of operating costs, maximize the efficiency of the supply chain.

  12. Global Commodity Chains and the Spatial-Temporal Dimensions of Labor Control: Lessons from Colombia’s Coffee and Banana Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Hough

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to explain the trajectories of local labor regime dynamics in Colombia’s coffee and banana industries from the post war developmental decades until the present. In order to explain these dynamics, the author first develops a neo-Gramscian ideal-typical schema to highlight the full range of labor regime dynamics emergent in Colombia, including “hegemonic,” “despotic,” and “crisis” regimes. The author then develops a theory of local labor regime types that draws from Giovanni Arrighi’s work on commodity chains. Finally, using comparative and world-historical methods, the author finds that the shifting trajectories of labor regimes in Colombia are affected by the nodal location of these regimes within their respective commodity chains.

  13. Quality analysis of critical control points within the whole food chain and their impact on food quality, safety and health (QACCP)

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, Johannes; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Hanne L. Kristensen; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Mengheri, Elena; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to optimise organic production and processing in order to improve food quality and increase health promoting aspects in consumer products. The approach was a chain analysis approach which addressed the link between farm and fork and backwards from fork to farm. The objectives were to test food authenticity on farm level and food quality and health in processing. The carrot was chosen as the model vegetable since it is common for the involved partners f...

  14. Side-chain tunability of furan-containing low-band-gap polymers provides control of structural order in efficient solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Alan T.

    2012-02-01

    The solution-processability of conjugated polymers in organic solvents has classically been achieved by modulating the size and branching of alkyl substituents appended to the backbone. However, these substituents impact structural order and charge transport properties in thin-film devices. As a result, a trade-off must be found between material solubility and insulating alkyl content. It was recently shown that the substitution of furan for thiophene in the backbone of the polymer PDPP2FT significantly improves polymer solubility, allowing for the use of shorter branched side chains while maintaining high device efficiency. In this report, we use PDPP2FT to demonstrate that linear alkyl side chains can be used to promote thin-film nanostructural order. In particular, linear side chains are shown to shorten π-π stacking distances between backbones and increase the correlation lengths of both π-π stacking and lamellar spacing, leading to a substantial increase in the efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Delivery of iron-fortified yoghurt, through a dairy value chain program, increases hemoglobin concentration among children 24 to 59 months old in Northern Senegal: A cluster-randomized control trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnes; Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Birba, Ousmane; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Innovative strategies are needed to enhance the nutritional impact of agriculture. Value chain approaches, which use supply chains to add value (usually economic) to products as they move from producers to consumers, can be used to increase access to nutritious foods and improve nutritional status. This study tested whether a dairy value chain could be used to distribute a micronutrient-fortified yoghurt (MNFY) (conditional upon the producer supplying a minimum amount of cow milk/day) to improve hemoglobin and reduce anemia among preschool children in a remote area in Northern Senegal. Methods A cluster randomized control trial was used to compare 204 children (24 to 59 months of age at baseline) from households who received the MNFY coupled to a behavior change communication (BCC) campaign focusing on anemia prevention to 245 children from a control group (receiving BCC only) after one year. Randomization was done at the level of the family concession (households from the same family) (n = 321). Eligible households had a child of the target age and were willing to deliver milk to the dairy factory. Changes in anemia and hemoglobin between groups were assessed using mixed regression models. Key findings Anemia prevalence was very high at baseline (80%) and dropped to close to 60% at endline, with no differences between intervention groups. Hemoglobin increased by 0.55 g/dL, 95%CI (0.27; 0.84) more in the intervention compared to the control group after one year, in models that controlled for potentially confounding factors. The impact was greater (0.72 g/dL, 95%CI (0.34; 1.12)) for boys, compared to girls (0.38 g/dL, 95%CI (-0.03; 0.80)). Conclusion The dairy value chain was a successful strategy to distribute MNFY among pastoralists in Northern Senegal, and increase Hb concentrations among their children. This study is one of the first proofs of concept showing that a nutrition-sensitive agriculture value chain approach can contribute to improved child

  16. 神华集团基于产业链控制的财务战略选择%Selection of financial strategy based on industry chain control of Shenhua Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷增军

    2013-01-01

    在调查研究获取第一手资料的基础上,对神华集团的产业链进行了分析,总结了神华集团实施能源一体化业务发展总体战略面临的财务困境,并对神华集团基于产业链控制的财务战略选择进行了探讨。%Based on the obtained firstGhand data through investigation and research,the paG per analyzes the industry chain of Shenhua Group�It summarizes the financial distress faced by Shenhua Group in implementing the overall strategy of energy integration business development, and discusses the selection of financial strategy based on industry chain control of Shenhua Group.

  17. The Application Research of Inventory Control with Multi -objective Constraints under the Perspective of Supply Chain---A Case Analysis of Industrial Lubricating Oil Supply Chain%库存控制之供应链多目标视角下的应用研究--以工业润滑油供应链为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 李英英

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕 Study on inventory control of supply chain has become a trend , different from the conventional single target study on in-ventory control , the author made the emphasis on the study on minimizing inventory cost and maximizing the average satisfaction rate of cus -tomer demand and built a multi -objective inventory control model . In the end , the model and the solution were applied to the lubricating oil supply chain , which was helpful for making decisions for these enterprises in the lubricating oil supply chain .%供应链环境下库存控制的研究已经成为趋势,区别于常规的单目标库存控制的研究,本文以工业润滑油供应链为依托,提出了在供应链背景下考虑供应链库存成本最小化和客户平均需求满足率最大化为目标的库存控制研究思路,构建了多目标库存控制模型。最后将所建的供应链视角下多目标库存控制决策模型进行实证分析,为目标供应链上的企业做出生产、销售等决策提供依据。

  18. Business intelligence for improving supply chain risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Daniels, H.A.M.; Hofman, W.; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Filipe, J.

    2014-01-01

    The risk management over a supply chain has to be founded on the management controls in each of the partner companies in the chain. Inevitably, the business relationship and operations dependence bind the control efforts of partner companies together. This proposes challenges for supply chain risk m

  19. Risk Transmission and Control of Military Supply Chain Based on IIM & OWA%基于IIM & OWA的军事供应链风险传递和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江雨; 姜大立; 姜玉宏; 宋晓东

    2016-01-01

    为有效控制军事供应链风险,从提高军事供应链的可靠性和保障能力角度出发,构建了基于不可运作性投入产出模型(IIM)和有序加权平均(OWA)算子的军事供应链风险传递模型。以某战区军事供应链为例,分析了在风险事件打击下军事供应链节点的不可运作性风险值和保障量变化,运用多指标评价方法对军事供应链中各节点的重要性加以排序,对结果进行分析,提出增加一级军事物资供应商的风险控制策略并加以验证,为军事供应链风险管理提供理论支撑和参考依据。%In order to control the military supply chain risk effectively, this paper proceeds from improving the reliability and supportive capability of military supply chain, establishes the risk transmission model of military supply chain based on the inopera⁃bility input⁃output model (IIM) and the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator. A military supply chain of theater command is used as an example to analyze the non⁃operational risk value and changes of safeguard quantity under risk accidents. Additionally, this paper uses a multi⁃criteria evaluation method to sort the importance of each node in the military supply chain. Finally, the risk control strategy is proposed and verified to increase first⁃tier military materials suppliers, which provides the theoretical support and reference basis for the military supply chain risk management.

  20. Dynamic Coordination Mechanisms of Quality Control in Two-echelon Supply Chains%两级供应链上质量控制的动态协调机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪江涛; 黄沛

    2011-01-01

    Quality management problems caused by poor supply chain management (SCM) are prevalent. Examples of poor SCM include companies, such as Heinz and KFC, which were involved in the Sudan red incident in 2005. Another example is “Sanlu" milk powder. Sanlu recalled its milk powder in 2008 after a number of children were poisoned. Toyota filed safety recalls on many lines of vehicles, including RAV4, Camry, Highlander and Sequoia, in 2010 because of safety issues. All of these notorious events have sounded alarms for better quality management in the supply chain. Although improving product quality is gaining attention, many challenges lie ahead of implementing quality programs across supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to adopt a differential game to study quality control problems coordinated by a manufacturer and a supplier in the two-echelon supply chain.First, we introduced the Stackelberg model as a quality control game model in a two-echelon supply chain. In the general noncooperative quality control game situation, a manufacturer acted as the leader and optimal action policies could be obtained for manufacturer and supplier. We then analyzed the optimal action selection of two partners in the cooperative quality control game situation. After comparing these two game equilibrium results, we found that cooperative quality control game structure is superior to general non-cooperative quality control game structure during the process of quality management in the two-echelon supply chain.Finally, a numerical example was given to verify the research results. This paper provides a theoretical basis for supply chain partners to conduct quality management practices and choose right game structures.%文章应用微分博弈的方法研究了由单一制造商和单一供应商组成的两级供应链上的质量控制的协调问题.首先讨论了制造商作为供应链上质量控制的领导者而供应商作为跟随者的Stackelberg博弈情形,得

  1. Reactivity of seventeen- and nineteen-valence electron complexes in organometallic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E.; Tyler, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A guideline to the reactivity of 17- and 19-valence electron species in organometallic chemistry is proposed which the authors believe will supersede all others. The thesis holds that the reactions of 17-electron metal radicals are associatively activated with reactions proceeding through a 19-valence electron species. The disparate reaction chemistry of the 17-electron metal radicals are unified in terms of this associative reaction pathway, and the intermediacy of 19-valence electron complexes in producing the observed products is discussed. It is suggested that related associatively activated pathways need to be considered in some reactions that are thought to occur by more conventional routes involving 16- and 18-electron intermediates. The basic reaction chemistry and electronic structures of these species are briefly discussed.

  2. The use of symmetrized valence and relative motion coordinates for crystal potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, H. L.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrized valence coordinates are linear combinations of conventional valence coordinates which display the symmetry of a set of atoms bound by the valence bonds. Relative motion coordinates are relative translations, or relative rotations, of two or more strongly bonded groups of atoms among...... which relatively weak forces act. They are useful for expressing interactions between molecules in molecular crystals and should be chosen, also, to reflect the symmetry of the interacting groups. Since coordinates defined by these procedures possess elements of symmetry in common with the bonding...... interaction constants coupling coordinates of unlike symmetry with regard to the crystal point group are necessarily zero. They may be small, also, for coordinates which belong to different representations of the local symmetry when this is not the same as for the crystal. Procedures are given for defining...

  3. fK /f{pi} in Full QCD with Domain Wall Valence Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage

    2007-05-01

    We compute the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} using domain-wall valence quarks and rooted improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. By employing continuum chiral perturbation theory, we extract the Gasser-Leutwyler low-energy constant L{sub 5}, and extrapolate f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} to the physical point. We find: f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} = 1.218 {+-} 0.002{sub -0.024}{sup +0.011} where the first error is statistical and the second error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation and fitting procedures. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the determination by the MILC collaboration, calculated using Kogut-Susskind valence quarks, indicating that systematic errors arising from the choice of lattice valence quark are small.

  4. Valence of self-cognitions: the positivity of individual self-statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromgard, Gregg D; Trafimow, David; Bromgard, Irina K

    2006-02-01

    Based on D. Trafimow, H. C. Triandis, and S. Goto's (1991) research on the distinction between the private, collective, and relational selves, the present authors explored the valence of each self. The authors administered to participants either a private self-prime, a collective self-prime, or a relational self-prime and then asked them to write 20 self-statements. The authors coded the statements for valence (positive, neutral, or negative) and self-statement type (individual, collective, or relational). The results indicated that the valence of individual self-statements were most positive when the collective self or the relational self was primed, indicating the possibility that positive illusions were exaggerated most in the context of other people.

  5. Children's spontaneous counterfactuals: The roles of valence, expectancy, and cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R; McNally, Lena F; Wright, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The current set of studies examined whether 8- to 11-year-olds generate counterfactuals spontaneously and whether outcome valence and outcome expectancy affect counterfactual reasoning within this age group. The role of cognitive flexibility in such reasoning also was explored. In Study 1, relatively few children spontaneously generated counterfactuals, yet both outcome expectancy and outcome valence influenced counterfactual reasoning. In Study 2, the majority of children generated counterfactuals without an explicit prompt and outcome valence influenced reasoning. Cognitive flexibility accounted for unique variance in counterfactual reasoning. The findings suggest that in middle childhood children spontaneously engage in counterfactual reasoning and that some of the same factors influence counterfactual reasoning in childhood as in adulthood.

  6. The effects of age and emotional valence on recognition memory: an ex-Gaussian components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Moreno-Cid, Amparo; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Murphy, Mike; Vázquez-Martínez, Andrea; Vázquez-Molina, Joan; Sáiz-Mauleón, Begoña; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; Fernández de Córdoba Castellá, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of valence and age on visual image recognition memory. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) battery was used, and response time data were analyzed using analysis of variance, as well as an ex-Gaussian fit method. Older participants were slower and more variable in their reaction times. Response times were longer for negative valence pictures, however this was statistically significant only for young participants. This suggests that negative emotional valence has a strong effect on recognition memory in young but not in old participants. The τ parameter, often related to attention in the literature, was smaller for young than old participants in an ex-Gaussian fit. Differences on the τ parameter might suggest poorer attentional performance in old participants.

  7. Reversing Stimulus Timing in Visual Conditioning Leads to Memories with Opposite Valence in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Vogt

    Full Text Available Animals need to associate different environmental stimuli with each other regardless of whether they temporally overlap or not. Drosophila melanogaster displays olfactory trace conditioning, where an odor is followed by electric shock reinforcement after a temporal gap, leading to conditioned odor avoidance. Reversing the stimulus timing in olfactory conditioning results in the reversal of memory valence such that an odor that follows shock is later on approached (i.e. relief conditioning. Here, we explored the effects of stimulus timing on memory in another sensory modality, using a visual conditioning paradigm. We found that flies form visual memories of opposite valence depending on stimulus timing and can associate a visual stimulus with reinforcement despite being presented with a temporal gap. These results suggest that associative memories with non-overlapping stimuli and the effect of stimulus timing on memory valence are shared across sensory modalities.

  8. Valence band structure of strained Si/(111)Si1-xGex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strained Si techique has been widely adopted in the high-speed and high-performance devices and circuits. Based on the valence band E-k relations of strained Si/(111)Si1-xGex, the valence band and hole effective mass along the [111] and [-110] directions were obtained in this work. In comparison with the relaxed Si, the valence band edge degeneracy was partially lifted, and the significant change was observed band structures along the [111] and [-110] directions, as well as in its corresponding hole effective masses with the increasing Ge fraction. The results obtained can provide valuable references to the investigation concerning the Si-based strained devices enhancement and the conduction channel design related to stress and orientation.

  9. Experimental and calculated momentum densities for the complete valence orbitals of the antimicrobial agent diacetyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guo-Lin; Ren Xue-Guang; Zhang Shu-Feng; Ning Chuan-Gang; Zhou Hui; Li Bin; Li Gui-Qin; Deng Jing-Kang

    2005-01-01

    The first electronic structural study of the complete valence shell binding energy spectra of the antimicrobial agent diacetyl, encompassing both the outer and inner valence regions, is reported. The binding energy spectra as well as the individual orbital momentum profiles have been measured by using a high resolution (e, 2e) electron momentum spectrometer (EMS) at an impact energy of 1200eV plus the binding energy, and using symmetric noncoplanar kinematics.The experimental orbital electron momentum profiles are compared with self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical profiles calculated using the Hartree-Fock approximation and Density Functional theory predictions in the target Kohn-Sham approximation which includes some treatment of correlation via the exchange and correlation potentials with a range of basis sets. The pole strengths of the main ionization peaks from the inner valence orbitals are estimated.

  10. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  11. Enterprise based on supply chain inventory control research and optimization%基于供应链的企业库存成因及优化控制的研究(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 冯定根; 黄惠良

    2013-01-01

    Based on the idea of a comprehensive enterprise inventory management, the inventory cost, inventory control experience, the optimization of inventory system management and the results of previous studies were analyzed, using inventory management concepts and methods of advanced enterprises, to large manufacturing enterprise as the core research object, on the set of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors for the integration of the supply chain as the foundation the research framework, using the supply chain system theory as research method, analysis of the inventory management present situation, affecting factors and reasons, put forward the corresponding countermeasures of inventory control from the optimization of production management, the integration of internal supply chain and inter enterprise supply chain perspective, in order to achieve inventory optimization of comprehensive, improve operational efficiency.%基于企业全面库存的管理思想,对库存成本、库存控制、库存系统优化等管理经验与前人研究成果进行分析,借鉴先进企业的库存管理理念和方法,以大型制造企业为核心研究对象,在集供应商、制造商、经销商为一体的供应链作为研究框架的基础上,运用供应链系统理论作为研究方法,分析了库存管理现状、影响因素及产生原因,从优化生产管理、整合企业内部供应链和跨企业供应链的角度提出了库存控制的相应对策,以实现全面的库存优化,提高经营效益。

  12. Superadiabatic quantum state transfer in spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agundez, R. R.; Hill, C. D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.; Blaauboer, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose a superadiabatic protocol where quantum state transfer can be achieved with arbitrarily high accuracy and minimal control across long spin chains with an odd number of spins. The quantum state transfer protocol only requires the control of the couplings between the qubits on the edge and the spin chain. We predict fidelities above 0.99 for an evolution of nanoseconds using typical spin-exchange coupling values of μ eV . Furthermore, by building a superadiabatic formalism on top of this protocol, we propose an effective superadiabatic protocol that retains the minimal control over the spin chain and further improves the fidelity.

  13. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate market

  14. Serum Free Light Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or of one of its component parts – a kappa or lambda light chain, or rarely, a heavy chain. Traditionally, plasma cell ... protein (M-protein) production and to calculate a kappa/lambda free light chain ratio. If the protein electrophoresis test is abnormal, ...

  15. From discrete [Mn4] cluster to 1D complex: Two new mixed-valence manganese complexes with slow magnetization relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A tetranuclear manganese complex [Mn4(HL)4(MeOH)4(SCN)2]·3MeOH (1) and a one-dimensional assembly of [Mn4] units, [Mn4(HL)4(MeOH)4(N(CN)2)2]·2.5MeOH (2) (H3L = 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-phenol), have been synthesized and studied. Complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the triclinic space group P 1and monoclinic space group P21/n, respectively. Complex 1 possesses a mixed-valence tetranuclear dicubane unit, which comprises two MnⅡ and two MnⅢ ions. Complex 2 is built from the similar tetranuclear [Mn4] units connected through two N(CN)2-anions into a 1-D chain. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibilities of 1 and 2 indicates ferromagnetic interactions between the manganese ions. Frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals of alternating current magnetic susceptibilities are observed in the low temperature range for both complexes, indicating a slow magnetic relaxation.

  16. A bottom-up valence bond derivation of excitation energies in 1D-like delocalized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robert, Vincent; Boilleau, Corentin; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-28

    Using the chemically relevant parameters hopping integral t(0) and on-site repulsion energy U, the charge gap (lowest dipolarly allowed transition energy) in 1D systems is examined through a bottom-up strategy. The method is based on the locally ionized states, the energies of which are corrected using short-range delocalization effects. In a valence bond framework, these states interact to produce an excitonic matrix which accounts for the delocalized character of excited states. The treatment, which gives access to the correlated spectrum of ionization potentials, is entirely analytical and valid whatever the U/|t(0)| ratio for such systems ruled by Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonians. This second-order analytical derivation is finally confronted to numerical results of a renormalized excitonic treatment using larger blocks as functions of the U/|t(0)| ratio. The method is applied to dimerized chains and to fused polybenzenic 1D lattices. Such approaches complement the traditional Bloch-function based picture and deliver a conceptual understanding of the charge gap opening process based on a chemical intuitive picture.

  17. High-Resolution Conversion Electron Spectroscopy of Valence Electron Configurations (CESVEC) in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    First measurements with the Zurich $\\beta$-spectrometer on sources from ISOLDE have demonstrated that high resolution spectroscopy of conversion electrons from valence shells is feasible.\\\\ \\\\ This makes possible a novel type of electron spectroscopy (CESVEC) on valence-electron configurations of tracer elements in solids. Thus the density of occupied electron states of impurities in solids has been measured for the first time. Such data constitute a stringent test of state-of-the-art calculations of impurity properties. Based on these results, we are conducting a systematic investigation of impurities in group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  18. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  19. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of krypton atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d, 4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s ← 4p of krypton atom have been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole excitations in 5p ← 4p are compared with the calculations of Amusia et al. (Phys. Rev. A 67 022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.

  20. A STUDY OF TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT VALENCE BOND STRUCTURE OF TITANIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.B. Li; Y.Q. Xie; Y.Z. Nie; H.J. Peng; H.J. Tao; F.X. Yu

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of energy and shape method for the determination of the valence bond (VB) structures of crystal, the valence bond structure of titanium is redetermined at room temperature and calculated in the whole temperature range of 0-1943K. The outer shell electronic distribution of Ti is ec2.9907 .(sc0.4980 + dc2.4927) ef1.0093 in crystal. The temperature dependences of the VB structures of hcp and bcc phases are the same. The VB structures of hcp and bcc phases monotonically increase or decrease with the increase in temperature, but show discontinuous changes at the phase-transformation temperature 1155K.

  1. Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockett, Paul; Bisgaard, Christer Z.; Clarkin, Owen J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions are manifestations of the dynamics of molecular valence electrons and their couplings to atomic motions. Emerging methods in attosecond science can probe purely electronic dynamics in atomic and molecular systems(1-6). By contrast, time-resolved structural-dynamics methods......,17): in both cases, this sensitivity derives from the ionization-matrix element(18,19). Here we demonstrate a time-resolved molecular-frame photoelectron-angular-distribution (TRMFPAD) method for imaging the purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction. Specifically, the TRMFPADs measured during...

  2. Quality Control and Organization Model of Online Media Supply Chain%网络传媒业供应链质量控制策略与组织模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于同奎; 张阳; 陈倩; 屈会会

    2014-01-01

    Internet media supply chain is composed of content maker who provide valuable digital products such as entertainment and information,web site as a intermediate and consumers.We study the quality control and operation model of this supply chain.Firstly,game theory is used to obtain the strategies of content maker and web site when making decisions independently.The Nash equilibrium shows that the "free-riding" incentive hinders the supply chain to achieve the highest profit.Then their strategies in the vertical integrated supply chain are studied by optimization method,it is shown that coordination effect of vertical integration can improve overall profit.Taking the cost of vertical integration into consideration,the effect of the quality elasticity of demand,equality of profit distribution and quality control cost to whether adopt vertical integration is also investigated.The research is expected to help our understanding of the quality control and organization model of internet media supply chain.%网络传媒供应链由内容制作商提供有价值的信息产品(如娱乐、资讯等)并通过网站提供给消费者.产品质量控制对网络传媒供应链至关重要.首先利用博弈论的方法分析内容制作商和网站分别独立决策时的策略,纳什均衡揭示双方的“搭便车”动机使供应链整体利润无法达到最优.然后利用最优化的方法分析他们在垂直整合模式下的策略,发现协调决策可以提高整体利润.最后考虑垂直整合模式的新增成本,分析需求质量弹性、利润分配均匀性和质量控制成本等因素对供应链是否采取垂直整合模式的影响.帮助理解网络媒体产业的质量控制策略和供应链组织模式.

  3. Autonomic effects of music in health and Crohn's disease: the impact of isochronicity, emotional valence, and tempo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Uwe Krabs

    Full Text Available Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction.To address these issues, three experiments were conducted, with a total of n = 138 healthy subjects and n = 19 CD patients. Heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and electrodermal activity (EDA were recorded while participants listened to joyful pleasant music, isochronous tones, and unpleasant control stimuli.Compared to silence, both pleasant music and unpleasant control stimuli elicited an increase in HR and a decrease in a variety of HRV parameters. Surprisingly, similar ANS effects were elicited by isochronous tones (i.e., simply by a tactus. ANS effects did not differ between pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, and different tempi of the music did not entrain ANS activity. Finally, music-evoked ANS effects did not differ between healthy individuals and CD patients.The isochronous pulse of music (i.e., the tactus is a major factor of music-evoked ANS effects. These ANS effects are characterized by increased sympathetic activity. The emotional valence of a musical piece contributes surprisingly little to the ANS activity changes evoked by that piece.

  4. Gushing metal chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  5. Study on Evaluation of Internal Control of Supply Chain Based on BSC-FANP%基于 BSC-FANP 供应链内部控制评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉红; 尤建新; 唐述毅; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the overall effectiveness and promote the sustainable development of the supply chain has always been the focus of supply chain management .To solve this problem ,an evaluation system of internal con-trol of supply chain based on balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process is proposed .First, the balanced scorecard is used to build an efficiency-oriented evaluation index system to improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain , which consists of four indicators and twelve secondary indicators .Then , the evaluation index weight through fuzzy analytic network process is designed .Furthermore, multiplication and addition ( weighted average ) function of fuzzy analytic network process to calculate and synthesize the weight of evaluation indicators and secondary indicators is used .Finally, an example of Shanghai retail supply chain is given , with the balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process mode built in this paper , to analyse and evaluate their supply chain and its node enterprise .The example shows the feasibility and practicability of the model .%提升供应链整体功效、促进供应链持续发展一直以来都是供应链管理关注的重点,针对该问题建立一个基于平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型的供应链内部控制评价体系。首先运用平衡计分卡构建一个由4个维度、12个指标组成的以提高整体效率为导向的评价指标体系;然后通过模糊网络分析法对其进行指标权重的设计,运用模糊网络分析法的乘和加(加权平均)算子进行评价指标/维度的权重计算及合成;最后,以上海某零售业供应链为例,运用建立的平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型对供应链及其节点企业内部控制现状进行分析、评价,证明了该模型的可行性和实用性。

  6. 产学研知识创新联盟知识链运作的风险控制机制%Risk Control Mechanism of Knowledge Chain Operation in Knowledge Innovation Alliance among Industries, Universities and Reseach Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玲诺; 史建锋; 孙玉忠; 于瀚

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge innovation alliance among industries, universities and research institutes forms a complicated knowledge operation system. In the system, knowledge chain is the running mode of knowledge innovation process. In the process of knowledge chain operation , there are some potential risks such as knowledge shared insufficiently, knowledge transferred and fused poorly, transformation and upgrade of knowledge positioning inaccurately, etc. The construction of the risk control mechanism is to build a harmony and soluble, shared mechanism, a rapidly transferred mechanism, and a sustainable operated mechanism. According to the internal logicality of the mechanism, strategic alliance is the best mode of the knowledge innovation alliance, to boost the benefit maximization of knowledge chain operation in the league system. In the strategic alliance, experts of knowledge innovation should play a role not only in the midstream of the knowledge chain, but also throughout the whole process of knowledge chain operation, especially in the downstream of the knowledge chain-marketing operation.%知识链运行过程潜藏着知识共享不足、知识转移融合不良、知识转型升级定位不准等风险.控制风险机制建设具体表现为和谐共融、共溶的共享机制,快速传递机制,可持续运行机制.而根据机制运行的内在逻辑性,要推动联盟内知识链运行的效益最大化,战略联盟是产学研知识创新联盟最好的模式.在战略联盟内知识创新专家的作用不能停止在知识链的中游,而应贯穿在知识链运行的全过程,直接参与知识链的下游-市场端运作.

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electroconducting Properties of a 1D Mixed-Valence Cu(I–Cu(II Coordination Polymer with a Dicyclohexyl Dithiocarbamate Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nakatani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new mixed-valence Cu(I–Cu(II 1D coordination polymer, [CuI4CuIIBr4(Cy2dtc2]n, with an infinite chain structure is synthesized by the reaction of Cu(Cy2dtc2 (Cy2dtc− = dicyclohexyl dithiocarbamate, C13H22NS2 with CuBr·S(CH32. The as-synthesized polymer consists of mononuclear copper(II units of CuII(Cy2dtc2 and tetranuclear copper(I cluster units, CuI4Br4. In the cluster unit, all the CuI ions have distorted trigonal pyramidal coordination geometries, and the CuI–CuI or CuI–CuII distances between the nearest copper ions are shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii for Cu–Cu.

  8. Quality Control Mechanism in Supply Chain Based on Contract and Relationship Governance%基于契约和关系治理的供应链质量控制机制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丹; 李勇建

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , quality control mechanism is studied in a supply chain that consists of one supplier and one manufacturer .We discuss the choice of governance mechanism to improve product quality and coordinate the supply chain , when the manufacturer and supplier make concerted efforts to improve the quality .Quality control decision is analyzed in three different scenarios which include cooperation , formal contract governance and rela-tionship contract governance .Considering the scenario of cooperation as a benchmark , we compare the effect of two governance mechanisms on supply chain performance .It shows that the combining governance mechanism of relationship and contract governance can get better effect of coordination due to higher effort of quality control .%本文考虑制造商和供应商共同努力改进产品质量的情况,研究在一个制造商处于领导地位的二级供应链中,如何通过有效的治理机制设计,提高产品质量水平,协调供应链。文章以理想的协同情况为基准,分析了两种治理机制下的质量努力程度,比较了正式契约治理与契约和关系混合治理对供应链效率的影响。结果表明,关系和契约混合治理在有效范围内能够将制造商和供应商紧密地联系起来,通过共同的质量努力获得比正式契约治理下更大的利润,实现供应链协调。

  9. Lrp of Corynebacterium glutamicum controls expression of the brnFE operon encoding the export system for L-methionine and branched-chain amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian; Mustafi, Nurije; Frunzke, Julia; Kennerknecht, Nicole; Wessel, Mirja; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-04-30

    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses export systems for various amino acids including BrnFE, a two-component export system for L-methionine and the branched-chain amino acids L-valine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine. A gene for a putative transcriptional regulator of the Lrp family is transcribed divergently to the brnFE operon and is required for L-isoleucine export. By comparing global gene expression changes due to L-isoleucine addition we revealed increased brnFE expression in response to L-isoleucine in C. glutamicum wild type but not in an lrp deletion mutant. ChIP-to-chip analysis, band shift experiments and DNAse footprint analysis demonstrated that Lrp binds to the intergenic region between lrp and brnF. Expression analysis of transcriptional fusions with the lrp and brnFE promoters indicated that branched-chain amino acids and L-methionine when added to the growth medium stimulated brnFE expression in the order L-leucine > L-methionine > L-isoleucine > L-valine and that Lrp was required for activation of brnFE expression. Thus, regulation of brnFE by Lrp ensures that BrnFE is synthesized only if its substrate amino acids accumulate in cells which is commensurate with its role to counteract such situations of metabolic imbalance.

  10. Control of the PEO chain conformation on nanoparticles by adsorption of PEO-block-poly(L-lysine) copolymers and its significance on colloidal stability and protein repellency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louguet, Stéphanie; Kumar, Anitha C; Guidolin, Nicolas; Sigaud, Gilles; Duguet, Etienne; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Schatz, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    The physical adsorption of PEO(n)-b-PLL(m) copolymers onto silica nanoparticles and the related properties of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-coated particles were studied as a function of the block copolymer composition. Copolymers adopt an anchor-buoy conformation at the particle surface owing to a preferential affinity of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) blocks with the silica surface over PEO blocks when a large excess of copolymer is used. The interdistance between PEO chains at particle surface is highly dependent on the size of PLL segments; a dense brush of PEO is obtained for short PLL blocks (DP = 10), whereas PEO chains adopt a so-called interacting "mushroom" conformation for large PLL blocks (DP = 270). The size of the PEO blocks does not really influence the copolymer surface density, but it has a strong effect on the PEO layer thickness as expected. Salt and protein stability studies led to similar conclusions about the effectiveness of a PEO layer with a dense brush conformation to prevent colloidal aggregation and protein adsorption. Besides, a minimal PEO length is required to get full stabilization properties; as a matter of fact, both PEO(45)-b-PLL(10) and PEO(113)-b-PLL(10) give rise to a PEO brush conformation but only the latter copolymer efficiently stabilizes the particles in the presence of salt or proteins.

  11. Supply Chain Coordination with Controllable Lead Time and Asymmetric Information%信息不对称条件下可控提前期供应链协调机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡娜; 徐学军

    2011-01-01

    Current literature shows that Just-in-Time (JIT) can significantly reduce lead time and inventory-related costs simultaneously. Time-based competition (TBC) focusing on the reduction of overall system lead time has been one of favorite topics for both researchers and practitioners. Lead time reduction can lower the amounts of safety stock, reduce the loss caused by stock-outs, and improve customer service levels. In today' s hyper competitive environment, lead time reduction is becoming an effective way to increase supply chain response and an important source of competitive advantage. However, in most of the traditional economic order quantity (EOQ) literature dealing with inventory problem, either using deterministic or probabilistic models, lead time is viewed as a prescribed constant or a stochastic variable. Therefore, controlling lead time is not feasible and realistic in practical situations. To overcome the issue, an increasing number of literatures consider lead time as a decision variable. Still, these literatures either consider the controllable lead time optimization problem from the perspective of a single facility, or consider inventory models with controllable lead time from the perspective of integrated supply chains. An integrated supply chain assumes that a central planner possesses perfect information and has the power to impose a globally optimal inventory policy on each entity in order to maximize overall channel performance.In this paper, we make two major contributions to the present literature on supply chain optimization problems related to controllable lead time. First, we relax the assumption in the former literature from the perspective of supply chain by asserting that long-term strategic partnerships between vendor and buyer are well established and each party can bargain and cooperate with each other to obtain an optimal integrated joint policy under centralized decision. We further assume that the vendor and the buyer aim to maximize

  12. Inventory Cost Control Model in a Supply Chain Under Asymmetric Information%不对称信息下供应链库存成本控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽君; 吴晓会; 闫伟超

    2012-01-01

    考虑到信息不对称对供应链企业库存成本控制造成的影响,以单个制造商和单个零售商组成的一个两级供应链为研究对象,假设供应链企业的产品需求与时间有关,分别分析了信息对称和信息不对称条件下,制造商、零售商和供应链整体的利润情况,并建立了相应的数量折扣协调机制,研究其对三者成本控制的影响.研究表明,在信息不对称的条件下,该协调机制可以有效降低制造商、零售商以及供应链整体的库存成本,达到了良好的供应链协调效果.最后通过算例分析进行了验证.%Being taken the impact of the information asymmetry on cost control in supply chain,a supply chain composed by a manufacturer and a retail was established.Supposing that the demand was time-related,in the two situations of information symmetry and information asymmetry,the whole profit situation of the manufacturer,the retail merchant and the supply chain was analyzed and the quantity discount coordinated mechanism was established accordingly.Research results showed that this reasonable coordination mechanism could effectively reduce the supply chain inventory cost.In the end,an example was made which illustrates the correlative conclusions.

  13. Research on the Supply Chain Coordination of Cash Flow Controlling in Context of Time-sensitive Demand%时间敏感型供应链的资金流协同问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书智; 关旭; 马士华

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the concept of supply chain cash flow service provider and the effect of them in suppl chain cash flow operation. Considering a situation in a time-sensitive supply chain, the manufacturer could not achieve the optimal purchase and production decition due to the financial constraint. With the involvement of cash flow service provider, manufacturer can increase the purchase and production quantities by raising funds from the cash flow service providers. Firstly, the two-stage Stackelberg model about dynamic interactive decision-making behaviors between manufacturer and cash flow service provider is analyzed. Then an improved operation model that ensures the supply chain profits optimized through the way of effective cash flow controlling by cash flow service provider. Finally,a simulation example shows the effectiveness of the conclusion.%考虑在一个时间敏感型的供应链环境中,市场需求由制造商的承诺交货时间来确定.制造商由于自身资金有限无法实现最优的采购和生产决策,因此需要向资金流服务商贷款来增加其采购和生产的数量.在此模式下,首先分析了制造商和资金流服务商在主从博弈情况下各自的最优选择;然后提出改进模式:资金流服务商通过对供应链资金流的控制,促使供应链的整体收益达到最大.研究结果证明,快速地为企业提供资金支持能够有效增大供应链整体绩效.

  14. Transfer of noncovalent chiral information along an optically inactive helical peptide chain: allosteric control of asymmetry of the C-terminal site by external molecule that binds to the N-terminal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousaka, Naoki; Inai, Yoshihito

    2009-02-20

    This study aims at demonstrating end-to-end transfer of noncovalent chiral information along a peptide chain. The domino-type induction of helical sense is proven by using achiral peptides 1-m of bis-chromophoric sequence with different chain lengths: H-(Aib-Delta(Z)Phe)(m)-(Aib-Delta(Z)Bip)(2)-Aib-OCH(3) [m = 2, 4, and 6; Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid; Delta(Z)Phe = (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydrophenylalanine; Delta(Z)Bip = (Z)-beta-(4,4'-biphenyl)-alpha,beta-didehydroalanine]. They all showed the tendency to adopt a 3(10)-helix. Whereas peptide 1-m originally shows no circular dichroism (CD) signals, marked CD signals were induced at around 270-320 nm based on both the beta-aryl didehydroresidues by chiral Boc-proline (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl). The observed CD spectra were interpreted on the basis of the exciton chirality method and theoretical CD simulation of several helical conformations that were energy-minimized. The experimental and theoretical CD analysis reveals that Boc-l-proline induces the preference for a right-handed helicity in the whole chain of 1-m. Such noncovalent chiral induction was not observed in the corresponding N-terminally protected 1-m. Obviously, helicity induction in 1-m originates from the binding of Boc-proline to the N-terminal site. In the 17-mer (1-6), the information of helix sense reaches the 16th residue from the N-terminus. We have monitored precise transfer of noncovalent chiral stimulus along a helical peptide chain. The present study also proposes a primitive allosteric model of a single protein-mimicking backbone. Here chiral molecule binding the N-terminal site of 1-6 controls the chiroptical signals and helical sense of the C-terminal site about 30 A away.

  15. Pion's valence-quark GPD and its extension beyond DGLAP region

    CERN Document Server

    Mezrag, C; Rodríguez-Quintero, J

    2015-01-01

    We briefly report on a recent computation, with the help of a fruitful algebraic model, sketching the pion valence dressed-quark generalized parton distribution and, very preliminary, discuss on a possible avenue to get reliable results in both Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) and Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage (ERBL) kinematial regions.

  16. The Synthesis of NiO/TiO2 Heterostructures and Their Valence Band Offset Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a heterojunction based on p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 nanostructures has been prepared on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray diffraction techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline arrays characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the valence-band offset (VBO of the NiO/TiO2 heterojunction prepared on FTO glass substrate. The core levels of Ni 2p and Ti 2p were utilized to align the valence-band offset of p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterojunction. The valence band offset was found to be ∼0.41 eV and the conduction band was calculated about ∼0.91 eV. The ratio of conduction band offset and the valence-band offset was found to be 2.21.

  17. Determining binding energies of valence-band electrons in insulators and semiconductors via lanthanide spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Models and methods to determine the absolute binding energy of 4f-shell electrons in lanthanide dopants will be combined with data on the energy of electron transfer from the valence band to a lanthanide dopant. This work will show that it provides a powerful tool to determine the absolute binding e

  18. Mixed Meson Mass for Domain-Wall Valence and Staggered Sea Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinos Orginos; Andre Walker-Loud

    2007-05-01

    Mixed action lattice calculations allow for an additive lattice spacing dependent mass renormalization of mesons composed of one sea and one valence quark, regardless of the type of fermion discretization methods used in the valence and sea sectors. The value of the mass renormalization depends upon the lattice actions used. This mixed meson mass shift is the most important lattice artifact to determine for mixed action calculations: because it modifies the pion mass, it plays a central role in the low energy dynamics of all hadronic correlation functions. We determine the leading order and next to leading order additive mass renormalization of valence-sea mesons for a mixed lattice action with domain-wall valence fermions and staggered sea fermions. We find that on the asqtad improved coarse MILC lattices, the leading order additive mass renormalization for the mixed mesons is Δ(am)^2 LO = 0.0409(11) which corresponds to a^2 Δ_Mix = (319 MeV)^2± (53 MeV)^2 for a = 0.125 fm. We also find significant next to leading order contributions which reduce the mass renormalization by a significant amount, such that for 0 < am_π ≤ 0.22 the mixed meson mass renormalization is well approximated by Δ(am)^2 = 0.0340 (23) or a^2δ_Mix = (290 MeV)^2 ± (76 MeV)^2. The full next-to-leading order analysis is presented in the text.

  19. XPEEM valence state imaging of mineral micro-intergrowths with a spatial resolution of 100nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. D.; Schofield, P. F.; Scholl, A.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Bridges, J. C.

    2003-03-01

    The crystal chemistry and textural relationships of minerals hold a vast amount of information relating to the formation, history and stability of natural materials. The application of soft X-ray spectroscopy to mineralogical material has revealed that 2p (L{2,3}) spectra provide a sensitive fingerprint of the electronic states of 3d metals. In bulk powdered samples much of the textural and microstructural information is lost, but the area-selectivity capability of X-ray Photo-Emission Electron Microscopy (XPEEM) provides the ability to obtain valence state information from mineral intergrowths with a submicron spatial resolution. Using the state-of-the-art PEEM2 facility on beamline 7.3.1.1 at the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, USA, a range of minerals, mineral intergrowths and mineralogical textures have been studied for a broad suite of geological, planetary and environmental science materials. High-quality, multi-element valence images have been obtained showing the distribution/variation of the metal valence states across single grains or mineral intergrowths/textures at the l00 nm scale and quantitative valence state ratios can be obtained from areas of 0.01 μ m^2.

  20. An ab initio Valence Bond Study on Cyclopenta-Fused Naphthalenes and Fluoranthenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, R.W.A.; van Lenthe, J.H.; Jenneskens, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    To probe the effect of external cyclopenta-fusion on a naphthalene core, ab initio valence bond (VB) calculations have been performed, using strictly atomic benzene p-orbitals and p-orbitals that are allowed to delocalize, on naphthalene (1), acenaphthylene (2), pyracylene (3), cyclopenta[b,c]-acena

  1. Memory effects of sleep, emotional valence, arousal and novelty in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Effectiveness of memory consolidation is determined by multiple factors, including sleep after learning, emotional valence, arousal and novelty. Few studies investigated how the effect of sleep compares with (and interacts with) these other factors, of which virtually none are in children. The prese

  2. Automatic evaluation isn't that crude! Moderation of masked affective priming by type of valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentura, D.; Degner, J.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments, the automatic processing of evaluative information was investigated using a masked affective priming paradigm, varying valence (positive vs. negative) and relevance (other-relevant traits vs. possessor-relevant traits; Peeters, 1983) of prime and target stimuli. It was found that

  3. Neural modulation of directed forgetting by valence and arousal: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Sara N; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2016-10-01

    Intentional forgetting benefits memory by removing no longer needed information and promoting processing of more relevant materials. This study sought to understand how the behavioural and neurophysiological representation of intentional forgetting would be impacted by emotion. We took a novel approach by examining the unique contribution of both valence and arousal on emotional directed forgetting. Participants completed an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral words at high and lower levels of arousal while brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Behaviourally, recognition of to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) items varied as a function of valence and arousal with reduced directed forgetting for high arousing negative and neutral words. In the brain, patterns of frontal and posterior activation in response to TBF and TBR cues respectively replicated prior EEG evidence to support involvement of inhibitory and selective rehearsal mechanisms in item directed forgetting. Interestingly, emotion only impacted cue-related posterior activity, which varied depending on specific interactions between valence and arousal. Together, results suggest that the brain handles valence and arousal differently and highlights the importance of considering in a collective manner the multidimensional nature of emotion in experimentation.

  4. Cheminoes: A Didactic Game to Learn Chemical Relationships between Valence, Atomic Number, and Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis F.; Hincapié, Gina; Alzate, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cheminoes is a didactic game that enables the meaningful learning of some relations between concepts such as chemical element, valence, atomic number, and chemical symbol for the first 36 chemical elements of the periodic system. Among the students who have played the game, their opinions of the activity were positive, considering the game to be a…

  5. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  6. Talking about alcohol consumption: health campaigns, conversational valence, and binge drinking intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; van den Putte, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although research has shown that whether people talk about health issues influences health campaign effects, no evidence exists on whether conversational valence fulfils a mediating role within health campaign effects. In the context of alcohol consumption, this two-wave experimental res

  7. Size-extensive wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo: A linear scaling generalized valence bond approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracchia, F.; Filippi, C.; Amovilli, C.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new class of multideterminantal Jastrow–Slater wave functions constructed with localized orbitals and designed to describe complex potential energy surfaces of molecular systems for use in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). Inspired by the generalized valence bond formalism, we elaborate a coup

  8. Alteration of Expected Hemispheric Asymmetries: Valence and Arousal Effects in Neuropsychological Models of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Keith M.; Cimino, Cynthia R.

    2008-01-01

    The relative advantage of the left (LH) over the right hemisphere (RH) in processing of verbal material for most individuals is well established. Nevertheless, several studies have reported the ability of positively and negatively valenced stimuli to enhance and reverse, respectively, the usual LH greater than RH asymmetry. These studies, however,…

  9. Valence band hybridization in N-rich GaN1-xAsx alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Shan, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Kimura, A.; Tang, H.F.; Kuech, T.F.

    2004-05-04

    We have used photo-modulated transmission and optical absorption spectroscopies to measure the composition dependence of interband optical transitions in N-rich GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys with x up to 0.06. The direct bandgap gradually decreases as x increases. In the dilute x limit, the observed band gap approaches 2.8 eV; this limiting value is attributed to a transition between the As localized level, which has been previously observed in As-doped GaN at 0.6 eV above the valence band maximum in As-doped GaN, and the conduction band minimum. The structure of the valence band of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} is explained by the hybridization of the localized As states with the extended valence band states of GaN matrix. The hybridization is directly confirmed by soft x-ray emission experiments. To describe the electronic structure of the GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys in the entire composition range a linear interpolation is used to combine the effects of valence band hybridization in N-rich alloys with conduction band anticrossing in As-rich alloys.

  10. Voice and Valence-Altering Operations in Falam Chin: A Role and Reference Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyzes voice and valence-altering operations in Falam Chin, a Tibeto-Burman language of Burma. The data is explained within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which supplies several key concepts particularly useful for generalizing the behavior of the Falam Chin operations. The first is RRG's…

  11. Calculation of the valence electron structures of alloying cementite and its biphase interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志林; 李志林; 刘伟东

    2001-01-01

    The valence electron structures of alloying cementite θ-(Fe, M)3C and ε-(Fe, M)3C andthose of the biphase interfaces between them and α-Fe are calculated with Yu's empirical electrontheory of solid and molecules. The calculation results accord with the actual behavior of alloys.

  12. Valence-based age differences in medial prefrontal activity during impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Leshikar, Eric D; Shih, Joanne Y; Aizenman, Avigael; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    Reports of age-related changes to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity during socio-cognitive tasks have shown both age-equivalence and under recruitment. Emotion work illustrates selective mPFC response dependent on valence, such that negative emotional images evoke increased ventral mPFC activity for younger adults, while older adults recruit vmPFC more for positive material. By testing whether this differential age-related response toward valenced material is also present for the social task of forming impressions, we may begin to understand inconsistencies regarding when age differences are present vs. absent in the literature. Using fMRI, participants intentionally formed impressions of positive and negative face-behavior pairs in anticipation of a memory task. Extending previous findings to a social task, valence-based reversals were present in dorsal and ventral mPFC, and posterior cingulate cortex. Younger adults elicited increased activity when forming negative impressions, while older adults had more recruitment when forming positive impressions. This suggests an age-related shift toward emphasizing positive social information may be reflected in the recruitment of regions supporting forming impressions. Overall, the results indicate an age-related shift in neural response to socio-cognitive stimuli that is valence dependent rather than a general age-related reduction in activity, in part informing prior inconsistencies within the literature.

  13. The effect of an extinction cue on ABA-renewal: Does valence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safet

  14. The Effect of an Extinction Cue on ABA-Renewal: Does Valence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safety-signal role of the cue. In acquisition,…

  15. The interaction of arousal and valence in affective priming: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Kong, Lingyue; Jiang, Yang

    2012-09-20

    The affective priming paradigm has been studied extensively and applied in many fields during the past two decades. Most research thus far has focused on the valence dimension. Whether emotional arousal influences affective priming remains poorly understood. The present study demonstrates how arousal impacts evaluation of affective words using reaction time and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Eighteen younger subjects evaluated pleasantness of target words after seeing affective pictures as primes. The participants' responses were faster and/or more accurate for valence-congruent trials than for incongruent trials, particularly with high-arousal stimuli. An ERP affective priming effect (N400) also occurred mainly in high-arousing stimulus pairs. In addition, whereas valence congruency influenced both the N400 and the LPP, arousal congruency influenced only the LPP, suggesting that arousal congruency mainly modulates post-semantic processes, but valence congruency effects begin with semantic processes. Overall, our current findings indicate that the arousal level of visual images impacts both behavioral and ERP effects of affective priming.

  16. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  17. Intergroup discrimination in positive and negative outcome allocations : Impact of stimulus valence, relative group status, and relative group size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, S; Mummendey, A; Blanz, M

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as

  18. Stronger Association Between Valence- and Arousal Ratings of Affective Pictures with Older Age: Evidence for Variation Across Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Lyby, Marlene Skovgaard;

    A sample of older and younger adults rated affective pictures according to valence, arousal and emotion category (happiness, sadness and disgust). Results indicate that older age is associated with a stronger linear association between ratings of arousal and valence. Further, the strength...... of the association vary according to emotion category....

  19. Hydrogen release reactions of Al-based complex hydrides enhanced by vibrational dynamics and valences of metal cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Ramirez-Cuesta, A J; Daemen, L; Cheng, Y-Q; Tomiyasu, K; Takagi, S; Orimo, S

    2016-09-27

    Hydrogen release from Al-based complex hydrides composed of metal cation(s) and [AlH4](-) was investigated using inelastic neutron scattering viewed from vibrational dynamics. The hydrogen release followed the softening of translational and [AlH4](-) librational modes, which was enhanced by vibrational dynamics and the valence(s) of the metal cation(s).

  20. Facial and semantic emotional interference: A pilot study on the behavioral and cortical responses to the dual valence association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroni Agustín

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of compatible or incompatible emotional valence and semantic information is an essential aspect of complex social interactions. A modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT called Dual Valence Association Task (DVAT was designed in order to measure conflict resolution processing from compatibility/incompatibly of semantic and facial valence. The DVAT involves two emotional valence evaluative tasks which elicits two forms of emotional compatible/incompatible associations (facial and semantic. Methods Behavioural measures and Event Related Potentials were recorded while participants performed the DVAT. Results Behavioural data showed a robust effect that distinguished compatible/incompatible tasks. The effects of valence and contextual association (between facial and semantic stimuli showed early discrimination in N170 of faces. The LPP component was modulated by the compatibility of the DVAT. Conclusions Results suggest that DVAT is a robust paradigm for studying the emotional interference effect in the processing of simultaneous information from semantic and facial stimuli.

  1. First evidence of end-cap control in the synthesis of long-chain polyynes by intense ultrashort laser pulse irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramadhan, Ali; Wakabayashi, Tomonari; Shiromaru, Haruo; Fujino, Tatsuya; Kodama, Takeshi; Duley, Walter; Sanderson, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen- and methyl-capped polyynes were synthesized by irradiating pure liquid toluene with 35 femtosecond, 300 {\\mu}J laser pulses having a central wavelength of 800 nm, generated by a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire tabletop laser at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of polyynes in the irradiated samples while high-performance liquid chromatography was used to separate hydrogen-capped polyynes up to C18H2 and methyl-capped polyynes up to HC14CH3. These represent the first such methyl-capped polyynes and the longest hydrogen capped chains synthesized to date by the ultrafast laser based method. Furthermore our results show that choice of the starting solvent molecule directly influences the end caps of the polyynes which can be produced.

  2. 复杂网络理论在供应链质量控制中的应用研究%The Application of Complex Network Theory in Supply Chain Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万能; 王福红; 宰银冰

    2016-01-01

    文章提出将因果图、 FMEA和QA矩阵与复杂网络理论相结合提高供应链质量管理水平的方法,并给出这种方法在供应链质量管理中的应用范式及案例研究。基于复杂网络节点重要性理论,识别出供应链质量控制因素网的关键质控点和关键工序,进而有针对性地控制和预防关键质控点和关键工序处的质量因素,提升整个供应链的质量管理水平和效率。研究发现:这种集成方法既可以发现局部的关键质控点又可以发现全局的关键质控点,有效弥补传统质量工具只注重局部分析的不足。这种集成方法不仅既可以提升单个企业质量管理的水平,而且可以提升整个供应链质量管理的效率和水平。旨在推动供应链质量管理方法的创新,为供应链质量管理水平的提高提供全新的研究视角和实践借鉴。%This paper combines the cause and effect diagram, the FMEA and QA matrix with the complex network theory and gives the application of this integrated method in supply chain quality management. Based on the theory of the node importance of complex networks, we identify the key quality control points and the key working procedure of the quality control factors of the supply chain network. We take a targeted control for the critical quality factors, we can improve the efficiency of supply chain quality management. This integration method not only can find local critical quality factors but also find the global critical quality control factors, our research effectively make up for the inadequacy of traditional quality tools which only pay attention to the lo-cal analysis. This integration method not only can promote the quality management level of single enterprise, but also can improve the efficiency and level of the whole supply chain. This study promote the innovation of the supply chain quality management method and provide a new research perspective and practical

  3. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  4. Understanding the Chain Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, John Simeon

    2013-01-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously "flow" out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, if h1 is sufficient, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. We show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an anomalous reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. We propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 is proportional to h1.

  5. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  6. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  7. The Key Points Analysis of Supply Chain Perspective of Food Quality and Safety Control%供应链视角下食品质量安全控制的关键点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金丽; 李真; 邹瑾

    2013-01-01

    文中借助食品供应链相关理论,通过对食品原材料供应、生产加工、包装、储存、输配送、销售等影响食品质量安全的各环节关键点进行分析;提出积极推行安全食品供应链国际标准ISO22000,强化食品质量安全的监督与管理,以及构建以条码技术为核心的食品质量安全追溯体系等食品质量安全控制的措施。为食品供应链各经济利益主体进行食品质量安全控制及政府进行食品安全监管指明方向。%This paper by means of the food supply chain -related theory,through the food supply of raw materials, production and processing,packaging,storage,transmission and distribution,sales and other effects of food quality and safety of the various aspects of the key points for analysis;propose actively promote safe food supply chain with international standards ISO22000,strengthen food quality and safety supervision and management,as well as to bar code technology to build the core of food quality and safety traceability system and other food quality and safety control measures.For the food supply chain,various economic stakeholders in food quality and safety control of food safety regulation and government direction.

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis and their magnetic properties of hexapod-like, flake-like and chain-like carbon-encapsulated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junhao, E-mail: jhzhang6@mail.ustc.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Du Jin; Qian Yitai [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yin Qinghuan; Zhang Dongjing [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu, Zhenjiang 212003 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A shape-controlled synthesis of carbon-encapsulated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-C) composites is reported in this paper. By tuning the reaction temperature from 500 deg. C to 700 deg. C and the amount of ammonium acid carbonate (1.0 g, 0.5 g and 2.0 g) in a sealed reaction system, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-C composites with hexapod-like, flake-like, and chain-like morphologies have been successfully obtained using ferrocene as the precursor. Corresponding hollow carbon structures can be obtained by acid treatments. The three kinds of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-C composites show ferromagnetic properties at room temperature, while their saturation magnetizations and coercivities are obviously different from each other, due to the various shapes and structures. Possible formation processes of these Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-C composites and corresponding hollow carbon materials are discussed. The experimental results indicate that the reaction temperature and the amount of ammonium acid carbonate play key roles in the shape-controlled synthesis of hexapod-like, flake-like and chain-like Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-C composites.

  9. Research on Supply Chain Quality Control with Customer Complaint under Asymmetric Information Condition%非对称信息下考虑顾客抱怨的供应链质量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵敏; 杨克磊

    2013-01-01

    本文研究存在顾客抱怨的情形下,由一个制造商和一个零售商组成的供应链质量控制问题。构建了制造商和零售商的博弈模型,分析了非对称信息情况下当顾客抱怨和外部故障成本分担系数发生变化时,制造商和零售商的最优质量检测水平的变化,并得出非对称信息情况下制造商的最优质量检测水平随顾客抱怨的增加而线性增加的结论。%This paper presents the problem of supply chain quality control considering customer complaint. It develops a quality control game model of the manufacturer and retailer in a supply chain and analyzes the changes of their optimal monitoring level when the cost sharing coefficient and customer complaint alter in asymmetric case. The conclusion is that the manufacturer’s optimal monitoring level increases linearly as customer complaint increases.

  10. 基于控制论的3种供应链动态特性比较%Dynamic performance of three kinds of supply chains based on control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 吕国力; 贾经冬

    2011-01-01

    基于自动控制理论,以APIOBPCS (Automatic Pipeline,Inventory and OrderBased Production Control System)订货系统为基础,采用模拟仿真的方法,考察传统二级供应链(TSC,Traditional two-echelon Supply Chain)、需求信息共享 (DIS,Demand Information Sharing)二级供应链和供应商管理库存(VMI,Vendor Managed Inventory)这3种典型二级供应链系统在阶跃需求信息时,不同系统参数对系统订单、在制品量和库存量的影响,并对3种系统的动态响应特性进行了对比研究.研究结果表明:对于阶跃需求信息,生产提前期Tp越小,系统响应峰值越小,响应速度越快;参数Ti,Tw和Ta在不同范围内对系统峰值和调节时间的影响趋势有所不同,需要根据供应链整体目标进行选择.而且一种供应链系统往往不能兼顾系统的响应峰值和调节时间两个特性,应综合考虑响应峰值和调节时间对系统整体绩效的影响,选择适当的管理策略优化供应链系统,以提高供应链的整体运行效率.%Based on the APIOBPCS (automatic pipeline, inventory and order based production control system), three kinds of two-echelon supply chains were established using the discrete control theory: traditional, demand information sharing and vendor managed inventory two-echelon supply chain. It developed the transfer function models of the systems. On this basis, the dynamic responses of the three systems to stepwise customer demand were analyzed by simulation. As the system parameters change, the performance of the three kinds of supply chains were compared, as well as the fluctuations of the system order, works in process and inventory. Simulation result showed that the smaller Tp was, the better the performance of supply chain was. The impact of Ti,Tw and Ta on peak value were different from the impact on settling time. Any system of three kinds of supply chain was not better than the other twos when peak value and settling time were both taken

  11. Incentive mechanisms for food safety control in pork supply chains : a study on the relationship between finishing pig producers and slaughterhouses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Food borne illness today still results in high societal costs, even though FBOs have implemented food safety control systems. In addition, the susceptibility to food borne diseases of the human population is likely to increase in the coming decades. Thus food safety control needs to be improved. Sin

  12. Vaccination with an adenoviral vector encoding the tumor antigen directly linked to invariant chain induces potent CD4(+) T-cell-independent CD8(+) T-cell-mediated tumor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Maria R; Holst, Peter J; Pircher, Hanspeter

    2009-01-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for cancer control. In the context of antiviral vaccines, adenoviral vectors have emerged as a favorable means for immunization. Therefore, we chose a strategy combining use of these vectors with another successful approach, namely linkage...... of the vaccine antigen to invariant chain (Ii). To evaluate this strategy we used a mouse model, in which an immunodominant epitope (GP33) of the LCMV glycoprotein (GP) represents the tumor-associated neoantigen. Prophylactic vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 vector...... vaccination with adenovirus expressing GP alone (Ad-GP), or GP and Ii unlinked (Ad-GP+Ii). Ad-Ii-GP- induced tumor control depended on an improved generation of the tumor-associated neoantigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell response and was independent of CD4(+) T cells. IFN-gamma was shown to be a key player during...

  13. Independent sets in chain cacti

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-chains and meta-chains are the only extremal chain cacti with respect to total number of independent sets (orto-chains minimal and meta-chains maximal).

  14. Magnitude and valence of outcomes as determinants of causal judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este proyecto es examinar si el modelo de bloqueo predice la atribución de juicios causales al variar la valencia y la magnitud de las consecuencias. El arreglo experimental consiste en la presentación de reportes sobre los efectos positivos y negativos que producen diferentes sustancias al ser consumidas solas o en conjunto con otras. Los participantes del primer grupo estuvieron expuestos a consecuencias de alta magnitud y los del segundo grupo, a consecuencias de baja magnitud. Se evaluó si la atribución de causalidad es consistente con las predicciones del efecto bloqueo mediante dos tipos de pregunta: una pregunta acerca si la sustancia X produce o no el efecto, y una pregunta sobre la probabilidad de que X produzca el efecto. Se examinaron las diferencias en los juicios causales cuando las atribuciones son producto del razonamiento lógico o intuitivo. Si bien no se observó evidencia del efecto bloqueo, se obtuvieron efectos de interacción entre los factores valencia y condición experimental (sustancias bloqueo y control. Se discuten los hallazgos en términos de las diferencias entre el aprendizaje asociativo en humanos y animales no humanos, y en términos de las implicaciones sobre las diferencias teóricas entre el condicionamiento evaluativo y el condicionamiento predictivo.

  15. The emotional valence of a conflict: Implications from synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit ePerry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to some synesthetes' reports, their experience involves an emotional sensation in which a conflict between the photism and presented color of a stimulus may evoke a feeling of discomfort. In order to investigate the impact of this experience on performance, two experiments were carried out on two synesthetes and their matched control groups. Experiments were tailored for each synesthete according to her unique photism. Participants were presented with stimuli (numerals or words in colors and were asked to name the color of the stimulus and to ignore its meaning. Incongruent colors were associated with negative or positive emotional words or with non-emotional words. Not surprisingly, an incongruent color (e.g., 5 presented in yellow to a synesthete that sees 5 in red slowed down color naming. Conflict situations (e.g., a numeral in an incongruent color created a negative emotional experience. Most importantly, coherence between a conflict or non-conflict emotional experience and the emotion elicited by the color of the stimulus for a given synesthete modulated performance. In particular, synesthetes were faster in coherent than in incoherent situations. This research contributes to the understanding of emotional experience in synesthesia, and also suggests that synesthesia can be used as an instrument to investigate emotional processes in the wider population.

  16. Decisive Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Mayr, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We consider qualitative and quantitative verification problems for infinite-state Markov chains. We call a Markov chain decisive w.r.t. a given set of target states F if it almost certainly eventually reaches either F or a state from which F can no longer be reached. While all finite Markov chains are trivially decisive (for every set F), this also holds for many classes of infinite Markov chains. Infinite Markov chains which contain a finite attractor are decisive w.r.t. every set F. In particular, this holds for probabilistic lossy channel systems (PLCS). Furthermore, all globally coarse Markov chains are decisive. This class includes probabilistic vector addition systems (PVASS) and probabilistic noisy Turing machines (PNTM). We consider both safety and liveness problems for decisive Markov chains, i.e., the probabilities that a given set of states F is eventually reached or reached infinitely often, respectively. 1. We express the qualitative problems in abstract terms for decisive Markov chains, and show...

  17. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  18. REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  19. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...

  20. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  1. Close linkage of the mouse and human CD3. gamma. - and delta-chain genes suggests that their transcription is controlled by common regulatory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H.; Koyama, T.; Georgopoulos, K.; Clevers, H.; Haser, W.G.; LeBien, T.; Tonegawa, S.; Terhorst, C.

    1987-12-01

    Antigen receptors on the T-cell surface are noncovalently associated with at least four invariant polypeptide chains, CD3-..gamma.., -delta, -epsilon, and -zeta. The mouse CD3-..gamma.. gene, consisting of seven exons, was found to be highly homologous to the CD3-..gamma.. described earlier. Both the high level of sequence homology and the exon/intron organization indicate that the CD3-..gamma.. and -delta genes arose by gene duplication. Surprisingly, murine and human genomic DNA clones could be isolated that contained elements of both the CD3-..gamma.. and CD3-delta genes. In fact, the putative transcription start site of the mouse CD3-..gamma.. gene is less than 1.4 kilobases from the transcription initiation site of the mouse CD3-delta gene. Common elements that regulate the divergent transcription of the two genes are therefore proposed to be located in the intervening 1.4-kilobase DNA segment. This might contribute to the coordinate expression of the CD3-..gamma.. and -delta genes during intrathymic maturation of T lymphocytes.

  2. Anisotropic Diffusion of Polyelectrolyte Chains within Multi-layer Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Kozlovskaya, Veronika [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Kharlampieva, Eugenia [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Sukhishvili, Prof. Svetlana A. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey

    2012-01-01

    We found diffusion of polyelectrolyte chains within multilayer films to be highly anisotropic, with the preferential chain motion parallel to the substrate. The degree of anisotropy was quantified by a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and neutron reflectometry, probing chain diffusion in directions parallel and perpendicular to the substrate, respectively. Chain mobility was controlled by ionic strength of annealing solutions and steric hindrance to ionic pairing of interacting polyelectrolytes.

  3. Agricultural Supply Chain Risk Identification- A Case Finding from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamah Edmond Yeboah; Yi Feng; Oppong-Sekyere Daniel; Nyamaah Boadi Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates and identifies the probable supply chain related risks in Ghana agricultural supply chain and further seeks the severity of these risks based on engineering judgments and historical records. In addition, this paper probes into participants¡¯ ability level to manage/control the identified risk. The results indicate that, not all global supply chain related risks transpire in Ghana agricultural supply chain. While some risks such as market related risks are inevitable in...

  4. 用于基因扩增热循环温度跟踪的前馈变结构PID控制技术%Feedforward Variable Structural Proportional-Integral-Derivative for Temperature Control of Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宪波; 袁景淇; 汪志锋

    2006-01-01

    To track the rapidly changing temperature profiles of thermal cycling of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) accurately, an innovative feedforward variable structural proportional-integral-derivative (FVSPID) controller was developed. Based on the step response test data of the heat block, a reduced first order model was established at different operating points. Based on the reduced model, the FVSPID controller combined a feedforward path with the variable structural proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control. The modified feedforward action provided directly the optimal predictive power for the desired setpoint to speed up the dynamic response. To cooperate with the feedforward action, a variable structural PID was applied, where the P mode was used in the case of the largest errors to speed up response, whereas the PD mode was used in the case of larger errors to suppress overshoot, and finally the PID mode was applied for small error conditions to eliminate the steady state offset. Experimental results illustrated that compared to the conventional PID controller, the FVSPID controller can not only reduce the time taken to complete a standard PCR protocol, but also improve the accuracy of gene amplification.

  5. Inventory Routing Problem in VMI & TPL Supply Chain under Centralized Control%集中控制VMI&TPL模式下的库存运输集成问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤中明

    2013-01-01

    A supply chain composed of many vendors, one third-party logistics (TPL) , and one manufacturer is addressed. It assumes that, in such a supply chain, it integrates vendor-managed inventory ( VMI) and TPL. For such a supply chain, inventory routing problem under centralized control is studied. How to make the decision of replenishing and vehicle routing plan for suppliers and TPL is a challenging problem. Based on rolling plan period, a new inventory routing model is developed. With the NP-complete nature of the inventory routing problem, a four-step heuristic algorithm based on simulated annealing is presented. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed heuristic algorithm is testified by a numerical example.%以“多供应商,单TPL,单制造商”供应链网络为研究环境,研究了集中控制VMI&TPL模式下的库存运输集成优化问题,旨在为供应商和TPL提供补货决策和车辆路线计划.基于滚动计划期,构建了库存运输集成计划模型.鉴于该模型问题是一个NPC问题,提出了基于模拟退火遗传算法的四步骤启发式算法.算例分析结果表明该启发式算法是有效可行的.

  6. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Epictetus E. Patalinghug

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  7. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  8. Valence orbitals of W(CO)6 using electron momentum spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Le-Lei; Liu Kun; Luo Zhi-Hong; Ning Chuan-Gang; Deng Jing-Kang

    2011-01-01

    The binding energy spectra and the momentum distributions of the outer valence orbitals of W(CO)6 have been studied by using electron momentum spectroscopy as well as non-relativistic,scalar relativistic and spin-orbital relativistic DFT-B3LYP calculations.The experimental momentum profiles of the outer valence orbitals obtained with the impact energies of 1200 eV and 2400 eV were compared with various theoretical calculation results.The relativistic calculations could provide better descriptions for the experimental momentum distributions than the non-relativistic ones.Moreover,a new ordering of orbitals 10t1u,3t2g,and 7eg,i.e.,10t1u < 3t2g <7eg <10a1g,is established in this work.

  9. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of mixed valence YbAl3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shouvik; Sung, Suk Hyun; Baek, David J.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the growth of thin films of the mixed valence compound YbAl3 on MgO using molecular-beam epitaxy. Employing an aluminum buffer layer, epitaxial (001) films can be grown with sub-nm surface roughness. Using x-ray diffraction, in situ low-energy electron diffraction, and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we establish that the films are ordered in the bulk as well as at the surface. Our films show a coherence temperature of 37 K, comparable to that reported for bulk single crystals. Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals contributions from both f13 and f12 final states establishing that YbAl3 is a mixed valence compound and shows the presence of a Kondo Resonance peak near the Fermi-level.

  10. Localization of the valence electron of endohedrally confined hydrogen, lithium and sodium in fullerene cages

    CERN Document Server

    Cuestas, Eloisa

    2016-01-01

    The localization of the valence electron of $H$, $Li$ and $Na$ atoms enclosed by three different fullerene molecules is studied. The structure of the fullerene molecules is used to calculate the equilibrium position of the endohedrally atom as the minimum of the classical $(N+1)$-body Lennard-Jones potential. Once the position of the guest atom is determined, the fullerene cavity is modeled by a short range attractive shell according to molecule symmetry, and the enclosed atom is modeled by an effective one-electron potential. In order to examine whether the endohedral compound is formed by a neutral atom inside a neutral fullerene molecule $X@C_{N}$ or if the valence electron of the encapsulated atom localizes in the fullerene giving rise to a state with the form $X^{+}@C_{N}^{-}$, we analyze the electronic density, the projections onto free atomic states, and the weights of partial angular waves.

  11. A valence bond study of three-center four-electron pi bonding: electronegativity vs electroneutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlase, Andrew; Licata, Megan; Galbraith, John Morrison

    2008-12-18

    Three-center four-electron (3c4e) pi bonding systems analogous to that of the ozone molecule have been studied using modern valence bond theory. Molecules studied herein consist of combinations of first row atoms C, N, and O with the addition of H atoms where appropriate in order to preserve the 3c4e pi system. Breathing orbital valence bond (BOVB) calculations were preformed at the B3LYP/6-31G**-optimized geometries in order to determine structural weights, pi charge distributions, resonance energies, and pi bond energies. It is found that the most weighted VB structure depends on atomic electronegativity and charge distribution, with electronegativity as the dominant factor. By nature, these systems are delocalized, and therefore, resonance energy is the main contributor to pi bond energies. Molecules with a single dominant VB structure have low resonance energies and therefore low pi bond energies.

  12. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  13. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  14. Macaque cardiac physiology is sensitive to the valence of passively viewed sensory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Bliss-Moreau

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system activity is an important component of affective experience. We demonstrate in the rhesus monkey that both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system respond differentially to the affective valence of passively viewed video stimuli. We recorded cardiac impedance and an electrocardiogram while adult macaques watched a series of 300 30-second videos that varied in their affective content. We found that sympathetic activity (as measured by cardiac pre-ejection period increased and parasympathetic activity (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreased as video content changes from positive to negative. These findings parallel the relationship between autonomic nervous system responsivity and valence of stimuli in humans. Given the relationship between human cardiac physiology and affective processing, these findings suggest that macaque cardiac physiology may be an index of affect in nonverbal animals.

  15. Traitement des valences verbales dans une grammaire catégorielle du français

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Cet article propose de rendre compte dans le cadre d'UCG des phénomènes complexes de la linéarité en français, moyennant deux aménagements : nous postulons en effet que les valences verbales ne sont pas associées a priori à une valeur quelconque pour l'ordre, et qu'elles font partie d'un ensemble plutôt que d'une liste. Le comportement syntaxique des constituants en surface est donc dissocié de l'ordre des valences et régulé par un système de traits similaire à celui de Karttunen (1986) ou d'...

  16. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  17. Analysis of Valence Electron Structure of RE in Solid Solution in Medium and Low Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹光; 刘艳; 刘志林; 刘伟东

    2004-01-01

    According to EET theory,the valence electron structures of RE in the solid solution of austenite,pearlite and martensite were calculated.The influence of RE in solid solution on phase transformation of pearlite and recrystallization of martensite was explained by the valence electron structure data of phases.Calculating results indicate that C element is favorite to enhance the number of RE in the solid solution.RE in the solute solution shortens the incubation period of proeutectoid ferrite,increases its quantity and carbon content,decreases the quantity of pearlite and thickness of its lamellas and lamellar spacing,then the strength and hardness of pearlite are improved and granular pearlite can be obtained.RE dissolved in martensite intensifies martensite,enhances tempering stability of martensite,increases its recrystallization temperature and prolongs the holding time needed during tempering.

  18. Stabilization of Th 3+ ions into mixed-valence thorium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marc; Dieudonné, Belto; Mesbah, Adel; Bonnet, Pierre; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Renaudin, Guillaume; Avignant, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The unusual oxidation state +3 of the thorium has been stabilized into a lithium containing non-stoichiometric mixed-valence (III/IV) thorium fluorinated phase with formula Li 2+ xTh 12F 50 (0afore mentioned single phase may be considered as an insertion compound. The Li + insertion is accompanied by the simultaneous reduction of a part of the Th 4+ ions, resulting in a mixed-valence III/IV thorium fluoride. The electrochemical insertion of Li + ions into the open channels of the host matrix has been carried out at 60 °C, using an alkylcarbonate PC-LiClO 4 1 M electrolyte. The Li + and Th 3+ contents, both in the starting composition and the Li + inserted ones, were investigated by high resolution solid state 7Li NMR and EPR, respectively.

  19. Vertical metaphor with motion and judgment: a valenced congruency effect with fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Cretenet, Joël; Dru, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Following metaphorical theories of affect, several research studies have shown that the spatial cues along a vertical dimension are useful in qualifying emotional experience (HAPPINESS is UP, SADNESS is DOWN). Three experiments were conducted to examine the role of vertical motion in affective judgment. They showed that positive stimuli moving UPWARD were evaluated more positively than those moving DOWNWARD, whereas negative stimuli moving DOWNWARD were evaluated as less negative than those moving UPWARD. They showed a valenced congruency effect, but an alternative hypothesis in terms of MORE is UP and LESS is DOWN was also examined. Finally, fluency mechanisms were investigated to confirm that relationships between affect and verticality were in accordance with a valenced congruency effect.

  20. The new Resonating Valence Bond Method for ab-initio Electronic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sorella, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The Resonating Valence Bond theory of the chemical bond was introduced soon after the discovery of quantum mechanics and has contributed to explain the role of electron correlation within a particularly simple and intuitive approach where the chemical bond between two nearby atoms is described by one or more singlet electron pairs. In this chapter Pauling's resonating valence bond theory of the chemical bond is revisited within a new formulation, introduced by P.W. Anderson after the discovery of High-Tc superconductivity. It is shown that this intuitive picture of electron correlation becomes now practical and efficient, since it allows us to faithfully exploit the locality of the electron correlation, and to describe several new phases of matter, such as Mott insulators, High-Tc superconductors, and spin liquid phases.