WorldWideScience

Sample records for chain valency controls

  1. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-29

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications. PMID:27168317

  3. Exact valence bond entanglement entropy and probability distribution in the XXX spin chain and the potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, J L; Saleur, H

    2008-02-29

    We determine exactly the probability distribution of the number N_(c) of valence bonds connecting a subsystem of length L>1 to the rest of the system in the ground state of the XXX antiferromagnetic spin chain. This provides, in particular, the asymptotic behavior of the valence-bond entanglement entropy S_(VB)=N_(c)ln2=4ln2/pi(2)lnL disproving a recent conjecture that this should be related with the von Neumann entropy, and thus equal to 1/3lnL. Our results generalize to the Q-state Potts model.

  4. Neutral-Type One-Dimensional Mixed-Valence Halogen-Bridged Platinum Chain Complexes with Large Charge-Transfer Band Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Ken-ichi; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) electronic systems have attracted significant attention for a long time because of their various physical properties. Among 1D electronic systems, 1D halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition-metal complexes (the so-called MX chains) have been thoroughly studied owing to designable structures and electronic states. Here, we report the syntheses, structures, and electronic properties of three kinds of novel neutral MX-chain complexes. The crystal structures consist of 1D chains of Pt-X repeating units with (1R,2R)-(-)-diaminocychlohexane and CN(-) in-plane ligands. Because of the absence of a counteranion, the neutral MX chains have short interchain distances, so that strong interchain electronic interaction is expected. Resonance Raman spectra and diffuse-reflectance UV-vis spectra indicate that their electronic states are mixed-valence states (charge-density-wave state: Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···). In addition, the relationship between the intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) band gap and the degree of distortion of the 1D chain shows that the neutral MX chains have a larger IVCT band gap than that of cationic MX-chain complexes. These results provide new insight into the physical and electronic properties of 1D chain compounds. PMID:26901774

  5. Valence Control of Ce Ions in Cerium-substituted Yttrium Iron Garnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Fengbing; LI Qiang; ZHONG Zhifeng

    2005-01-01

    Cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet(CexY3-xFe5O12, Ce∶YIG) was prepared via coprecipitation. The structure, morphology, valence state and constituent of Ce ions were investigated respectively. X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) analysis shows that Ce∶YIG was of single cubic YIG phase. The result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) indicates the Ce ions in Ce∶YIG were in the state of trivalence. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) demonstrates the conglobation of Ce∶YIG particles about 0.2μm scale.The magnetic properties were studied by a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) and the result exhibits that substitution of Ce3+ changes the magnetic parameters of YIG. The effects of doping content of Ce ions and synthesis temperature on valence control were discussed in detail.

  6. Magnetic-field control of quantum critical points of valence transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques

    2008-06-13

    We study the mechanism of how critical end points of first-order valence transitions are controlled by a magnetic field. We show that the critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field, and unexpectedly, the QCP exhibits nonmonotonic field dependence in the ground-state phase diagram, giving rise to the emergence of metamagnetism even in the intermediate valence-crossover regime. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is clarified to be cooperative phenomena of the Zeeman and Kondo effects, which create a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. This mechanism explains the peculiar magnetic response in CeIrIn(5) and the metamagnetic transition in YbXCu(4) for X=In as well as the sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd. PMID:18643524

  7. Novel Countercation in MMX-Type Mixed-Valence Chain Compound: Coexistence of Neutral and Protonated Amino Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Iguchi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first MMX-type quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D Pt chain complex (MMX chain that contains a mono-protonated diamine as countercation, {o-(H3NC6H4NH2}4[Pt2(pop4I]·H2O (pop = P2H2O52–, was synthesized. According to the crystal structural analysis, –NH2 group was hydrogen-bonded to either lattice H2O molecule or –NH3+ group in addition to typical hydrogen bond between –NH3+ group and pop ligand. To control the partial deprotonation of the countercation will be an important method for achieving the high-conductive MMX-chain polymer by the hole doping.

  8. Markov processes and controlled Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Filar, Jerzy; Chen, Anyue

    2002-01-01

    The general theory of stochastic processes and the more specialized theory of Markov processes evolved enormously in the second half of the last century. In parallel, the theory of controlled Markov chains (or Markov decision processes) was being pioneered by control engineers and operations researchers. Researchers in Markov processes and controlled Markov chains have been, for a long time, aware of the synergies between these two subject areas. However, this may be the first volume dedicated to highlighting these synergies and, almost certainly, it is the first volume that emphasizes the contributions of the vibrant and growing Chinese school of probability. The chapters that appear in this book reflect both the maturity and the vitality of modern day Markov processes and controlled Markov chains. They also will provide an opportunity to trace the connections that have emerged between the work done by members of the Chinese school of probability and the work done by the European, US, Central and South Ameri...

  9. Supersymmetric Valence Bond Solid States

    OpenAIRE

    Arovas, Daniel P.; Hasebe, Kazuki; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    In this work we investigate the supersymmetric version of the valence bond solid (SVBS) state. In one dimension, the SVBS states continuously interpolate between the valence bond states for integer and half-integer spin chains, and they generally describe superconducting valence bond liquid states. Spin and superconducting correlation functions can be computed exactly for these states, and their correlation lengths are equal at the supersymmetric point. In higher dimensions, the wave function...

  10. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  11. Controlling Synfire Chain by Inhibitory Synaptic Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Takashi; Câteau, Hideyuki; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Okada, Masato

    2007-04-01

    The propagation of highly synchronous firings across neuronal networks, called the synfire chain, has been actively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The temporal accuracy and remarkable stability of the propagation have been repeatedly examined in previous studies. However, for such a mode of signal transduction to play a major role in processing information in the brain, the propagation should also be controlled dynamically and flexibly. Here, we show that inhibitory but not excitatory input can bidirectionally modulate the propagation, i.e., enhance or suppress the synchronous firings depending on the timing of the input. Our simulations based on the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model demonstrate this bidirectional modulation and suggest that it should be achieved with any biologically inspired modeling. Our finding may help describe a concrete scenario of how multiple synfire chains lying in a neuronal network are appropriately controlled to perform significant information processing.

  12. Determination of Technetium-99 in Environmental Samples by Solvent Extraction at Controlled Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Dahlgaard, H.;

    1989-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of technetium and ruthenium are determined under different conditions with CCl4, cyclohexanone, and 5% tri-isooctylamine (TIOA)/xylene. A method for analyzing 99Tc in environmental samples has been developed by solvent extraction in which the valences of technetium...... are subsequently separated by solvent extraction with cyclohexanone and 5% TIOA/xylene. The decontamination of the procedure is 1.35 .cntdot. 105 for 103Ru and 1.66 .cntdot. 105 for 110mAg. The chemical yield of technetium-99 is 55%....

  13. Study of the effect of shell stabilization of the collective isovector valence-shell excitations along the N=80 isotonic chain

    CERN Multimedia

    Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Wadsworth, R; Danchev, M T; Jenkins, D G; Kroell, T; Leske, J

    It is proposed to initiate an experimental program to study the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs) of unstable nuclei from the N = 80 isotonic chain. The main aim of this program is to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the MSSs, an effect dubbed $\\textit{shell stabilization}$ of MSSs. This will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The MSSs of these nuclei will be identified experimentally by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in inverse kinematics Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions on light targets. As a first step of this program we apply for a beam time for the radioactive $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm beams at beam energy of 2.85 MeV/u. These beams will be used to determine the absolute B(E2;2$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow$ 0$_{1}^{+}$) values for $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm in Coulomb excit...

  14. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method was successfully used for collecting 239,240Pu from 200 litres seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO4.7H2O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO3 + HCl from the coprecipitate and the solid particles. The precipitate is heated at 400 deg. C and digested in aqua regia. Na2SO3 and NaNO2 have been applied to obtain Pu+4 valence in 0.5-1 N HNO3 for different samples. Plutonium and thorium are coabsorbed on anionic resin from 8 N HNO3. The column is eluated with 8 N HNO3 containing fresh NaNO2 to keep Pu+4 valence for uranium decontamination. The system of the column is changed from 8 N HNO3 to concentrated HCl with 50 ml conc. HCl containing a few milligram NaNO2. Further decontamination of thorium was achieved by eluation with concentrated HCl instead of 9 N HCl. The plutonium is successfully stripped by H2O, NaOH, 2 N HNO3 and 0.5 N HNO3 containing 0.01 M NaNO3. The chemical yield of plutonium for a 200 litres-seawater sample is 60-80%. The resolution of the electroplated thin source is very good. (author)

  15. Metal-insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  16. Determination of plutonium in environmental samples by controlled valence in anion exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Aarkrog, A.; Nielsen, S.P.;

    1993-01-01

    The title method was successfully used for collecting Pu-239, Pu-249 from 200 litres of seawater by coprecipitation with 16 g FeSO4 . 7H2O under reducing conditions without filtering. The plutonium is leached by concentrated HNO3 + HCI from the coprecipitate and the solid particles. The precipitate...... is heated at 400-degrees-C and digested in aqua regia. Na2SO3 and NaNO2 have been applied to obtain the Pu4+ valence state in 0.571 N HN03 for different samples. Plutonium and thorium are coadsorbed on anionic resin from 8N HN03. The column is eluted with 8N HN03 containing fresh NaNO2 to keep the Pu4......+ state for uranium decontamination. The system of the column is changed from 8N HNO3 to concentrated HCl with 50 ml concentrated HCI containing a few milligrams of NaNO2. Further decontamination of thorium was achieved by elution with concentrated HCI instead of 9N HCl. The plutonium is successfully...

  17. Individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions: Emotional valence interacts with serotonin transporter genotype to influence brain systems involved in emotional reactivity and cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eStollstorff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR influences emotional reactivity and attentional bias towards or away from emotional stimuli and has been implicated in psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety disorder. The short allele is associated with increased reactivity and attention towards negatively-valenced emotional information, whereas the long allele is associated with that towards positively-valenced emotional information. The neural basis for individual differences in the ability to exert cognitive control over these bottom-up biases in emotional reactivity and attention is unknown, an issue investigated in the present study. Two groups, homozygous 5-HTTLPR long allele carriers or homozygous short allele carriers, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while completing an Emotional Stroop-like task that varied with regards to the congruency of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information and the emotional valence of the task-irrelevant information. Behaviorally, participants demonstrated the classic Stroop effect (slower responses for incongruent than congruent trials, which did not differ by 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, fMRI results revealed that genotype influenced the degree to which neural systems were engaged depending on the valence of the conflicting task-irrelevant information. While the Long group recruited prefrontal control regions and superior temporal sulcus during conflict when task-irrelevant information was positively-valenced, the "Short" group recruited these regions when task-irrelevant information was negatively-valenced. Thus, participants successfully engaged cognitive control to overcome conflict in an emotional context using similar neural circuitry, but the engagement of this circuitry depended on emotional valence and 5-HTTLPR status. These results suggest that the interplay between emotion and cognition is modulated, in part, by a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin

  18. Controlling Inventories in a Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies specific aspects of the joint replenishment problem in a real supply chain setting. Particularly we analyze the effect on inventory performance of having minimum order quantities for the different products in the joint order, given a complex transportation cost struc

  19. Controlling Inventories in a Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Musalem, Eric; Dekker, Rommert

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies specific aspects of the joint replenishment problem in a real supply chain setting. Particularly we analyze the effect on inventory performance of having minimum order quantities for the different products in the joint order, given a complex transportation cost structure. The policies suggested have been tested in a simulation model with real data.

  20. Controlling the martensitic transformation temperature at constant valence electron concentration in Heusler based Ni-Mn-In alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda; Acet, Mehmet; Krenke, Thorsten; Wassermann, Eberhard [Experimentalphysik (AG- Farle), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Moya, Xavier; Manosa, Lluis; Planes, Antoni [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Although the martensitic transformation temperature M{sub s} increases linearly with increasing valence electron concentration e/a in Ni-Mn-X Heusler alloys (X: group III or IV element), the slope varies depending on the X-species, i.e., M{sub s} vs. e/a is not universal. This aspect can be favorably exploited to control Ms by holding e/a constant and replacing X{sup *} by an isoelectronic X{sup *}, where X and X{sup *}, are elements within the same group. Using this property we have substituted In in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} (M{sub s}{proportional_to}200 K) with Ga to bring M{sub s} close to room temperature. Here, we show how magnetic field induced phase transition properties and associated magnetocaloric effects in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} are modified in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}(In,Ga){sub 16}.

  1. Fuldaer Supply Chain Management-Dialog : Trends und Herausforderungen im Supply Chain Controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Eine ganzheitlich ausgerichtete Sichtweise über die eigenen Unternehmensgrenzen hinaus, wie sie das Supply Chain Management für die unternehmensübergreifenden Wertschöpfungsketten postuliert, stellt hohe Anforderungen an eine optimale Steuerung der unternehmensindividuellen und netzwerkkollektiven Aktivitäten. Zur adäquaten Zielerreichung von derartigen Netzwerkstrukturen bedarf es eines ausgereiften Supply Chain Controllings. Die vorliegende Publikation setzt sich mit ausgewählten Tren...

  2. Methods for Coordinated Inventory Control in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this paper Achieving effective and efficient inventory control in supply chain management is a task that requires insights into the workings of multi-stage inventory systems with uncertainty about future demand and supply. In this paper we analyze and compare two basic principles...... of cases. The set of inventory control policies investigated here is also limited and could be extended in future research. Practical implications Guidelines to supply chain managers for allocating safety stocks in supply chains. What is original/value of paper The comparison of effects of different...... for coordinated inventory control in a multi-stage supply-chain setting. Design/methodology/approach The objective is to find the overall minimum inventory investment and the associated stock allocations in order to fulfil a given service level for end customer demand. We show the effects of using both optimal...

  3. Infinitely dimensional control Markov branching chains in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    First of all we introduce the concepts of infinitely dimensional control Markov branching chains in random environments (β-MBCRE) and prove the existence of such chains, then we introduce the concepts of conditional generating functionals and random Markov transition functions of such chains and investigate their branching property. Base on these concepts we calculate the moments of the β-MBCRE and obtain the main results of this paper such as extinction probabilities, polarization and proliferation rate. Finally we discuss the classification ofβ-MBCRE according to the different standards.

  4. Inventory Control and Intermediation in Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Raff, Horst; Qu, Zhan; Schmitt, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The paper develops a simple theoretical model of inventory control in global supply chains. It identifies a role for intermediaries in managing inventory, and shows that inserting an intermediary as an additional link in a supply chain is profitable when demand volatility is high. It also provides conditions under which the intermediary handling inventory is located in the exporting versus the importing country. Trade liberalization in the form of less lumpy trade is shown to expand the role ...

  5. Study of the effect of shell stabilization of the collective isovector valence-shell excitations along the N=80 isotonic chain

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to investigate the microscopic mechanism which leads to a concentration or a fragmentation of the quadrupole-collective isovector valence-shell excitations, the so-called mixed-symmetry states (MSSs), an effect called shell stabilization of MSSs. This aim will be achieved by identification of MSSs of the unstable nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. The first steps of this program have been undertaken in two subsequent REX-ISOLDE experiments (IS496) in which we have measured the B(E2; 2$^{+}_{1}$$\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}_{1}$) transition strengths in the radioactive nuclei $^{140}$Nd and $^{142}$Sm. By using these data and the higher beam energy of HIE-ISOLDE we propose now to identify the MSSs of these nuclei by measuring their relative populations with respect to the population of the first 2$^{+}$ states in Coulomb excitation (CE) reactions.

  6. Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control and Optimization of Stochastic Supply Chain Systems examines its subject in the context of the presence of a variety of uncertainties. Numerous examples with intuitive illustrations and tables are provided, to demonstrate the structural characteristics of the optimal control policies in various stochastic supply chains and to show how to make use of these characteristics to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal policies.                 In Part I, a general introduction to stochastic supply chain systems is provided. Analytical models for various stochastic supply chain systems are formulated and analysed in Part II. In Part III the structural knowledge of the optimal control policies obtained in Part II is utilized to construct easy-to-operate sub-optimal control policies for various stochastic supply chain systems accordingly. Finally, Part IV discusses the optimisation of threshold-type control policies and their robustness. A key feature of the book is its tying together of ...

  7. A control model for object virtualization in supply chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Reijers, H.A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the emergence of the Internet of Things, supply chain control can increasingly be based on virtual objects instead of on the direct observation of physical objects. Object virtualization allows the decoupling of control activities from the handling and observing of physical products and resou

  8. Enhancing supply chain performance with improved order-control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilakantan, K.

    2010-09-01

    This article takes up the study of the dynamics of a single product in a prototype three-stage supply chain system, at the downstream warehouse end of the chain, under a responsive chain strategy. The dynamics under various ordering policies and the parameters which will yield desired responses are systematically analysed, both for deterministic and stochastic systems. Higher-order control policies are then proposed and analysed. The considered key performance criteria are the permanent inventory deviations from the desired levels, or the offset, the maximum dip in inventory, the 'undershoot', the damping effect and decay rates, and the duration of time in the negative region, for deterministic systems; and additionally, the inventory variance for stochastic systems. It is shown that the disadvantages of the conventional (proportional-integral-derivative) control policies, like large negative deviations, low decay rates, and high inventory variance, can be overcome by the use of higher-order control policies proposed herein.

  9. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  10. Cybernetic Control in a Supply Chain: Wave Propagation and Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Dozier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The cybernetic control and management of production can be improved by an understanding of the dynamics of the supply chains for the production organizations. This paper describes an attempt to better understand the dynamics of a linear supply chain through the application of the normal mode analysis technique of physics. A model is considered in which an organization's response to a perturbation from the steady state is affected by the inertia which the company naturally exhibits. This inertia determines how rapidly an organization can respond to deviations from the steady state of its own inventories and those of the two organizations immediately preceding and following it in the chain. The model equations describe the oscillatory phenomena of the naturally occurring normal modes in the chain, in which waves of deviations from the steady state situation travel forward and backwards through the chain. It would be expected that the most effective cybernetic control occurs when resonant interventions cause either amplification or damping of the deviations from the steady state.

  11. Controlled Quantum State Transfer in a Spin Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, J; Brumer, Paul; Gong, Jiangbin

    2007-01-01

    Control of the transfer of quantum information encoded in quantum wavepackets moving along a spin chain is demonstrated. Specifically, based on a relationship with control in a paradigm of quantum chaos, it is shown that wavepackets with slow dispersion can automatically emerge from a class of initial superposition states involving only a few spins, and that arbitrary unspecified travelling wavepackets can be nondestructively stopped and later relaunched with perfection. The results establish an interesting application of quantum chaos studies in quantum information science.

  12. Coupled valence bond theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, R.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, the formulation and implementation of a parallel response property code for non-orthogonal, valence bond wave-functions are described. Test calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene show that the polarisability and magnetisability tensors obtained using valence bond theory are compa

  13. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...... directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... of FFSCs, decision support tools based on real-time data, hybrid planning and control strategies and lean in the FFSC. Research limitations/implications The study is based on a literature study. The proposed findings give an overview over the topics in P&C in FFSC and are useful in defining future research...

  14. Inventory control in supply chains an internal model control approach /

    OpenAIRE

    García Salcedo, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis se basa en el diseño de estrategias de gestión de inventario en cadenas de suministro usando la teoría de control. El principal objetivo es proponer un esquema de control para resolver los principales problemas que aparecen en el controla gestión de inventario de una cadena de suministro (incertidumbre en el retardo, el efecto látigo y el déficit de inventario). Este objetivo principal se divide en dos objetivos: 1. La neutralización de los efectos causados por el retardo de e...

  15. Comet assay as a cold chain control tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearing in mind an ever more demanding market regarding the quality of food, it has been necessary to develop processes that meet the demands of consumers. Within the existing processes the cold chain and irradiation stand out. The cold chain comprises all the stages of conserving food from production, cooling, freezing, storing and transportation to the final consumer. Irradiation, as a means of conserving food, prolongs the shelf life, inhibits budding and reduces pathogenic contamination among other benefits. Is very important the identification of food degradation in function of failure on the processes which they were subjected. The comet assay is a screening test widely studied, considerate fast and with low cost. By the fact of the test identify breaks on the DNA, may be possible use the comet test on the control of cold chain failures that degrade de food. The labels and stamp, do not consider the previous food situation and indicate failures from the moment where they be placed in contact with the product. With the comet assay is possible to check the degradation that has occurred in liver chicken samples until the moment of comet's test realization. (author)

  16. Control of enterprise interfaces for supply chain enterprise modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Macfarlane, J.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Information and Computing Sciences Div.

    1995-04-01

    There is a current trend for manufacturing enterprises in a supply chain of a particular industry to join forces in an attempt to promote efficiencies and improve competitive position. Such alliances occur in the context of specific legal and business agreements such that each enterprise retains a majority of its business and manufacturing information as private and shares other information with its trading partners. Shared information may include enterprise demand projections, capacities, finished goods inventories, and aggregate production schedules. Evidence of the trend toward information sharing includes the recent emphases on vendor-managed inventories, quick response, and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The increased competition brought on by the global marketplace is driving industries to consider the advantages of trading partner agreements. Aggregate-level forecasts, supply-chain production smoothing, and aggregate-level inventory policies can reduce holding costs, record-keeping overhead, and lead time in product development. The goal of this research is to orchestrate information exchange among trading partners to allow for aggregate-level analysis to enhance supply chain efficiency. The notion of Enterprise Interface Control (EIC) is introduced as a means of accomplishing this end.

  17. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  18. The Aspects Of Inventory Controlling Instruments Implementation In The System Of Retail Chains Finance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya Buratchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with issues of implementation of inventory controlling instruments in the system of retail chains finance management. The author suggests expanded classification of methods and instruments of inventory controlling distinguishing 3 groups of specific instruments: logistic controlling instruments, expenditures and supply chains controlling instruments and inventory special controlling mechanisms. Based on investigation of controlling methods and instruments, the approximate li...

  19. Valency and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cartmell, E

    1977-01-01

    Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction t

  20. Controlling Hybridization Chain Reactions with pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idili, Andrea; Porchetta, Alessandro; Amodio, Alessia; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Ricci, Francesco

    2015-08-12

    By taking inspiration from nature, where self-organization of biomolecular species into complex systems is finely controlled through different stimuli, we propose here a rational approach by which the assembly and disassembly of DNA-based concatemers can be controlled through pH changes. To do so we used the hybridization chain reaction (HCR), a process that, upon the addition of an initiator strand, allows to create DNA-based concatemers in a controlled fashion. We re-engineered the functional units of HCR through the addition of pH-dependent clamp-like triplex-forming domains that can either inhibit or activate the polymerization reaction at different pHs. This allows to finely regulate the HCR-induced assembly and disassembly of DNA concatemers at either basic or acidic pHs in a reversible way. The strategies we present here appear particularly promising as novel tools to achieve better spatiotemporal control of self-assembly processes of DNA-based nanostructures. PMID:26177980

  1. The dynamic relation between management control and governance structure in a supply chain context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van P.M.G.; Verdaasdonk, P.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that local management control systems within supply chain organisations and the governance of supply chains are intertwined and that local control systems and governance structure have an important effect on the functioning of the supply chain. Design/m

  2. Quantum gates controlled by spin chain soliton excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propagation of soliton-like excitations along spin chains has been proposed as a possible way for transmitting both classical and quantum information between two distant parties with negligible dispersion and dissipation. In this work, a somewhat different use of solitons is considered. Solitons propagating along a spin chain realize an effective magnetic field, well localized in space and time, which can be exploited as a means to manipulate the state of an external spin (i.e., a qubit) that is weakly coupled to the chain. We have investigated different couplings between the qubit and the chain, as well as different soliton shapes, according to a Heisenberg chain model. It is found that symmetry properties strongly affect the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and the most suitable setups for implementing single qubit quantum gates are singled out

  3. Fluorescence-based temperature control for polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Lindsay N; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately monitor solution temperature is important for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Robust amplification during PCR is contingent on the solution reaching denaturation and annealing temperatures. By correlating temperature to the fluorescence of a passive dye, noninvasive monitoring of solution temperatures is possible. The temperature sensitivity of 22 fluorescent dyes was assessed. Emission spectra were monitored and the change in fluorescence between 45 and 95°C was quantified. Seven dyes decreased in intensity as the temperature increased, and 15 were variable depending on the excitation wavelength. Sulforhodamine B (monosodium salt) exhibited a fold change in fluorescence of 2.85. Faster PCR minimizes cycling times and improves turnaround time, throughput, and specificity. If temperature measurements are accurate, no holding period is required even at rapid speeds. A custom instrument using fluorescence-based temperature monitoring with dynamic feedback control for temperature cycling amplified a fragment surrounding rs917118 from genomic DNA in 3min and 45s using 35 cycles, allowing subsequent genotyping by high-resolution melting analysis. Gold-standard thermocouple readings and fluorescence-based temperature differences were 0.29±0.17 and 0.96±0.26°C at annealing and denaturation, respectively. This new method for temperature cycling may allow faster speeds for PCR than currently considered possible.

  4. Hole-ion Mixed Conduction of Orientation-Controlled BaPrO3-δ Thin Film with Mixed Valence States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Tohru; Oda, Asuka; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Suetsugu, Takaaki; Suzuki, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Shohei; Minohara, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masaki; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    An in-plane-oriented BaPrO3-δ thin film with mixed valence states has been prepared on an Al2O3(0001) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. With increasing crystallization temperature (Tsub), the lattice constant decreases and the orientation changes from the a-axis to the b-axis. The thin film prepared above Tsub = 800 °C exhibits a higher proton conductivity than bulk ceramics. The conductivity below 400 °C decreases with oxygen gas partial pressure, indicating the existence of hole-ion mixed conduction. The valence band consists of O 2p states hybridized with the Pr4+ (4f0) and Pr3+ (4f1L) states, which are closely related to the mixed conduction. The energy difference between the top of the valence band and the Fermi level corresponds to the activation energy of holes for the total conductivity below 400 °C.

  5. Field-controlled spin current in frustrated spin chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Kolezhuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study states with spontaneous spin current, emerging in frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-S chains subject to a strong external magnetic field. As a numerical tool, we use a non-Abelian symmetry realization of the density matrix renormalization group. The field dependence of the order parameter and the critical exponents are presented for zigzag chains with S=1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2.

  6. Hybrid Control of Supply Chains: a Structured Exploration from a Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. P. J. Grefen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused by larger numbers of participating companies in supply chains because of increasing complexity of products and services. Increasing requirements to control are caused by developments like mass-customization, pressure on delivery times, and smaller margins for waste. Maintaining well-structured strategic, tactic, and operational control over these complex supply chains is not an easy task – certainly as they are pressured by end-to-end synchronization requirements and just-in-time demands. Things become even more complex when chains need to be flexible to react to changing requirements to the products or services they deliver. To enable design of well-structured control, clear models of control topologies are required. In this paper, we address this need by exploring supply chain control topologies in an organized fashion. The exploration is based on integrating a supply chain model and a control model in two alternative ways to obtain two extreme models for supply chain control. These two models are next combined to obtain a hybrid chain control model in which control parameters can be adapted to accommodate different circumstances, hence facilitating agility in supply chains and networks. We apply the developed model to a number of case studies to show its usability. The contribution of this paper is the structured analysis of the design space for chain-level control models - not the description of individual new models.

  7. Hybrid Control of Supply Chains: a Structured Exploration from a Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Grefen, Paul W.P.J.; Dijkman, Remco M.

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are becoming increasingly complex these days, both in the structure of the chains and in the need for fine-grained, real-time control. This development occurs in many industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, and the service industry. The increasing structural complexity is caused by larger numbers of participating companies in supply chains because of increasing complexity of products and services. Increasing requirements to control are caused by developments like mass-cust...

  8. Breaking the cycle of desire : Mindfulness and executive control weaken the relation between an implicit measure of alcohol valence and preoccupation with alcohol-related thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D.; Kassman, K.T.; Wessel, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli with strong affective valence capture attention. This can impede the self-regulation of impulses. That is, preoccupation with a tempting stimulus such as alcohol may lead to a continued activation of automatic affective responses to that stimulus, increasing the likelihood of approach and co

  9. Data mining Aided Proficient Approach for Optimal Inventory Control in Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chitriki Thotappa; K.Ravindranath

    2010-01-01

    Optimal inventory control is one of the significant tasks in supply chain management. The optimal inventory control methodologies intend to reduce the supply chain (SC) cost by controlling the inventory in an effective manner, such that, the SC members will not be affected by surplus as well as shortage of inventory. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach that effectively utilizes the data mining concepts as well as genetic algorithm for optimal inventory control. The proposed approa...

  10. Controlling inventories in a supply chain: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies specific aspects of the joint replenishment problem in a real supply chain setting. Particularly we analyze the effect on inventory performance of having minimum order quantities for the different products in the joint order, given a complex transportation cost st

  11. Controlling inventories in a supply chain: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Musalem, Eric; Dekker, Rommert

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies specific aspects of the joint replenishment problem in a real supply chain setting. Particularly we analyze the effect on inventory performance of having minimum order quantities for the different products in the joint order, given a complex transportation cost structure. The policies suggested have been tested in a simulation model with real data.

  12. Simulation of Inventory Control System in a Supply Chain Using RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Al Kattan; Taha Al Khudairi

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a simulation model in a Supply Chain Management (SCM) system. This study is one of the first to present simulation model of inventory control system in supply chain management using barcode and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). The main objective of this model is to compare two inventory systems in a supply chain, one using RFID, versus the barcode. The model will help company to consider moving from a barcode system to the RFID application. A quantitative analysis bas...

  13. Impact of Integration of Manufacturaing Planning and Control Systems on Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Ayako; Sato, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing planning and control systems (MPCSs, for short) are an essentialelement for supply chain processes today. However, there are few researches whichinclude planning information systems in supply chain models and optimize the wholestructure holistically in spite of the social importance of MPCSs for supply chainmanagement. At present, we do not have any ideas even about process behaviorwhen organizations which have MPCSs are linked in a supply chain. To clarifyfundamental properties...

  14. Optimal Decision for Fashion Supply Chains with Service Level Constraint and Controllable Lead Time

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Li; Yu-chen Kang; Guan Xu

    2015-01-01

    We study a two-echelon supply chain inventory model with controllable lead time and service level constraint in fashion supply chains, in which we assume that the unit cost of compressing lead time follows exponential distribution. Under these conditions we investigate the optimal ordering quantity and production quantity in the fashion supply chain by minimizing the joint total cost. Simultaneously, we work out the boundaries of ordering quantity and production quantity, which simplify the ...

  15. Evaluating the modus operandi of construction supply chains using organisation control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Jagtap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are omnipresent. However, the modus operandi of the construction supply chainis not clearly established in the literature. This might be attributable to the character of construction projects and the structure of the construction industry. Formal and informal control mechanisms are well established in retail and manufacturing supply chains which is evident in improved product performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the construction supply chain especially at identifying the interplay of control mechanisms and their relationship with project performance. In the case of large and complex construction projects, the client-contractor relationship requires input control, behaviour control and output control for successful project delivery. In the light of organisation control theory and the existing literature on construction supply chains, this study evaluates the modus operandi of the client-contractor relationship based on three control mechanisms: input control (project risk and reward power, and intra-project communication, behaviour control (opportunism and output control (project performance using a structural equation model. A survey data of 258 construction professionals working on construction projects in India was collected. The study findings reveal that input control, in terms of project risk and reward power, and intraproject communication, largely influence behaviour control in terms of opportunism. However, behaviour controls do not directly affect output control in terms of project performance; rather, a direct effect of the input control mechanism of output control is particularly evident.

  16. Pose control of the chain composed of magnetic particles using external uniform and gradient magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J. F., E-mail: zhoujianfeng@njtech.edu.cn; Shao, C. L.; Gu, B. Q. [Nanjing Tech University, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic particles (MPs) are known to respond to a magnetic field and can be moved by magnetic force, which make them good carriers in bioengineering and pharmaceutical engineering. In this paper, a pose control method for the straight chain composed of MPs is proposed, and the chain with one pose can be moved to another position with another pose using alternately employed uniform and gradient magnetic fields. Based on computer simulations, it is revealed that in the uniform magnetic field, the MPs form a straight chain with the same separation space along the field lines, and once the uniform magnetic field rotates, the chain also rotates with the field. In the gradient magnetic field, the MPs move toward the higher field so that the translation of the chain can be realized. The simulation results indicate that while the uniform magnetic field is rotating, there exists certain hysteresis between the chain and the field, and the chain is not straight anymore. So the uniform magnetic field should rest at the target angle for a period to make the chain fully relax to be straight. For nanoMP, its magnetic moment directly determines the gradient magnetic force which is much smaller than the dipole–dipole force among MPs. Therefore, the translation of the chain is much more time-consuming than rotation. To enlarge the translational velocity, it is suggested to increase the size of MPs or the magnetic field gradient.

  17. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2011-11-23

    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  18. Control Theory Concepts Applied to Retail Supply Chain: A System Dynamics Modeling Environment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Janamanchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control theory concepts have been long used to successfully manage and optimize complex systems. Using system dynamics (SD modeling methodology, which is continuous deterministic simulation modeling methodology, we apply control theory concepts to develop a suitable performance functional (or objective function that optimizes the performance of a retail supply chain. The focus is to develop insights for inventory management to prevent stock-outs and unfilled orders and to fill customer orders at the lowest possible cost to supply chain partners under different scenarios, in a two-player supplier-retailer supply chain. Moderate levels of inventory, defining appropriate performance functional, appear to be crucial in choosing the right policies for managing retail supply chain systems. The study also demonstrated how multiple objectives can be combined in a single performance functional (or objective function by carefully assigning suitable weights to the components of objectives based on their priority and the existence of possible trade off opportunities.

  19. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  20. A Multidimensional Measure of Work Valences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Lee, Bora; Weigold, Ingrid K.

    2012-01-01

    Work valence is derived from expectancy-valence theory and the literature on children's vocational development and is presumed to be a general appraisal of work that emerges during the childhood period. Work valence serves to promote and inhibit the motivation and tasks associated with vocational development. A measure of work valence, composed of…

  1. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Joossens, L.; Raw, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40–50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. Methods: This paper present...

  2. Workable methods for risks control in the food chain production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Iacumin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Several food pathologies due to new or already known micro-organisms occur all over the world every year. Food concerned are more and more frequently traditional typical, ethnical products coming from fast or slow food systems. Most of food-borne pathologies develop through neurological, gastrointestinal (watery, bloody or persistent diarrhoea abdominal pain, sickness and vomiting. The causes of these epidemics, apart from the concerned pathogen, are linked to the contaminated first matter or to contaminations occurred during food processing and consequently due to the lack of employment of the most fundamental sanitary measures and to non-control of the critical points of the HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point systems. The pre-requirements to promote food health consist of the implementation of good agriculture husbandry and production practices, the use of HACCP systems, the training of the workers employed in the different productive rows and in the adoption of identification and traceability systems. The EU implemented the so-called hygiene pack, that is a list of rules imposing food control in each processing, marketing and consumption phase, from husbandry or cropping to consumer’s table, to promote health in food (circulating all over Europe.

  3. SPC-based Inventory Control Policy to Im-prove Supply Chain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Costantino; Giulio Di Gravio; Ahmed Shaban; Massimo Tronci

    2014-01-01

    Inventory control policies have been recognized as a contributory factor to the bullwhip effect and inventory instability. Previous studies have indicated that there is a trade-off between bullwhip effect and inventory performance where the bullwhip effect reduction might increase inventory instability. Therefore, there is a need for inventory control policies that can cope with supply chain dynamics. This paper proposes an inventory control policy based on a statistical process control appro...

  4. Controlled mobility of unmanned aircraft chains to optimize network capacity in realistic communication environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Cory

    This dissertation presents a decentralized gradient-based mobility control algorithm for the formation and maintenance of an optimal end-to-end communication chain using a team of unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays. With the use of unmanned aircraft (UA) as communication relays, a common mode of operation is to form a communication relay chain between a lead exploring node (which may be ground based or another UA) and a control station. In this type of operation the lead node is typically deployed to explore (sense) a remote region of interest that is beyond direct radio frequency (RF) communication range, or out of line-of-sight, to the control station. To provide non-line-of-sight service, and extend the communication range of the lead node, unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays are deployed in a convoy fashion behind the lead vehicle to form a cascaded relay chain. The focus of this work is the use of the mobility of a fixed number of relay aircraft to maximize the capacity of a directed communication chain from a source node to a destination node. Local objective functions are presented that use the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SNIR) of neighbor communication links as inputs to maximize the end-to-end capacity of packet-based and repeater-type network chains. An adaptive gradient-based SNIR controller using the local objective function can show significant improvement in the capacity of the communication chain that is not possible with range-based controllers, or static deployment strategies, in RF environments containing unknown localized noise sources and terrain effects. Since the SNIR field is unknown, an online estimate of the SNIR field gradient is formed using methods of Stochastic Approximation from the orbital motion of the aircraft tracking a control point. Flight demonstrations using the Networked Unmanned Aircraft System Command, Control and Communications testbed were conducted to validate the controller

  5. The reference model of supply chain operational controlling in value management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The systemic approach of the controlling function to supporting the operations management results from its complex analysis of the supply chain business and operating results and from influencing the operations management factors - products, processes and resources that determine the achieved result (revenues, costs, profitability and assets turnover as well as the return on invested capital. All product features which stand for customer value and its competitiveness are the basis for designing, planning and controlling the interconnected processes responsible for manufacturing and delivery of products. The effectiveness of methods applied in developing products, processes and resources depends on the precise analysis and appraisal of the operating conditions that justify their application. Supporting the operations management, focused on the product value and improving the company's financial result, apart from financial, technical and economic analyses requires transferring the product value to activities control methods and to developing the resources in the product supply chain already at the stage of planning. As a result of an analysis of requirements supporting the development of processes and resources in the supply chain, a reference model of operational controlling in product value management was developed. The multicriterion selection and appropriate application of material flow management methods in the supply chain is each time preceded by an operating and financial analysis as well as by an appraisal of operating conditions that influence the choice of control methods.

  6. Design of a Yellow-Emitting Phosphor with Enhanced Red Emission via Valence State-control for Warm White LEDs Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Yangai; Mei, Lefu; Peng, Peng; Cheng, Qijin; Liu, Haikun

    2016-01-01

    The phosphor-converted warm W-LED have being rapidly developed due to the stringent requirements of general illumination. Here, we utilized a strategy to synergistically enhance the red region and emission intensity of novel Eu-activated yellow-emitting LaSiO2N phosphors. This was realized by predicting optimum crystal structure, and governing the concentration of doping ions as well as preparation temperature. By using these straight-forward methods, we were able to vary the valence to enhance the red region and improve the quantum efficiency of LaSiO2N phosphor. The warm W-LED lamp fabricated with this red region enhanced LaSiO2N:Eu phosphor exhibited high CRI (Ra = 86), suitable CCT (5783 K) and CIE chromaticity (0.33, 0.36), indicating this synergistically enhanced strategy could be used for design of yellow-emitting phosphor materials to obtain warm W-LEDs. PMID:27510501

  7. Multi-level access control in the data pipeline of the international supply chain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruksasri, P.; Berg, J. van den; Hofman, W.; Daskapan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Seamless Integrated Data Pipeline system was proposed to the European Union in order to overcome the information quality shortcomings of the current international supply chain information exchange systems. Next to identification and authorization of stakeholders, secure access control needs to b

  8. An Inventory Controlled Supply Chain Model Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Inventory control is a key factor for reducing supply chain cost and increasing customer satisfaction. However, prediction of inventory level is a challenging task for managers. As one of the widely used techniques for inventory control, standard BP neural network has such problems as low convergence rate and poor prediction accuracy. Aiming at these problems, a new fast convergent BP neural network model for predicting inventory level is developed in this paper. By adding an error offset, th...

  9. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Infected breeder pigs and contaminated feed represent potential sources of Salmonella introduction to fattening pig herds and may thereby cause human infections acquired via consumption of contaminated pork. Modelling approaches such as quantitative microbial risk assessment could improve the design of strategies for control and tracing of Salmonella in the feed chain. However, the construction of such models requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the feed chain, including production processes, microbial processes and transport logistics. The present article illustrates a conceptual model of Salmonella in the pig feed chain and explores the possibilities for quantitative modelling including identifying major gaps in data. Information was collected from peer-reviewed scientific journals, official documents and reports and by means of interviews with experts from authorities and the feed industry. Data on prevalence of Salmonella in different parts of the feed chain are difficult to compare as observed prevalence may be biased by variations in sampling procedures as well as limitations of the detection methods. There are almost no data on numbers of Salmonella in commodities of the feed chain, which often makes it difficult to evaluate risks, intervention strategies and sampling plans in a quantitative manner. Tracing the source of Salmonella contamination is hampered by the risk of cross-contamination as well as various mixing and partitioning events along the supply chain, which sometimes makes it impossible to trace the origin of a lot back to a batch or producer. Available information points to contaminated feed materials, animal vectors and persistent contamination of production environments as important sources of Salmonella in feed production. Technological procedures such as hydrothermal or acid treatment can be used to control Salmonella in feed production. However, a large fraction of pig feed is produced without decontamination procedures

  10. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Infected breeder pigs and contaminated feed represent potential sources of Salmonella introduction to fattening pig herds and may thereby cause human infections acquired via consumption of contaminated pork. Modelling approaches such as quantitative microbial risk assessment could improve the design of strategies for control and tracing of Salmonella in the feed chain. However, the construction of such models requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the feed chain, including production processes, microbial processes and transport logistics. The present article illustrates a conceptual model of Salmonella in the pig feed chain and explores the possibilities for quantitative modelling including identifying major gaps in data. Information was collected from peer-reviewed scientific journals, official documents and reports and by means of interviews with experts from authorities and the feed industry. Data on prevalence of Salmonella in different parts of the feed chain are difficult to compare as observed prevalence may be biased by variations in sampling procedures as well as limitations of the detection methods. There are almost no data on numbers of Salmonella in commodities of the feed chain, which often makes it difficult to evaluate risks, intervention strategies and sampling plans in a quantitative manner. Tracing the source of Salmonella contamination is hampered by the risk of cross-contamination as well as various mixing and partitioning events along the supply chain, which sometimes makes it impossible to trace the origin of a lot back to a batch or producer. Available information points to contaminated feed materials, animal vectors and persistent contamination of production environments as important sources of Salmonella in feed production. Technological procedures such as hydrothermal or acid treatment can be used to control Salmonella in feed production. However, a large fraction of pig feed is produced without decontamination procedures

  11. SPC-based Inventory Control Policy to Im-prove Supply Chain Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Costantino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control policies have been recognized as a contributory factor to the bullwhip effect and inventory instability. Previous studies have indicated that there is a trade-off between bullwhip effect and inventory performance where the bullwhip effect reduction might increase inventory instability. Therefore, there is a need for inventory control policies that can cope with supply chain dynamics. This paper proposes an inventory control policy based on a statistical process control approach (SPC to handle supply chain dynamics. The policy relies on applying individual control charts to control both the inventory position and the placed orders adequately. A simulation study has been conducted to evaluate and compare the proposed SPC policy with a traditional order-up-to in a multi-echelon supply chain. The comparison showed that the SPC policy outperforms the order-up-to in terms of bullwhip effect and inventory performances. The SPC succeeded to eliminate the bullwhip effect whilst keeping a competitive inventory performance.

  12. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  13. An energy-efficient media access control protocol for chain-type wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Chang Wen

    2005-06-01

    We present in this paper an energy efficient media access control (MAC) protocol for chain-type wireless sensor networks. The chain-type sensor networks are fundamentally different from traditional sensor networks in that the sensor nodes in this class of networks are deployed along narrow and elongated geographical areas and form a chain-type topology. Recently, we have successfully developed hierarchical network architecture, sensor deployment strategy, and corresponding network initialization and operation protocols for this class of sensor networks. In this paper, we present a novel TDMA scheduling protocol that takes full advantages of the available channel reuse inherent in the chain-type sensor networks to develop energy efficient and high data throughput MAC protocols for sensor data transmission. The synchronized TDMA scheduling allows the nodes to power on only when it is scheduled to send and receive and therefore results in additional energy saving. Within a cluster, parallel transmission is made possible because of the linear distribution of nodes within the chain-type topology and this yields the desired high throughput. Preliminary simulations have been carried out to show that the proposed TDMA scheduling outperforms the well-know SMAC scheme in terms of energy efficiency and data throughput under various duty cycles.

  14. Optimal Distributed Controller Synthesis for Chain Structures: Applications to Vehicle Formations

    CERN Document Server

    Khorsand, Omid; Gattami, Ather

    2012-01-01

    We consider optimal distributed controller synthesis for an interconnected system subject to communication constraints, in linear quadratic settings. Motivated by the problem of finite heavy duty vehicle platooning, we study systems composed of interconnected subsystems over a chain graph. By decomposing the system into orthogonal modes, the cost function can be separated into individual components. Thereby, derivation of the optimal controllers in state-space follows immediately. The optimal controllers are evaluated under the practical setting of heavy duty vehicle platooning with communication constraints. It is shown that the performance can be significantly improved by adding a few communication links. The results show that the proposed optimal distributed controller performs almost as well as the centralized linear quadratic Gaussian controller and outperforms a suboptimal controller in terms of control input. Furthermore, the control input energy can be reduced significantly with the proposed controlle...

  15. Control globular structure formation of a copolymer chain through inverse design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-06-14

    A copolymer chain in dilute solution can exhibit various globular structures with characteristic morphologies, which makes it a potentially useful candidate for artificial materials design. However, the chain has a huge conformation space and may not naturally form the globular structure we desire. An ideal way to control globular structure formation should be inverse design, i.e., starting from the target structure and finding out what kind of polymers can effectively generate it. To accomplish this, we propose an inverse design procedure, which is combined with Wang-Landau Monte Carlo to fully and precisely explore the huge conformation space of the chain. Starting from a desired target structure, all the geometrically possible sequences are exactly enumerated. Interestingly, reasonable interaction strengths are obtained and found to be not specified for only one sequence. Instead, they can be combined with many other sequences and also achieve a relatively high yield for target structure, although these sequences may be rather different. These results confirm the possibility of controlling globular structure formation of a copolymer chain through inverse design and pave the way for targeted materials design. PMID:27306020

  16. Rom2-dependent phosphorylation of Elo2 controls the abundance of very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Daniel K; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain;

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) a...... with sphingolipid metabolism and link signal transduction pathways from the plasma membrane to the regulation of lipids for membrane homeostasis....... that Elo2, a key enzyme of VLCFA synthesis, is controlled by signaling of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rom2, initiating at the plasma membrane. This pathway controls Elo2 phosphorylation state and VLCFA synthesis. Our data identify a regulatory mechanism for coordinating VLCFA synthesis......Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA...

  17. Multi-objective design of fuzzy logic controller in supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Unlike commonly used methods, in this paper, we have introduced a new approach for designing fuzzy controllers. In this approach, we have simultaneously optimized both objective functions of a supply chain over a two-dimensional space. Then, we have obtained a spectrum of optimized points, each of which represents a set of optimal parameters which can be chosen by the manager according to the importance of objective functions. Our used supply chain model is a member of inventory and order-based production control system family, a generalization of the periodic review which is termed `Order-Up-To policy.' An auto rule maker, based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II, has been applied to the experimental initial fuzzy rules. According to performance measurement, our results indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  18. An Inventory Controlled Supply Chain Model Based on Improved BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is a key factor for reducing supply chain cost and increasing customer satisfaction. However, prediction of inventory level is a challenging task for managers. As one of the widely used techniques for inventory control, standard BP neural network has such problems as low convergence rate and poor prediction accuracy. Aiming at these problems, a new fast convergent BP neural network model for predicting inventory level is developed in this paper. By adding an error offset, this paper deduces the new chain propagation rule and the new weight formula. This paper also applies the improved BP neural network model to predict the inventory level of an automotive parts company. The results show that the improved algorithm not only significantly exceeds the standard algorithm but also outperforms some other improved BP algorithms both on convergence rate and prediction accuracy.

  19. Probing the Carboxyester Side Chain in Controlled Deactivation (−)-Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabinols

    OpenAIRE

    Nikas, Spyros P.; Sharma, Rishi; Paronis, Carol A.; Kulkarni, Shashank; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Hurst, Dow; Wood, JodiAnne T.; Gifford, Roger S.; Rajarshi, Girija; Liu, Yingpeng; Raghav, Jimit Girish; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Järbe, Torbjörn U.C.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Bergman, Jack

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported on a controlled deactivation/detoxification approach for obtaining cannabinoids with improved druggability. Our design incorporates a metabolically labile ester group at strategic positions within the THC structure. We have now synthesized a series of (−)-Δ8-THC analogues encompassing a carboxyester group within the 3-alkyl chain in an effort to explore this novel cannabinergic chemotype for CB receptor binding affinity, in vitro and in vivo potency and efficacy, as well ...

  20. Expertise in video game playing is associated with reduced valence-concordant emotional expressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In carefully selected groups of video game playing (VGP) experts and nonexperts, we examined valence-concordant emotional expressivity. We measured electromyographic (EMG) activity over the corrugator supercilii muscle while participants viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures. Potential group differences concerning valence-concordant expressivity may arise from differences concerning the participants' emotional reactivity. To control for such differences, we concomitantly measured skin conductance response (SCR) and, in a separate affect misattribution procedure (AMP), valence transfer from the same set of stimuli. Importantly, we found attenuated valence-concordant EMG activity over the corrugator supercilii muscle in VGP experts compared to nonexperts, but no differences were evident concerning SCR or valence transfer in the AMP. The findings suggest that expertise in VGP is particularly associated with reduced valence-concordant emotional expressivity.

  1. A continuous mapping between space and valence with left- and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Brouillet, Thibaut; Cretenet, Joël; Heurley, Loïc P; Dru, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    In this research, we examined whether emotional valence could correspond to a continuous lateral bias in space, according to a mental metaphor that establishes the mapping between a concrete domain (space) and an abstract one (valence). Because acting with one's dominant hand is associated with fluency and positive valence (the bodily specificity hypothesis, or BSH), we asked strong right- and left-handers to perform two spatial location tasks using emotional faces with seven levels of valence. We hypothesized and showed through two studies that, according to the BSH, extreme valenced stimuli (as compared to moderate and weak ones) would be located more at the extremity of a horizontal line, according to the correspondences between handedness and the different valences of the stimuli. This research establishes that spatial and continuous mapping of emotions was obtained while controlling for motivational direction. PMID:26428669

  2. Optimal Decision for Fashion Supply Chains with Service Level Constraint and Controllable Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-echelon supply chain inventory model with controllable lead time and service level constraint in fashion supply chains, in which we assume that the unit cost of compressing lead time follows exponential distribution. Under these conditions we investigate the optimal ordering quantity and production quantity in the fashion supply chain by minimizing the joint total cost. Simultaneously, we work out the boundaries of ordering quantity and production quantity, which simplify the computation. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented to test the feasibility of the model. The results show that assuming the unit cost of compressing lead time in accordance with exponential distribution is realistic. It also notices that the optimal order and production decision for fashion supply chains are constrained obviously by the service level and safety factors. What is more, the holding cost rate of both the service level and safety factors has a certain influence on it. And by further analyzing on some references in the last part, we have done some extensions and found some interesting results.

  3. Controlling the reversible thermochromism of polydiacetylene/zinc oxide nanocomposites by varying alkyl chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakul, Amornsak; Traiphol, Nisanart; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2013-01-01

    In this work, polydiacetylene (PDA)/ZnO nanocomposites are successfully fabricated by using three types of monomers with different alkyl chain length, 5,7-hexadecadiynoic acid, 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid, and 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid. The monomers dispersed in aqueous medium spontaneously assemble onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles, promoted by strong interfacial interactions. The PDA/ZnO nanocomposites obtained via photopolymerization process are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, laser light scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and uv/vis absorption spectroscopy. The strength of interfacial interactions and morphologies of the nanocomposites are found to vary with alkyl chain length of the monomers. The PDA/ZnO nanocomposites also exhibit rather different thermochromic behaviors compared to their pure PDA counterparts. All nanocomposites show reversible blue/purple color transition upon multiple heating/cooling cycles, while the irreversible blue/red color transition is observed in the systems of pure PDAs. The shortening of alkyl side chain in PDA/ZnO nanocomposites leads to a systematic decrease in their color-transition temperatures. Colors of the nanocomposites at elevated temperature also vary with the alkyl chain length. Our results provide a simple route for controlling the reversible thermochromism of PDA-based materials, allowing their utilization in a wider range of applications. PMID:23058980

  4. Space-Valence Priming with Subliminal and Supraliminal Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eAnsorge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To date it is unclear whether (1 awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2 awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1, we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1: Classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘happy’ than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime ‘up’ before the target ‘sad’. In contrast to (2, no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2. Control conditions showed that standard masked response-priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1 that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments.

  5. Inventory Control in Supply Chain Through Lateral Transshipment – A Case Study in Indian Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharamvir Mangal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management emphasizes collaborative relationships between supply chain members. The purpose of this work is to examine the antecedents of retailer - retailer partnership and to explore its impact on the supply chain performance. We consider coordination among stocking locations through replenishment strategies that take explicitly into consideration transshipments, transfer of a product among locations at the same echelon level. A continuous review inventory system has been adopted, in which lateral transshipments are allowed. In general, if a demand occurs at a location and there is no stock on hand, the demand is assumed to be backordered or lost. Lateral transshipments serve as an emergency supply in case of stock out and the rule for lateral transshipments is to always transship when there is a shortage at one location and stock on hand at the other. The aim is to explore the role of lateral transshipment to control inventory and associated cost within supply chain and, from this, to develop an exploratory framework that assists understanding in the area. A simple and intuitive model is presented that enables us to characterize optimal inventory and transshipment policies for ‘n’ locations. The research is based on a case study of a bi-wheeler company in India by using its data and to strengthen its supply chain. This paper represents such an effort in that it integrates both inventory and transshipment components in the study of multi-location inventory systems. This work will enable the managers to overcome the uncertainties of demand and lead-time resulting into customer satisfaction and cost reduction.

  6. Branched-Chain Aminotransferases Control TORC1 Signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Kingsbury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 integrates nutrient signals to orchestrate cell growth and proliferation. Leucine availability is conveyed to control TORC1 activity via the leu-tRNA synthetase/EGOC-GTPase module in yeast and mammals, but the mechanisms sensing leucine remain only partially understood. We show here that both leucine and its α-ketoacid metabolite, α-ketoisocaproate, effectively activate the yeast TORC1 kinase via both EGOC GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Leucine and α-ketoisocaproate are interconverted by ubiquitous branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT, which in yeast are represented by the mitochondrial and cytosolic enzymes Bat1 and Bat2, respectively. BCAT yeast mutants exhibit severely compromised TORC1 activity, which is partially restored by expression of Bat1 active site mutants, implicating both catalytic and structural roles of BCATs in TORC1 control. We find that Bat1 interacts with branched-chain amino acid metabolic enzymes and, in a leucine-dependent fashion, with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA-cycle enzyme aconitase. BCAT mutation perturbed TCA-cycle intermediate levels, consistent with a TCA-cycle block, and resulted in low ATP levels, activation of AMPK, and TORC1 inhibition. We propose the biosynthetic capacity of BCAT and its role in forming multicomplex metabolons connecting branched-chain amino acids and TCA-cycle metabolism governs TCA-cycle flux to activate TORC1 signaling. Because mammalian mitochondrial BCAT is known to form a supramolecular branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex that links leucine metabolism to the TCA-cycle, these findings establish a precedent for understanding TORC1 signaling in mammals.

  7. Global Control Methods for GHZ State Generation on 1-D Ising Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaoting; Bose, Sougato; Schirmer, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    We discuss how to prepare an Ising chain in a GHZ state using a single global control field only. This model does not require the spins to be individually addressable and is applicable to quantum systems such as cold atoms in optical lattices, some liquid- or solid-state NMR experiments, and many nano-scale quantum structures. We show that GHZ states can always be reached asymptotically from certain easy-to-prepare initial states using adiabatic passage, and under certain conditions finite-time reachability can be ensured. To provide a reference useful for future experimental implementations three different control strategies to achieve the objective, adiabatic passage, Lyapunov control and optimal control are compared, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed, in particular in the presence of realistic imperfections such as imperfect initial state preparation, system inhomogeneity and dephasing.

  8. Effects of 4f Electron Characteristics and Alternation Valence of Rare Earths on Photosynthesis: Regulating Distribution of Energy and Activities of Spinach Chloroplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoqing; Su Mingyu; Liu Chao; Zhang Yi; Si Wenhui; Hong Fashui

    2007-01-01

    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach treated with LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3. Because of owning 4f electron characteristics and alternation valence, Ce treatment presented the highest enhancement in light absorption, energy transfer from LHCⅡ to PSⅡ, excitation energy distribution from PSⅠto PSⅡ, and fluorescence quantum yield around 680 nm. Compared with Ce treatment, Nd treatment resulted in relatively lower enhancement in these physiological indices, as Nd did not have alternation valence. La treatment presented the lowest enhancement, as La did not have either 4f electron or alternation valence. The increase in activities of whole chain electron transport, PSⅡ DCPIP photoreduction, and oxy gen evolution of chloroplasts was of the following order: Ce>Nd>La>control. However, the photoreduction activities of spinach PSⅠ almost did not change with La, Ce, or Nd treatments. The results suggested that 4f electron characteristics and alternation valence of rare earths had a close relationship with photosynthesis improvement.

  9. Modelling human control behaviour with a Markov-chain switched bank of control laws

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Smith, R.

    1998-01-01

    A probabilistic model of human control behaviour is described. It assumes that human behaviour can be represented by switching among a number of relatively simple behaviours. The model structure is closely related to the Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) commonly used for speech recognition. An HMM with context-dependent transition functions switching between linear control laws is identified from experimental data. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated in a pitch control task for a sim...

  10. FROM MANUFACTURING SCHEDULING TO SUPPLY CHAIN COORDINATION:THE CONTROL OF COMPLEXITY AND UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter B. LUH; Weidong FENG

    2003-01-01

    With time-based competition and rapid technology advancements, effective manufacturing scheduling and supply chain coordination are critical to quickly respond to changing market conditions. These problems, however, are difficult in view of inherent complexity and various uncertainties involved. Based on a series of results by the authors, decomposition and coordination by using Lagrangian relaxation is identified in this paper as an effective way to control complexity and uncertainty. A manufacturing scheduling problem is first formulated within the job shop context with uncertain order arrivals, processing times, due dates, and part priorities as a separable optimization problem. A solution methodology that combines Lagrangian relaxation, stochastic dynamic programming, and heuristics is developed. Method improvements to effectively solve large problems are also highlighted. To extend manufacturing scheduling within a factory to coordinate autonomic members across chains of suppliers, a decentralized supply chain model is established in the second half of this paper. By relaxing cross-member constraints, the model is decomposed into member-wise subproblems, and a nested optimization structure is developed based on the job shop scheduling results. Coordination is performed through the iterative updating of cross-member prices without accessing other members' private information or intruding their decision-making authorities, either with or without a coordinator. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Future prospects to overcome problem inseparability and improve computing efficiency are then discussed.

  11. A respiratory chain controlled signal transduction cascade in the mitochondrial intermembrane space mediates hydrogen peroxide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Heide Christine; Gerbeth, Carolin; Thiru, Prathapan; Vögtle, Nora F; Knoll, Marko; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Huang, Cher X; Harden, Mark Michael; Song, Rui; Chen, Cynthia; Kao, Jennifer; Shi, Jiahai; Salmon, Wendy; Shaul, Yoav D; Stokes, Matthew P; Silva, Jeffrey C; Bell, George W; MacArthur, Daniel G; Ruland, Jürgen; Meisinger, Chris; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-10-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) govern cellular homeostasis by inducing signaling. H2O2 modulates the activity of phosphatases and many other signaling molecules through oxidation of critical cysteine residues, which led to the notion that initiation of ROS signaling is broad and nonspecific, and thus fundamentally distinct from other signaling pathways. Here, we report that H2O2 signaling bears hallmarks of a regular signal transduction cascade. It is controlled by hierarchical signaling events resulting in a focused response as the results place the mitochondrial respiratory chain upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn, Lyn upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase SYK (Syk), and Syk upstream of numerous targets involved in signaling, transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation. The active mediators of H2O2 signaling colocalize as H2O2 induces mitochondria-associated Lyn and Syk phosphorylation, and a pool of Lyn and Syk reside in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Finally, the same intermediaries control the signaling response in tissues and species responsive to H2O2 as the respiratory chain, Lyn, and Syk were similarly required for H2O2 signaling in mouse B cells, fibroblasts, and chicken DT40 B cells. Consistent with a broad role, the Syk pathway is coexpressed across tissues, is of early metazoan origin, and displays evidence of evolutionary constraint in the human. These results suggest that H2O2 signaling is under control of a signal transduction pathway that links the respiratory chain to the mitochondrial intermembrane space-localized, ubiquitous, and ancient Syk pathway in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells.

  12. NOVEL SYNTHESIS OF LONG MULTI-BLOCK HETEROPOLYMER CHAINS WITH AN ORDERED SEQUENCE AND CONTROLLABLE BLOCK LENGTHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Wu; Zuo-wei Xie; Guang-zhao Zhang; Guo-fu Zi

    2001-01-01

    It had very long been a dream in polymer science to synthesize long multi-block polymer chains with an ordered chain sequence and controllable block lengths. Using ionic or living free radical polymerization or furnishing each end of polymer blocks with a reactive functional group, one can only prepare heteropolymer chains with few long blocks, such as diblock and triblock copolymers. The most plausible result so far was a pentablock copolymer. Recently, using a combination of polymer physics and synthetic chemistry, we have invented self-assembly assisted polycondensation (SAAP). This communication reports the results of using this novel method to connect 10-100 triblock polymer chains together to form long multi-block heteropolymer chains with an ordered sequence and controllable block lengths.``

  13. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten;

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into...... receiving waters. Six different scenarios for mitigating SCCP emissions in two different semi-hypothetical case cities representing eastern inland and northern coastal conditions have been evaluated. The analysis, associated with scenario uncertainty, indicates that the EU legislation, Best Available...... Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment....

  14. The Role of Groove Periodicity in the Formation of Site-Controlled Quantum Dot Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Schramm, Andreas; Hakkarainen, Teemu V; Tommila, Juha; Guina, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    Structural and optical properties of InAs quantum dot (QD) chains formed in etched GaAs grooves having different periods from 200 to 2000 nm in [010] orientation are reported. The site-controlled QDs were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on soft UV-nanoimprint lithography-patterned GaAs(001) surfaces. Increasing the groove periods decreases the overall QD density but increases the QD size and the linear density along the groove direction. The effect of the increased QD size with larger pe...

  15. Probing the carboxyester side chain in controlled deactivation (-)-δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Spyros P; Sharma, Rishi; Paronis, Carol A; Kulkarni, Shashank; Thakur, Ganesh A; Hurst, Dow; Wood, JodiAnne T; Gifford, Roger S; Rajarshi, Girija; Liu, Yingpeng; Raghav, Jimit Girish; Guo, Jason Jianxin; Järbe, Torbjörn U C; Reggio, Patricia H; Bergman, Jack; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2015-01-22

    We recently reported on a controlled deactivation/detoxification approach for obtaining cannabinoids with improved druggability. Our design incorporates a metabolically labile ester group at strategic positions within the THC structure. We have now synthesized a series of (-)-Δ(8)-THC analogues encompassing a carboxyester group within the 3-alkyl chain in an effort to explore this novel cannabinergic chemotype for CB receptor binding affinity, in vitro and in vivo potency and efficacy, as well as controlled deactivation by plasma esterases. We have also probed the chain's polar characteristics with regard to fast onset and short duration of action. Our lead molecule, namely 2-[(6aR,10aR)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-3-yl]-2-methyl-propanoic acid 3-cyano-propyl ester (AM7438), showed picomolar affinity for CB receptors and is deactivated by plasma esterases while the respective acid metabolite is inactive. In further in vitro and in vivo experiments, the compound was found to be a remarkably potent and efficacious CB1 receptor agonist with relatively fast onset/offset of action. PMID:25470070

  16. The Valence Bond Interpretation of Molecular Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents ways in which the valence bond (VB) theory describes the bonding and geometry of molecules, following directly from earlier principles laid down by Pauling and others. Two other theories (molecular orbital approach and valence shell electron pair repulsion) are discussed and compared to VB. (CS)

  17. "Plug-and-go" strategy to manipulate streptavidin valencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Montiel, Daniel; Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2014-08-20

    The streptavidin-biotin set is one of the most widely utilized conjugation pairs in biotechnological applications. The tetravalent nature of streptavidin and its homologues, however, tends to result in such undesirable complications as cross-linking or ill-defined stoichiometry. Here, we describe a mutagenesis-free strategy to manipulate the valencies of wild-type streptavidin that only requires commercially available reagents. The basic idea is simple: one obtains the desired streptavidin valency by blocking off unwanted binding sites using ancillary biotin ("plug"); this way, the extraordinary fM-biotin-binding affinity is fully retained for the remaining sites in streptavidin. In the present implementation, the ancillary biotin is attached to an auxiliary separation handle, negatively charged DNA or His-tagged protein, via a photochemically or enzymatically cleavable linker. Mixing streptavidin with the ancillary biotin construct produces a distribution of streptavidin valencies. The subsequent chromatographic separation readily isolates the construct of desired streptavidin valency, and the auxiliary handles are easily removed afterward ("go"). We demonstrate how this "plug-and-go" strategy allows a precise control for the compositions of streptavidin-biotin conjugates at the single-molecule level. This low-entry-barrier protocol could further expand the application scope of the streptavidin technology.

  18. Controlled formation of ag nanoparticles by means of long-chain sodium polyacrylates in dilute solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Klaus; Witte, Thomas; Hollmann, Jutta; Keuker-Baumann, Susanne

    2007-02-01

    A new tool is presented to control formation of Ag nanoparticles. Small amounts of silver ions were added to dilute solutions of long-chain sodium polyacrylates (NaPA). Four NaPA samples covering a molar mass regime of 97 kD polyacrylate coils toward compact structures. Coil shrinking and aggregation was revealed by means of time-resolved static light scattering. If exposed to UV-radiation, small Ag particles formed within the shrunken anionic polyacrylate coils. The Ag nanoparticles were identified by means of an enhanced light scattering and a characteristic plasmon absorption band around 410 nm. No such Ag particle formation could be observed even at 5 times larger concentrations of Ag(+) and NaPA if the two smallest polyacrylate samples have been used under otherwise equal conditions. This molar mass sensitive response of NaPA to Ag(+)-addition suggests an interesting phenomenon: if the coil size of the NaPa chains, which act as Ag(+) collectors, is large enough, local Ag(+) concentration in these coil-shaped Ag(+) containers exceeds a critical value, and irradiation with UV generates Ag nanoparticles. PMID:17263389

  19. Controlling influenza disease: Comparison between discrete time Markov chain and deterministic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novkaniza, F.; Ivana, Aldila, D.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical model of respiratory diseases spread with Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) and deterministic approach for constant total population size are analyzed and compared in this article. Intervention of medical treatment and use of medical mask included in to the model as a constant parameter to controlling influenza spreads. Equilibrium points and basic reproductive ratio as the endemic criteria and it level set depend on some variable are given analytically and numerically as a results from deterministic model analysis. Assuming total of human population is constant from deterministic model, number of infected people also analyzed with Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model. Since Δt → 0, we could assume that total number of infected people might change only from i to i + 1, i - 1, or i. Approximation probability of an outbreak with gambler's ruin problem will be presented. We find that no matter value of basic reproductive ℛ0, either its larger than one or smaller than one, number of infection will always tends to 0 for t → ∞. Some numerical simulation to compare between deterministic and DTMC approach is given to give a better interpretation and a better understanding about the models results.

  20. Towards a Diagnostic Instrument to Identify Improvement Opportunities for Quality Controlled Logistics in Agrifood Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  Western-European consumers have become not only more demanding on product availability in retail outlets but also on other food attributes such as quality, integrity, and safety. When (redesigning food supply-chain networks, from a logistics point of view, one has to consider these demands next to traditional efficiency and responsiveness requirements. The concept ‘quality controlled logistics’ (QCL hypothesizes that if product quality in each step of the supply chain can be predicted in advance, goods flows can be controlled in a pro-active manner and better chain designs can be established resulting in higher product availability, constant quality, and less product losses. The paper discusses opportunities of using real-time product quality information for improvement of the design and management of ‘AgriFood Supply Chain Networks’, and presents a preliminary diagnostic instrument for assessment of ‘critical quality’ and ‘logistics control’ points in the supply chain network. Results of a tomato-chain case illustrate the added value of the QCL concept for identifying improvement opportunities in the supply chain as to increase both product availability and quality. Future research aims for the further development of the diagnostic instrument and the quantification of costs and benefits of QCL scenarios.

  1. Towards a Diagnostic Instrument to Identify Improvement Opportunities for Quality Controlled Logistics in Agrifood Supply Chain Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Vorst, Jack G.A.J.; Olaf van Kooten; Luning, Pieternel A.

    2011-01-01

     Western-European consumers have become not only more demanding on product availability in retail outlets but also on other food attributes such as quality, integrity, and safety. When (re)designing food supply-chain networks, from a logistics point of view, one has to consider these demands next to traditional efficiency and responsiveness requirements. The concept ‘quality controlled logistics’ (QCL) hypothesizes that if product quality in each step of the supply chain can ...

  2. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  3. Synthesis of Isomeric Phosphoubiquitin Chains Reveals that Phosphorylation Controls Deubiquitinase Activity and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenin-Dezot, Nicolas; De Cesare, Virginia; Peltier, Julien; Knebel, Axel; Kristaryianto, Yosua Adi; Rogerson, Daniel T; Kulathu, Yogesh; Trost, Matthias; Chin, Jason W

    2016-07-26

    Ubiquitin is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation at several sites, but the consequences of these modifications are largely unknown. Here, we synthesize multi-milligram quantities of ubiquitin phosphorylated at serine 20, serine 57, and serine 65 via genetic code expansion. We use these phosphoubiquitins for the enzymatic assembly of 20 isomeric phosphoubiquitin dimers, with different sites of isopeptide linkage and/or phosphorylation. We discover that phosphorylation of serine 20 on ubiquitin converts UBE3C from a dual-specificity E3 ligase into a ligase that primarily synthesizes K48 chains. We profile the activity of 31 deubiquitinases on the isomeric phosphoubiquitin dimers in 837 reactions, and we discover that phosphorylation at distinct sites in ubiquitin can activate or repress cleavage of a particular linkage by deubiquitinases and that phosphorylation at a single site in ubiquitin can control the specificity of deubiquitinases for distinct ubiquitin linkages. PMID:27425610

  4. Post-harvest control strategies: minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-10-20

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental factors of temperature, water availability and intergranular gas composition, and preservatives which are added to conserve moist grain for animal feed. Thus knowledge of the key critical control points during harvesting, drying and storage stages in the cereal production chain are essential in developing effective prevention strategies post-harvest. Studies show that very small amounts of dry matter loss due to mould activity can be tolerated. With contamination and downgrading of lots can occur. The key mycotoxigenic moulds in partially dried grain are Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin) in damp cool climates of Northern Europe, and Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxin) and some Fusarium species (fumonisins, trichothecenes) on temperate and tropical cereals. Studies on the ecology of these species has resulted in modelling of germination, growth and mycotoxin minima and prediction of fungal contamination levels which may lead to mycotoxin contamination above the tolerable legislative limits (e.g. for ochratoxin). The effect of modified atmospheres and fumigation with sulphur dioxide and ammonia have been attempted to try and control mould spoilage in storage. Elevated CO2 of >75% are required to ensure that growth of mycotoxigenic moulds does not occur in partially dried grain. Sometimes, preservatives based on aliphatic acids have been used to prevent spoilage and mycotoxin contamination of stored commodities, especially feed. These are predominantly

  5. The chaos and control of a food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a chaotic food chain model supplying additional food to top-predator. • Local and global stability conditions are derived in presence of additional food. • Chaos is controlled only by increasing quantity of additional food. • System enters into periodic region and depicts Hopf bifurcations supplying additional food. • This an application of non-chemical methods for controlling chaos. -- Abstract: The control and management of chaotic population is one of the main objectives for constructing mathematical model in ecology today. In this paper, we apply a technique of controlling chaotic predator–prey population dynamics by supplying additional food to top-predator. We formulate a three species predator–prey model supplying additional food to top-predator. Existence conditions and local stability criteria of equilibrium points are determined analytically. Persistence conditions for the system are derived. Global stability conditions of interior equilibrium point is calculated. Theoretical results are verified through numerical simulations. Phase diagram is presented for various quality and quantity of additional food. One parameter bifurcation analysis is done with respect to quality and quantity of additional food separately keeping one of them fixed. Using MATCONT package, we derive the bifurcation scenarios when both the parameters quality and quantity of additional food vary together. We predict the existence of Hopf point (H), limit point (LP) and branch point (BP) in the model for suitable supply of additional food. We have computed the regions of different dynamical behaviour in the quantity–quality parametric plane. From our study we conclude that chaotic population dynamics of predator prey system can be controlled to obtain regular population dynamics only by supplying additional food to top predator. This study is aimed to introduce a new non-chemical chaos control mechanism in a predator–prey system with the

  6. Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, D B

    1974-01-01

    Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge

  7. Control of myosin heavy chain expression: interaction of hypothyroidism and hindlimb suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffee, G M; Haddad, F; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1991-12-01

    The aim of this study was to contrast competing influences, hypothyroidism and hindlimb suspension, on myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression studied at the protein level and mRNA level. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either normal control (NC), normal suspended (NS), or hypothyroid (thyroidectomized) control (TC) and suspended (TS) groups. NS and TS animals were suspended for 14 days following which myofibrils and total RNA were purified from the hindlimb muscles. In the soleus and vastus intermedius (VI), there was an increase in type I MHC and a decrease in type IIa MHC in both the TC and TS groups and a decrease in type I and increase in type IIa MHC in the NS group. At the mRNA level, similar shifts were observed with the exception that 1) the increased type IIa MHC seen in the soleus and VI of the NS animals was not accompanied by an increase in IIa mRNA and 2) type IIb mRNA was increased in the NS soleus without concomitant changes in IIb protein levels. These data suggest the following: 1) a hypothyroid state predominates over mechanical unweighting factors in the control of MHC distribution in slow muscles; and 2) translational or posttranslational factors may be important in the regulation of type IIa and IIb MHC expression during hindlimb suspension. PMID:1767813

  8. Development of Remote Plutonium Valence State Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, the separation of uranium and plutonium depends on the capability extracting state plutonium ions with various valence by TBP. The separate degree of

  9. Optimal Ordering Policy and Coordination Mechanism of a Supply Chain with Controllable Lead-Time-Dependent Demand Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ming Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the ordering decisions and coordination mechanism for a distributed short-life-cycle supply chain. The objective is to maximize the whole supply chain's expected profit and meanwhile make the supply chain participants achieve a Pareto improvement. We treat lead time as a controllable variable, thus the demand forecast is dependent on lead time: the shorter lead time, the better forecast. Moreover, optimal decision-making models for lead time and order quantity are formulated and compared in the decentralized and centralized cases. Besides, a three-parameter contract is proposed to coordinate the supply chain and alleviate the double margin in the decentralized scenario. In addition, based on the analysis of the models, we develop an algorithmic procedure to find the optimal ordering decisions. Finally, a numerical example is also presented to illustrate the results.

  10. Side-chain-controlled self-assembly of polystyrene-polypeptide miktoarm star copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Junnila, Susanna

    2012-03-27

    We show how the self-assembly of miktoarm star copolymers can be controlled by modifying the side chains of their polypeptide arms, using A 2B and A 2B 2 type polymer/polypeptide hybrids (macromolecular chimeras). Initially synthesized PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2 (PS, polystyrene; PBLL, poly(ε-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine) ) miktoarms were first deprotected to PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2 miktoarms (PLLHCl, poly(l-lysine hydrochloride)) and then complexed ionically with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (DS) to give the supramolecular complexes PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2. The solid-state self-assemblies of these six miktoarm systems were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS). The side chains of the polypeptide arms were observed to have a large effect on the solubility, polypeptide conformation, and self-assembly of the miktoarms. Three main categories were observed: (i) lamellar self-assemblies at the block copolymer length scale with packed layers of α-helices in PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2; (ii) charge-clustered polypeptide micelles with less-defined conformations in a nonordered lattice within a PS matrix in PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2; (iii) lamellar polypeptide-surfactant self-assemblies with β-sheet conformation in PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2 which dominate over the formation of block copolymer scale structures. Differences between the 3- and 4-arm systems illustrate how packing frustration between the coil-like PS arms and rigid polypeptide conformations can be relieved by the right number of arms, leading to differences in the extent of order. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Comparison Of Periodic-Review Inventory Control Policies In A Serial Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    KABADAYI, Nihan; KESKİNTÜRK, Timur

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain management provides customers with the right product or service at a reasonable price, in the right place, at the right time, and with the best quality possible, thus increasing customer satisfaction. The inventory is held at the multiple sites in a supply chain. Effective and efficient management of inventory in the supply chain process has a significant impact on improving the ultimate customer service provided to the customer. Reducing inventory cost, which is a major part of ...

  12. Inventory Control in Supply Chain Through Lateral Transshipment – A Case Study in Indian Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dharamvir Mangal; Pankaj Chandna

    2009-01-01

    Supply chain management emphasizes collaborative relationships between supply chain members. The purpose of this work is to examine the antecedents of retailer - retailer partnership and to explore its impact on the supply chain performance. We consider coordination among stocking locations through replenishment strategies that take explicitly into consideration transshipments, transfer of a product among locations at the same echelon level. A continuous review inventory system has been adopt...

  13. Rom2-dependent Phosphorylation of Elo2 Controls the Abundance of Very Long-chain Fatty Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel K.; Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K.; Ejsing, Christer S.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components of eukaryotic membranes, where they serve to maintain membrane integrity. They are important components of membrane trafficking and function in signaling as messenger molecules. Sphingolipids are synthesized de novo from very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and sphingoid long-chain bases, which are amide linked to form ceramide and further processed by addition of various headgroups. Little is known concerning the regulation of VLCFA levels and how cells coordinate their synthesis with the availability of long-chain bases for sphingolipid synthesis. Here we show that Elo2, a key enzyme of VLCFA synthesis, is controlled by signaling of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rom2, initiating at the plasma membrane. This pathway controls Elo2 phosphorylation state and VLCFA synthesis. Our data identify a regulatory mechanism for coordinating VLCFA synthesis with sphingolipid metabolism and link signal transduction pathways from the plasma membrane to the regulation of lipids for membrane homeostasis. PMID:25519905

  14. Theoretical calculations of valence states in Fe-Mo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The half-metallic ferromagnetic double perovskite compound Sr2FeMoO6 is considered as an important material for spintronic applications. It appears to be fundamental to understand the role of electronic parameters controlling the half-metallic ground state. Fe-Mo double perovskites usually present some degree of Fe/Mo disorder which generally increases with doping. In this work, we study the valence states of Fe-Mo cations in the off-stoichiometric system Sr2Fe1+xMo1−xO6 (−1 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) with disorder. Our results for Fe and Mo valence states are obtained using the Green functions and the renormalization perturbation expansion method. The model is based on a correlated electron picture with localized Fe-spins and conduction Mo-electrons interacting with the local spins via a double-exchange-type mechanism

  15. Effects of valence, geometry and electronic correlations on transport in transition metal benzene sandwich molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Karolak, M.; Jacob, D.

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of the valence and the geometry on the electronic structure and transport properties of different transition metal-benzene sandwich molecules bridging the tips of a Cu nanocontact. Our density-functional calculations show that the electronic transport properties of the molecules depend strongly on the molecular geometry which can be controlled by the nanocontact tips. Depending on the valence of the transition metal center certain molecules can be tuned in and out of half-...

  16. Integrated supply chain inventory model with quality improvement involving controllable lead time and backorder price discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jindal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past four decades the integrated vendor and buyer supply chain inventory model has been an interesting topic, but quality improvement of defective items in the integrated inventory model with backorder price discount involving controllable lead time has been rarely discussed. The aim of this paper is to minimize the total related cost in the continuous review model by considering the order quantity, reorder point, lead time, process quality, backorder price discount and number of shipment as decision variables. Moreover, we assume that an investment function is used to improve the process quality. The lead time demand follows a normal distribution. In addition, the buyer offers backorder price discount to motivate the customers for possible backorders. There are some defective items in the arrival lot, so its treatment is also taken in account in this paper. We develop an iterative procedure for finding the optimal values of decision variables and numerical example is presented to illustrate the solution procedure. Additionally, sensitivity analysis with respect to major parameters is also carried out.

  17. Positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative novel metaphoric processes by enhancing medial prefrontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Beeman, Mark; Faust, Miriam; Mashal, Nira

    2013-01-01

    A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors) and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the right inferior parietal lobe (RIPL). Specifically, positively valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively valenced metaphors when compared to negatively valenced metaphors. Positively valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes) by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration, and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language, and successful social functioning in general.

  18. Input estimation for drug discovery using optimal control and Markov chain Monte Carlo approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Magnus; Chappell, Michael J; Ahnmark, Andrea; Lindén, Daniel; Evans, Neil D; Gennemark, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Input estimation is employed in cases where it is desirable to recover the form of an input function which cannot be directly observed and for which there is no model for the generating process. In pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling, input estimation in linear systems (deconvolution) is well established, while the nonlinear case is largely unexplored. In this paper, a rigorous definition of the input-estimation problem is given, and the choices involved in terms of modelling assumptions and estimation algorithms are discussed. In particular, the paper covers Maximum a Posteriori estimates using techniques from optimal control theory, and full Bayesian estimation using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approaches. These techniques are implemented using the optimisation software CasADi, and applied to two example problems: one where the oral absorption rate and bioavailability of the drug eflornithine are estimated using pharmacokinetic data from rats, and one where energy intake is estimated from body-mass measurements of mice exposed to monoclonal antibodies targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 1c. The results from the analysis are used to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used when applied to sparsely sampled data. The presented methods for optimal control are fast and robust, and can be recommended for use in drug discovery. The MCMC-based methods can have long running times and require more expertise from the user. The rigorous definition together with the illustrative examples and suggestions for software serve as a highly promising starting point for application of input-estimation methods to problems in drug discovery. PMID:26932466

  19. Mixed valency and site-preference chemistry for cerium and its compounds: A predictive density-functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Aftab [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Laboratory

    2014-06-01

    Cerium and its technologically relevant compounds are examples of anomalous mixed valency, originating from two competing oxidation states—itinerant Ce4+ and localized Ce3+. Under applied stress, anomalous transitions are observed but not well understood. Here we treat mixed valency as an “alloy” problem involving two valences with competing and numerous site-occupancy configurations. We use density-functional theory with Hubbard U (i.e., DFT+U) to evaluate the effective valence and predict properties, including controlling the valence by pseudoternary alloying. For Ce and its compounds, such as (Ce,La)2(Fe,Co)14B permanent magnets, we find a stable mixed-valent α state near the spectroscopic value of νs=3.53. Ce valency in compounds depends on its steric volume and local chemistry. For La doping, Ce valency shifts towards γ-like Ce3+, as expected from steric volume; for Co doping, valency depends on local Ce-site chemistry and steric volume. Our approach captures the key origins of anomalous valency and site-preference chemistry in complex compounds.

  20. Hacking cyber-risks back in their tracks: to identify the right supply chain controls, look at the system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda, Daniel; Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    A more comprehensive way of looking at cyber-risks in supply chains is required, when considering the increasing complexity of the supply networks and the exposure to unexpected disruptions, caused by cyber-attacks. This article describes some of the reasons why current risk assessment methods...... are insufficient. The article provides an analogy for understanding the dynamic effects in a company. It describes in general terms what it means to understand cyber-risks from the control perspective, and it describes a new way to understand supply chain resilience. The focus is changed from the reliability...

  1. Myosin light chain kinase and Src control membrane dynamics in volume recovery from cell swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Barfod, Elisabeth T.; Moore, Ann L.; Van de Graaf, Benjamin G.; Steven D Lidofsky

    2011-01-01

     The expansion of the plasma membrane, which occurs during osmotic swelling of epithelia, must be retrieved for volume recovery, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we have identified myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) as a regulator of membrane internalization in response to osmotic swelling in a model liver cell line. On hypotonic exposure, we found that there was time-dependent phosphorylation of the MLCK substrate myosin II regulatory light chain. At the sides of the cell, MLCK and myosin ...

  2. The role of symmetry of chain extender in controlling the morphology of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamuo, Onyenkachi; Song, Cheng; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    Although polyurethane is a well-studied subject, the specific role of chain extender in the alteration of segmental dynamics and morphology formation has yet to be elucidated. Relatively low molecular weight thermoplastic polyurethanes synthesized from a two-step polymerization method were utilized in this study. The effect of the symmetry of chain extenders used in the polymerization on the morphological behavior has been studied. Comparison has been made for a number of chain extenders, including a symmetric 1,4 butanediol or 1,6 hexanediol and an asymmetric 1,2 propanediol or 1,3 butanediol. Using a combination of thermal analysis, spectroscopy and mechanical properties measurements, the development of morphological features were determined as a function of time and temperature. The symmetric chain-extended polyurethanes promotes the formation of hydrogen bonding, shows two glass transition temperatures consistent with a phase separation behavior and furthermore gives a more rigid, less extensible mechanical property when compared with the asymmetric chain-extended polyurethanes. In the latter case, the reacted polymer exhibits poor chain packing thus limiting the formation of robust hydrogen bonding behavior. It showed a singular glass transition representative of a more phase mixed system and shows more extensibility in terms of its mechanical behavior.

  3. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  4. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    basaltic melt composition), consistent with fO2 values obtained by assuming olivine-silica-iron metal (OSI) equilibrium. For the primary chromite-bearing-ureilites, the corresponding fO2 were estimated (again, assuming basaltic melt composition) to be ∼IW to IW+1.0, i.e., several orders of magnitude more oxidizing than the conditions estimated for the chromite-free ureilites. In terms of Fo and Cr valence properties, ureilites appear to form two groups rather than a single “Cr-valence (or fO2) vs. Fo” trend. The chromite-bearing ureilites show little variation in Fo (∼74-76) but significant variation in Cr valence, while the non-chromite-bearing ureilites show significant variation in Fo (∼77-95) and little variation in Cr valence. These groups are unrelated to petrologic type (i.e., olivine-pigeonite, olivine-orthopyroxene, or augite-bearing). The chromite-bearing ureilites also have lower contents of Cr in olivine than most non-chromite-bearing ureilites, consistent with predictions based on Cr olivine/melt partitioning in spinel saturated vs. non-spinel-saturated systems. Under the assumption that at magmatic temperatures graphite-gas equilibria controlled fO2 at all depths on the ureilite parent body, we conclude: (1) that ureilite precursor materials having the Fo and Cr valence properties now observed in ureilites are unlikely to have been preserved during planetary processing; and (2) that the Fo and Cr valence properties now observed in ureilites are consistent with having been established by high-temperature carbon redox control over a range of depths on a plausible-sized ureilite parent body. The apparent limit on ureilite Fo values around 74-76 suggests that the precursor material(s) had bulk mg# ⩾ that of LL chondrites.

  5. Elongase reactions as control points in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Gregory

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Δ6-Desaturase (Fads2 is widely regarded as rate-limiting in the conversion of dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA to the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA. However, increasing dietary ALA or the direct Fads2 product, stearidonic acid (18:4n-3; SDA, increases tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA, but not DHA. These observations suggest that one or more control points must exist beyond ALA metabolism by Fads2. One possible control point is a second reaction involving Fads2 itself, since this enzyme catalyses desaturation of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3, as well as ALA to SDA. However, metabolism of EPA and DPA both require elongation reactions. This study examined the activities of two elongase enzymes as well as the second reaction of Fads2 in order to concentrate on the metabolism of EPA to DHA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The substrate selectivities, competitive substrate interactions and dose response curves of the rat elongases, Elovl2 and Elovl5 were determined after expression of the enzymes in yeast. The competitive substrate interactions for rat Fads2 were also examined. Rat Elovl2 was active with C(20 and C(22 polyunsaturated fatty acids and this single enzyme catalysed the sequential elongation reactions of EPA→DPA→24:5n-3. The second reaction DPA→24:5n-3 appeared to be saturated at substrate concentrations not saturating for the first reaction EPA→DPA. ALA dose-dependently inhibited Fads2 conversion of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3. CONCLUSIONS: The competition between ALA and 24:5n-3 for Fads2 may explain the decrease in DHA levels observed after certain intakes of dietary ALA have been exceeded. In addition, the apparent saturation of the second Elovl2 reaction, DPA→24:5n-3, provides further explanations for the accumulation of DPA when ALA, SDA or EPA is provided in the diet. This study suggests that Elovl2 will be

  6. Masked emotional priming beyond global valence activations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rohr; J. Degner; D. Wentura

    2012-01-01

    An immense body of research demonstrates that emotional facial expressions can be processed unconsciously. However, it has been assumed that such processing takes place solely on a global valence-based level, allowing individuals to disentangle positive from negative emotions but not the specific em

  7. The Official Control beyond the Official Control. How To Plan And Schedule Controls Starting From Risk Assessment Along The Agro-Food Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Lagravinese, D; Conversano, M

    2015-01-01

    Every year the Italian Ministry of Health, on the basis of regional data, draws up the "Report on Official Controls" to be submitted to the Parliament. The report contains abundant data, diagrams and charts and illustrates the number and type of official controls (OC) performed by the pertinent Bodies (Ministry of Health, Regional and Local Health Authorities) over the previous year on Food Business Operators (FBO), in accordance with the EC Regulation 882/2004. The trend - which has consolidated over the years - relates to the multiplicity of OC and shows a decrease of such controls compared to an increase in "non-conformities". OC frequency is established by the Regional Authorities on the basis of the categorisation of both a "generic risk" for companies calculated taking into account the probability of occurrence of a "non-conformity", and a "specific" risk, assessed on the basis of the results of the OC actually performed on a given "Operatore del Settore Alimentare" (Food Sector Operator, in Italian: OSA). Thus, categorisation (i.e. the probability of occurrence of non-conformities) is the main driver of the OC scheduling and planning process. We have been asking ourselves whether the current OC planning/scheduling method is still suitable for ensuring food safety in the face of internalisation of the food supply chain. As a matter of fact, food safety is now becoming increasingly variable due to the globalization of consumption where "farm to fork", rather than "border to fork", food safety must be ensured. On the basis of these considerations, a different OC planning /scheduling method is being proposed based on the assessment of risks and the estimation of the occurrence of the same along the agro-food chain. PMID:26051149

  8. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...... in the food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....

  9. A framework for early warning and proactive control systems in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Kramer, M.R.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is inherent to food supply chain networks that performance deviations occur occasionally due to variations in product quality and quantity. To reduce losses, one wants to be informed about such deviations as soon as possible, preferably even before they occur. Then it is possible to take actions

  10. Learning, Knowing and Controlling the Stock: The Nature of Employee Discretion in a Supermarket Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Kakavelakis, Kostas; Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the nature of the relationship between Head Office and stores in a large British supermarket chain. It focuses on the role played by a range of technological tools available for managing the stock and connecting different parts of the productive system and the implications this has for employee learning in stores. The evidence…

  11. A simulation environment for the design of food supply chain networks: modeling quality controlled logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.; Zee, van der D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, many industries are confronted with intensified global competition as well as advances in information and process technology. They create both the need and opportunity for a coordinated approach of industrial partners to establish effective and efficient supply chains. Simulation tools are

  12. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety: A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and doctors to provide real-time technical services so as to control the abuse of drugs; thirdly, realizes the supervision of local veterinary drugs and diseases. Thus the quality of animal products is guaranteed, and the model is worthy to be popularized.

  13. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness.

  14. Automotive supply chain through the "control tower"-model : case Valmet Automotive

    OpenAIRE

    Kolehmainen, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to create comprehensive understanding about the Supply Chain management in a world class external logistics service that was created to fulfill Valmet Automotive’s project D1. This thesis consists of a detailed process description of the inbound- and outbound logistics operations regarding the production of Daimler’s Mercedes Benz A-series, at Valmet Automotive factory in Uusikaupunki, Finland. The process description emphasizes the important role of the 3PL service...

  15. Reverse magnetic anomaly controlled by Permian Igneous rocks in the Iberian Chain (N Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Calvín,P. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra; Casas, A. M. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra; Villalaín, J. J.; Tierz, P. Universidad de Zaragoza. Departamento. de Ciencias de la Tierra

    2014-01-01

    Two important reverse dipolar magnetic anomalies in the Iberian Chain (Spain) are located over Permian igneous rocks. A detailed study of one of them, the Loscos magnetic anomaly, where the geological structure is well constrained, reveals that the source of the anomaly must be a reverse remanent magnetisation carried by igneous rocks, acquired during the period of the Kiaman reverse magnetic superchron. Magnetic and gravimetric detailed survey (with 50 new gravimetric measurements and 8 main...

  16. Post-harvest control strategies: Minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental ...

  17. Control of the anchoring behavior of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals: effect of branching in the side chains of polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2002-08-28

    A temperature-driven anchoring transition in a polymer/nematic fluid composite that is far from the bulk nematic-isotropic transition temperature is reported. A series of poly(methylheptyl acrylates) were studied to probe the subtle effects of the side chain structure of the polymer on control of the anchoring. A polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film made from TL205 and 1-methylheptyl acrylate shows only planar anchoring over the temperature range studied, while the films made from TL205 and each of the other methylheptyl acrylates or n-heptyl acrylate show the homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition at temperatures between 70 and 78 degrees C. An interfacial model is proposed in which the different conformation of the side chains is suggested as the cause for the dramatic difference in the observed anchoring behavior. PMID:12188649

  18. Neutron inelastic scattering from mixed valence materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramagnetic scattering from mixed valence materials is reviewed. Some of the early measurements identified a broad quasielastic spectral distribution (e.g. a Lorentzian centered on zero energy with large, practically Q-independent widths (half-width approx.5-30 MeV) which remain finite as T → OK. More recent measurements using high energy neutrons on several mixed valance systems reveal inelastic peaks superposed on the broad quasielastic spectrum at low temperatures. These inelastic peaks progressively melt away with increasing temperature, accompanied possibly by some softening, and disappear almost completely around the temperature of the maximum in the susceptibility. Several possible mechanisms could semi-qualitatively account for the observed spectral response, a deeper insight into whose origin would aid in understanding the mixed valence phenomena

  19. Janus Nematic Colloids with Designable Valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Čopar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Janus nematic colloids based on various morphologies of particle surface patches imposing homeotropic and planar surface anchoring are demonstrated. By using mesoscopic numerical modeling, multiple types of Janus particles are explored, demonstrating a variety of novel complex colloidal structures. We also show binding of Janus particles to a fixed Janus post in the nematic cell, which acts as a seed and a micro-anchor for the colloidal structure. Janus colloidal structures reveal diverse topological defect configurations, which are effectively combinations of surface boojum and bulk defects. Topological analysis is applied to defects, importantly showing that topological charge is not a well determined topological invariant in such patchy nematic Janus colloids. Finally, this work demonstrates colloidal structures with designable valence, which could allow for targeted and valence-conditioned self-assembly at micro- and nano-scale.

  20. Memory transfer for emotionally valenced words between identities in dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Peters, Madelon L.; Woertman, Liesbeth; van der Hart, Onno; Postma, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine interidentity retrieval of emotionally valenced words in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Twenty-two DID patients participated together with 25 normal controls and 25 controls instructed to simulate DID. Two wordlists A and B were constructed including neutr

  1. Electron magnetic scattering on valence nucleon orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-sections for elastic electron scattering by the magnetization distribution of 49Ti, 51V, 59Co, 87Sr and 93Nb have been measured in the range of momentum transfer 1.7 - 3.3 fm-1. The results are interpreted in terms of radial distribution of the unpaired proton or neutron. Meson exchange and core polarisation effects are investigated. The valence nucleon radii obtained are compared with Hartree-Fock predictions

  2. Effects of valence in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Zamira; Goddard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim:- A study of voting decisions in The Weakest Link TV game show has shown the contestants tend to avoid their nearest neighbours (Goddard, Hylton, Parke & Noh, 2013), presumably this is because the vote carries negative connotations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether vote valence affects voting behaviour in other voting scenarios. Procedure:- Participants were undergraduate Psychology students (n=233) attending an orientation lecture during their first inducti...

  3. Valence force field analysis of tetracyanoethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, K. H.; Rieckhoff, K. E.; Voigt, E. M.

    1982-09-01

    A valence force field calculation for the out-of-plane modes of tetracyanoethylene is reported, which makes possible a straightforward assignment of the low-frequency vibrations, including several in-plane modes which previously could not be assigned with certainty. The present set of assignments is consistent with observed vibrational spectra, both for uncomplexed and for complexed tetracyanoethylene, and, for the planar vibrations, is supported by recently published force constant calculations.

  4. 5th International Conference on Valence Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, S

    1987-01-01

    During the Koln meeting (August 28-31, 1984), Irdia was chosen as the venue for the next International Conference on Valence Fluctuations. lhis was in recognition ard appreciation of the work done, both experimental ard theoretical, by the Irdian scientists in this area during the last decade. We decided to hold this Conference in the month of January, 1987 at Bangalore. lhe subject of Valence Fluctuations has kept itself alive ard active as it has provided many shocks ard suprises particularly among the Ce- ard U-based intermetallies. lhe richness of many interesting physical phenomena occurring in mixed valent materials, the flexibility of modifying their physical properties (by alloying, for example) ard the possibility of synthesizing a wide variety of new such materials seem to be the key factors in this regard. Barely six months before this Conference, an International Conference on Anomalous Rare Earths and Actinides (ICAREA) had been held at Grenoble (July, 1986) which also focussed on mixed valence a...

  5. Precision calculations of atoms with few valence electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, M G

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using pair-equations for the construction of the effective Hamiltonian $H_{\\rm eff}$ for valence electrons of an atom. The low-energy part of atomic spectrum is found by solving the eigenvalue problem for $H_{\\rm eff}$. In this way it is possible to account efficiently for the valence-valence and core-valence correlations. We tested this method on a toy model of a four-electron atom with the core $1s^2$. The spectrum obtained with $H_{\\rm eff}$ for two valence electrons is in a perfect agreement with the full configuration interaction for all four electrons.

  6. Controlled and selective placement of boron subphthalocyanines on either chain end of polymers synthesized by nitroxide mediated polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît H. Lessard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we synthesized the first organic light emitting diode (OLED using boron subphthalocyanines (BsubPcs based polymers. When designing new polymer materials for organic electronic applications such as OLEDs or organic photovoltaic (OPV devices it is important to consider not only the contribution of each monomer but also the polymer chain ends. In this paper we establish a post-polymerization strategy to couple BsubPcs onto either the α- or the ω-chain end using chemically selective BsubPc derivatives. We outline how the chain ends of two representative polymers, poly(styrene (PS and poly(n-butylacrylate (BA, synthesized by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP, using BlocBuilder-MA as the initiating species, can be chemically modified by the incorporation of BsubPc chromophores. The addition of the BsubPc chromophore was confirmed through the use of a photodiode array detector (PDA connected in-line with a gel permeation chromatography (GPC setup. These findings represent the first reported method for the controlled and selective placement of a BsubPc chromophores on either end of a polymer produced by NMP. This strategy will therefore be utilized to make next generation BsubPc polymers for OLEDs and OPV devices. The extremely high molar extinction coefficient of BsubPc also make these polymers ideally suited for dye-labelling of polymers.

  7. Phase-shift-controlled logic gates in Y-shaped nonlinearly coupled chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, T F; Nascimento, E M; Sombra, A S B; Lyra, M L

    2016-02-01

    We introduce a model system composed of two input discrete chains nonlinearly coupled to a single output chain which mimics the geometry of Y-shaped carbon nanotubes, photonic crystal wave guides, and DNA junctions. We explore the capability of the proposed system to perform logic gate operations based on the transmission of phase-shifted harmonic incoming waves. Within a tight-binding approach, we determine the exact transmission spectrum which exhibits a nonlinear induced bistability. Using a digitalization scheme of the output signal based on amplitude modulation, we show that AND, OR, and XOR logic operations can be achieved. Nonlinearity strongly favors the realization of logic operations in the regime of large wavelengths, while phase shifting is required for the OR logic gate to be realizable. A detailed analysis of the contrast ratio shows that optimal operation of the AND and OR logic gates takes place when the nonlinear response is the predominant physical property distinguishing the coupling and regular sites. These results point towards the possibility of Y-branched junctions to perform logic operations based on the transmission of traveling waves.

  8. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  9. A novel temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; R. Perch-Nielsen, Ivan; Sørensen, Karen Skotte;

    We present a new temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with external heater and temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  10. Nuclear supplier assessment how to control the nuclear supply chain quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a road map of 84 (low scenario) to 198 (high scenario)* nuclear power plants to be build in the coming decade arise with intensity safety concerns. The challenge for governments and for nuclear companies as they increase construction is to manage a growing army of contractors and subcontractors worldwide and the quality of their production as well as their ability to deliver in time considering the speed-up and increasing pace of project development. Moreover by the last few years, the scope of needs for nuclear companies to set a QA/QC plan all along the supply chain has been increasingly enlarged with new stakes such as cost savings, social responsibilities and technical compliance. At last, with 'nuclear renaissance', the path to renew accreditation of existing suppliers facing international and domestic law/regulations combinations after a long period of low tide is now clear and wide. Nuclear operating companies and EPIC contractors now face a complex situation where on one side political pressure is hugely strong for a zero incident status to be considered as on the contrary the 'renaissance' will be suddenly stopped, on the other the status of 'industrial' maturity of the supply chain candidates is difficult to assess in a uniform and 'fair' way. Through this paper, the speaker will explain the full size supplier assessment strategy from paper to field which has been implemented in the Oil and Gas sector whose requirements of quality is high too. The speaker will present the key practices of this initiative from which the nuclear market can find more than a source of inspiration. (authors)

  11. The application of cholesky decomposition in valence bond calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiping; Chen, Zhenhua; Wu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The Cholesky decomposition (CD) technique, used to approximate the two-electron repulsion integrals (ERIs), is applied to the valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF) method. Test calculations on ethylene, C2 n H2 n +2 , and C2 n H4 n -2 molecules (n = 1-7) show that the performance of the VBSCF method is much improved using the CD technique, and thus, the integral transformation from basis functions to VB orbitals is no longer the bottleneck in VBSCF calculations. The errors of the CD-based ERIs and of the total energy are controlled by the CD threshold, for which a value of 10(-6) ensures to control the total energy error within 10(-6) Hartree. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27377531

  12. Valence of 'divalent' rare earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally recognized that light rare earths change their valence from 2 to 3 when forming a bulk metal while remaining divalent at the surface. However, performed DFT calculations ultimately indicate that the higher-binding-energy peaks in photoemission spectra (like the -5.3 eV peak for Sm), characteristic of the trivalent 4fn-15d1 configuration, correspond not to the ground state, but to excited states induced by radiation. This means that the trivalent state is not inherent for the bulk of divalent rare earths, and therefore they do not become trivalent.

  13. Thermal Recombination: Beyond the Valence Quark Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, B; Bass, S A

    2005-01-01

    Quark counting rules derived from recombination models agree well with data on hadron production at intermediate transverse momenta in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. They convey a simple picture of hadrons consisting only of valence quarks. We discuss the inclusion of higher Fock states that add sea quarks and gluons to the hadron structure. We show that, when recombination occurs from a thermal medium, hadron spectra remain unaffected by the inclusion of higher Fock states. However, the quark number scaling for elliptic flow is somewhat affected. We discuss the implications for our understanding of data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  14. Emotional valence, sense of agency and responsibility: A study using intentional binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J F; Yoshie, M; Di Costa, S; Haggard, P

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how the emotional valence of an action outcome influences the experience of control, in an intentional binding experiment. Voluntary actions were followed by emotionally positive or negative human vocalisations, or by neutral tones. We used mental chronometry to measure a retrospective component of sense of agency (SoA), triggered by the occurrence of the action outcome, and a prospective component, driven by the expectation that the outcome will occur. Positive outcomes enhanced the retrospective component of SoA, but only when both occurrence and the valence of the outcome were unexpected. When the valence of outcomes was blocked - and therefore predictable - we found a prospective component of SoA when neutral tones were expected but did not actually occur. This prospective binding was absent, and reversed, for positive and negative expected outcomes. Emotional expectation counteracts the prospective component of SoA, suggesting a distancing effect. PMID:27174794

  15. Thermodynamically controlled synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. Equilibrium concentrations and side-chains properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Kroon, P.J.; Bosma, B.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Beeftink, H.H.; Tramper, J.

    1999-01-01

    For the enzymatic synthesis of the antibiotic cephalexin, an activated acyl donor is generally used as one of the substrates (kinetically controlled approach); however, the thermodynamically controlled approach might be of interest since there is no need for activation of the acyl donor and less was

  16. Influence of Higher Valence Ions on Flexible Polyelectrolytes Stiffness and Counter-ion Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremos, Alexandros; Douglas, Jack F.

    We investigate the influence of counter-ion valency on the flexibility of highly charged flexible polymer chains by molecular dynamics simulations that include both salt and an explicit solvent. A theoretical understanding of solutions of these molecules (e.g., DNA, RNA, and sulfonate polyestyrene) has been slow to develop due to the complex coupling between the polyelectrolyte conformation and the ionic species in solution due to their long range Coulomb interactions. As observed experimentally, we find that divalent counter-ions greatly reduce the chain persistence length, in comparison to monovalent counter-ions, an effect correlated with the tendency of the polyelectrolyte chain to become distorted by divalent counter-ions. We rationalize these results by with the substantial increase of counter-ion population at the interface with the polyelectrolyte, which not only leads to a more effective screening of the bare charge, but also leads to charge inversion in the trivalent counter-ion case. These conformational changes with counter-ion valency are also associated with a drastic increase of the number of contacts the counter-ions have at the interface with polyelectrolyte, an effect associated with polyelectrolyte chain ``coiling'' around the counter-ions. NIST Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  17. Positively-valenced stimuli facilitate creative novel metaphoric processes by enhancing medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna eSubramaniam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively-valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL. Specifically, positively-valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively-valenced metaphors when compared to negatively-valenced metaphors. Positively-valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively-valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively-valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language and successful social functioning in general.

  18. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Strahan, Gary D; Levine, Alex C; Nomura, Christopher T

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW). Glycerine was used as the primary carbon source with varying concentrations of MeOH. Methanol retarded but did not completely inhibit growth and PHB production in Pseudomonas oleovorans. Proton NMR analysis revealed that the PHB polymers were end-capped with methoxy chemical groups causing MW reductions. The MW decreases were contingent upon the initial MeOH media concentration and the duration of the fermentations. The largest impact occurred at an initial MeOH concentration of 0.10% (w/v) where the number average molecular weights (Mn) decreased by 39%, 55%, and 72% in the 48, 72 and 96 h cultures, respectively. Diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy revealed a diffusivity (D) increase in the smaller molecular weight polymers with the PHB synthesized in the presence of 0.85% MeOH (72 h post-inoculation) having a D value of 0.66×10(-10) m2/s. Diffusivity increases indicate a reduction in hydrodynamic radii (Rhz) consistent with shorter chain-lengths. Crude glycerine from the biodiesel production process has been used as an inexpensive fermentation feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis but its composition is facility-dependent. This information will be vital to tailor PHA properties to specific applications. PMID:25542165

  19. Computational Experiment Approach to Controlled Evolution of Procurement Pattern in Cluster Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies have been aware of the benefits of developing Cluster Supply Chains (CSCs, and they are spending a great deal of time and money attempting to develop the new business pattern. Yet, the traditional techniques for identifying CSCs have strong theoretical antecedents, but seem to have little traction in the field. We believe this is because the standard techniques fail to capture evolution over time, nor provide useful intervention measures to reach goals. To address these problems, we introduce an agent-based modeling approach to evaluate CSCs. Taking collaborative procurement as research object, our approach is composed of three parts: model construction, model instantiation, and computational experiment. We use the approach to explore the service charging policy problem in collaborative procurement. Three kinds of service charging polices are compared in the same experiment environment. Finally, “Fixed Cost” is identified as the optimal policy under the stable market environment. The case study can help us to understand the workflow of applying the approach, and provide valuable decision support applications to industry.

  20. A Back-stepping Based Trajectory Tracking Controller for a Non-chained Nonholonomic Spherical Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Qiang; Liu Zengbo; Cai Yao

    2008-01-01

    Spherical robot has good static and dynamic stability, which provides it with strong viability in hostile environment, but the lack of effective control methods has hindered its application and development. This article deals with the dynamic trajectory tracking problem of the spherical robot BHQ-2 designed for unmanned environment exploration. The dynamic model of the spherical robot is established with a simplified Boltzmann-Hamel equation, based on which a trajectory tracking controller is designed by using the back-stepping method. The convergence of the controller is proved with the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical simulations show that with the controller the robot can globally and asymptotically track desired trajectories, both linear and circular.

  1. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Re...

  2. Improvement of Inventory Control for Defective Goods Supply Chain by Available Time Limitation of the Production Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Alden Ghasimi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important competitive criteria in the global marketplace is keeping the customer satisfaction. Timely delivery and cost of finished goods are two important factors for satisfaction of customers. In this study, we proposed a mathematical model to improve inventory control of defective goods supply chain by Available Time Limitation (ATL of the production facilities. The defective goods are reworking able parts and the rest are considered as scraps. The aim of the model is to optimize the total costs of production, maintenance, freight, reworking, the quantity of scrap goods and shortage in retailers for three level supply chains. The uniqueness is that it can anticipate the active manufacturers/distributors and the quantity of goods that must be exchanged between them. Finally, the model determines the Economic Production Quantity (EPQ and appropriate ATL of any production facilities. Our proposed model is novel and we used CPLEX and LINGO to solve the problem. It can be ascertained that based on the results of the model validated the correctness and fine function of the model.

  3. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain - Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; Koeijer AA de; Wit GA de; LEI; Animal Sciences Group; PZO; MGB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the costs-of-illnes

  4. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW) control. Glycerine (init. conc. = 1.0%; w/v), was used as the primary carbon source in batch-culture fermentations with varying concentrations (0 to 0.85...

  5. Chain-branching control of the atomic structure of alkanethiol-based gold-sulfur interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong; Hush, Noel S; Reimers, Jeffrey R; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-09-28

    Density functional theory structure calculations at 0 K and simulations at 300 K of observed high-resolution in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images reveal three different atomic-interface structures for the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three isomeric butanethiols on Au(111): direct binding to the Au(111) surface without pitting, binding to adatoms above a regular surface with extensive pitting, and binding to adatoms with local surface vacancies and some pitting. Thermal motions are shown to produce some observed STM features, with a very tight energy balance controlling the observed structures. Variation of the degree of substitution on the α carbon is found to significantly change the relative energies for interaction of the different types of adatom structures with the surface, while the nature of the surface cell, controlled primarily by inter-adsorbate steric interactions, controls substrate reorganization energies and adsorbate distortion energies. Most significantly, by manipulating these features, chemical control of the adsorbate can produce stable interfaces with surface pitting eliminated, providing new perspectives for technological applications of SAMs.

  6. Nanostructured high valence silver oxide produced by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellasega, D.; Facibeni, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Russo, V. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , NEMAS - Center for NanoEngineered MAterials and Surfaces, and IIT-Italian Institute of Technology, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Conti, C. [ICVBC-CNR, Via Cozzi 54, 20125 Milano (Italy); Ducati, C. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Casari, C.S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , NEMAS - Center for NanoEngineered MAterials and Surfaces, and IIT-Italian Institute of Technology, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Li Bassi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , NEMAS - Center for NanoEngineered MAterials and Surfaces, and IIT-Italian Institute of Technology, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.libassi@polimi.it; Bottani, C.E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , NEMAS - Center for NanoEngineered MAterials and Surfaces, and IIT-Italian Institute of Technology, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-03-01

    Among silver oxides, Ag{sub 4}O{sub 4}, i.e. high valence Ag(I)Ag(III) oxide, is interesting for applications in high energy batteries and for the development of antimicrobial coatings. We here show that ns UV pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen containing atmosphere allows the synthesis of pure Ag{sub 4}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline thin films, permitting at the same time to control the morphology of the material at the sub-micrometer scale. Ag{sub 4}O{sub 4} films with a crystalline domain size of the order of tens of nm can be deposited provided the deposition pressure is above a threshold (roughly 4 Pa pure O{sub 2} or 20 Pa synthetic air). The formation of this particular high valence silver oxide is explained in terms of the reactions occurring during the expansion of the ablated species in the reactive atmosphere. In particular, expansion of the PLD plasma plume is accompanied by formation of low stability Ag-O dimers and atomic oxygen, providing reactive species at the substrate where the film grows. Evidence of reactive collisions in the expanding ablation plume is obtained by analysis of the plume visible shape in inert and reactive atmospheres. In addition, we show how the dimensionless deposition parameter L, relating the target-to-substrate distance to the ablation plume maximum expansion length, can be used to classify different growth regimes. It is thus possible to vary the stoichiometry and the morphology of the films, from compact and columnar to foam-like, by controlling both the gas pressure and the target-to-substrate distance.

  7. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Collignon, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms for the efficient evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Modern food production facilitates the emergence and spread of resistance through the intensive use of antimicrobial agents and international trade of both animals and food products....... The main route of transmission between food animals and humans is via food products, although other modes of transmission, such as direct contact and through the environment, also occur. Resistance can spread as resistant pathogens or via transferable genes in different commensal bacteria, making...... quantification of the transmission difficult. The exposure of humans to antimicrobial resistance from food animals can be controlled by either limiting the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage or by limiting the spread of the bacteria/genes. A number of control options are reviewed, including drug...

  8. Controlling Campylabacter in the Chicken Meat Chain: A Cost-Utility Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mangen, Marie-Josee J.; Arie H Havelaar; Nauta, Maarten J.; de Koeijer, Aline A; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-utility of interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in DALYs) and the costs-of-illness for the various interventions were necessary inputs for the cost-utility analysis. The cost-utility is expressed in net costs per reduced DALY. The most cost-effective interventions are: reduction of faeces leakage in the slaughter line and decontamination of...

  9. Controlling Campylobacter in the chicken meat chain - Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Nauta MJ; de Koeijer AA; de Wit GA; LEI; Animal Sciences Group (ASG); PZO; MGB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the estimation of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of various interventions to control Campylobacter contamination of broiler meat. The relative risk, the intervention costs, the disease burden (expressed in Disability Adjusted Live Years (DALYs)) and the costs-of-illness for the various interventions were all estimated in previous studies within the CARMA (CAmpylobacter Risk Management and Assessment) project, and were inputs for the current calculations. The cos...

  10. Structural insight into chain-length control and product specificity of pentaketide chromone synthase from Aloe arborescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Shin; Oguro, Satoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Abe, Ikuro; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2007-04-01

    The crystal structures of a wild-type and a mutant PCS, a novel plant type III polyketide synthase from a medicinal plant, Aloe arborescens, were solved at 1.6 A resolution. The crystal structures revealed that the pentaketide-producing wild-type and the octaketide-producing M207G mutant shared almost the same overall folding, and that the large-to-small substitution dramatically increases the volume of the polyketide-elongation tunnel by opening a gate to two hidden pockets behind the active site of the enzyme. The chemically inert active site residue 207 thus controls the number of condensations of malonyl-CoA, solely depending on the steric bulk of the side chain. These findings not only provided insight into the polyketide formation reaction, but they also suggested strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of polyketides. PMID:17462571

  11. Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.

  12. Modulus of unbounded valence subdivision rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cannon, Floyd and Parry have studied the modulus of finite subdivision rules extensively. We investigate the properties of the modulus of subdivision rules with linear and exponential growth at every vertex, using barycentric subdivision and a subdivision rule for the Borromean rings as examples. We show that the subdivision rule arising from the Borromean rings is conformal, and conjecture that the subdivision rules for all alternating links are conformal. We show that the 1,2,3-tile criterion of Cannon, Floyd, and Parry is sufficient to prove conformality for linear growth, but not exponential growth. We show that the criterion gives a weaker form of conformality for subdivision rules of exponential growth at each vertex. We contrast this with the known, bounded-valence case, and illustrate our results with circle packings using Ken Stephenson's Circlepack.

  13. Two-coordinate control of the radiation pattern of a chemical non-chain electric-discharge DF laser by using space-time light modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies of radiation parameters of a chemical non-chain DF laser (emitting in the range from 3.5 to 4.1 μm) with an intracavity control of the radiation pattern with the help of spatiotemporal modulators based on PLZT electrooptic ceramics are presented. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. Side-chain control of porosity closure in single- and multiple-peptide-based porous materials by cooperative folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Gastaldo, C.; Antypov, D.; Warren, J. E.; Briggs, M. E.; Chater, P. A.; Wiper, P. V.; Miller, G. J.; Khimyak, Y. Z.; Darling, G. R.; Berry, N. G.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    Porous materials are attractive for separation and catalysis—these applications rely on selective interactions between host materials and guests. In metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), these interactions can be controlled through a flexible structural response to the presence of guests. Here we report a MOF that consists of glycyl-serine dipeptides coordinated to metal centres, and has a structure that evolves from a solvated porous state to a desolvated non-porous state as a result of ordered cooperative, displacive and conformational changes of the peptide. This behaviour is driven by hydrogen bonding that involves the side-chain hydroxyl groups of the serine. A similar cooperative closure (reminiscent of the folding of proteins) is also displayed with multipeptide solid solutions. For these, the combination of different sequences of amino acids controls the framework's response to the presence of guests in a nonlinear way. This functional control can be compared to the effect of single-point mutations in proteins, in which exchange of single amino acids can radically alter structure and function.

  15. Variable-rung design for a mixed-valence two-legged ladder system situated in a dimensional crossover region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-21

    Ladder systems situated in a crossover from one dimensionality to two dimensionalities have been an attractive research target, because the physical properties, which are associated with dimensionality, are strongly dependent on the number of constituent legs. However, control of the intraladder configuration and electronic properties based on the substitution of structural components remain challenging tasks in materials science. On the other hand, structural design using coordination chemistry offers crucial advantages for architectural and electronic variations through substitutions of metal-organic building blocks. Here, we show the rational design and electronic properties of novel metal complex-based two-legged ladder compounds with several organic rung units: 4,4'-bipyridine, trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane, and 4,4'-azopyridine. Single-crystal X-ray studies show that these two-legged ladder compounds are composed of halogen-bridged mixed-valence one-dimensional chains (MX chains) as their constituent legs. Depending on the molecular shape of the organic rung units, unique configurations of two-legged ladder lattices with periodic distortion of the legs are achieved. In addition, the electronic absorption spectra show that intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) band gap of the two-legged ladder system increases with increasing degree of distortion of the leg. We have demonstrated for the first time that a two-legged ladder system shows a unique relationship between IVCT energy and the distortion parameter of the leg, as distinct from a single MX chain system. These systematic investigations, not only of configurations based on the rung variation but also of electronic states in metal-organic ladder system, provide the possibility for wide and rational tunings of physical and electronic properties of metal complex-based functional materials. PMID:24392762

  16. Short-chain fatty acids and L-lactate as feed additives to control Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Kim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Ducatelle, Richard; Pasmans, Frank

    2008-08-01

    The usefulness of butyrate, acetate, propionate and l-lactate for the control of Campylobacter jejuni infections in broilers was assessed. For this purpose, the effect of these acids on the growth of C. jejuni in broth and intestinal mucous was determined, as well as their influence on the invasiveness of C. jejuni in intestinal epithelial cells. From these in vitro obtained results, one acid was retained for use as a feed additive in an in vivo trial. Butyrate was the most successful of the short-chain fatty acids, with 12.5 mM being bactericidal for C. jejuni at pH 6.0. Propionate and acetate had a bacteriostatic effect at 50 mM. None of the short-chain fatty acids had a bactericidal effect at pH 7.5 at a maximum concentration of 50 mM. Mucous increased the minimum bactericidal concentration of butyrate, but not the bacteriostatic concentrations of propionate or acetate. When C. jejuni was incubated in growth subinhibitory concentrations of butyrate, acetate or propionate or 25 mM L-lactate, no alteration in the invasive capabilities of C. jejuni in Caco-2 cells was observed. The addition of butyrate-coated micro-beads to the feed was unsuccessful to reduce C. jejuni caecal colonization in a seeder model using 2-week-old broilers. In conclusion, despite the marked bactericidal effect of butyrate towards C. jejuni in vitro, butyrate-coated micro-beads do not protect broilers from caecal colonization with C. jejuni in the applied test conditions. This might be partially ascribed to the protective effect of mucous and the rapid absorption of butyrate by the enterocytes. PMID:18622853

  17. Targeting the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain of Cryptococcus through Antifungal Chemosensitization: A Model for Control of Non-Fermentative Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC inhibition compared to species of Candida. This higher sensitivity results from the inability of Cryptococcus to generate cellular energy through fermentation. To heighten disruption of cellular MRC, octyl gallate (OG or 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA, phenolic compounds inhibiting mitochondrial functions, were selected as chemosensitizers to pyraclostrobin (PCS; an inhibitor of complex III of MRC. The cryptococci were more susceptible to the chemosensitization (i.e., PCS + OG or 2,3-DHBA than the Candida with all Cryptococcus strains tested being sensitive to this chemosensitization. Alternatively, only few of the Candida strains showed sensitivity. OG possessed higher chemosensitizing potency than 2,3-DHBA, where the concentration of OG required with the drug to achieve chemosensitizing synergism was much lower than that required of 2,3-DHBA. Bioassays with gene deletion mutants of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that OG or 2,3-DHBA affect different cellular targets. These assays revealed mitochondrial superoxide dismutase or glutathione homeostasis plays a relatively greater role in fungal tolerance to 2,3-DHBA or OG, respectively. These findings show that application of chemosensitizing compounds that augment MRC debilitation is a promising strategy to antifungal control against yeast pathogens.

  18. VALENCY AND SYNTACTICAL RELATION IN BIMANESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sri Satyawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the findings and descriptions of the replies to severalproblems that have not been completely and deeply discussed in the researchespreviously conducted on Bimanese. The problems are related to micro-linguistic factors,namely valency and syntactical relation in Bimanese. Both deductive and inductiveapproaches were applied to obtain satisfactory results. The main theory employed in thisstudy is Role and Reference Grammar Theory (RRG by Van Valin and J. Lapolla. It wasemployed to completely analyze the collected data in accordance with the problemsproposed in this research, and the inductive approach was employed to analyze the datain order to get novelties.In this study, clause structure is given the first priority to discuss, followed by thediscussion on operator, voice markers, nominalizers, and definiteness. Based on thepredicate category, the clause in Bimanese can be constructed with the constituents thatare under the categories of verb, noun, adjective, number, and adverb (prepositionalphrase. Based on the clause analysis, it has been found that in Bimanese there are severaloperators, each of which has different functional boundary in marking the clausemeaning. One operator may only sign nucleus, core (nucleus and argument, or core andperiphery. Bimanese has also been identified to have four linguistic states expressed byverbs that are made to make sense based on state (Aktisontrat, achievement, andaccomplishment. RRG classifies verbs into ten instead of four. However, in this study, tomake the analysis easier, verbs are classified into four. The predicate in Bimanese can beboth serial verbs and secondary verbs. It has also been found that the mechanism ofchange in valency is marked by the attachment of markers to the verbs resulting incausativity, applicativity, and resultivity. From those syntactical constructions, thesyntactical relation in Bimanese can be clearly identified. The discussion on syntacticalrelation

  19. 供应链管理环境下的库存控制研究%The Research of Inventory Control under Supply Chain Management Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉香; 李志刚

    2013-01-01

    It is important that the study of enterprise inventory control methods under supply chain management environment can save the cost of the supply chain and improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain. This article started from the analysis of inventory control problems in practice under the supply chain management environment. And also expounded new characteristics of inventory control under supply chain environment, targeted raised strategy and methods to resolve questions.%  研究供应链管理环境下企业库存控制方法,对于节约供应链成本、提高供应链整体效率有重要意义。本文从分析供应链管理环境下库存控制在实践中所出现的各种问题入手,阐述了供应链环境下库存控制的新特点,有针对性地提出解决问题的策略和方法。

  20. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety :A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, TIANQI

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and docto...

  1. Valence electron theory of graphite spheroidizing in primary crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志林; 孙振国; 李志林

    1995-01-01

    Bond-length-difference (BLD) analysis results show that austenrte and cementite containing Mg, Zr. S have very different valence electron structures from Fe -C austenite and cementite. We find that this difference is the tie of absorption hypothesis, surface tension hypothesis, undercooling hypothesis in graphite spheroidizing theory. By using "the model of valence electron theory of drag-like effect" in our previous paper in crystallization theory, the spheroidizing effect of Mg and Zr and the anti-spheroidizing effect of S can be explained with the valence electron structure data of phases. Therefore, electron theory of graphite spheroidizing can be advanced.

  2. Meat Juice Serology and Improved Food Chain Information as Control Tools for Pork-Related Public Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, E; Jukola, E; Raulo, S; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2015-09-01

    The seroprevalence of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. was studied in 1353 finishing pigs from 259 farms that were allocated according to farm types: large fattening farms (≥ 1000 pig places), small fattening farms (Trichinella spp. were detected (OD ≥ 0.3). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, T. gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of pigs. The seroprevalence of these important zoonotic pathogens was low in Finland, except that of Yersinia. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was significantly higher in pigs originating from small-scale fattening farms (P < 0.05). Strong positive correlation was observed at the animal level between Salmonella and Yersinia seropositivity and between Salmonella and Toxoplasma seropositivity (P < 0.05). We suggest that these results reflect the level and importance of biosecurity measures applied on the farms. Meat juice serology at slaughter is a useful tool for targeting measures to control these pathogens. The information obtained from analyses should be used as part of the food chain information (FCI). PMID:25439544

  3. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen Skotte;

    2013-01-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting...

  4. Optimization and Validation of a Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction with RNA Internal Control to Detect Rubella RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to a report from WHO, cases of rubella infection in Indonesia has increased up to 10-fold from 2007 to 2011. Despite no data of congenital rubella syndrome in the report, there are approximately 45,000 cases of babies born with heart failure and 0.1-0.3% live births with congenital deafness in Indonesia. Allegedly, rubella infection during pregnancy may play a role in this condition. This study aimed to optimize and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR method to detect rubella virus RNA as an aid for the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection. METHODS: Method optimization was conducted using nucleic acids extracted from Trimovax Merieux vaccine with the High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit. One step RT-qPCR was performed with Quantifast Multiplex RTPCR+R Kit. Target synthetic DNA was designed and used to determine the sensitivity of the method. RNA internal control was synthesized to control the process of extraction and amplification. RESULTS: The analytical sensitivity of this method was as low as 5 copies target synthetic DNA/μl. The mean Coefficient of Variation (CV % of the critical threshold (Ct obtained were 2.71%, 1.20%, 1.62%, and 1.59% for within run, between run, between kit lots, and between operators, respectively. Recovery of the target synthetic DNA from amniotic fluid was 100.51% (by the log copies/μl at the concentration of 1,000,000 copies/μl. CONCLUSIONS: RT-qPCR is successfully used for the detection of rubella virus RNA in vaccine and synthetic nucleic acid. With its high sensitivity, good precision and recovery, this method offers a means to improve the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in developing countries like Indonesia. KEYWORDS: congenital rubella, RT-qPCR, prenatal diagnosis, amniotic fluid.

  5. Environmental and Climatic Control on the Occurrence and Abundance of Long Chain Alkenones in Lakes of the Interior United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S.; Baker, P. A.; Grimm, E. C.; Nyren, P.; Theroux, S.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Long chain alkenones are a class of temperature sensitive lipids with great potential for quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions from continental locations. We have surveyed 57 lacustrine core-top sediments in the in the interior US for alkenones in order to constrain the environmental conditions that control the occurrence of alkenone-producing haptophytes in lakes and determine the possibility of using lacustrine alkenones to reconstruct temperature. Thirteen out of the 57 sites surveyed contain alkenones in surface sediments. Three of the 13 lakes contain abundant C37:4 alkenones as commonly found in lake sediments, whereas the rest of the lakes show a surprising absence of C37:4 alkenone. 18S Ribosomal DNA sequences amplified from the C37:4 containing lakes suggests the alkenone-producing haptophyte falls amongst the Isochrysis spp. and showcases a strong similarity to a haptophyte derived from Ace Lake, Antarctica, whereas the other lakes probably contain a different species. We also find cold, oligosaline conditions with high concentrations of sodium and sulfate promote high concentrations of alkenones. Salinity serves as a threshold control on the C37:4 alkenone such that C37:4 is only found in lakes with salinity above 2.74 g / L. Sites with the C37:4 alkenone plot along a previously published calibration. We also create a new alkenone temperature calibration using water column filters from Lake George spanning a temperature range of 8 to 24 degrees C. In addition, we obtain an alkenone- inferred temperature record from Lake George, ND for the instrumental period and a high-resolution (~20 year resolution) Holocene length record from Brush Lake, MT, in order to further assess the applicability of lacustrine alkenones for continental paleo-temperature reconstructions.

  6. Core and valence thermal vibrations in diamond, silicon, and germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, R. (School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)); Balamurugan, P. (School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India)); Mohanlal, S.K. (School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India))

    1994-08-01

    An analysis is made using published X-ray data, for the thermal vibrations in diamond, silicon, and germanium. The overall thermal vibration is split into core and valence contributions, because valence electrons can oscillate with different phase and amplitude than core electrons due to bond polarizability. Using indigenously developed computer programs the published data are analyzed. In the first phase, the overall Debye-Waller factor of diamond, Si, and Ge together with scaling and extinction factors are refined using the method of least squares. In the second phase, the core and valence contributions of the harmonic temperature factor are evaluated. Finally, in the third phase, the core and valence contributions of the anharmonic temperature factor are evaluated. The error in the fitting procedure is less than 1% for Si and Ge and about 3% for diamond. (orig.)

  7. Mn 3s exchange splitting in mixed-valence manganites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galakhov, V. R.; Demeter, M.; Bartkowski, S.; Neumann, M.; Ovechkina, N. A.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.; Mukovskii, Ya. M.; Mitchell, J.; Ederer, D. L.; Russian Academy of Sciences; Univ. of Osnabruck; Moscow State Steel and Alloys Inst.; Tulane Univ.

    2002-03-15

    We present Mn 3s x-ray photoelectron spectra of manganese oxides with the Mn formal valency from 2+ to 4+. We found that the Sr{sup 2+} doping or cation deficiency in manganites do not change the Mn 3s splitting in manganites with the Mn formal valency from 3.0+ to 3.3+. We suggest that doping holes are localized in O 2p states.

  8. Complex verbs, simple alternations: valency and verb classes in Jaminjung.

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze-Berndt, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This chapter investigates valency patterns in Jaminjung, a language of the small Jaminjungan (or Western Mirndi) subgroup of the geographically discontinuous Mirndi language family of Northern Australia. Jaminjung is a typical “Non-Pama-Nyungan” language in that grammatical roles are indicated both by case markers and by pronominal indices (for subject and object) on inflecting verbs. Its most interesting property from the point of view of investigating valency, however, is the prevalence of ...

  9. Evaluation of the effect of valence state on cerium oxide nanoparticle toxicity following intratracheal instillation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, Katherine M; Morris, Anna M; Badding, Melissa A; Barger, Mark; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Sabolsky, Edward M; Leonard, Stephen S

    2016-09-01

    Cerium (Ce) is becoming a popular metal for use in electrochemical applications. When in the form of cerium oxide (CeO2), Ce can exist in both 3 + and 4 + valence states, acting as an ideal catalyst. Previous in vitro and in vivo evidence have demonstrated that CeO2 has either anti- or pro-oxidant properties, possibly due to the ability of the nanoparticles to transition between valence states. Therefore, we chose to chemically modify the nanoparticles to shift the valence state toward 3+. During the hydrothermal synthesis process, 10 mol% gadolinium (Gd) and 20 mol% Gd, were substituted into the lattice of the CeO2 nanoparticles forming a perfect solid solution with various A-site valence states. These two Gd-doped CeO2 nanoparticles were compared to pure CeO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary characteristics indicated that doping results in minimal size and zeta potential changes but alters valence state. Following characterization, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg nanoparticles via a single intratracheal instillation. Animals were sacrificed and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and various tissues were collected to determine the effect of valence state and oxygen vacancies on toxicity 1-, 7-, or 84-day post-exposure. Results indicate that damage, as measured by elevations in lactate dehydrogenase, occurred within 1-day post-exposure and was sustained 7-day post-exposure, but subsided to control levels 84-day post-exposure. Furthermore, no inflammatory signaling or lipid peroxidation occurred following exposure with any of the nanoparticles. Our results implicate that valence state has a minimal effect on CeO2 nanoparticle toxicity in vivo. PMID:26898289

  10. Stackelberg Decision in a Supply Chain Based on Controllable Lead Time%基于可控交货期的供应链Stackelberg决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何景师; 戴航; 张智勇

    2012-01-01

    Time is a bottle-neck element of the supply chain agile operation in practice. In Stackelberg model of a supply chain between the upstream and downstream stages, a supply chain model based on controllable lead time was constructed. Through calculation of the supply chain model, this paper analyzed the influence lead time crashing cost sharing and the delay penalty impact on the lead time, order quantity and supply cost. It is pointed out that optimal lead time and order quantity decision-making existed in a supply chain, which could get the supply chain optimal decision. The result from an example revealed that the model could optimize the decision making of the supply chain upstream and downstream enterprises. Therefore, it provided a piece of scientific evidence for the planners to develop effective solutions.%时间已成为供应链敏捷运作的瓶颈要素。在供应商和分销商供应链上下游的Stackelberg模型中,本文构建了基于可变交货期的供应链决策模型。通过对供应链决策模型的计算,分析了考虑压缩交货期费用分担和延迟交货惩罚对交货期、订货量、供应链成本的影响,认为在供应商和分销商中存在最优的交货期和订货批量,可得到供应链最优的决策。算例的计算结果表明,该模型可以优化供应链上下游企业的决策,从而为规划决策者提供科学依据。

  11. Chain Sprockets Manufacturing, on Vertical Machining Center GDV400PM1F4 Updated with Numerical Control NCT®2000M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Francisc Fekete

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper content comprise a few aspects regarding processing of chain sprockets on vertical processing center GDV400PM1F4 updated by changing the original equipment CNC-2S42-65 (1Я3.035.090 with NCT®2000M, which includes in short characteristics of two CNC, the old and the new one, the constructive elements of chain sprockets processed, enunciation of mains stages of manufacturing process adopted. The aim is to manufacture chain sprockets with classic tools, bypassing the need to design and build a sprocket hob in accordance with specified chain sprockets geometry, processing is performed on a machine which technological parameters have been improved.

  12. Input-specific contributions to valence processing in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Susana S; Goosens, Ki A

    2016-10-01

    Reward and punishment are often thought of as opposing processes: rewards and the environmental cues that predict them elicit approach and consummatory behaviors, while punishments drive aversion and avoidance behaviors. This framework suggests that there may be segregated brain circuits for these valenced behaviors. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is one brain region that contributes to both types of motivated behavior. Individual neurons in the BLA can favor positive over negative valence, or vice versa, but these neurons are intermingled, showing no anatomical segregation. The amygdala receives inputs from many brain areas and current theories posit that encoding of positive versus negative valence by BLA neurons is determined by the wiring of each neuron. Specifically, many projections from other brain areas that respond to positive and negative valence stimuli and predictive cues project strongly to the BLA and likely contribute to valence processing within the BLA. Here we review three of these areas, the basal forebrain, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the ventral tegmental area, and discuss how these may promote encoding of positive and negative valence within the BLA. PMID:27634144

  13. Emotional valence and the free-energy principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Joffily

    Full Text Available The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world.

  14. Emotional valence and the free-energy principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world.

  15. 装备项目型供应链风险控制策略%Equipment Project Supply Chain Risk Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义; 钟斌

    2015-01-01

    Project supply chain management mode can effectively realize advantages complementary between the players in equipment project,and make optimization configuration of resource,which can improve the overall benefit in supply chain,at the same time,all kinds of uncertainty factors can lead to the occurrence of risk transfer behavior between supply chain players. In order to provide effective risk control measures,by means of considering the node position importance and node attribute importance,the project supply chain node importance evaluation model is constructed. To measure supply chain players risk recognition and risk control effort level,the supply chain players anti-risk effort level evaluation method is offed,finally a project supply chain profit distribution strategy based on node importance and anti-risk effort level is put forward. This strategy can effectively encourage active behavior of players in risk identification and risk control,which is a risk-sharing,benefit-sharing project supply chain cooperative game strategy.%项目型供应链管理模式能有效实现装备研制过程中行为主体间的优势互补和资源的优化配置,利于供应链整体效益的提高,但各种不确定性因素会导致主体间风险传递行为的发生。为提供风险控制有效对策,通过考虑节点位置重要度和属性重要度,构建了项目型供应链节点重要度评估模型;通过衡量行为主体风险识别和风险控制的努力程度,给出了行为主体抗风险努力程度的评价方法,最后提出了一种基于节点重要度和抗风险努力程度的项目型供应链利益分配策略,该策略能有效促使行为主体主动进行风险识别和风险控制,是一种“风险共担、利益共享”的项目型供应链合作博弈策略。

  16. The Risk of Supply Chain Financing and its Control Countermeasures%供应链融资的风险及其控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain financing is a new financial services model to effectively address the financing difficulties of SMEs. This paper analyzes the advantages of supply chain financing and its fmancing risk factor identification, and proposes that the SME Credit System should be established and improved, and a reasonable choice of the collateral, the core enterprise of the supply chain to track evaluation to strengthen the supply chain financing platform for the construction should be manipulated so that the risk of supply chain financing can be effectively controlled.%供应链融资是一种全新的金融服务模式,能有效解决中小企业融资难的问题。本文分析了供应链融资的优势及其融资风险因素的识别,认为应建立和完善中小企业的信用征信体系、合理选择质押物、对供应链核心企业进行跟踪评价、加强供应链融资信息平台的建设,以对供应链融资的风险进行有效控制。

  17. Decision-making deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Iowa Gambling Task and Prospect Valence Learning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Kang, Bit-Na; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Decision-making is the process of forming preferences for possible options, selecting and executing actions, and evaluating the outcome. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) model to investigate deficits in risk-reward related decision-making in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and to identify decision-making processes that contribute to poor IGT performance in these patients. Materials and methods Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls participated. Decision-making was measured by total net score, block net scores, and the total number of cards selected from each deck of the IGT. PVL parameters were estimated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme in OpenBugs and BRugs, its interface to R, and the estimated parameters were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U-test. Results The schizophrenia group received significantly lower total net scores compared to the control group. In terms of block net scores, an interaction effect of group × block was observed. The block net scores of the schizophrenia group did not differ across the five blocks, whereas those of the control group increased as the blocks progressed. The schizophrenia group obtained significantly lower block net scores in the fourth and fifth blocks of the IGT and selected cards from deck D (advantageous) less frequently than the control group. Additionally, the schizophrenia group had significantly lower values on the utility-shape, loss-aversion, recency, and consistency parameters of the PVL model. Conclusion These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia experience deficits in decision-making, possibly due to failure in learning the expected value of each deck, and incorporating outcome experiences of previous trials into expectancies about options in the present trial. PMID:27175079

  18. Falling chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  19. Multiplet-Splitting of the Quasi-Atomic-Like Core-Valence-Valence Auger Spectra of Zinc Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jian-Min

    2001-01-01

    Multiplet-splitting of the quasi-atomic-like core-valence-valence (CVV) Auger spectra of zinc metal is calculated by explicitly considering the so-called hole-hole interaction in the final valence states of the Auger transition. We assume that before the Auger transition occurs, the occupied valence states relax to screen the core-hole which results in a redistribution of the valence electrons, in particular within the atom that contains a hole in the core. The supercell method is used to calculate the electronic states concerned by the Auger transition, which is accomplished by the self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. In each supercell, one atom is considered to have a core-hole and many others without it. Due to relaxation and screening, the valence states at the site of the Auger transition are more localized compared with those in the ground-state metal. The multiplet peaks of the quasi-atomic-like CVV Auger spectra of zinc metal are obtained by calculating the Auger transition matrix elements between the referred states.

  20. Is Accessing of Words Affected by Affective Valence Only? A Discrete Emotion View on the Emotional Congruency Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqian; Liu, Bo; Lin, Shouwen

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the discussion on which emotion information affects word accessing. Emotion information, which is formed as a result of repeated experiences, is primary and necessary in learning and representing word meanings. Previous findings suggested that valence (i.e., positive or negative) denoted by words can be automatically activated and plays a role in many significant cognitive processes. However, there has been a lack of discussion about whether discrete emotion information (i.e., happiness, anger, sadness, and fear) is also involved in these processes. According to the hierarchy model, emotions are considered organized within an abstract-to-concrete hierarchy, in which emotion prototypes are organized following affective valence. By controlling different congruencies of emotion relations (i.e., matches or mismatches between valences and prototypes of emotion), the present study showed both an evaluative congruency effect (Experiment 1) and a discrete emotional congruency effect (Experiment 2). These findings indicate that not only affective valences but also discrete emotions can be activated under the present priming lexical decision task. However, the present findings also suggest that discrete emotions might be activated at the later priming stage as compared to valences. The present work provides evidence that information about discrete emotion could be involved in word processing. This might be a result of subjects' embodied experiences. PMID:27379000

  1. Multidimensional X-Ray Spectroscopy of Valence and Core Excitations in Cysteine

    CERN Document Server

    Biggs, Jason D; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-01-01

    Several nonlinear spectroscopy experiments which employ broadband x-ray pulses to probe the coupling between localized core and delocalized valence excitation are simulated for the amino acid cysteine at the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen and the K and L-edges of sulfur. We focus on two dimensional (2D) and 3D signals generated by two- and three-pulse stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) with frequency-dispersed probe. We show how the four-pulse x-ray signals $\\boldsymbol{k}_\\mathrm{I}=-\\boldsymbol{k}_1+\\boldsymbol{k}_2+\\boldsymbol{k}_3$ and $\\boldsymbol{k}_\\mathrm{II}=\\boldsymbol{k}_1-\\boldsymbol{k}_2+\\boldsymbol{k}_3$ can give new 3D insight into the SXRS signals. The coupling between valence- and core-excited states can be visualized in three dimensional plots, revealing the origin of the polarizability that controls the simpler pump-probe SXRS signals.

  2. Effects of valence, geometry and electronic correlations on transport in transition metal benzene sandwich molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, M; Jacob, D

    2016-11-01

    We study the impact of the valence and the geometry on the electronic structure and transport properties of different transition metal-benzene sandwich molecules bridging the tips of a Cu nanocontact. Our density-functional calculations show that the electronic transport properties of the molecules depend strongly on the molecular geometry which can be controlled by the nanocontact tips. Depending on the valence of the transition metal center certain molecules can be tuned in and out of half-metallic behaviour facilitating potential spintronics applications. We also discuss our results in the framework of an Anderson impurity model, indicating cases where the inclusion of local correlations alters the ground state qualitatively. For Co and V centered molecules we find indications of an orbital Kondo effect. PMID:27605217

  3. Social Annotation Valence: The Impact on Online Informed Consent Beliefs and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaer, Orit; Okerlund, Johanna; Westendorf, Lauren; Ball, Madeleine; Nov, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media, mobile and wearable technology, and connected devices have significantly expanded the opportunities for conducting biomedical research online. Electronic consent to collecting such data, however, poses new challenges when contrasted to traditional consent processes. It reduces the participant-researcher dialogue but provides an opportunity for the consent deliberation process to move from solitary to social settings. In this research, we propose that social annotations, embedded in the consent form, can help prospective participants deliberate on the research and the organization behind it in ways that traditional consent forms cannot. Furthermore, we examine the role of the comments’ valence on prospective participants’ beliefs and behavior. Objective This study focuses specifically on the influence of annotations’ valence on participants’ perceptions and behaviors surrounding online consent for biomedical research. We hope to shed light on how social annotation can be incorporated into digitally mediated consent forms responsibly and effectively. Methods In this controlled between-subjects experiment, participants were presented with an online consent form for a personal genomics study that contained social annotations embedded in its margins. Individuals were randomly assigned to view the consent form with positive-, negative-, or mixed-valence comments beside the text of the consent form. We compared participants’ perceptions of being informed and having understood the material, their trust in the organization seeking the consent, and their actual consent across conditions. Results We find that comment valence has a marginally significant main effect on participants’ perception of being informed (F2=2.40, P=.07); specifically, participants in the positive condition (mean 4.17, SD 0.94) felt less informed than those in the mixed condition (mean 4.50, SD 0.69, P=.09). Comment valence also had a marginal main effect on the

  4. 可编程控制器的上位链接实验研究%Study on Superior Chaining Experiment of Programmable Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀琴; 赵金宪; 桑玉军

    2000-01-01

    This article introduced the wire-splicing method of superior chaining between pro-grammable logic controller and computer, control command style of superior machine andstyle of response to superior machine's control command of inferior one.%介绍了可编程控制器与计算机进行上位链接的接线方法,上位机的控制命令格式,下位机对上位机控制命令的响应格式。

  5. 基于价值链管理的内部控制构建思想%Constructing Thoughts of Internal Control Based on Value Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其镇

    2011-01-01

    Development and application of information technology and value chain theory provide a good opportunity to improve the management level of enterprise and gain a competitive advantage. This paper, combining with the value chain theory, analyzes the key steps to build the internal control which can adapt to the management of value chain under the guidance of the internal control structure. This paper .argues that internal control should be value-added activities which take getting a competitive advantage as the strategic goal, take theall kinds of "flow" in business as the main line of control and constantly self-perfect.%信息技术与价值链理论的发展与应用,为提高企业管理水平,获得竞争优势提供了一个良好的契机.本文结合价值链理论,分析了在内部控制结构指导下构建一个能适应价值链管理的内部控制的关键步骤.本文认为,内部控制应是一个以获取竞争优势为战略目标,以企业内各种"流"为控制主线并能不断自我完善的增值活动.

  6. A Research on Coordination of VMI & TPL Supply Chain under Centralized Control%集中控制型VMI&TPL供应链的协调研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 赵道致; 何龙飞

    2012-01-01

    以基本的RS契约为基础,研究了如何实现随机需求下集中控制型VMI&TPL供应链的协调.鉴于基本的RS契约失效,设计了一种由各成员共担库存风险的风险共担型RS契约,进一步提出了基于不对称Nash协商的风险共担型RS契约.研究表明,风险共担型RS契约仅能实现供应链整体期望收益的Pareto最优,而基于不对称Nash协商的风险共担型RS契约则能同时实现供应链整体期望收益的Pareto最优和各成员期望收益的Pareto改进.%The coordination problem of a supply chain under vendor managed inventory (VMI) mode with third party logistics (TPL) is studied in this paper. In the supply chain, the demands are subject to random disturbance. It is assume that the supply chain is coordinated by revenue sharing (RS) contract and it is operated under centralized control mode. Consider that the basic RS contract is no longer effective, an RS contract with the stock risk shared by retailer, supplier, and TPL is proposed to coordinate the supply chain. This contract is further extended to the RS contract combined with risk-sharing under Asymmetric Nash Negotiation. With these contracts, analysis is carried out. Results show that while the RS contract with risk-sharing can maximize the expected revenue of whole supply chain, the one with risk-sharing under Asymmetric Nash Negotiation can coordinate the supply chain well and at the same time the Pareto improvement for every member's expected revenue can be achieved.

  7. Unwrapping Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Cambou, A D; Hamm, E; Hanna, J A; Menon, N; Santangelo, C D; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    A loop of chain can move along its own tangents, maintaining a steady shape. An open-ended chain undergoing a nontrivial motion must change its shape. One consequence is that chains pulled around objects will fail to follow the contours of the objects, unwrapping themselves instead. This short note accompanies a fluid dynamics video submission (83068) to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2012.

  8. Falling chains

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C W; Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional falling motion of a bungee chain suspended from a rigid support and of a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Their Lagrangians are found to contain no explicit time dependence. As a result, these falling chains are conservative systems. Each of their Lagrange's equations of motion is shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show in particular that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when the transferred link is emitted by the emitting subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling bungee chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. In the simplified one-dimensional treatment, the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the falling bungee chain is found to be converted by the chain tension at the rigid support into the internal kinetic energy of the chain. However, as t...

  9. The acoustic correlates of valence depend on emotion family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2014-07-01

    The voice expresses a wide range of emotions through modulations of acoustic parameters such as frequency and amplitude. Although the acoustics of individual emotions are well understood, attempts to describe the acoustic correlates of broad emotional categories such as valence have yielded mixed results. In the present study, we analyzed the acoustics of emotional valence for different families of emotion. We divided emotional vocalizations into "motivational," "moral," and "aesthetic" families as defined by the OCC (Ortony, Clore, and Collins) model of emotion. Subjects viewed emotional scenarios and were cued to vocalize congruent exclamations in response to them, for example, "Yay!" and "Damn!". Positive valence was weakly associated with high-pitched and loud vocalizations. However, valence interacted with emotion family for both pitch and amplitude. A general acoustic code for valence does not hold across families of emotion, whereas family-specific codes provide a more accurate description of vocal emotions. These findings are consolidated into a set of "rules of expression" relating vocal dimensions to emotion dimensions.

  10. Fresh Electricity Supplier Cold-chain Logistics Cost Control%生鲜电商冷链物流的成本控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学工; 齐美丽

    2016-01-01

    It becomes normal for domestic e-business industry to set foot in the fresh food market nowadays, but fresh food cold-chain logistics has become a bottleneck restraining its development. The article first analyzed the current development of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics, the factors contributing to it and three main cold-chain operation models used;then, the article revealed that the fresh food cold-chain logistics had low level and absence problems in infrastructure, market degree and standardization systems in China, which led to non-profit of 95%e-business;in addition, the article divided and found out logistics cost structures of different types according to the process structure of the fresh food cold-chain logistics, analyzed the reasons why the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics of different types had high costs, adopted the activity cost method to clear up and calculate the cost of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics, gave the calculation example of e-business calculating the cold-chain logistics costs, and hence arrived at the solution that effective costs control of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics needed to optimize the storage, transportation frequency and transportation distance etc. through the example; finally, according to the situation, the costs of the fresh food e-business cold-chain logistics were high all the way, the article pertinently brought up strategies and suggestions about how to control the costs of the fresh food e-business cold-chain.%尽管国内电商产业涉足生鲜品已成为常态,但生鲜品冷链物流成为制约其发展的瓶颈。剖析生鲜电商冷链物流发展现状、成因及目前主要采用的三种冷链运营模式。揭示我国生鲜品冷链物流存在基础设施落后、市场化程度偏低及标准化体系缺位等问题,导致95%生鲜电商处于亏损状态。根据生鲜品冷链物流流程构造,划分并找出不同类型物流成本

  11. Structure and Stability of Monatomic Metallic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Inder P.; Sen, Prasenjit; Ciraci, S.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated atomic and electronic structure of Au and Al monatomic chains by using first-principle plane wave method within density-functional theory. Despite their different valencies, Au and Al form planar zigzag chains with each atom having four nearest neighbors. The zigzag structure is stable against linearization and non-planar deformations. We performed an extensive charge density analysis and finite temperature calculations to reveal the origin of the unusual atomic structure in these one dimensional metallic systems. The implications of the zigzag structure on the electronic properties and the balistic electron conduction have been examined.

  12. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. pri

  13. Effects of diaphragm stretching on posterior chain muscle kinematics and rib cage and abdominal excursion: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. González-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Few studies have explored the effects of stretching techniques on diaphragm and spine kinematics. Objective To determine whether the application of diaphragm stretching resulted in changes in posterior chain muscle kinematics and ribcage and abdominal excursion in healthy subjects. Method Eighty healthy adults were included in this randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, which received a diaphragmatic stretching technique, or the placebo group, which received a sham-ultrasound procedure. The duration of the technique, the position of participants, and the therapist who applied the technique were the same for both treatments. Participant assessment (cervical range of movement, lumbar flexibility, flexibility of the posterior chain, and rib cage and abdominal excursion was performed at baseline and immediately after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Results The mean between-group difference [95% CI] for the ribcage excursion after technique at xiphoid level was 2.48 [0.97 to 3.99], which shows significant differences in this outcome. The remaining between-group analysis showed significant differences in cervical extension, right and left flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level (p<0.05 in favor of the experimental group. Conclusion Diaphragm stretching generates a significant improvement in cervical extension, right and left cervical flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level compared to a placebo technique in healthy adults.

  14. Contractual Control in the Supply Chain. On Corporate Social Responsibility, Codes of Conduct, Contracts and (Avoiding) Liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vytopil, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses a number of questions that have been raised in the wake of the Rana Plaza factory collapse. It focuses on the extent of the legal responsibility and liability for CSR violations in the supply chains of MNCs in the Netherlands, England and California (United States). Many MNCs

  15. Structural determination of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) containing high degree of controlled long-chain branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Susanta; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Pedersen, Walther Batsberg;

    2009-01-01

    This work highlights an attempt to characterize the degree and nature of long-chain branching (LCB) in an unknown sample of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM). Two EPDM rubbers selected for this study were comparable in comonomer compositions but significantly different with respect to molar ...

  16. Differences in neural activity when processing emotional arousal and valence in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Goh, Suzanne; Russell, James A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty recognizing and interpreting facial expressions of emotion, which may impair their ability to navigate and communicate successfully in their social, interpersonal environments. Characterizing specific differences between individuals with ASD and their typically developing (TD) counterparts in the neural activity subserving their experience of emotional faces may provide distinct targets for ASD interventions. Thus we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a parametric experimental design to identify brain regions in which neural activity correlated with ratings of arousal and valence for a broad range of emotional faces. Participants (51 ASD, 84 TD) were group-matched by age, sex, IQ, race, and socioeconomic status. Using task-related change in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal as a measure, and covarying for age, sex, FSIQ, and ADOS scores, we detected significant differences across diagnostic groups in the neural activity subserving the dimension of arousal but not valence. BOLD-signal in TD participants correlated inversely with ratings of arousal in regions associated primarily with attentional functions, whereas BOLD-signal in ASD participants correlated positively with arousal ratings in regions commonly associated with impulse control and default-mode activity. Only minor differences were detected between groups in the BOLD signal correlates of valence ratings. Our findings provide unique insight into the emotional experiences of individuals with ASD. Although behavioral responses to face-stimuli were comparable across diagnostic groups, the corresponding neural activity for our ASD and TD groups differed dramatically. The near absence of group differences for valence correlates and the presence of strong group differences for arousal correlates suggest that individuals with ASD are not atypical in all aspects of emotion-processing. Studying these similarities

  17. Topological Structure of Phase Vortex in Resonating Valence Bond Superconductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xu-Guang; DUAN Yi-Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Schrodinger equation and the ψ-mapping theory, the accurate expression for the gradient of resonating valence bond superconducting phase Θs is found. The expression of (△→)Θs is just the velocity flow (V) without considering the coefficient. The curl of (△→)Θs is where the vortex lies, and has important relation to δ2(ψ) and an important relation to the zero points of resonating valence bond superconducting order parameter ψ. The topological structure of the vortex is characterized by the ψ-mapping topological numbers Hopf-index and Brouwer degrees. The Ginzberg-Landau equation in resonating valence bond state also is discussed in this theory. The magnetic property is discussed also.

  18. Valence Electronic Structure of Aqueous Solutions: Insights from Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Bradforth, Stephen E.

    2016-05-01

    The valence orbital electron binding energies of water and of embedded solutes are crucial quantities for understanding chemical reactions taking place in aqueous solution, including oxidation/reduction, transition-metal coordination, and radiation chemistry. Their experimental determination based on liquid-photoelectron spectroscopy using soft X-rays is described, and we provide an overview of valence photoelectron spectroscopy studies reported to date. We discuss principal experimental aspects and several theoretical approaches to compute the measured binding energies of the least tightly bound molecular orbitals. Solutes studied are presented chronologically, from simple electrolytes, via transition-metal ion solutions and several organic and inorganic molecules, to biologically relevant molecules, including aqueous nucleotides and their components. In addition to the lowest vertical ionization energies, the measured valence photoelectron spectra also provide information on adiabatic ionization energies and reorganization energies for the oxidation (ionization) half-reaction. For solutes with low solubility, resonantly enhanced ionization provides a promising alternative pathway.

  19. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  20. Recognizing the emotional valence of names: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional valence only for nouns. This might reflect automatic attention directed towards emotional stimuli. The absence of such an effect for names supports the notion that the emotional meaning carried by names is accessed after word recognition and person identification. In addition, both names with negative valence and emotional nouns elicited late positive effects, which have been associated with evaluation of emotional significance. This positive effect started earlier for nouns than for names, but with similar durations. Our results suggest that distinct neural systems are involved in the retrieval of names' and nouns' emotional meaning.

  1. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Wah Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM. Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF forming and rupture process. However, the conduction mechanism of resistive switching memory varies considerably depending on the material used in the dielectric layer and selection of electrodes. Among the popular observations are the Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT and hopping conduction. In this article, we will conduct a survey on several published valence change resistive switching memories with a particular interest in the I-V characteristic and the corresponding conduction mechanism.

  2. Fully automated incremental evaluation of MP2 and CCSD(T) core, core-valence and valence correlation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Core- and core-valence correlation contributions are often neglected in studies of larger systems with many cores. The reason is mostly the computational effort, not the insignificance of the neglected effects. The so-called incremental scheme offers a simple way to evaluate these contributions with quantum chemical standard codes. A recently proposed coupled cluster evaluation of core-core and core-valence correlation effects within the incremental scheme has been extended to perturbative treatments. The accuracy of the approach is demonstrated at the MP2 and CCSD(T) level of theory. - Abstract: A recently proposed coupled cluster evaluation of core-core and core-valence correlation effects within the incremental scheme has been extended to perturbative treatments. The accuracy of the approach is demonstrated at the MP2 and CCSD(T) level of theory for various systems from different areas of chemistry, i.e. a binuclear titanium complex, a diallylmagnesium compound, a Hg4 cluster and various hydration complexes of the sodium cation. Besides the convergence of individual correlation contributions arising from the core and/or valence electron systems the basis set dependence of the contributions was also monitored. Results within chemical accuracy of 1 kcal/mol in the total energies are typically obtained at third order of the incremental expansion. Furthermore a few reasonable simplifications of the incremental core-valence treatment are proposed, which allow a large number of individual calculations to be omitted a priori without a significant loss of accuracy.

  3. Bond—Valence Sum and Distortion of Coordination Polyhedra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章礼明

    1993-01-01

    By using the Lagrange's intermediate value theorem,it is derived mathematically that the structur-al distortion of a coordination polyhedron may lead to an increase in bond-valence sum of the cen-tral atom of ion .The applicabilities of the bond-valence model are discussed in the following two cases:the modeling of crystal structure ,and the indication of distortion degree of a coordination polyhedron.Also it is shown that a distorted polyhedron should be in favor of a longer average bond length or a smaller coordination number.

  4. Superconductivity mechanism in metal oxides with variable valency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper it is shown, that the metals with the mixed valency can have the subsystem of the local electron pairs. The local pairs may appreciably change the optical elastic modulus and the lattice parameters. The additions to the elastic modulus and the lattice parameters depend on concentration of the local pairs and temperature. The peculiarity of these dependences is the extrema. The concentration and temperature dependences of the additions are determined by intercentre correlations and pair delocalisation (pair transfer) in the subsystem of the local pairs. These results were used for the construction of the high-temperature superconductivity mechanism for the metals with the mixed valency

  5. Self-Assembly of Emulsion Droplets into Polymer Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargteil, Dylan; McMullen, Angus; Brujic, Jasna

    We experimentally investigate `beads-on-a-string' models of polymers using the spontaneous assembly of emulsion droplets into linear chains. Droplets functionalized with surface-mobile DNA allow for programmable 'monomers' through which we can influence the three-dimensional structure of the assembled 'polymer'. Such model polymers can be used to study conformational changes of polypeptides and the principles governing protein folding. In our system, we find that droplets bind via complementary DNA strands that are recruited into adhesion patches. Recruitment is driven by the DNA hybridization energy, and is limited by the energy cost of surface deformation and the entropy loss of the mobile linkers, yielding adhesion patches of a characteristic size with a given number of linkers. By tuning the initial surface coverage of linkers, we control valency between the droplets to create linear or branched polymer chains. We additionally control the flexibility of the model polymers by varying the salt concentration and study their dynamics between extended and collapsed states. This system opens the possibility of programming stable three-dimensional structures, such as those found within folded proteins.

  6. Elucidation and Control of an Intramolecular Charge Transfer Property of Fucoxanthin by a Modification of Its Polyene Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosumi, Daisuke; Kajikawa, Takayuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Sugisaki, Mitsuru; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Katsumura, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Fucoxanthin is an essential pigment for the highly efficient light-harvesting function of marine algal photosynthesis. It exhibits excited state properties attributed to intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in polar environments due to the presence of the carbonyl group in its polyene backbone. This report describes the excited state properties of fucoxanthin homologues with four to eight conjugated double bonds in various solvents using the femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results clarified that fucoxanthin homologues with longer polyene chains did not possess pronounced ICT spectroscopic signatures, while the shorter fucoxanthin homologues had a strong ICT character, even in a nonpolar solvent. On the basis of the observations, we quantitatively correlated the ICT character in the excited state to the conjugated polyene chain lengths of fucoxanthin molecules. PMID:26274069

  7. Application of data mining methods to establish systems for early warning and proactive control in food supply chain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y

    2010-01-01

    Food quality problems in Food Supply Chain Networks (FSCN) have not only brought losses to the food industry, but also risks to the health of consumers. In current FSCN, Information Systems are widely used. Those information systems contain the data about various aspects of food production (e.g. primary inputs, operations) in different stages of FSCN. By applying Data Mining (DM) methods on those data sets, managers can identify the causes of encountered new problems, and also predict and pre...

  8. European trial of free light chain removal by extended haemodialysis in cast nephropathy (EuLITE): A randomised control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Billingham Lucinda; Weisel Katja; Heyne Nils; Cook Mark; Hutchison Colin A; Bradwell Arthur; Cockwell Paul

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and when severe is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The principal cause of severe renal failure is cast nephropathy, a direct consequence of high concentrations of monoclonal free light chains (FLCs) in patients' sera. FLC removal by extended haemodialysis, using a high cut-off dialyser, has recently been described as a novel therapeutic option. Methods The EUropean trial of free LIght...

  9. Evidence for equilibrium gels of valence-limited particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, Nikola A; Zukoski, Charles F

    2014-10-21

    We explore the formation and structure of gels produced from solutions of the aromatic dipeptide derivative molecule fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Mixing these solutions with water results in the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF molecules into space-filling fibrous networks, exhibiting mechanical properties characteristic of gels. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observe the gel transition in situ and find that, upon the addition of water, the solution undergoes a rapid transition to a non-equilibrium state forming ∼ 2 μm spheres, followed by the formation of fibers 5-10 nm in diameter, nucleating at a sphere surface and expanding into the solution as the remaining spheres dissolve, extending the network. The gel aging process is associated with the network becoming increasingly uniform through apparent redissolution/reaggregation of the Fmoc-FF molecules, corresponding to the observed increase in the elastic modulus to a plateau value. We demonstrate that this increase in uniformity and elastic modulus can be expedited by controlling the temperature of the system, as well as that these gels are thermally reversible, further indicating that the system is in equilibrium in its fibrous network state. X-ray scattering information suggests that the packing of the molecules within a fiber is based on π-π stacking of β-sheets, consistent with models proposed in the literature for similar systems, implying that each particle (molecule) possesses a limited number of interaction sites. These observations provide experimental evidence that these low molecular weight gelator molecules can be considered valence-limited "patchy" particles, which associate at low enough temperature to form equilibrium gels. PMID:25155031

  10. Speed Adaptive Inversion Control of PMSM for Chain Gun%链式炮PMSM电机转速自适应反演控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文彬; 张铭; 秦鹏飞; 彭金伟

    2011-01-01

    The speed stability of external power motor affects fire ratio of chain gun heavily. The adaptive inversion controller is designed to satisfy the high performance of rotate speed of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) for chain gun system. Real-time adaptive parameter estimation is combined to restrain the effect of parametric uncertainty and load torque disturbance. Through design input control law to stator resistance, moment of inertia, friction coefficient, load torque, etc progress online estimation in the light of adaptive estimation law. The simulation results show the control strategy is perfect efficient to reduce the effect of variable parameter and load. This robust approach should be adopted in controlling of chain gun.%链式炮外能源电机转速稳定性对其射速影响很大.提出交流永磁同步电机(permanent magnet synchronous motor,PMSM)的变参自适应反演速度稳定控制器设计方案,采用实时在线的自适应参数估计和反演控制相结合的方法,通过设计恰当的输入控制律,并对定子电阻、转动惯量、摩擦系数、负载转矩等参数按照设计的自适应估计律在线估计.试验结果表明:该控制策略能有效地抑制多参数摄动和负载扰动对转速的影响,可以作为一种较好的鲁棒方法在链炮伺服电机控制中采用.

  11. 粮食干燥加热链条炉的IMC温控研究%STUDY ON IMC TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF CHAIN BOILER FOR DRYING AND HEATING GRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉洁; 王德吉

    2013-01-01

    粮食干燥加热链条炉是一个多因素、强耦合、大滞后、非线性的大热容设备,具有典型的时滞和非线性特性,传统的方法无法得到较好的控制效果.分析对象特性,采用非线性IMC即内模控制原理,提出了一种根据链条炉温度控制过程中各阶段温度的不同变化趋势所对应的温度控制器的设计方法,仿真结果表明,该方法十分有效.%A chain boiler for drying and heating grains is multi-factor,strong-coupling,large-lag and nonlinear equipment with large thermal capacity and typical time lag and nonlinear characteristics,so that satisfied temperature control effect is difficult to realize by the conventional temperature control method.According to the object characteristics,we put forwards a design method of a temperature controller for the chain boiler according to different temperature change trends at different stages by using nonlinear IMC (internal model control) principle.The stimulation result showed that the method was effective.

  12. Regional versus Global Entanglement in Resonating-Valence-Bond states

    CERN Document Server

    Chandran, A; Sen, A; Sen, U; Vedral, V; Chandran, Anushya; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Vedral, Vlatko

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of resonating valence bond states on two and higher dimensional lattices, which play an important role in the theory of conductivity. We show that these states are genuinely multipartite entangled, while there is only a negligible amount of two-site entanglement. We comment on possible physical implications of our findings.

  13. Recognizing the Emotional Valence of Names: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional…

  14. Raman Sideband Cooling of Two-Valence-Electron Fermionic Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-Hui; XU Xin-Ye

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for laser cooling two-valence-electron fermionic atoms. Our protocol employs resolved-sideband cooling on the stimulated Raman transition between the two magnetic sublevels (m = F and m = F - 1) of the ground state with total anguiar momentum F. The optical pumping from m = F - 1 to 1 Pi are used to decouple atoms in the m = F - 1 state. We calculate the Raman coupling generated by an engineered optical lattice. The result shows that it is possible to laser cool the two-valence-electron fermionic atoms to the ground state. The atoms in the ground state provide a new system for quantum optics.%@@ We propose a method for laser cooling two-valence-electron fermionic atoms.Our protocol employs resolved- sideband cooling on the stimulated Raman transition between the two magnetic sublevels (m=F and m = F- 1) of the ground state with total angular momentum F.The optical pumping from m = F - 1 to p are used to decouple atoms in the m = F - 1 state.We calculate the Raman coupling generated by an engineered optical lattice.The result shows that it is possible to laser cool the two-valence-electron fermionic atoms to the ground state.The atoms in the ground state provide a new system for quantum optics.

  15. Tagging Multiple Emotional Stimuli: Negative Valence Has Little Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Derrick G.; Blagrove, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Six experiments examined the influence of emotional valence on the tagging and enumeration of multiple targets. Experiments 1, 5 and 6 found that there was no difference in the efficiency of tagging/enumerating multiple negative or positive stimuli. Experiment 2 showed that, when neutral-expression face distractors were present, enumerating…

  16. Valence orbital momentum distributions in s-triazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valence orbital momentum distributions, rho(q), are obtained for s-triazine, C3H3N3, from (e,2e) spectroscopy and split valence SCFMO calculations. The separation energy spectrum simulated using the calculated rho(q) and ionization energies from Green's function calculations is in good agreement with experiment from 9--20 eV, but at higher energy the simulated spectrum has higher intensity than experiment, indicating that the Green's function calculation underestimates the complexity of the inner valence region. The calculated momentum distributions have their maxima at higher values than observed experimentally for the outermost valence orbitals, but the difference in momentum distributions between the antisymmetric 4e' N2p lone pair orbital of s-triazine and the N2p lone pair orbital of ammonia is reproduced well by the calculations. Similarly, calculated and experimental differences of Fourier transformed rho(q) for the 4e' and 3a/sup prime/1 N2p lone pair orbitals of triazine are in agreement and can be interpreted using plots of 4e' and 3a/sup /1 orbital averages and differences from the SCFMO calculations. The Fourier transformed momentum distribution of the 4e' orbital clearly shows the presence of both nearest-neighbor C and second-nearest-neighbor N interactions

  17. Engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides: chain length control in an octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ikuro; Oguro, Satoshi; Utsumi, Yoriko; Sano, Yukie; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2005-09-14

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) produces a variety of plant secondary metabolites with remarkable structural diversity and biological activities (e.g., chalcones, stilbenes, benzophenones, acrydones, phloroglucinols, resorcinols, pyrones, and chromones). Here we describe an octaketide-producing novel plant-specific type III PKS from aloe (Aloe arborescens) sharing 50-60% amino acid sequence identity with other plant CHS-superfamily enzymes. A recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed seven successive decarboxylative condensations of malonyl-CoA to yield aromatic octaketides SEK4 and SEK4b, the longest polyketides known to be synthesized by the structurally simple type III PKS. Surprisingly, site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a single residue Gly207 (corresponding to the CHS's active site Thr197) determines the polyketide chain length and product specificity. Small-to-large substitutions (G207A, G207T, G207M, G207L, G207F, and G207W) resulted in loss of the octaketide-forming activity and concomitant formation of shorter chain length polyketides (from triketide to heptaketide) including a pentaketide chromone, 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methylchromone, and a hexaketide pyrone, 6-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone, depending on the size of the side chain. Notably, the functional diversity of the type III PKS was shown to evolve from simple steric modulation of the chemically inert single residue lining the active-site cavity accompanied by conservation of the Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad. This provided novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important plant polyketides. PMID:16144421

  18. Study of innovative methods of control in the cereal productive chain for the production of beer and spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Sileoni, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Researches performed during the PhD course intended to assess innovative applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in reflectance (NIR) in the production chain of beer. The purpose is to measure by NIR the "malting quality" (MQ) parameter of barley, to monitor the malting process and to know if a certain type of barley is suitable for the production of beer and spirits. Moreover, NIR will be applied to monitor the brewing process. First of all, it was possible to check the quality of the...

  19. 电煤供应链多级库存控制策略研究%Study on power coal supply chain inventory control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆建; 滕川川

    2013-01-01

    本文分析了电煤供应链库存系统的现状以及存在的问题,阐述了现有的库存控制策略及其优缺点,并在此基础上提出了基于第三方物流的电煤供应链库存管理模式,分析了该模式的优点及目标,并讨论了构建Web服务模式的系统构架,最后得出结论该模式有利于提高物流运营效率,增强电煤供应链的竞争力。%This paper analyzes the current situation and existing problems of coal supply chain inventory system in China. The advantages and disadvantages of existing inventory control strategy have been expounded in detail. And then, the third party logistics supply chain inventory management model has been put forward. The advantages and objectives of the model have also been analyzed. The system framework of Web service model establishment has been discussed. Final y this paper comes to a conclusion that the model can improve the ef iciency of logistics operations, and enhance the competitiveness of the coal supply chain.

  20. A single session of open kinetic chain movements emphasizing speed improves speed of movement and modifies postural control in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Vicki L; Ivanova, Tanya D; Garland, S Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Little attention has been given to training speed of movement, even though functional activities require quick submaximal contractions. Closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises are considered more functional; however, the best method for training speed is not known. A single bout of open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises emphasizing speed was performed to determine whether movement velocity and muscle activation would improve in a single session and whether the improvements transfer to a physiological balance task. Eleven participants <1 year post-stroke performed an arm raise task before and after a single session of fast OKC exercises. Surface electromyography (EMG) from soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, peak velocity and average power were recorded during the OKC exercises. EMG from SOL, TA, BF and RF and center of pressure (COP) velocity were measured during arm raise task. At the end of the OKC exercises, velocity, power and TA, BF and RF EMG area increased. The arm acceleration and BF EMG area increased significantly during the arm raise. The improvements observed at the end of the OKC exercises transferred to the arm raise task. The improvements in balance were comparable to those previously seen after CKC exercises. PMID:26863374

  1. European trial of free light chain removal by extended haemodialysis in cast nephropathy (EuLITE: A randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billingham Lucinda

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and when severe is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The principal cause of severe renal failure is cast nephropathy, a direct consequence of high concentrations of monoclonal free light chains (FLCs in patients' sera. FLC removal by extended haemodialysis, using a high cut-off dialyser, has recently been described as a novel therapeutic option. Methods The EUropean trial of free LIght chain removal by exTEnded haemodialysis in cast nephropathy (EuLITE trial is a prospective, randomised, multicentre, open label clinical trial to investigate the clinical benefits of FLC removal haemodialysis in patients with cast nephropathy, dialysis dependent acute renal failure and de novo multiple myeloma. Recruitment commenced in May 2008. In total, 90 patients will be recruited. Participants will be randomised, centrally, upon enrolment, to either trial chemotherapy and FLC removal haemodialysis or trial chemotherapy and standard high flux haemodialysis. Trial chemotherapy consists of bortezomib, doxorubicin and dexamethasone. FLC removal haemodialysis is undertaken with two Gambro HCO 1100 dialysers in series using an intensive treatment schedule. The primary outcome for the study is independence of dialysis at 3 months. Secondary outcomes are: duration of dialysis, reduction in serum FLC concentrations; myeloma response and survival. Hypothesis FLC removal haemodialysis will increase the rate of renal recovery in patients with severe renal failure secondary to cast nephropathy in de novo multiple myeloma. Trial registration ISRCTN45967602

  2. Fatty acid biosynthesis VII. Substrate control of chain-length of products synthesised by rat liver fatty acid synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1970-01-01

    - 1. Gas-liquid and paper chromatography have been used to determine the chain-lengths of fatty acids synthesised by purified rat liver fatty acid synthetase from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA, [1,3-14C2]malonyl-CoA and from [1-14C]acetyl-CoA plus partially purified rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. - 2....... A wide range (C4:0–C18:0) of fatty acids was synthesised and the proportions were modified by substrate concentrations in the same manner as for purified rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase. - 3. The relative amount of radioactivity incorporated from added acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA depended...... on the substrate concentrations used. At excess acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, greater amounts of acetyl-CoA were incorporated than theoretically expected from the malonyl-CoA pathway. At excess malonyl-CoA, less acetyl-CoA was incorporated than theoretically expected. - 4. An increase in the chain-length of fatty...

  3. Abnormal physics of group-II telluride system:valence contribution of d electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan He; Dong You-Zhong; Huang Yan; Chen Xiao-Shuang

    2011-01-01

    The physical trend of group-II tellurides is unexpected and contrary to the conventional wisdom. The present firstprinciples calculations give fundamental insights into the extent to which group-II telluride compounds present special properties upon mixing the d valence character.Our results provide explanations for the unexpected experimental observations based on the abnormal binding ordering of metal d electrons and their strong perturbation to the band edge states. The insights into the binary tellurides are useful for the study and control of the structural and chemical perturbation in their ternary alloys and heterostructures.

  4. Key Control Points in Banana Supply Chain Quality and Safety Management%香蕉供应链质量安全关键控制点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴梅; 张耀荔; 陈静; 韩雅菘

    2011-01-01

    利用HACCP质量管理体系综合评价香蕉供应链各个环节中潜在的危害,并且对产地选择、生产管理、贮藏运输及销地催熟4个关键控制点进行了研究.%The paper uses the HACCP quality management system to evaluate comprehensively the potential risks in the various links of the banana supply chain and studies the four key control points, namely growing place selection, good growing practice, storage and transportation, and sales place ripening.

  5. Hemispheric processing of differently valenced and self-relevant attachment words in middle-aged married and separated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussell, Nicola J; Rowe, Angela C; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The reliance in experimental psychology on testing undergraduate populations with relatively little life experience, and/or ambiguously valenced stimuli with varying degrees of self-relevance, may have contributed to inconsistent findings in the literature on the valence hypothesis. To control for these potential limitations, the current study assessed lateralised lexical decisions for positive and negative attachment words in 40 middle-aged male and female participants. Self-relevance was manipulated in two ways: by testing currently married compared with previously married individuals and by assessing self-relevance ratings individually for each word. Results replicated a left hemisphere advantage for lexical decisions and a processing advantage of emotional over neutral words but did not support the valence hypothesis. Positive attachment words yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the right hemisphere, while emotional words (irrespective of valence) yielded a processing advantage over neutral words in the left hemisphere. Both self-relevance manipulations were unrelated to lateralised performance. The role of participant sex and age in emotion processing are discussed as potential modulators of the present findings.

  6. The anatomy of th e relatedness means:Valency theory revisited and compared

    OpenAIRE

    Med HAFSI

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review the author's valency theory inorder toclarify some important issues neglected in previous studies. First I have discussed therelationship between valency theory and drive theory. Drives were integrated asindependent elements whose role is to energize and activate the valency structure.Their content and goal is determined by the nature of valency structure. Unlike Freud,I do not thus conceive of them as the ultimate or primary motivational force. ...

  7. Simulations with different lattice Dirac operators for valence and sea quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Baer, O.; Rupak, G.; Shoresh, N

    2002-01-01

    We discuss simulations with different lattice Dirac operators for sea and valence quarks. A goal of such a "mixed" action approach is to probe deeper the chiral regime of QCD by enabling simulations with light valence quarks. This is achieved by using chiral fermions as valence quarks while computationally inexpensive fermions are used in the sea sector. Specifically, we consider Wilson sea quarks and Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks. The local Symanzik action for this mixed theory is derived t...

  8. Chain Gang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters. Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  9. Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Localized via Chained Fusion of Discrete and Continuous Epipolar Geometry, IMU and Odometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy.

  10. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  11. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents…

  12. Spin Dynamics and Magnetic Ordering in Mixed Valence Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, S. M.; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Axe, J. D.;

    1978-01-01

    Neutron scattering measurements are reported on the mixed valence compounds Ce//1// minus //xTh//x and TmSe. The chi double prime (Q, omega ) as derived from the inelastic spectra of Ce//0//. //7//4Th//0//. //2//6 shows a peak in the gamma phase near 20. 0 meV and shifts abruptly to greater than 70....... 2 K. The magnetic phase diagram is understood as a successive domain reorientation and a metamagnetic phase transition for T less than 3 K with increasing field. The mixed valence nature manifests itself in a reduced moment and a markedly altered crystal field. Another sample of TmSe with a lattice...

  13. Realistic estimate of valence transversity distributions from inclusive dihadron production

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Guagnelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets make it possible to perform a flavor separation of the valence components of the transversity distribution, using di-hadron fragmentation functions taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in e+e- annihilation. The e+e- data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. Then, the transversity distribution has been extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for deep-inelastic scattering off proton targets. Our results represent the most accurate estimate of the uncertainties on the valence components of the transversity distribution currently available.

  14. Realistic estimate of valence transversity from dihadron production

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We have updated our extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. The most recent COMPASS data for proton and deuteron targets, complemented by previous HERMES data on the proton, make it possible to perform a flavor separation of the valence components of the transversity distribution, using di-hadron fragmentation functions taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The $e^+ e^-$ data from BELLE have been reanalyzed to reach a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function. Our results represent the most accurate estimate of the uncertainties on the valence components of the transversity distribution currently available.

  15. Attosecond photoionization dynamics with stimulated core-valence transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jhih-An; Rohringer, Nina; Dahlström, Jan Marcus

    2016-03-01

    We investigate ionization of neon atoms by an isolated attosecond pump pulse in the presence of two coherent extreme ultraviolet or x-ray probe fields. The probe fields are tuned to a core-valence transition in the residual ion and induce spectral shearing of the photoelectron distributions. We show that the photoelectron-ion coincidence signal contains an interference pattern that depends on the temporal structure of the attosecond pump pulse and the stimulated core-valence transition. Many-body perturbation theory is used to compute "atomic response times" for the processes and we find strikingly different behavior for stimulation to the outer-core hole (2 p ↔2 s ) and stimulation to the inner-core hole (2 p ↔1 s ). The response time of the inner-core transition is found to be comparable to that of state-of-the-art laser-based characterization techniques for attosecond pulses.

  16. Interchannel coupling effects in the valence photoionization of SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jobin; Lucchese, Robert; Rescigno, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex Kohn and polyatomic Schwinger variational techniques have been employed to illustrate the interchannel coupling correlation effects in the valence photoionization dynamics of SF6. Partial photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters of six valence subshells (1t1 g, 5t1 u, 1t2 u, 3eg, 1t2 g, 4t1 u) are discussed in the framework of several theoretical and experimental studies. The complex Kohn results are in rather good agreement with experimental results, indicative of the fact that the interchannel coupling effects alter the photoionization dynamics significantly. We find that the dominant effect of interchannel coupling is to reduce the magnitude of shape resonant cross sections near threshold and to induce resonant features in other channels to which resonances are coupled.

  17. Chain Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-er

    2004-01-01

    By means of the idea of measurements on the crossed space-time nonlocal observables, we extend the mechanism for the two-way quantum teleportation to the chain teleportation among N spatially separated spin-1/2 systems. Since in the process only the local interactions are used, the microcausality is automatically satisfied.

  18. 随机环境中受控分枝过程的稳定性%STABILITY OF CONTROLLED BRANCHING CHAINS IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟刚; 胡迪鹤

    2009-01-01

    本文研究了控制函数独立同分布,并且第n代的繁殖情况取决于环境的随机环境中分枝过程.给出了该模型稳定的充分条件,当环境平稳遍历时,得到了过程几乎处处灭绝的充分条件.%We consider controlled branching chains in random environments, that the controlled functions are i.i.d. random variables and the reproduction of an individual in the n-th season depends on the environments. Some results on process stability are shown. The extinction probabilities are given when environments are stationary and ergodic.

  19. Modular magnetic field on the z-direction on a chain of nuclear spin system and quantum Not and Controlled-Not gates

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, G V

    2012-01-01

    We study the simulation of a single qubit rotation and Controlled-Not gate in a solid state one-dimensional chain of nuclear spins system interacting weakly through an Ising type of interaction with a modular component of the magnetic field in the z-direction, characterized by $B_z(z,t)=Bo(z)\\cos\\delta t$. These qubits are subjected to electromagnetic pulses which determine the transition in the one or two qubits system. We use the fidelity parameter to determine the performance of the Not (N) gate and Controlled-Not (CNOT) gate as a function of the frequency parameter $\\delta$. We found that for $|\\delta|\\le 10^{-3} MHz$, these gates still have good fidelity.

  20. Effects of musical valence on the cognitive processing of lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fiveash, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of music on the brain have been extensively researched, and numerous connections have been found between music and language, music and emotion, and music and cognitive processing. Despite this work, these three research areas have never before been drawn together in a single research paradigm. This is significant as their combination could lead to valuable insights into the effects of musical valence on the cognitive processing of lyrics. Based on the feelings-as-information theor...

  1. Nuclear effects on valence quark distributions and sea quark distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented to get nuclear effect functions RvA(xt) and Rsa(xt) on valence quark distributions and sea quark distributions from the data of 1-A DIS process and nuclear Drell-Yan process. Both the functions may be used to test the theoretical models explaining the nuclear effects. As a example, RvFe(xt) and RsFe(xt) of the iron nucleus were obtained by this method

  2. Effects of valence-valence, core-valence, and core-core correlations on the fine-structure energy levels in Al-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for both allowed and intercombination transitions and fine structure referring to the levels of a term in highly charged aluminum like ions. Results for fine-structure energy levels, the term splitting, the wavelengths, transition rates, and thereby the branching ratios and lifetimes for the Al-like 3s23p-3s3p2 transitions in the ions Fe XIV-Au LXVII are reported and compared with other theories and experiments, using the codes GRASP2K. Our calculated fine-structure energy levels are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and the experimentally compiled energy values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology wherever available. The calculated values including core-valence correlation are found to be similar and to compare very well with other theoretical and experimental values for medium-Z ions. For higher Z the inclusion of the valence correlation gives results in excellent agreement with those from many-body perturbation theory. We believe that our extensive calculated values can guide experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels in their future work. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. In this calculation we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available.

  3. The valence and spectral properties of rare-earth clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, L; Litsarev, M S; Katsnelson, A Delin M I; Kirilyuk, A; Johansson, B; Sanyal, B; Eriksson, O

    2016-01-01

    The rare-earths are known to have intriguing changes of the valence, depending on chemical surrounding or geometry. Here we make predictions from theory that combines density functional theory with atomic multiplet-theory, on the transition of valence when transferring from the atomic divalent limit to the trivalent bulk, passing through different sized clusters, of selected rare-earths. We predict that Tm clusters show an abrupt change from pure divalent to pure trivalent at a size of 6 atoms, while Sm and Tb clusters are respectively pure divalent and trivalent up to 8 atoms. Larger Sm clusters are argued to likely make a transition to a mixed valent, or trivalent, configuration. The valence of all rare-earth clusters, as a function of size, is predicted from interpolation of our calculated results. We argue that the here predicted behavior is best analyzed by spectroscopic measurements, and provide theoretical spectra, based on dynamical mean field theory, in the Hubbard-I approximation, to ease experiment...

  4. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lei; Moutarde, Hervé; Roberts, Craig D; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Tandy, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow-ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, $q^\\pi(x)$; namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, $q^\\pi(x) \\sim (1-x)^2$ for $x\\gtrsim 0.85$; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds o...

  5. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Lei [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mezrag, Cédric; Moutarde, Hervé [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roberts, Craig D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva E-21071 (Spain); Tandy, Peter C. [Center for Nuclear Research, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow–ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, q{sup π}(x); namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, q{sup π}(x)∼(1−x){sup 2} for x≳0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.

  6. Predicting the Valence of a Scene from Observers' Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R-Tavakoli, Hamed; Atyabi, Adham; Rantanen, Antti; Laukka, Seppo J; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Heikkilä, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia analysis benefits from understanding the emotional content of a scene in a variety of tasks such as video genre classification and content-based image retrieval. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in applying human bio-signals, particularly eye movements, to recognize the emotional gist of a scene such as its valence. In order to determine the emotional category of images using eye movements, the existing methods often learn a classifier using several features that are extracted from eye movements. Although it has been shown that eye movement is potentially useful for recognition of scene valence, the contribution of each feature is not well-studied. To address the issue, we study the contribution of features extracted from eye movements in the classification of images into pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant categories. We assess ten features and their fusion. The features are histogram of saccade orientation, histogram of saccade slope, histogram of saccade length, histogram of saccade duration, histogram of saccade velocity, histogram of fixation duration, fixation histogram, top-ten salient coordinates, and saliency map. We utilize machine learning approach to analyze the performance of features by learning a support vector machine and exploiting various feature fusion schemes. The experiments reveal that 'saliency map', 'fixation histogram', 'histogram of fixation duration', and 'histogram of saccade slope' are the most contributing features. The selected features signify the influence of fixation information and angular behavior of eye movements in the recognition of the valence of images. PMID:26407322

  7. Shell structure, emerging collectivity, and valence p-n interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakirli R.B.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of atomic nuclei depends on the interactions of its constituents, protons and neutrons. These interactions play a key role in the development of configuration mixing and in the onset of collectivity and deformation, in changes to the single particle energies and magic numbers, and in the microscopic origins of phase transitional behavior. Particularly important are the valence proton-neutron interactions which can be studied experimentally using double differences of binding energies extracted from high-precision mass measurements. The resulting quantities, called δVpn, are average interaction strengths between the last two protons and the last two neutrons. Focusing on the Z=50-82, N=82-126 shells, we have considered a number of aspects of these interactions, ranging from their relation to the underlying orbits, their behaviour near close shells and throughout major shells, their relation to the onset of collectivity and deformation, and the appearance of unexpected spikes in δVpn values for a special set of heavy nuclei with nearly equal numbers of valence protons and neutrons. We have calculated spatial overlaps between proton and neutron Nilsson orbits and compared these with the experimental results. Finally we also address the relation between masses (separation energies, changes in structure and valence nucleon number.

  8. Sketching the pion's valence-quark generalised parton distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Mezrag, C; Moutarde, H; Roberts, C D; Rodriguez-Quintero, J; Sabatie, F; Schmidt, S M

    2014-01-01

    In order to learn effectively from measurements of generalised parton distributions (GPDs), it is desirable to compute them using a framework that can potentially connect empirical information with basic features of the Standard Model. We sketch an approach to such computations, based upon a rainbow-ladder (RL) truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations and exemplified via the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD, $H_\\pi^{\\rm v}(x,\\xi,t)$. Our analysis focuses primarily on $\\xi=0$, although we also capitalise on the symmetry-preserving nature of the RL truncation by connecting $H_\\pi^{\\rm v}(x,\\xi=\\pm 1,t)$ with the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude. We explain that the impulse-approximation used hitherto to define the pion's valence dressed-quark GPD is generally invalid owing to omission of contributions from the gluons which bind dressed-quarks into the pion. A simple correction enables us to identify a practicable improvement to the approximation for $H_\\pi^{\\rm v}(x,0,t)$, expressed as th...

  9. Development of a sufficiently reactive thioalkylester involving the side-chain thiol of cysteine applicable for kinetically controlled ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shugo; Mochizuki, Masayoshi; Nishio, Hideki; Yoshiya, Taku; Nishiuchi, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    N(α) -Trifluoroacetyl-Cys-Leu-NH2 (TfaC-Leu-NH2 ) was incorporated into thioesters through its side-chain thiol group to develop a more reactive peptide-thioester than the commonly used peptide-3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-thioester. The TfaC-thioester could be readily synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) with Boc chemistry using in situ neutralization protocols in sufficient yield without any side reaction associated with the use of TfaC. This thioester proved to display a much higher reactivity in the thiol-free native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction than the MPA-thioester and to be comparable to the thioarylester, such as the 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid (MPAA)-thioester, in terms of the ligation rate. We were able to demonstrate the usefulness of the TfaC-thioester by using it to synthesize neuromedin S via a one-pot sequential NCL approach followed by desulfurization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 503-511, 2016. PMID:26583564

  10. Analysis of risk factors from salmonella infections and determination of critical control points in poultry industry production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.

  11. 基于供应链管理的房建工程企业成本控制探究%Study on cost control of housing building engineering enterprise on the basis of supply chain management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞生

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces contents of supply chain,value chain and housing building value chain. Combining with housing building indus-try status,it analyzes the concept of housing building cost control,describes specific strategies of supply chain management for housing building engineering enterprise,which will be good for promoting recycling development of supply chain,and promoting national economic development.%介绍了供应链、价值链、房建价值链的内含,结合房建行业的现状,分析了房建成本控制的思想,阐述了房建工程企业供应链管理的具体策略,有利于促进供应链的循环发展,从而推动国民经济的发展。

  12. Decision-making deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Iowa Gambling Task and Prospect Valence Learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim MS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myung-Sun Kim,1 Bit-Na Kang,1 Jae Young Lim2 1Department of Psychology, Sungshin Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Medical Foundation, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, Republic of Korea Purpose: Decision-making is the process of forming preferences for possible options, selecting and executing actions, and evaluating the outcome. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Prospect Valence Learning (PVL model to investigate deficits in risk-reward related decision-making in patients with chronic schizophrenia, and to identify decision-making processes that contribute to poor IGT performance in these patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls participated. Decision-making was measured by total net score, block net scores, and the total number of cards selected from each deck of the IGT. PVL parameters were estimated with the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme in OpenBugs and BRugs, its interface to R, and the estimated parameters were analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U-test.Results: The schizophrenia group received significantly lower total net scores compared to the control group. In terms of block net scores, an interaction effect of group × block was observed. The block net scores of the schizophrenia group did not differ across the five blocks, whereas those of the control group increased as the blocks progressed. The schizophrenia group obtained significantly lower block net scores in the fourth and fifth blocks of the IGT and selected cards from deck D (advantageous less frequently than the control group. Additionally, the schizophrenia group had significantly lower values on the utility-shape, loss-aversion, recency, and consistency parameters of the PVL model. Conclusion: These results indicate that patients with schizophrenia experience deficits in decision-making, possibly due to failure in learning the expected value of each deck

  13. The effect of cerium valence states at cerium oxide nanoparticle surfaces on cell proliferation

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-05-01

    Understanding and controlling cell proliferation on biomaterial surfaces is critical for scaffold/artificial-niche design in tissue engineering. The mechanism by which underlying integrin ligates with functionalized biomaterials to induce cell proliferation is still not completely understood. In this study, poly-l-lactide (PL) scaffold surfaces were functionalized using layers of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), which have recently attracted attention for use in therapeutic application due to their catalytic ability of Ce4+ and Ce3+ sites. To isolate the influence of Ce valance states of CNPs on cell proliferation, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured on the PL/CNP surfaces with dominant Ce4+ and Ce3+ regions. Despite cell type (hMSCs and MG63 cells), different surface features of Ce4+ and Ce3+ regions clearly promoted and inhibited cell spreading, migration and adhesion behavior, resulting in rapid and slow cell proliferation, respectively. Cell proliferation results of various modified CNPs with different surface charge and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, indicate that Ce valence states closely correlated with the specific cell morphologies and cell-material interactions that trigger cell proliferation. This finding suggests that the cell-material interactions, which influence cell proliferation, may be controlled by introduction of metal elements with different valence states onto the biomaterial surface. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Excitations of one-valence-proton, one-valence-neutron nucleus {sup 210}Bi from cold-neutron capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Fornal, B.; Szpak, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Leoni, S.; Bottoni, S. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bocchi, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Simpson, G. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ur, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 02-681, Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    The low-spin structure of one-proton, one-neutron {sup 210}Bi nucleus was investigated in cold-neutron capture reaction on {sup 209}Bi. The γ-coincidence measurements were performed with use of EXILL array consisted of 16 HPGe detectors. The experimental results were compared to shell-model calculations involving valence particles excitations. The {sup 210}Bi nucleus offers the potential to test the effective proton-neutron interactions because most of the states should arise from the proton-neutron excitations. Additionally, it was discovered that a few states should come from the couplings of valence particles to the 3{sup −} octupole vibration in {sup 208}Pb which provides also the possibility of testing the calculations involving the core excitations.

  15. 论银企联盟供应链的融资风险控制%Financing Risks Controlling of the Bank-Enterprise Alliance Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弯红地; 张莹莹

    2012-01-01

    基于银企联盟供应链的中小企业融资是银行通过与核心企业组成银企联盟,签订战略联盟合作协议,双方共同成为供应链中的核心成员,供应链的核心企业在合作银行授信的额度内,为其他中小企业进行融资担保的模式。它作为一种创新的融资模式,可以建立起银行与企业在合作和信任基础上的融资互保关系,但它依然存在一定的融资风险,银企联盟需要通过建立相应的监控机制,实现有效的相互监督和控制,以降低这种风险。%Financing activity based on the bank-enterprise alliance supply chain is a combined financing service which offers guarantees for upstream suppliers and downstream suppliers' credit.By using the credit granting of co-operative banks through core enterprise in supply chain,the minor enterprise could obtain more financing opportunities.As an innovative financing mode,it builds up the financing mutual-insurance relationship among enterprises on supply chains that based on enterprise credit and reduces difficulty and risk of financing effectively with its flexible way.However,there still have certain risks in this financing mode.It achieves the goal of financing risks decreasing through the establishment of appropriate monitoring mechanisms,and effective mutual supervision and control.

  16. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  17. A shrimp pacifastin light chain-like inhibitor: molecular identification and role in the control of the prophenoloxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Chomwong, Sudarat; Senapin, Saengchan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti

    2016-01-01

    Pacifastin is a recently classified family of serine proteinase inhibitors that play essential roles in various biological processes, including in the regulation of the melanization cascade. Here, a novel pacifastin-related gene, termed PmPacifastin-like, was identified from a reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library created from hemocytes of the prophenoloxidase PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The full-length sequences of PmPacifastin-like and its homologue LvPacifastin-like from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that both sequences contained thirteen conserved pacifastin light chain domains (PLDs), followed by two putative kunitz domains. Expression analysis demonstrated that the PmPacifastin-like transcript was expressed in all tested shrimp tissues and larval developmental stages, and its expression responded to Vibrio harveyi challenge. To gain insight into the functional roles of PmPacifastin-like protein, the in vivo RNA interference experiment was employed; the results showed that PmPacifastin-like depletion strongly increased PO activity. Interestingly, suppression of PmPacifastin-like also down-regulated the expression of the proPO-activating enzyme PmPPAE2 transcript; the PmPacifastin-like transcript was down-regulated after the PmproPO1/2 transcripts were silenced. Taken together, these results suggest that PmPacifastin-like is important in the shrimp proPO system and may play an essential role in shrimp immune defense against bacterial infection. These results also expand the knowledge of how pacifastin-related protein participates in the negative regulation of the proPO system in shrimp.

  18. Development of a temperature control system; Mise en oeuvre d'une chaine de regulation de temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolabdjian, Ch.; Robbes, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-UPRES A-6072), 14 - Caen (France); Pigeon, E.; Gehan, O. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Commande des Procedes, ISMRA, 14 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The ability of superconducting devices in the field of bolometer applications is well known. However, the over-all system performances in the low frequency domain may be limited by the temperature fluctuations of the sample holder. We present a temperature control system of such sample holder cooled by a liquid nitrogen bath at ambient pressure. It allows a noise rejection of more than 35 dB at 0.001 Hz. A 24 bit analog to digital converter was a generalized predictive control law. The control design is based on sensitivity functions shaping procedure that has shown to provide a satisfying performance/robustness compromise provided that the underlying system identification has been made appropriately. (authors)

  19. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  20. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  1. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  2. Application of adaptive DO-stat feeding control to Pichia pastoris X33 cultures expressing a single chain antibody fragment (scFv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A R; Ataíde, F; von Stosch, M; Dias, J M L; Clemente, J J; Cunha, A E; Oliveira, R

    2012-11-01

    In this study, fed-batch cultures of a Pichia pastoris strain constitutively expressing a single chain antibody fragment (scFv) under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter were performed in a pilot 50 L bioreactor. Due to the very high cell density achieved within the first 75 h, typically between 140 and 160 g-DCW/L of dry cell weight (DCW), most of the scFv is produced under hard oxygen transfer limitation. To improve scFv productivity, a direct adaptive dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding controller that maximizes glycerol feeding under the constraint of available oxygen transfer capacity was developed and applied to this process. The developed adaptive controller enabled to maximize glycerol feeding through the regulation of DO concentration between 3 and 5 % of saturation, thereby improving process productivity. Set-point convergence dynamics are characterized by a fast response upon large perturbations to DO, followed by a slower but very robust convergence in the vicinity of the boundary with almost imperceptible overshoot. Such control performance enabled operating closer to the 0 % boundary for longer periods of time when compared to a traditional proportional-integral-derivative algorithm, which tends to destabilize with increasing cell density. PMID:22610694

  3. Reliability Measurement for Software with Variable Length Markov Control Transfer Chain%VLMC控制流软件可靠性度量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞曼; 潘冠华; 方建勇

    2014-01-01

    The classical software reliability model of Cheung based on architecture analysis is imperfect when applied to soft-ware which has non-uniqueness terminal node because of ideal assumptions. In order to handle this problem, an improved model is established through two improvement as follows:first, probability matrix of control transfer from start node to other inner nodes in a given software is computed independently of control transfer within inner nodes on the assumptions that the start node is inaccessible to control transfer from any inner nodes;and then, probability matrixes of control transfer within in-ner nodes are reconfigured by weaken the difference between inner nodes and ending nodes. In order to measure the reliability of software with VLMC control transfer flow, the variable length Markov control sequence chain is converted to simple Markov chain by node expansion and conditional transfer probability redistribution. By using deductive inference, a formal proof for the new model is given in this essay. In the end, effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed method is verified by a software example.%针对现有软件可靠性模型普遍不适用于实际软件的问题,分析了软件内部模块间控制转移机理,通过分离入口模块,提取一阶控制转移概率矩阵;弱化内部模块与出口模块间差异,重构二阶以上转移概率矩阵,在改进Cheung模型的基础上建立一个更符合软件实际的可靠性度量模型。针对变阶依赖( VLMC)控制转移导致的可靠性度量难问题,通过对导致复杂依赖的多入多出模块进行节点扩展,将VLMC控制流转化为Markov链,利用所建立的软件可靠性模型对VLMC控制流软件进行可靠性度量。研究利用演绎推理对所建立模型进行了正确性形式化证明。最后给出了方法的实例验证。

  4. Glucose/lipid mixed substrates as a means of controlling the properties of medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, R D; Solaiman, D K; Foglia, T A; Liu, C K

    2001-01-01

    Glucose-triacylglycerol (TAG) mixed substrates were used to modulate the physical and mechanical properties of medium-chain-length poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs). Pseudomonas resinovorans NRRL B-2649 grew and produced mcl-PHAs on glucose and TAGs (coconut oil, C; soybean oil, S) after 24 h in a shake flask culture. However, with the exception of coconut oil, maximum cell productivity was not reached in any of the cultures until 72 h post-inoculation. Here, 50:50 mixtures of glucose and coconut oil (glc/C) or glucose and soybean oil (glc/S) resulted in intermediate cell productivities with a maximum of 57% and 48% of the CDW at 72 h, respectively. In addition, mixed substrates resulted in mcl-PHAs with compositions that varied slightly over time. PHA-glc/C and PHA-glc/S were composed of 7 mol % and 8 mol % 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid (C(12:1)), respectively at 72 h. These concentrations were intermediate to the C(12:1) concentration of PHA-glc and respective PHA-TAG. Also, significant amounts of 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (C(14:0)), 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid (C(14:1)), and 3-hydroxytetradecadienoic acid (C(14:2)) were present in PHA-glc/C and PHA-glc/S, which were derived from the respective TAG, as glucose resulted in almost no C(14:)(X) monomers. The molar masses of each of the polymers remained relatively constant between 24 and 96 h. At 72 h, the number-average molar masses (M(n)) of PHA-glc/C and PHA-glc/S were 178,000 and 163,000 g/mol, respectively, which were also intermediate to the M(n) of PHA-glc (225,000 g/mol) and the respective PHA-TAG (PHA-C = 153,000 g/mol; PHA-S = 75,000 g/mol). These physical differences caused variations in the mechanical properties of mcl-PHA films, thus providing a new and effective method of modifying their properties.

  5. Access to a polymerase chain reaction assay method targeting 13 respiratory viruses can reduce antibiotics: a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindh Magnus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral respiratory infections are common worldwide and range from completely benign disease to life-threatening illness. Symptoms can be unspecific, and an etiologic diagnosis is rarely established because of a lack of suitable diagnostic tools. Improper use of antibiotics is common in this setting, which is detrimental in light of the development of bacterial resistance. It has been suggested that the use of diagnostic tests could reduce antibiotic prescription rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay panel for etiologic diagnosis of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs would have an impact on antibiotic prescription rate in primary care clinical settings. Methods Adult patients with symptoms of ARTI were prospectively included. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were analysed by using a multiplex real-time PCR method targeting thirteen viruses and two bacteria. Patients were recruited at 12 outpatient units from October 2006 through April 2009, and samples were collected on the day of inclusion (initial visit and after 10 days (follow-up visit. Patients were randomised in an open-label treatment protocol to receive a rapid or delayed result (on the following day or after eight to twelve days. The primary outcome measure was the antibiotic prescription rate at the initial visit, and the secondary outcome was the total antibiotic prescription rate during the study period. Results A total sample of 447 patients was randomised. Forty-one were excluded, leaving 406 patients for analysis. In the group of patients randomised for a rapid result, 4.5% (9 of 202 of patients received antibiotics at the initial visit, compared to 12.3% (25 of 204 (P = 0.005 of patients in the delayed result group. At follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups: 13.9% (28 of 202 in the rapid result group and 17.2% (35 of 204 in the delayed result group (P

  6. Process and device for controlling an optical chain operation of a laser beam carried by a welding tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In controlling the operation of the optical system the following steps are applied: the welding tool is displaced from the working position to a non-working position, the optical system is fed with an auxiliary optical beam of low power, the luminous intensity passing through the tool is measured by a photoelectrical cell and compared with a threshold value which corresponds with satisfactory operation of the welding tool

  7. Study on Logistics Cost Control of Chain Retailing Enterprises%零售连锁企业的物流成本控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡梦丹

    2014-01-01

    对零售连锁企业的物流成本进行分析,在总结零售连锁企业物流成本构成和影响因素基础上分析了目前存在的主要问题,并就问题提出成本核算方法和控制措施。%In this paper, we analyzed the logistics cost of the chain retailing enterprises, summarized its composition and influence factors as well as the major issues thereof, and at the end, in view of such, proposed the method for the accounting and control of the logistics cost.

  8. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min. (paper)

  9. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan J Nealis

    Full Text Available Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness, arousal (activation, or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the 'handgrip task' and cognitive (Stroop assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources.

  10. Effects of the mineral phase and valence of vanadium on vanadium extraction from stone coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-jia; Zhang, Yi-min; Bao, Shen-xu; Liu, Tao

    2012-10-01

    The influence of roasting on the leaching rate and valence of vanadium was evaluated during vanadium extraction from stone coal. Vanadium in stone coal is hard to be leached and the leaching rate is less than 10% when the raw ore is leached by 4 mol/L H2SO4 at 90°C for 2 h. After the sample is roasted at 900°C for 2 h, the leaching rate of vanadium reaches the maximum, and more than 70% of vanadium can be leached. The crystal of vanadium-bearing mica minerals decomposes and the content of V(V) increases with the rise of roasting temperature from 600 to 900°C, therefore the leaching rate of vanadium increases significantly with the decomposition of the mica minerals. Some new phases, anorthite for example, form when the roasting temperature reaches 1000°C. A part of vanadium may be enwrapped in the sintered materials and newly formed phases, which may impede the oxidation of low valent vanadium and make the leaching rate of vanadium drop dramatically. The leaching rate of vanadium is not only determined by the valence state of vanadium but also controlled by the decomposition of vanadium-bearing minerals and the existence state of vanadium to a large extent.

  11. Design of Building Energy Autonomous Control System with the Intelligent Object Energy Chain Mechanism Based on Energy-IoT

    OpenAIRE

    Sangmin Park; Sanguk Park; Jinsung Byun; Yeong Yu; Sehyun Park

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies has enabled smart objects to communicate with each other, and various IoT methods and techniques have appeared accordingly. At this point in time, there is a growing need for big data-based energy-IoT technology that can reduce energy consumption. However, despite the emergence of these technologies for IoT, there is still a lack of control systems to surmount the energy efficiency problem of hyperconnected IoT applications. In this...

  12. Plasmid-based controls to detect rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joas Lucas; Leite, Gabriela Guimaraes Sousa; Bastos, Gisele Medeiros; Lucas, Beatriz Cacciacarro; Shinohara, Daniel Keniti; Takinami, Joice Sayuri; Miyata, Marcelo; Fajardo, Cristina Moreno; Luchessi, André Ducati; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis was used to screen for mutations related to drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We detected the C526T and C531T mutations in the rifampicin resistance-determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene with qPCR-HRM using plasmid-based controls. A segment of the RRDR region from M. tuberculosis H37Rv and from strains carrying C531T or C526T mutations in the rpoB were cloned into pGEM-T vector and these vectors were used as controls in the qPCR-HRM analysis of 54 M. tuberculosis strains. The results were confirmed by DNA sequencing and showed that recombinant plasmids can replace genomic DNA as controls in the qPCR-HRM assay. Plasmids can be handled outside of biosafety level 3 facilities, reducing the risk of contamination and the cost of the assay. Plasmids have a high stability, are normally maintained in Escherichia coli and can be extracted in large amounts. PMID:23440123

  13. Plasmid-based controls to detect rpoB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joas Lucas da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM analysis was used to screen for mutations related to drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We detected the C526T and C531T mutations in the rifampicin resistance-determining region (RRDR of the rpoB gene with qPCR-HRM using plasmid-based controls. A segment of the RRDR region from M. tuberculosis H37Rv and from strains carrying C531T or C526T mutations in the rpoB were cloned into pGEM-T vector and these vectors were used as controls in the qPCR-HRM analysis of 54 M. tuberculosis strains. The results were confirmed by DNA sequencing and showed that recombinant plasmids can replace genomic DNA as controls in the qPCR-HRM assay. Plasmids can be handled outside of biosafety level 3 facilities, reducing the risk of contamination and the cost of the assay. Plasmids have a high stability, are normally maintained in Escherichia coli and can be extracted in large amounts.

  14. Photon energy dependence of graphite valence band photoelectron intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Masaru, E-mail: m-tkzw@fc.ritsumei.ac.j [Research Organization of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Namba, Hidetoshi [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Matsui, Fumihiko [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Daimon, Hiroshi [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    We have measured two-dimensional photoelectron spectra of graphite with various photon energies. We investigated the photon energy dependence of the valence band dispersions of graphite at vicinity of Fermi level which appear at Brillouin zone (BZ) corners. We found that the photoelectron intensities of the Fermi surfaces were, however, very different even when the photon energies are selected to see the same symmetry planes of BZ. This intensity difference of the Fermi surfaces is well reproduced by considering the 'photoemission structure factor' for three-dimensional nature of graphite.

  15. Use of palivizumab and infection control measures to control an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal intensive care unit confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, K

    2011-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potentially life-threatening infection in premature infants. We report an outbreak involving four infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital that occurred in February 2010. RSV A infection was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Palivizumab was administered to all infants in the NICU. There were no additional symptomatic cases and repeat RSV surveillance confirmed that there was no further cross-transmission within the unit. The outbreak highlighted the infection control challenge of very high bed occupancy in the unit and the usefulness of molecular methods in facilitating detection and management.

  16. 15N isotope fractionation in an aquatic food chain: Bellamya aeruginosa (Reeve) as an algal control agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shiqun; Yan, Shaohua; Chen, Kaining; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zed, Rengel; Zhang, Jianqiu; Song, Wei; Liu, Haiqin

    2010-01-01

    15N isotope tracer techniques and ecological modeling were adopted to investigate the fractionation of nitrogen, its uptake and transformation in algae and snail (Bellamya aeruginosa Reeve). Different algal species were found to differ in their uptake of nitrogen isotopes. Microcystis aeruginisa Kütz. demonstrated the greatest 15N accumulation capacity, with the natural variation in isotopic ratio (delta 15N) and the isotope fractionation factor (epsilon, % per hundred) being the highest among the species investigated. The transformation and utilization of 15N by snails differed depending on the specific algae consumed (highest for Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick., lowest for M. aeruginisa). When snails was seeded in the experimental pond, the algae population structure changed significantly, and total algal biomass as well as the concentration of all nitrogen species decreased, causing an increase in water transparency. A model, incorporating several chemical and biological parameters, was developed to predict algal biomass in an aquatic system when snails was present. The data collected during this investigation indicated that the gastropods such as snails could significantly impact biological community and water quality of small water bodies, suggesting a role for biological control of noxious algal blooms associated with eutrophication. PMID:20397413

  17. Neutron scattering studies of mixed-valence semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignot, J.M. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alekseev, P.A. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering experiments on the mixed-valence (MV) compounds SmB{sub 6} are reported. The inelastic magnetic response of SmB{sub 6} at T = 2 K, measured on a double-isotope single crystal,displays a strongly damped peak at 35 meV corresponding to the inter multiplet transition of Sm{sup 2+}. At lower energies ( h.{omega} {approx_equal} 14 meV), a narrow magnetic excitation is observed, with remarkable scattering-vector and temperature dependences of its intensity. This novel feature is discussed in terms of recent theoretical works describing the formation of an anisotropic local bound state in semiconducting MV materials. If the average samarium valence is decreased by substituting La for Sm, a peak is found to appear at high energies. The elastic magnetic form factor of SmB{sub 6} was determined using polarised neutrons and no significant difference is observed in its Q-dependence with respect to that of pure divalent samarium. This surprising behaviour is constant with previous measurements on the gold (high-pressure) phase of SmS. The above results are compared to those already reported for other MV materials. In particular existing information for TmSe is supplemented by recent inelastic scattering measurements carried out on a large stoichiometric single crystal. (author). 44 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers.

  19. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ..omega.. less than or equal 175 is discussed.

  20. +2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

  1. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete. PMID:26008637

  2. First-Order Structural Change Accompanied by Yb Valence Transition in YbInCu4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Tsunoda, Ryoma; Hirose, Yusuke; Mito, Takeshi; Settai, Rikio; Mizumaki, Masaichiro

    2016-06-01

    A diffraction experiment using high-energy X-rays was carried out on YbInCu4. Below the Yb valence transition temperature, the splitting of Bragg peaks was detected in high-order reflections. No superlattice reflections accompanying the valence ordering were found below the transition temperature. These experimental findings indicate that a structural change from a cubic structure to a tetragonal structure without valence ordering occurs at the transition temperature. Such a structural change free from any valence ordering is difficult to understand only in terms of Yb valence degrees of freedom. This means that the structural change may be related to electronic symmetries such as quadrupolar degrees of freedom as well as to the change in Yb valence.

  3. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...... stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively...

  4. Research on the Risk and Control Countermeasures of Supply Chain Finance of Chinese Commercial Banks in China%我国商业银行供应链金融风险及控制对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红涛; 袁博

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain finance to SMEs in the backdrop of the supply chain into account , to weaken the restrictions on the nodes of the supply chain. Supply Chain Finance has created a competition between the contemporary enterprise supply chain competition, the competition between the core enterprise is not just the supply chain, but the entire supply chain col-laboration in competition, in which commercial banks which act as important role. This paper analyzes the main risks in the financial business of the supply chain of China's commercial banks to explore the problems in the supply chain and financial risk management in commercial banks in China, and based on the targeted risk control countermeasures.%供应链金融将中小企业置于供应链的大背景下综合考虑,弱化了对供应链节点上的企业本身的限制。供应链金融造就了当代企业之间的竞争是供应链的竞争,不仅仅是供应链中的核心企业之间的竞争,而是整条供应链协作状况的竞争,其中商业银行在其中充当了重要角色。分析了我国商业银行供应链金融业务中的主要风险,探讨了我国商业银行供应链金融风险管理中存在的问题,并提出了针对性的风险控制对策。

  5. Optogenetic dissection of neural circuits underlying emotional valence and motivated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Edward H; Kim, Sung-Yon; Namburi, Praneeth; Tye, Kay M

    2013-05-20

    The neural circuits underlying emotional valence and motivated behaviors are several synapses away from both defined sensory inputs and quantifiable motor outputs. Electrophysiology has provided us with a suitable means for observing neural activity during behavior, but methods for controlling activity for the purpose of studying motivated behaviors have been inadequate: electrical stimulation lacks cellular specificity and pharmacological manipulation lacks temporal resolution. The recent emergence of optogenetic tools provides a new means for establishing causal relationships between neural activity and behavior. Optogenetics, the use of genetically-encodable light-activated proteins, permits the modulation of specific neural circuit elements with millisecond precision. The ability to control individual cell types, and even projections between distal regions, allows us to investigate functional connectivity in a causal manner. The greatest consequence of controlling neural activity with finer precision has been the characterization of individual neural circuits within anatomical brain regions as defined functional units. Within the mesolimbic dopamine system, optogenetics has helped separate subsets of dopamine neurons with distinct functions for reward, aversion and salience processing, elucidated GABA neuronal effects on behavior, and characterized connectivity with forebrain and cortical structures. Within the striatum, optogenetics has confirmed the opposing relationship between direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs), in addition to characterizing the inhibition of MSNs by cholinergic interneurons. Within the hypothalamus, optogenetics has helped overcome the heterogeneity in neuronal cell-type and revealed distinct circuits mediating aggression and feeding. Within the amygdala, optogenetics has allowed the study of intra-amygdala microcircuitry as well as interconnections with distal regions involved in fear and anxiety. In this review, we

  6. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true...

  7. In-Medium Pion Valence Distributions in a Light-Front Model

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Ahmed, I

    2016-01-01

    Pion valence distributions in nuclear medium and vacuum are studied in a light-front constituent quark model. The in-medium input for studying the pion properties is calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. We find that the in-medium pion valence distribution, as well as the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  8. Developmental changes in effects of risk and valence on adolescent decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, L.K.; Kilford, E. J.; Blakemore, S-J; Wright, N. D.; Dolan, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on risky decision-making in adults has shown that both the risk in potential outcomes and their valence (i.e., whether those outcomes involve gains or losses) exert dissociable influences on decisions. We hypothesised that the influences of these two crucial decision variables (risk and valence) on decision-making would vary developmentally during adolescence. We adapted a risk-taking paradigm that provides precise metrics for the impacts of risk and valence. Decision-making i...

  9. Mood and the DRM paradigm: An investigation of the effects of valence and arousal on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies regarding the effect of mood on the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) illusion have not been able to clearly establish yet whether valence or arousal is most critical in determining susceptibility to false memories, nor what the underlying processes are. In three experiments, both the valence and the level of arousal of participants' mood were manipulated. Six conditions were used: positive mood with high/low arousal, negative mood with high/low arousal, neutral mood, and a control condition. Memory was tested by means of immediate and delayed recognition and immediate free recall. The mood induction procedure was effective. For recognition memory, there was an effect of arousal on the endorsement of critical lures. Low-arousal moods elicited more false recognition than high-arousal moods, regardless of valence. Based on signal detection analyses, the effect was attributed to more liberal response criteria with low arousal, in combination with a tendency towards improved item-specific memory with high arousal.

  10. Relationship between irradiation swelling behaviour of alloys and their valence electron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between valence electron structure of alloys and their irradiation swelling behaviour has been investigated on basis of results of valence electron structure calculated by means of the empirical electron theory. The difference of the irradiation swelling behaviour among three prior candidate alloys has been explained by their different valence electron structure, and the intrinsic relation between nickel content of iron-nickel-based alloys and their irradiation swelling behaviour has been clarified. From the viewpoint of valence electron structure, intermetallic compounds are potential structural materials with excellent resistance to irradiation swelling. (4 tabs.)

  11. [Valences of self-evaluation and approach-avoidance tendencies: research based on regulatory focus theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuka; Karasawa, Kaori

    2011-12-01

    Four studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between valences of self-evaluation and approach-avoidance tendencies. Based on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998), we predicted that positivity of self-evaluation is related to the tendency to approach gains, while negativity of self-evaluation is related to the tendency to avoid losses. In Study 1, a self-report measure of behavioral tendencies for approaching gains and avoiding losses was developed. In Studies 2 to 4, correlations between these approach/avoidance tendencies and various kinds of self-evaluations were examined. Overall, the authors' predictions were supported. The results suggest that the self-evaluation system and the self-regulation system work in close cooperation with each other in controlling human behavior.

  12. Calcineurin-NFAT Signaling and Neurotrophins Control Transformation of Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms in Rat Soleus Muscle in Response to Aerobic Treadmill Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liu, Gan Chen, Fanling Li, Changfa Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the role of CaN-NFAT signaling and neurotrophins on the transformation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber following aerobic exercise training. To do so, we examined the content and distribution of myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms in the rat soleus muscle fiber, the activity of CaN and expression of NFATc1 in these fibers, and changes in the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neutrophin-3 (NT-3 in the soleus and striatum following high-and medium-intensity aerobic treadmill training. Specific pathogen-free 2 month old male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control group (Con, n = 8, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (M-Ex, n = 8 and high-intensity aerobic exercise group (H-Ex, n = 8. We used ATPase staining to identify the muscle fiber type I and II, SDS-PAGE to separate and analyze the isoforms MyHCI, MyHCIIA, MyHCIIB and MyHCIIx, and performed western blots to determine the expression of NFATc1, NGF, BDNF and NT-3. CaN activity was measured using a colorimetric assay. In the soleus muscle, 8 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise can induce transformation of MyHC IIA and MyHC IIB to MyHC IIX and MyHC I (p < 0.01, while high-intensity treadmill exercise can induce transform MyHC IIx to MyHC IIB, MyHC IIA and MyHC I (p < 0.01. In comparison to the control group, CaN activity and NFATcl protein level were significantly increased in both the M-Ex and H-Ex groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, with a more pronounced upregulation in the M-Ex group (p < 0.05. Eight weeks of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise induced the expression of NGF, BDNF and NT-3 in the soleus muscle and the striatum (p < 0.01, with the most significant increase in the H-Ex group (p < 0.01. In the rat soleus muscle, (1 CaN–NFATcl signaling contributes to the conversion of MyHC I isoform in response to moderate-intensity exercise; (2

  13. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  14. Cold Chain Logistics Equipment Management and Control Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的冷链物流设备管控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦立公; 吴娇; 董津津; 袁媛

    2012-01-01

    The status and supporting policies of cold chain logistics equipment management and control in China were described. The connotation of Internet of Things and its impact on cold chain logistics equipment management and control were analyzed from external form to internal nature. Through introducing the value chain and relevant equipments of cold chain logistics, the correlation between the main technologies in Internet of Things and the common indices for cold chain logistics equipment management and control was analyzed in detail. The application values of Internet of Things technologies in cold chain logistics equipment management and control were illustrated, including the sample analysis on the application of radio-frequency identification ( RFID). After the establishment of BSC performance evaluation index system of cold chain logistics equipment management and control, the optimization measures and suggestions on cold chain logistics equipment management and control under Internet of Things were put forward.%描述了国内冷链物流设备管控的研究现状和国家在政策上的支持,并从外在形式和内在本质两方面剖析了物联网的涵义及其对冷链物流设备管控的影响.在介绍冷链物流价值链和相关设备后,选择从相对容易阐述的物联网技术角度,详细分析了物联网主要技术与常见的冷链物流设备管控各指标的相关性,并具体说明了物联网各项技术在冷链物流设备管控中各环节的应用价值,且以物联网技术中的RFID技术为实例做了分析,构建了物联网下冷链物流设备BSC管控绩效评价指标体系.最后提出了物联网下冷链物流设备管控的优化对策和建议.

  15. Cold Chain Logistics Equipment Management and Control Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的冷链物流设备管控研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦立公; 吴娇; 董津津; 袁媛

    2012-01-01

    描述了国内冷链物流设备管控的研究现状和国家在政策上的支持,并从外在形式和内在本质两方面剖析了物联网的涵义及其对冷链物流设备管控的影响。在介绍冷链物流价值链和相关设备后,选择从相对容易阐述的物联网技术角度,详细分析了物联网主要技术与常见的冷链物流设备管控各指标的相关性,并具体说明了物联网各项技术在冷链物流设备管控中各环节的应用价值,且以物联网技术中的RFID技术为实例做了分析,接着构建了物联网下冷链物流设备BSC管控绩效评价指标体系。最后提出了物联网下冷链物流设备管控的优化对策和建议。%The status and supporting policies of cold chain logistics equipment man- agement and control in China were described. The connotation of Internet of Things and its impact on cold chain logistics equipment management and control were ana- lyzed from external form to internal nature. Through introducing the value chain and relevant equipments of cold chain logistics, the correlation between the main technologies in Internet of Things and the common indices for cold chain logistics equipment management and control was analyzed in detail. The application values of Internet of Things technologies in cold chain logistics equipment management and control were illustrated, including the sample analysis on the application of radio-frequency identification (RFID). After the establishment of BSC performance evaluation index system of cold chain logistics equipment management and control, the optimization measures and suggestions on cold chain logistics equipment management and control under Internet of Things were put forward.

  16. I. Enabling Single-Chain Surfactants to Form Vesicles by Nonamphiphilic Liquid Crystals in Water II. Controlling Attachment and Ligand-Mediated Adherence of Candida albicans on Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Nisha

    This dissertation describes a fundamental study of weak noncovalent interactions and surface forces that exist at the interfaces of various interacting moieties (small molecules or microbes), and its relevance to colloidal and material chemistry. Chapter 1 presents an emulsion system that enables single-chain anionic or nonionic surfactants to sequester and encapsulate certain water-soluble organic salts, leading to the formation of vesicles in water. The water-soluble organic salt in the system comprises of disodium cromoglycate crystals that are emulsified by surfactants in water to form stable liquid crystal droplets. The work provides an exception to the rule of geometric packing factor that dictates formation of micelles by the surfactants in water. Chapter 2 shows that the odd or even number of carbon atoms present in the aliphatic chain of surfactants affect the ability of surfactants to emulsify aqueous-based liquid crystals of disodium cromoglycate. Such an odd-even effect is frequently observed for solid state properties like melting point, heat of fusion and refractive index but is rarely observed for molecules present in solution. When mixed in water, anionic single-chain surfactants with odd number of carbon atoms emulsifies disodium cromoglycate to form liquid crystal droplets, while surfactants with even number of carbon atoms fail to emulsify disodium cromoglycate. Chapter 3 Bolaamphiphiles usually form vesicles only in extreme conditions or in the presence of surfactants. Here, we explore the co-assembly system of synthesized bolaamphiphiles and disodium cromoglycate in water. The combination of the self-assembly forces of the bolaamphiphile and self-associating property of disodium cromoglycate liquid crystals act together at the interface form a unique microemulsion of liquid crystal droplets of disodium cromoglycate embedded in liquid crystal phase. Chapter 4 describes a key event (adhesion) that precedes infections caused by Candida albicans

  17. Time delay in valence shell photoionization of noble gas atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kheifets, A S

    2013-01-01

    We use the non-relativistic random phase approximation with exchange to perform calculations of valence shell photoionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe from their respective thresholds to photon energy of 200 eV. The energy derivative of the complex phase of the photoionization matrix elements is converted to the photoelectron group delay that can be measured in attosecond streaking or two-photon transitions interference experiments. Comparison with reported time delay measurements in Ne and Ar at a few selected photon energies is made. Systematic mapping of time delay across a wide range of photon energies in several atomic targets allows to highlight important aspects of fundamental atomic physics that can be probed by attosecond time delay measurements.

  18. Plaquette valence bond theory of high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Malte; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.

    2016-09-01

    We present a strong-coupling approach to the theory of high-temperature superconductivity based on the observation of a quantum critical point in the plaquette within the t ,t' Hubbard model. The crossing of ground-state energies in the N =2 -4 sectors occurs for parameters close to the optimal doping. The theory predicts the maximum of the dx2-y2-wave order parameter at the border between localized and itinerant electron behaviors and gives a natural explanation for the pseudogap formation via the soft-fermion mode related to local singlet states of the plaquette in the environment. Our approach follows the general line of resonating valence-bond theory stressing a crucial role of singlets in the physics of high-Tc superconductors but focuses on the formation of local singlets, similar to phenomena observed in frustrated one-dimensional quantum spin models.

  19. A role of valence particles number equal to 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the NpNn parametrization was first demonstrated by Casten in connection with the role of the proton-neutron interaction in the growth of deformation away from shell closures, and there have subsequently been many developments in this theme. The symbols Np and Nn are number of valence particles/holes of protons and neutrons, respectively (where nucleons are counted as holes beyond the middle of a major shell). The observables which reflect collective structure in the deformed mass region for even-even nuclei such as E(2+), R4/2 ≡ E(4+)/E(2+) and B(E2) have behaved smoothly with NpNn

  20. Valence electronic structure of tantalum carbide and nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The valence electronic structures of tantalum carbide (TaC) and tantalum nitride (TaN) are studied by using the empirical electronic theory (EET). The results reveal that the bonds of these compounds have covalent, metallic and ionic characters. For a quantitative analysis of the relative strength of these components, their ionicities have been calculated by implanting the results of EET to the PVL model. It has been found that the ionicity of tantalum carbide is smaller than that of tantalum nitride. The EET results also reveal that the covalent electronic number of the strongest bond in the former is larger than that of the latter. All these suggest that the covalent bond of TaC is stronger than that of TaN, which coincides to that deduced from the first-principles method.

  1. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Roberts, Craig D; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed-quarks carry all a meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanishing as $(1-x)^2$ when Bjorken-$x\\to 1$. Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of SU(3)-flavour symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavour dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulae may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison...

  2. Nature of the Frequency Shift of Hydrogen Valence Vibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhyganiuk, I V

    2015-01-01

    The physical nature of a frequency shift of hydrogen valence vibrations in a water molecule due to its interaction with neighbor molecules has been studied. Electrostatic forces connected with the multipole moments of molecules are supposed to give a dominating contribution to the intermolecular interaction. The frequency shift was calculated in the case where two neighbor molecules form a dimer. The obtained result is in qualitative agreement with the frequency shifts observed for water vapor, hexagonal ice, and liquid water, as well as for aqueous solutions of alcohols. This fact testifies to the electrostatic nature of H-bonds used to describe both the specific features of the intermolecular interaction in water and the macroscopic properties of the latter.

  3. Kaon semileptonic decay form factors with HISQ valence quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Gamiz, E; Bazavov, A; Bernard, C; Bouchard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Foley, J; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Kim, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Oktay, M B; Qiu, Si-Wei; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2012-01-01

    We report on the status of our kaon semileptonic form factor calculations using the highly-improved staggered quark (HISQ) formulation to simulate the valence fermions. We present results for the form factor f_+^{K \\pi}(0) on the asqtad N_f=2+1 MILC configurations, discuss the chiral-continuum extrapolation, and give a preliminary estimate of the total error. We also present a more preliminary set of results for the same form factor but with the sea quarks also simulated with the HISQ action; these results include data at the physical light quark masses. The improvements that we expect to achieve with the use of the HISQ configurations and simulations at the physical quark masses are briefly discussed.

  4. Valence quark polarization in the nucleon and the deuteron data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh

    2008-10-01

    Within the framework of the so-called valon model, we argue that a substantial part of the nucleon spin, about 40%, is carried by the polarized valence quarks. The remaining is the result of cancelations between gluon polarization and the orbital angular momentum, where the gluon polarization is the dominant one. It is shown that the sea quark contributions to the spin of any hadron is simply marginal and consistent with zero. Our findings point to a substantially smaller value for a8 than inferred from hyperon β decay, suggesting that full SU (3) symmetric assumption needs to be reconsidered. New and emerging experimental data tend to support this finding. Finally, we show that within the model presented here the experimental data on the polarized structure functions g1p,n,d are reproduced.

  5. Isotopic exchange in mixed valence compounds in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at the determination of isotopic exchange kinetics and mechanism in two mixed valence compounds: Cs10(Sbsup(V)Cl6) (Sbsup(III)Cl6)3 and Tl3sup(I)(Tlsup(III)Cl6). The synthesis of the first compound is very difficult because in most of the cases mixtures of chloroantimoniates are obtained. Exchange in Tl4Cl6 labelled on Tlsup(III) is studied in detail by radiochemical analysis and physical techniques: ionic conductivity and positon annihilation. Cation vacancies are easily created in the lattice with formation enthalpy of 0.35 eV and migration enthalpy of 0.52 eV. Isochronic and isothermal exchange curves are described by a kinetic based on species diffusion. Models are given. Exchange is increased by grinding probably because extrinseque defects are introduced

  6. Valence electronic structure of tantalum carbide and nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; ChangZeng

    2007-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of tantalum carbide (TaC) and tantalum nitride (TaN) are studied by using the empirical electronic theory (EET). The results reveal that the bonds of these compounds have covalent, metallic and ionic characters. For a quantitative analysis of the relative strength of these components, their ionicities have been calculated by implanting the results of EET to the PVL model. It has been found that the ionicity of tantalum carbide is smaller than that of tantalum nitride. The EET results also reveal that the covalent electronic number of the strongest bond in the former is larger than that of the latter. All these suggest that the covalent bond of TaC is stronger than that of TaN, which coincides to that deduced from the first-principles method.……

  7. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  8. A density functional for core-valence correlation energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Frisch, Michael J; Petersson, George A

    2015-12-01

    A density functional, εCV-DFT(ρc, ρv), describing the core-valence correlation energy has been constructed as a linear combination of εLY P (corr)(ρc), εV WN5 (corr)(ρc, ρv), εPBE (corr)(ρc, ρv), εSlater (ex)(ρc, ρv), εHCTH (ex)(ρc, ρv), εHF (ex)(ρc, ρv), and FCV-DFTNi,Zi, a function of the nuclear charges. This functional, with 6 adjustable parameters, reproduces (±0.27 kcal/mol rms error) a benchmark set of 194 chemical energy changes including 9 electron affinities, 18 ionization potentials, and 167 total atomization energies covering the first- and second-rows of the periodic table. This is almost twice the rms error (±0.16 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD(T)/MTsmall calculations, but less than half the rms error (±0.65 kcal/mol) obtained with MP2/GTlargeXP calculations, and somewhat smaller than the rms error (±0.39 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD/MTsmall calculations. The largest positive and negative errors from εCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) were 0.88 and -0.75 kcal/mol with the set of 194 core-valence energy changes ranging from +3.76 kcal/mol for the total atomization energy of propyne to -9.05 kcal/mol for the double ionization of Mg. Evaluation of the εCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) functional requires less time than a single SCF iteration, and the accuracy is adequate for any model chemistry based on the CCSD(T) level of theory. PMID:26646873

  9. A density functional for core-valence correlation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Frisch, Michael J.; Petersson, George A.

    2015-12-01

    A density functional, ɛCV-DFT(ρc, ρv), describing the core-valence correlation energy has been constructed as a linear combination of ɛLY Pcorr(ρc), ɛV WN5corr(ρc, ρv), ɛPBEcorr(ρc, ρv), ɛSlaterex(ρc, ρv), ɛHCTHex(ρc, ρv), ɛHFex(ρc, ρv), and F CV -DFT (" separators=" N i , Z i ) , a function of the nuclear charges. This functional, with 6 adjustable parameters, reproduces (±0.27 kcal/mol rms error) a benchmark set of 194 chemical energy changes including 9 electron affinities, 18 ionization potentials, and 167 total atomization energies covering the first- and second-rows of the periodic table. This is almost twice the rms error (±0.16 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD(T)/MTsmall calculations, but less than half the rms error (±0.65 kcal/mol) obtained with MP2/GTlargeXP calculations, and somewhat smaller than the rms error (±0.39 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD/MTsmall calculations. The largest positive and negative errors from ɛCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) were 0.88 and -0.75 kcal/mol with the set of 194 core-valence energy changes ranging from +3.76 kcal/mol for the total atomization energy of propyne to -9.05 kcal/mol for the double ionization of Mg. Evaluation of the ɛCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) functional requires less time than a single SCF iteration, and the accuracy is adequate for any model chemistry based on the CCSD(T) level of theory.

  10. Mixed-valence copper coordination polymers based on CuSCN or CuN3 as bridging motifs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Guang; GAO Shengli; CHEN Sanping; ZENG Minghua; XIE Gang

    2005-01-01

    Two novel mixed valence copper coordination polymers, [Cu(2-pac)2(CuN3)(H2O)]n (1) and [Cu(2-pac)2(CuSCN)2]n (2), have been prepared through hydrothermal synthesis and analyzed for structure determination, which exhibit two- and three-dimensional structures respectively. In complex (1), zigzag chains of [CuN3]n running parallel to the c direction are interconnected by Cu(2pac)2 to form a two-dimensional layer structure. In complex (2), the arrangement of μ-1,1,3 bridging thiocyanate ligand leads to the formation of ten-membered Cu-SCN- Cu-S-Cu-NCS rings, and each Cu atom is further linked by Cu(2-pac)2 to afford a three-dimensional configuration.

  11. A novel duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of hepatitis C viral RNA with armored RNA as internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV genome is extremely heterogeneous. Several HCV infections can not be detected using currently available commercial assays, probably because of mismatches between the template and primers/probes. By aligning the HCV sequences, we developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using 2 sets of primers/probes and a specific armored RNA as internal control. The 2 detection probes were labelled with the same fluorophore, namely, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM, at the 5' end; these probes could mutually combine, improving the power of the test. Results The limit of detection of the duplex primer/probe assay was 38.99 IU/ml. The sensitivity of the assay improved significantly, while the specificity was not affected. All HCV genotypes in the HCV RNA Genotype Panel for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques could be detected. In the testing of 109 serum samples, the performance of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was identical to that of the COBAS AmpliPrep (CAP/COBAS TaqMan (CTM assay and superior to 2 commercial HCV assay kits. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is an efficient and effective viral assay. It is comparable with the CAP/CTM assay with regard to the power of the test and is appropriate for blood-donor screening and laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection.

  12. A concept for collaborative supply chain planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfnes, E.; Dreyer, H.C.; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge for many manufacturers is the increased complexity of the supply chain, and as supply chains get more complicated enterprises require better tools for supply chain planning and execution. Many vendors offer systems to plan and control in-house operations, whereas mainly large v...... discusses current supply chain planning solutions and presents a more simple and adaptive concept to be used in both SMEs and larger enterprises....

  13. 社会责任思想在供应链质量控制中的应用%The application of the idea of social responsibility in the quality control of supply chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常广庶

    2013-01-01

    国际标准化组织新近发布了社会责任指南标准ISO26000,强调组织要实现可持续发展,就必须履行其社会责任.论文阐述了ISO26000社会责任思想的七个核心主题在供应链质量控制中的应用,以帮助企业按照ISO26000的社会责任思想来影响和规范供应链质量控制体系,使所有供应链成员企业都能够主动参与质量工作,并对整个供应链体系进行有效的质量监督与控制.%Recently, ISO published ISO26000 which emphasizes that the organization must perform its social responsibility to realize sustainable development. This paper analyzed the application of the seven core subiects of ISO26000 in quality control of supply chain so as to perfect the quality control system of supply chain according to the social responsibility idea of ISO26000, promote all the supply chain members participating into the quality control actively, and implement effective quality supervision and control over the whole supply chain system.

  14. Standard free droplet digital polymerase chain reaction as a new tool for the quality control of high-capacity adenoviral vectors in small-scale preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Philip; Stellberger, Thorsten; Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Schulz, Eric; Bergmann, Thorsten; Liu, Jing; Doerner, Johannes; Baiker, Armin E; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-02-01

    High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdVs) are promising tools for gene therapy as well as for genetic engineering. However, one limitation of the HCAdV vector system is the complex, time-consuming, and labor-intensive production process and the following quality control procedure. Since HCAdVs are deleted for all viral coding sequences, a helper virus (HV) is needed in the production process to provide the sequences for all viral proteins in trans. For the purification procedure of HCAdV, cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation is usually performed followed by buffer exchange using dialysis or comparable methods. However, performing these steps is technically difficult, potentially error-prone, and not scalable. Here, we establish a new protocol for small-scale production of HCAdV based on commercially available adenovirus purification systems and a standard method for the quality control of final HCAdV preparations. For titration of final vector preparations, we established a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) that uses a standard free-end-point PCR in small droplets of defined volume. By using different probes, this method is capable of detecting and quantifying HCAdV and HV in one reaction independent of reference material, rendering this method attractive for accurately comparing viral titers between different laboratories. In summary, we demonstrate that it is possible to produce HCAdV in a small scale of sufficient quality and quantity to perform experiments in cell culture, and we established a reliable protocol for vector titration based on ddPCR. Our method significantly reduces time and required equipment to perform HCAdV production. In the future the ddPCR technology could be advantageous for titration of other viral vectors commonly used in gene therapy.

  15. Detection of mycoplasmas in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients and control individuals using culture techniques and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ayr Florio da CUNHA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of certain mycoplasma species, i.e., Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma penetrans, in urethral swabs from HIV-1 infected patients compared to swabs from a control group. Mycoplasmas were detected by routine culture techniques and by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique, using 16SrRNA generic primers of conserved region and Mycoplasma penetrans specific primers. The positivity rates obtained with the two methods were comparable. Nevertheless, PCR was more sensitive, while the culture techniques allowed the quantification of the isolates. The results showed no significant difference (p O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a prevalência de determinadas espécies de micoplasmas, tais como, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum e Mycoplasma penetrans, em swabs uretrais de pacientes infectados com HIV-1 comparando com um grupo controle. Micoplasmas foram detectados por técnicas padrão de cultivo e pela reação de polimerase em cadeia para a qual foram utilizados "primers" genéricos obtidos da região conservada 16SrRNA e "primers" específicos para Mycoplasma penetrans. A positividade obtida nos dois métodos foi comparável. Contudo, o PCR mostrou ser mais sensível nas condições empregadas enquanto que o cultivo permitiu a quantificação dos isolados. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferenças significantes (p < 0,05 nas taxas de positividade entre os métodos empregados para a detecção dos micoplasmas.

  16. Effect of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammation and metabolic markers in hypertensive and/or diabetic obese adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Ellulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a degree of excess weight that predisposes people to metabolic syndromes via an inflammatory mechanism. Hypertensive and diabetic people have higher risks of developing systemic inflammation. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC ω-3 PUFAs can reduce the cardiovascular events and help against inflammation. Objective: To identify the effects of LC ω-3 PUFAs on reducing the levels of inflammatory markers on hypertensive and/or diabetic obese adults. Materials and methods: Sixty-four patients, who were hypertensive and/or diabetic obese with high levels of inflammatory markers, from primary healthcare centers of Gaza City, Palestine, enrolled in two groups of an open-label, parallel, randomized, controlled trial for 8 weeks. Thirty-three patients were in the control group, and 31 patients were in the experimental group. The experimental group was treated with a daily dose of 300 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 200 mg of docosahexaenoic acid. Results: Treatment with LC ω-3 PUFAs significantly reduced the level of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP [14.78±10.7 to 8.49±6.69 mg/L, p<0.001], fasting blood glucose (FBG [178.13±58.54 to 157.32±59.77 mg/dL, p=0.024], and triglyceride (TG [209.23±108.3 to 167.0±79.9 mg/dL, p<0.05] after 8 weeks of treatment, whereas no significant changes appeared in interleukin 6 (IL-6 and total cholesterol (TC. In the control group, significant reduction was detected for FBG [187.15±64.8 to 161.91±37.9 mg/dL, p<0.05] and TG [202.91±107.0 to 183.45±95.82 mg/dL, p<0.05], and no changes for hs-CRP, IL-6, or TC. By comparing the experimental group with the changes of control group at the endpoint, LC ω-3 PUFAs did not reach the clinical significance in treating effectiveness for any of the clinical variables. Conclusion: LC ω-3 PUFAs have recommended effects on health; the obtained results can improve the role of LC ω-3 PUFAs as a protective factor on inflammation and

  17. Pressure and irradiation effects on transport properties of samarium compounds with instable valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron transport properties in samarium compounds with instable valence are studied in this thesis: from SmS in its integer valence phases at common pressure to SmB6 compound IV at common pressure through SmSsub(1-x)Psub(x) (x6 is presented

  18. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  19. Valence-Bond Concepts in Coordination Chemistry and the Nature of Metal-Metal Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the valence-bond method, applying it to some coordination compounds of metals, especially those involving metal-metal bonds. Suggests that transition metals can form as many as nine covalent bonds, permitting valence-theory to be extended to transition metal compounds in a more effective way than has been possible before. (JN)

  20. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured…

  1. Age influences the relation between subjective valence ratings and emotional word use during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn H; DiGirolamo, Marissa A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Recent research reveals an age-related increase in positive autobiographical memory retrieval using a number of positivity measures, including valence ratings and positive word use. It is currently unclear whether the positivity shift in each of these measures co-occurs, or if age uniquely influences multiple components of autobiographical memory retrieval. The current study examined the correspondence between valence ratings and emotional word use in young and older adults' autobiographical memories. Positive word use in narratives was associated with valence ratings only in young adults' narratives. Older adults' narratives contained a consistent level of positive word use regardless of valence rating, suggesting that positive words and concepts may be chronically accessible to older adults during memory retrieval, regardless of subjective valence. Although a relation between negative word use in narratives and negative valence ratings was apparent in both young and older adults, it was stronger in older adults' narratives. These findings confirm that older adults do vary their word use in accordance with subjective valence, but they do so in a way that is different from young adults. The results also point to a potential dissociation between age-related changes in subjective valence and in positive word use. PMID:26274398

  2. Development of an Analytical System for Rapid, Remote Determining Concentration and Valence of Uranium and Plutonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations and valence of U and Pu directly shows whether the Purex process is under normal conditions or not. It is necessary to monitor concentrations and valence of U and Pu in real-time.Purposes of this work is to develop an analytical

  3. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ni

    Full Text Available Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion, have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low. Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal.

  4. Examining the role of emotional valence of mind wandering: All mind wandering is not equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Welhaf, Matthew S; Hood, Audrey V B; Boals, Adriel; Tartar, Jaime L

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the role of emotional valence on the impact of mind wandering on working memory (WM) and sustained attention, we reanalyzed data from three independently conducted studies that examined the impact of stress on WM (Banks & Boals, 2016; Banks, Welhaf, & Srour, 2015) and sustained attention (Banks, Tartar, & Welhaf, 2014). Across all studies, participants reported the content of their thoughts at random intervals during the WM or sustained attention task. Thought probes in all studies included a core set of response options for task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that were negatively, positively, or neutrally emotionally valenced. In line with theories of emotional valenced stimuli on capture of attention, results suggest negatively valenced TUTs, but not positively valenced TUTs, were related to poorer WM and sustained attention in two studies. Neutral TUTs were related to poorer WM but not sustained attention performance. Implications for models of mind wandering are discussed.

  5. Emotions and language about motion: Differentiating affective dominance with syntax from valence with semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddi, Sébastien; Esteban, José; Dru, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    Motion as encoded in linguistic cues is used to differentiate affective valence and dominance. Participants were invited to rate their affective responses to different words along valence and dominance scales. The words were nouns describing static cues and verbs describing motion, connected to DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues. The results of three studies showed that valence and dominance could be differentiated through syntax and semantics of motion. On one hand, dominance feelings, compared to valence ones, are particularly influenced by motion encoded in syntactic classes (verbs vs. nouns). On the other hand, valence feelings, compared to dominance ones, are influenced by a semantics of motion through DOWN/UP and Avoidance/Approach cues, considered as polarities. A polarity correspondence effect is proposed to explain these results.

  6. 全价值链成本管控体系建设实践研究%Construction Practice Study of the System of Whole Value Chain Cost Management and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洁元; 韦英

    2015-01-01

    全价值链成本管控体系建设是以价值链管理和战略成本管理理念为指导,以作业成本管理为基础,全面收集、整理、分析和利用价值链上各环节的成本信息,以支持价值链成本管控体系的构建和优化。本文通过对全价值链成本管控进行理论阐述,在具体实践中运用精益管理理念,创新管理思维,理论联系实际,建设性地提出了推进全价值链成本管控体系建设的思路和具体实施方法,对构建企业全价值链成本管控体系有一定的借鉴意义。%Guided by value chain management and the theory of strategic cost management, and based on activity-based costing management, the whole value chain management system collets, sorts out, analyzes and makes use of the information on every value chain link to support the construction and optimization of value chain cost management system. The paper expounds the theory of whole value chain management and control by employing lean management concept, innovating management thinking, combining theory and practice, putting forward ideas and concrete measures to promote the construction of whole value chain management system, which may be reference to constructing whole value chain management system for enterprises.

  7. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  8. 供应链中断风险的管理与控制%Management and Control of Supply Chain Disruption Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾毅

    2013-01-01

      由于自然灾害、人为因素和政治经济波动等原因,供应链常常面临着无法预测的中断风险。本文阐述了供应链中断风险的概念和类型,讨论了供应链中断风险的管理体系,最后给出了供应链中断风险的应对措施。%Due to natural disasters, human factors and political and economic fluctuation, the supply chain often are faced with the risk of unpredictable disruptions. This paper expounds the concept and type of supply chain disruption risks, interruption of supply chain risk management system is discussed, finally the measures of supply chain disruption risks are given.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, FTS

    2002-01-01

    Supply chain management has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage in different industries. For years, researchers have investigated the various processes within supply chain. There has been an increasing attention placed on performance, design and analysis of supply chain. However, the supply chain is a complex model so it is difficult to analyze the performance of a supply chain philosophically. To evaluate the control mechanism for a supply chain, simulation is o...

  10. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  11. Valence Tautomerism in One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, Olga; Gable, Robert W; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Poneti, Giordano; Sorace, Lorenzo; Boskovic, Colette

    2016-05-01

    The combination of the divergent bis-pyridyl linking ligands 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (1,2-bpe), 4,4'-trans-azopyridine (azpy), and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (1,3-bpp) with cobalt and 3,5-di-tert-butyldioxolene (3,5-dbdiox) ligands has afforded the complexes [Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(1,2-bpe)]∞ (1), [Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(azpy)]∞ (2), [trans-Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(1,3-bpp)]∞ (3a), and [cis-Co(3,5-dbdiox)2(1,3-bpp)]∞ (3b). All species are 1D coordination polymers that crystallize as solvated forms; the geometric isomers 3a,b cocrystallize. Complexes 1, 2, and 3a exhibit around the Co centers a trans disposition of the N-donor atoms from the pyridyl linkers, while an unusual cis disposition is evident in 3b. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis at 100 or 130 K of solvated forms of these complexes indicates that all complexes possess the {Co(III)(3,5-dbcat)(3,5-dbsq)} (3,5-dbcat = 3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholate; 3,5-dbsq = 3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinonate) charge distribution at the temperature of data collection. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies reveal that 1, 1·1.5MeCN·2H2O, 2·2EtOH, and 3·MeCN·H2O (3 = 3a·3b) all exhibit thermally induced valence tautomeric (VT) transitions above 200 K. Multiple heating and cooling cycles indicate that in some cases the behavior is strongly dependent on desolvation processes. Most notably, further desolvation of 1·1.5MeCN·2H2O above 340 K affords χmT values that suggest unusual ferromagnetic coupling in the {hs-Co(II)(3,5-dbsq)2} valence tautomer. Compound 3·MeCN·H2O exhibits a two-step VT transition that may be ascribed to the presence of the cis and trans geometric isomers. Compounds 1, 1·1.5MeCN·2H2O, 2·2EtOH, and 3·MeCN·H2O all also exhibit a single photoinduced VT transition, comparable to those generally observed for nonpolymeric cobalt-dioxolene complexes. PMID:27058604

  12. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with two internal controls for the detection of Brucella species in tissues, blood, and feces from marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Inga F; Dunn, J Lawrence; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Carlson, Jolene; Frasca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis has emerged as a disease of concern in marine mammals in the last 2 decades. Molecular detection techniques have the potential to address limitations of other methods for detecting infection with Brucella in these species. Presented herein is a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method targeting the Brucella genus-specific bcsp31 gene. The method also includes a target to a conserved region of the eukaryotic mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess suitability of extracted DNA and a plasmid-based internal control to detect failure of PCR due to inhibition. This method was optimized and validated to detect Brucella spp. in multiple sample matrices, including fresh or frozen tissue, blood, and feces. The analytical limit of detection was low, with 95% amplification at 24 fg, or an estimated 7 bacterial genomic copies. When Brucella spp. were experimentally added to tissue or fecal homogenates, the assay detected an estimated 1-5 bacteria/µl. An experiment simulating tissue autolysis showed relative persistence of bacterial DNA compared to host mitochondrial DNA. When used to screen 1,658 field-collected marine mammal tissues in comparison to microbial culture, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 70.4% and 98.3%, respectively. In addition to amplification in fresh and frozen tissues, Brucella spp. were detected in feces and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from culture-positive animals. Results indicate the utility of this real-time PCR for the detection of Brucella spp. in marine species, which may have applications in surveillance or epidemiologic investigations.

  13. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putz Mihai V

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework.

  14. Electrochemical modification of Surface valence - Cr precipitates on LSCF surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterbusch, Martin; Schaefer, J. A.; Eigenbrodt, B. C.; Walker, R. A.; Lussier, A.; Idzerda, Y. U.

    2010-10-01

    Interactions of gaseous Cr contaminants with the perovskite material LSCF (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3) commonly used as cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were investigated by means of X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman Spectroscopy. The setup consisted of a model cell with a GDC (Gd0.1Ce0.9O2) electrolyte pellet with a LSCF cathode on both sides in a Cr containing sample holder. The chemical structure and valency of the precipitate were found to depend on the electrochemical conditions of the surface, particularly on the bias voltage and not the total current density present in the cell. Cr^6+ spinels were found to form under high bias voltage, while under low bias voltage mostly Cr2O3 was formed. The influence of the contact material (Au vs. Ag) and the effect of quenching were investigated by Raman Spectroscopy under operating conditions (800 C in air). XAS unlike EDS, XRD or XPS is a precise and valuable tool for the direct measurement of the oxidation state of transition metals in compounds if the concentration is low (contamination) and the substrate is porous.

  15. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  16. Delocalization and Valence Tautomerism in Vanadium Tris(iminosemiquinone) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, Jesper; Clark, Kensha Marie

    2016-02-18

    To survey the noninnocence of bis(arylimino) acenaphthene (BIAN) ligands (L) in complexes with early metals, the homoleptic vanadium complex, [V(L)3 ] (1), and its monocation, [V(L)3 ]PF6 (2), were synthesized. These complexes were found to have a very rich electronic behavior, whereby 1 displays strong electronic delocalization and 2 can be observed in unprecedented valence tautomeric forms. The oxidation states of the metal and ligand components in these complexes were assigned by using spectroscopic, crystallographic, and magnetic analyses. Complex 1 was identified as [V(IV) (L(red) )(L(.) )2 ] (L(red) =N,N'-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylamido)acenaphthylene; L(.) =N,N'-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylimino)acenaphthenesemiquinonate). Complex 2 was determined to be [V(V) (L(red) )(L(.) )2 ](+) at T150 K. Cyclic voltammetry experiments reveal six quasi-reversible processes, thus indicating the potential of this metal-ligand combination in catalysis or materials applications. PMID:26799365

  17. Research and Optimization of Enterprise Inventory Control Based on Supply Chain%基于供应链的企业库存成因及优化控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 孔令夷

    2013-01-01

    基于企业全面库存管理思想,运用供应链系统理论作为研究方法,分析了库存管理现状及产生原因,从优化生产管理、整合企业内部供应链和跨企业供应链的角度提出库存控制的对策,以实现全面的库存优化,提高经营效益。%Based on the idea of a comprehensive enterprise inventory management, the inventory cost, inventory control experience, the optimization of inventory system management and the results of previous studies were analyzed.By using inventory management concepts and methods of advanced enterprises, to large manufacturing enterprise as the core research object, on the set of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors for the integration of the supply chain as the foundation of the research framework, using the supply chain system theory as research method, the authors analyze the inventory management present situation, affecting factors and reasons, put forward the corresponding countermeasures of inventory control from the optimization of production management, the integration of internal supply chain and inter enterprise supply chain perspective in order to achieve inventory optimization of comprehensive and improve operational efficiency.

  18. Valence-dependent influence of serotonin depletion on model-based choice strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbe, Y; Palminteri, S; Savulich, G; Daw, N D; Fernandez-Egea, E; Robbins, T W; Voon, V

    2016-05-01

    Human decision-making arises from both reflective and reflexive mechanisms, which underpin goal-directed and habitual behavioural control. Computationally, these two systems of behavioural control have been described by different learning algorithms, model-based and model-free learning, respectively. Here, we investigated the effect of diminished serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission using dietary tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers on the performance of a two-stage decision-making task, which allows discrimination between model-free and model-based behavioural strategies. A novel version of the task was used, which not only examined choice balance for monetary reward but also for punishment (monetary loss). TD impaired goal-directed (model-based) behaviour in the reward condition, but promoted it under punishment. This effect on appetitive and aversive goal-directed behaviour is likely mediated by alteration of the average reward representation produced by TD, which is consistent with previous studies. Overall, the major implication of this study is that serotonin differentially affects goal-directed learning as a function of affective valence. These findings are relevant for a further understanding of psychiatric disorders associated with breakdown of goal-directed behavioural control such as obsessive-compulsive disorders or addictions. PMID:25869808

  19. Different neural responses to a moral valence decision task in unipolar and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Daniele; Dallaspezia, Sara; Poletti, Sara; Smeraldi, Enrico; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2013-12-17

    Objectives. Patients affected by bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (UP) share the susceptibility to experience depression and differ in their susceptibility to mania, but clinical studies suggest that the biological substrates of the two disorders could influence the apparently similar depressive phases. The few brain imaging studies available described different brain metabolic and neural correlates of UP and BP. Methods. We studied the BOLD neural response to a moral valence decision task targeting the depressive biases in information processing in 36 subjects (14 BP, 11 UP, and 11 controls). Results. Main differences between UP and controls and between UP and BP were detected in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, BA 47). Neural responses of BP patients differed from those of control subjects in multiple brain areas, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial PFC, bilateral dorsolateral PFC, temporal cortex and insula, and parietal and occipital cortex. Conclusions. Our results are in agreement with hypotheses of dysfunctions in corticolimbic circuitries regulating affects and emotions in mood disorders and suggest that specific abnormalities, particularly in ventrolateral PFC, are not the same in UP and BP depression. PMID:24455401

  20. Different Neural Responses to a Moral Valence Decision Task in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Daniele; Dallaspezia, Sara; Smeraldi, Enrico; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Patients affected by bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (UP) share the susceptibility to experience depression and differ in their susceptibility to mania, but clinical studies suggest that the biological substrates of the two disorders could influence the apparently similar depressive phases. The few brain imaging studies available described different brain metabolic and neural correlates of UP and BP. Methods. We studied the BOLD neural response to a moral valence decision task targeting the depressive biases in information processing in 36 subjects (14 BP, 11 UP, and 11 controls). Results. Main differences between UP and controls and between UP and BP were detected in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC, BA 47). Neural responses of BP patients differed from those of control subjects in multiple brain areas, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial PFC, bilateral dorsolateral PFC, temporal cortex and insula, and parietal and occipital cortex. Conclusions. Our results are in agreement with hypotheses of dysfunctions in corticolimbic circuitries regulating affects and emotions in mood disorders and suggest that specific abnormalities, particularly in ventrolateral PFC, are not the same in UP and BP depression. PMID:24455401

  1. [XPS study on the influence of calcination conditions to cerium ion valence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yan, Jian-ping; Nie, Zuo-ren

    2010-01-01

    For the system of Ce(NO3)2.6H2O and urea solution during homogeneous precipitation method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrum (IR) and especially X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study and characterize the product structure, variety of cerium ion valence, compound surface character and kernel electronic configurations. The results of XRD and IR showed that calcination temperature had a great effect on the cerium ion valence. The products are orthorhombic Ce2 O(CO3)2.H2O with valence III by using homogeneous precipitation method directly. When heated from the temperature 200 degrees C to 250 degrees C, the product of CeO(CO3)2.H2O with valence VI was finally changed into stable CeO2 with valence IV. XPS was used to study the surface character and kernel electronic configurations of the three different compounds through fine scanning of O(1s), Ce(3d) and Ce(4d) apices, and the results approved that the compounds with different valences are caused by the different valence electronic configurations of the products.

  2. Lying about the valence of affective pictures: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M C Lee

    Full Text Available The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception.

  3. CzEngVallex: a Bilingual Czech-English Valency Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urešová Zdeňka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bilingual Czech-English verbal valency lexicon (called CzEng-Vallex representing a relatively large empirical database. It includes 20,835 aligned valency frame pairs (i.e., verb senses which are translations of each other and their aligned arguments. This new lexicon uses data from the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank and also takes advantage of the existing valency lexicons for both languages: the PDT-Vallex for Czech and the EngVallex for English. The CzEngVallex is available for browsing as well as for download in the LINDAT/CLARIN repository.

  4. Valency state changes in lanthanide-contained systems under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in valency state induced by pressure in samarium sulphide SmS remind one of alchemy, as the mat black initial substance shines golden after the electron transition. The alchemist's dream is of course not realized, however the compound does exhibit an unusually interesting behaviour in the new state. The valency state of samarium as newly appeared fluctuated very rapidly between two electron configurations. Manipulation of the valency state by pressure or chemical substitution can basically change the physical properties of systems containing lanthanides. The phenomena are described and discussed in the following survey. (orig.)

  5. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  6. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  7. Valency and density matter: Deciphering impacts of immunogen structures on immune responses against a tumor associated carbohydrate antigen using synthetic glycopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian; Yin, Zhaojun; Wu, Xuanjun; Haas, Karen M; Huang, Xuefei

    2016-09-01

    For successful carbohydrate based anti-cancer vaccines, it is critical that B cells are activated to secret antibodies targeting the tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). Despite the availability of many TACA based constructs, systematic understanding of the effects of structural features on anti-glycan antibody responses is lacking. In this study, a series of defined synthetic glyco-polymers bearing a representative TACA, i.e., the Thomsen-nouveau (Tn) antigen, have been prepared to probe the induction of early B cell activation and antibody production via a T cell independent mechanism. Valency and density of the antigen in the polymers turned out to be critical. An average of greater than 6 Tn per chain was needed to induce antibody production. Glycopolymers with 40 antigens per chain and backbone molecular weight of 450 kDa gave the strongest stimulation to B cells in vitro, which correlated well with its in vivo activity. Deviations from the desired valency and density led to decreased antibody production or even antigen specific B cell non-responsiveness. These findings provide important insights on how to modulate anti-TACA immune responses facilitating the development of TACA based anti-cancer vaccines using glycopolymers. PMID:27294537

  8. Análise das práticas de planejamento e controle da produção em fornecedores da cadeia automotiva brasileira Manufacturing planning and control practices: a survey research on the Brazilian automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Mesquita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As empresas do segmento automotivo estão inseridas em um mercado bastante competitivo e sujeito às oscilações da economia. As montadoras, agentes de maior poder na cadeia de suprimentos, aderiram às práticas just-in-time e, posteriormente, ao lean production, visando aumento da eficiência e redução de estoques. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise das práticas de planejamento e controle da produção dos fornecedores da cadeia automotiva brasileira. Neste propósito, realizou-se um survey junto aos fornecedores de primeira e segunda camada, utilizando-se como instrumento de coleta de dados um questionário auto-aplicado. Dentre os resultados obtidos, destacam-se: (i ausência de diferenças significativas entre fornecedores nível um e dois; (ii necessidade de aprimorar a coordenação cliente-fornecedor; (iii busca de "ferramentas" mais eficientes para programação da produção ("programação finita"; (iv grande lacuna entre teoria e prática em programação da produção, atividade crítica para o desempenho dos fornecedores.Automotive suppliers are part of a constantly changing business environment that is subject to oscillations in the economy. Automobile assemblers, the major influence over the rest of the supply chain, have adopted some Japanese management practices (JIT, lean production etc in order to achieve higher efficiency and lower inventories. This work aims to identify how suppliers along the chain have adjusted to this new situation concerning, mainly, production and inventory planning as well as control. A research was conducted showing that, nonuniformly, suppliers fulfill demand requests satisfactorily in spite of the poor coordination of their nearest clients, low inventory accuracy, and high stock level of raw materials and finished goods. It was also detected that there are no significant performance differences between first and second tier suppliers. It is particularly noteworthy to highlight a special need

  9. 具有外包选择的闭环供应链切换模型及其鲁棒控制%Closed-loop supply chain switching model with outsourcing selection and its robust control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛汝刚; 黄小原

    2009-01-01

    建立了一类具有外包选择的闭环供应链切换系统模型,包括自行同收再制造和外包两个子系统,以及基于成本的切换信号向量.为了抑制闭环供应链系统在自行回收再制造和外包切换过程中产牛的运作波动和牛鞭效应,应用鲁棒控制理论方法给出了供应链切换系统的控制律,分析了闭环供应链切换系统运作过程,并进行了控制律计算和系统仿真,验证了鲁棒控制律的有效性.%A type of closed-loop supply chain switching models with outsourcing selection were proposed, which were consisted of remanufacturing self-recall and outsourcing subsystems as well as a cost-based switching signal vector. To inhibit operation fluctuation caused by inventory switching processes in the supply chain systems and bullwhip effect induced by uncertain parameters and external demand, the control law of the closed-loop supply chain switching system was presented by using robust control theory and method. The operation process of closed-loop supply chain switching system was analyzed. Moreover, computation of the control law and a system simulation were performed. Results verified the effectiveness of the control law.

  10. Effect of the novel polysaccharide PolyGlycopleX® on short-chain fatty acid production in a computer-controlled in vitro model of the human large intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Raylene A.; Maathuis, Annet J. H.; Koen Venema; Lyon, Michael R.; Gahler, Roland J.; Simon Wood

    2014-01-01

    Many of the health benefits associated with dietary fiber are attributed to their fermentation by microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentability of the functional fiber PolyGlyopleX® (PGX®) in vitro. A validated dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro system simulating the conditions in the proximal large intestine (TIM-2) was used. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) consumption in the system was used as an indicator of fermentabili...

  11. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  12. Quality controlled logistics in vegetable supply chain networks: how can an individual batch reach an individual consumer in hte optimal state?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Kooten, van O.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Marcelis, W.J.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Western-European consumers have become demanding on product availability in retail outlets and vegetable attributes such as quality, integrity, safety. When (re)designing vegetable supply chain networks one has to take these demands into consideration, next to traditional efficiency and responsivene

  13. Determination of the bulk cobalt valence state of co-perovskites containing surface-adsorbed impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, O; Ludwig, Chr; Wokaun, A

    2006-10-15

    We used thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction and iodometric titration to determine the bulk valence state of cobalt in Co-perovskites containing surface carbonate hydroxide or hydroxyl groups. It could be shown that thermogravimetric hydrogen reduction experiments are very sensitive to volatile surface groups, but due to their volatility, they can be specified and the bulk valence state of cobalt can still be deduced from these experiments. The iodometric titration is less sensitive to small volatile surface impurities, but precaution has to be taken that oxygen or iodine does not escape from the solution during dissolution of the sample. Best results were obtained if the sample was titrated during dissolution in a closed argon floated titration apparatus. We tested the two methods using LaCoO3 perovskite as a sample with a known valence state. Both methods delivered satisfactory results, and the valence state could be determined with an accuracy of better than 1%.

  14. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  15. Age-related Alterations in Simple Declarative Memory and the Effect of Negative Stimulus Valence

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Sambataro, Fabio; Das, Saumitra; Tan, Hao-Yang; Callicott, Joseph H.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Mattay, Venkata S.

    2009-01-01

    Healthy aging has been shown to modulate the neural circuitry underlying simple declarative memory; however, the functional impact of negative stimulus valence on these changes has not been fully investigated. Using BOLD fMRI, we explored the effects of aging on behavioral performance, neural activity, and functional coupling during the encoding and retrieval of novel aversive and neutral scenes. Behaviorally, there was a main effect of valence with better recognition performance for aversive...

  16. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    OpenAIRE

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET; danilo eRamos; Lino Jose Bueno; Emmanuel eBigand

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s) and long (> 2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This eff...

  17. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Dannii Yeung; Wenjie Duan; Sandy Tang; June C Yeung; Rita Ching

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied...

  18. The right-hemisphere and valence hypotheses: could they both be right (and sometimes left)?

    OpenAIRE

    Killgore, William Dale; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The two halves of the brain are believed to play different roles in emotional processing, but the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. The right-hemisphere hypothesis suggests that the right cerebrum is dominant for processing all emotions regardless of affective valence, whereas the valence specific hypothesis posits that the left hemisphere is specialized for processing positive affect while the right hemisphere is specialized for negative affect. Here, healthy ...

  19. Taking a deeper look at online reviews: The asymmetric effect of valence intensity on shopping behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Floh, A.; Koller, Monika; Zauner, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the asymmetric effect of user-generated, open-ended online reviews on online shopping behaviour (intention-to-buy, intention-to-recommend, and willingness-to-pay). Three online experiments involving manipulating the valence intensity of online reviews for hotels, books, and running shoes (overall customer sample of n=818) provide empirical support for the proposed relationship. The valence intensity of online reviews moderates the effect of online reviews on purchase intentio...

  20. Identifying facial emotions: valence specific effects and an exploration of the effects of viewer gender

    OpenAIRE

    Jansari, Ashok S.; Rodway, P.; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46 participants completed a free view lateralised emotion perception task which involved judging which of two faces expressed a particular emotion. Eye fixatio...

  1. Finite Time Control of the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chain Network System%供应链网络系统牛鞭效应的有限时间控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 孙业国

    2013-01-01

    文章主要讨论供应链网络系统牛鞭效应的有限时间控制策略问题。首先,构建了不确定环境下供应链库存网络系统状态转移模型;其次,运用有限时间稳定性理论,结合线性矩阵不等式方法,对供应链库存网络系统进行有限时间稳定性分析;再次,基于得到的稳定性结果,设计出使得供应链库存网络系统有限时间稳定的控制策略;最后,数值例子表明有限时间控制策略的有效性。%This paper mainly studies tactful policy related to finite time control of the bullwhip effect supply chain network system. Firstly, it constructs a state transition model of supply chain inventory network system in an uncertain environment. Secondly, it carries out finite time stability analysis on supply chain inventory network system by applying the finite time control theory combined with linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Thirdly, the control strategy is designed based on the results, which aims to make supply chain inventory network system finite time stable. Finally, a numerical example is given to dem-onstrate the effectiveness of finite time tactful policy.

  2. A general valence asymmetry in similarity: Good is more alike than bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alex; Alves, Hans; Krüger, Tobias; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The density hypothesis (Unkelbach, Fiedler, Bayer, Stegmüller, & Danner, 2008) claims a general higher similarity of positive information to other positive information compared with the similarity of negative information to other negative information. This similarity asymmetry might explain valence asymmetries on all levels of cognitive processing. The available empirical evidence for this general valence asymmetry in similarity suffers from a lack of direct tests, low representativeness, and possible confounding variables (e.g., differential valence intensity, frequency, familiarity, or concreteness of positive and negative stimuli). To address these problems, Study 1 first validated the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) as a similarity measure. Using SpAM, Studies 2-6 found the proposed valence asymmetry in large, representative samples of self- and other-generated words (Studies 2a/2b), for words of consensual and idiosyncratic valence (Study 3), for words from 1 and many independent information sources (Study 4), for real-life experiences (Study 5), and for large data sets of verbal (i.e., ∼14,000 words reported by Warriner, Kuperman, & Brysbaert, 2013) and visual information (i.e., ∼1,000 pictures reported in the IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005; Study 6). Together, these data support a general valence asymmetry in similarity, namely that good is more alike than bad. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866655

  3. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  4. The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

  5. A general valence asymmetry in similarity: Good is more alike than bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alex; Alves, Hans; Krüger, Tobias; Unkelbach, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The density hypothesis (Unkelbach, Fiedler, Bayer, Stegmüller, & Danner, 2008) claims a general higher similarity of positive information to other positive information compared with the similarity of negative information to other negative information. This similarity asymmetry might explain valence asymmetries on all levels of cognitive processing. The available empirical evidence for this general valence asymmetry in similarity suffers from a lack of direct tests, low representativeness, and possible confounding variables (e.g., differential valence intensity, frequency, familiarity, or concreteness of positive and negative stimuli). To address these problems, Study 1 first validated the spatial arrangement method (SpAM) as a similarity measure. Using SpAM, Studies 2-6 found the proposed valence asymmetry in large, representative samples of self- and other-generated words (Studies 2a/2b), for words of consensual and idiosyncratic valence (Study 3), for words from 1 and many independent information sources (Study 4), for real-life experiences (Study 5), and for large data sets of verbal (i.e., ∼14,000 words reported by Warriner, Kuperman, & Brysbaert, 2013) and visual information (i.e., ∼1,000 pictures reported in the IAPS; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 2005; Study 6). Together, these data support a general valence asymmetry in similarity, namely that good is more alike than bad. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Risk Analysis and Control of Aquatic Product Supply Chain Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的水产品供应链风险分析与控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大冬; 严凌

    2016-01-01

    Along with the production and trade of volume of aquatic products in china increasing, supply chain risk issues of aquatic products are increasingly concerned. Since the development of the Internet of things technology, the supply chain of aquatic products is moving from the traditional to the modern. New technology to improve the value of the supply chain also brought new risks. According to three levels of Internet of things identify the supply chain risk of aquatic product, by using AHP method analysis the risk factors ,and puts forward the risk management and control measures in the water supply chain of the Internet of things.%随着我国水产品贸易量与生产量的不断增加,由此带来的水产品供应链风险问题越来越被重视。近年来,由于物联网技术的广泛使用使得水产品供应链模式正从传统走向现代。它在改变传统风险的同时也带来了新风险。文中把水产品供应链风险按照物联网的层次进行划分,运用层次分析法评估风险指标,找出影响水产品供应链的风险因素,最后提出了风险管控措施建议。

  7. Global Commodity Chains and the Spatial-Temporal Dimensions of Labor Control: Lessons from Colombia’s Coffee and Banana Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Hough

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author seeks to explain the trajectories of local labor regime dynamics in Colombia’s coffee and banana industries from the post war developmental decades until the present. In order to explain these dynamics, the author first develops a neo-Gramscian ideal-typical schema to highlight the full range of labor regime dynamics emergent in Colombia, including “hegemonic,” “despotic,” and “crisis” regimes. The author then develops a theory of local labor regime types that draws from Giovanni Arrighi’s work on commodity chains. Finally, using comparative and world-historical methods, the author finds that the shifting trajectories of labor regimes in Colombia are affected by the nodal location of these regimes within their respective commodity chains.

  8. Study on value of information-sharing for inventory control in complex supply chain%复杂供应链中信息共享对于库存控制的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晴晴; 潘玉香

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of information-sharing on inventory control,the difference between informationsharing or not of supply chain members' average inventory and cost is analyzed through the mathematical model,and it is confirmed by the example analysis.The results show that the value of information-sharing for inventory control in complex supply chain is reducing the supplier's inventory and cost,shortening the retailer's order lead time,thus improving the whole performance and competitiveness of supply chain.%为研究信息共享对库存控制的影响效果,对供应链内成员间有无信息共享时平均库存和成本的数学模型的差异进行分析,并采用实例进行验证.结果表明:信息共享对于复杂供应链中库存控制的影响表现为降低供应商的库存和成本,缩短零售商的订货提前期,从而提高供应链的整体绩效和竞争力.

  9. Determining the Diagnostic Value of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA in the Differentiation of Blood Samples of Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Healthy Controls Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abasali Niazi; Nezarali Muolai; Mosayeb Shahriar; Reza Karimian; Farzaneh Peykfalak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is now a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Nowadays, different methods are used to diagnose tuberculosis. Although classical microbiological methods (such as sputum smear) are specific, they have little sensitivity and the culture is also time-consuming. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in blood samples in terms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, this study examines diagnostic power of this test in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis c...

  10. Branched-chain amino acids, arginine, citrulline alleviate central fatigue after 3 simulated matches in taekwondo athletes: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, I-Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Chen, Chung-Yu; Chou, Kuei-Ming; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background The decline in cognitive performance has been shown after fatiguing exercise. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) have been suggested to alleviate exercise-induced central fatigue. Arginine and citrulline could remove the excess NH3 accumulation accompanied with BCAA supplementation by increasing nitric oxide biosynthesis and/or urea cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the combined supplementation of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline on central fatigue after...

  11. Quality analysis of critical control points within the whole food chain and their impact on food quality, safety and health (QACCP)

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, Johannes; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Kristensen, Hanne L.; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Mengheri, Elena; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to optimise organic production and processing in order to improve food quality and increase health promoting aspects in consumer products. The approach was a chain analysis approach which addressed the link between farm and fork and backwards from fork to farm. The objectives were to test food authenticity on farm level and food quality and health in processing. The carrot was chosen as the model vegetable since it is common for the involved partners f...

  12. Side-chain tunability of furan-containing low-band-gap polymers provides control of structural order in efficient solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Alan T.

    2012-02-01

    The solution-processability of conjugated polymers in organic solvents has classically been achieved by modulating the size and branching of alkyl substituents appended to the backbone. However, these substituents impact structural order and charge transport properties in thin-film devices. As a result, a trade-off must be found between material solubility and insulating alkyl content. It was recently shown that the substitution of furan for thiophene in the backbone of the polymer PDPP2FT significantly improves polymer solubility, allowing for the use of shorter branched side chains while maintaining high device efficiency. In this report, we use PDPP2FT to demonstrate that linear alkyl side chains can be used to promote thin-film nanostructural order. In particular, linear side chains are shown to shorten π-π stacking distances between backbones and increase the correlation lengths of both π-π stacking and lamellar spacing, leading to a substantial increase in the efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  14. Effect of the Structure and Valence State on the Properties of VO2 Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    VO2 thin films with good switching properties were prepared by controlling the annealing time and the annealing temperature in a vacuum system. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the samples were characterized by using XRD、XPS、UV-VIS and electrical measurements. The switching parameters of VO2 thin film were investigated too. The results indicate that before and after phase transition the resistance of VO2 thin films changes about three orders of magnitude, the variation of film transmittance of 40% has been carried out with the absorptivity switching velocity of about 0.2607/min at 900nm . The structural property of samples has been improved but the phase-transition properties have been decreased by increasing the annealing time and annealing temperature. The valence of V ions and the structure of samples have great effect on phase transition properties of VO2 thin films. Discussion on the effects of annealing time and annealing temperature on the phase-transition temperature and hysteresis width shows that the best reasonable annealing time and annealing temperature can be achieved.

  15. Mothering Experiences: How Single Parenthood and Employment Structure the Emotional Valence of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed.

  16. Mothering Experiences: How Single Parenthood and Employment Structure the Emotional Valence of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed. PMID:27150964

  17. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  18. Action and valence modulate choice and choice-induced preference change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Koster

    Full Text Available Choices are not only communicated via explicit actions but also passively through inaction. In this study we investigated how active or passive choice impacts upon the choice process itself as well as a preference change induced by choice. Subjects were tasked to select a preference for unfamiliar photographs by action or inaction, before and after they gave valuation ratings for all photographs. We replicate a finding that valuation increases for chosen items and decreases for unchosen items compared to a control condition in which the choice was made post re-evaluation. Whether choice was expressed actively or passively affected the dynamics of revaluation differently for positive and negatively valenced items. Additionally, the choice itself was biased towards action such that subjects tended to choose a photograph obtained by action more often than a photographed obtained through inaction. These results highlight intrinsic biases consistent with a tight coupling of action and reward and add to an emerging understanding of how the mode of action itself, and not just an associated outcome, modulates the decision making process.

  19. Dissociable neural systems underwrite logical reasoning in the context of induced emotions with positive and negative valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen W; Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    How emotions influence syllogistic reasoning is not well understood. fMRI was employed to investigate the effects of induced positive or negative emotion on syllogistic reasoning. Specifically, on a trial-by-trial basis participants were exposed to a positive, negative, or neutral picture, immediately prior to engagement in a reasoning task. After viewing and rating the valence and intensity of each picture, participants indicated by keypress whether or not the conclusion of the syllogism followed logically from the premises. The content of all syllogisms was neutral, and the influence of belief-bias was controlled for in the study design. Emotion did not affect reasoning performance, although there was a trend in the expected direction based on accuracy rates for the positive (63%) and negative (64%) versus neutral (70%) condition. Nevertheless, exposure to positive and negative pictures led to dissociable patterns of neural activation during reasoning. Therefore, the neural basis of deductive reasoning differs as a function of the valence of the context. PMID:25294997

  20. Estradiol levels in women predict skin conductance response but not valence and expectancy ratings in conditioned fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily C; Graham, Bronwyn M

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than men. One contributing factor may be the sex hormone estradiol, which is known to impact the long term recall of conditioned fear extinction, a laboratory procedure that forms the basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. To date, the literature examining estradiol and fear extinction in humans has focused primarily on physiological measures of fear, such as skin conductance response (SCR) and fear potentiated startle. This is surprising, given that models of anxiety identify at least three important components: physiological symptoms, cognitive beliefs, and avoidance behavior. To help address this gap, we exposed women with naturally high (n=20) or low estradiol (n=19), women using hormonal contraceptives (n=16), and a male control group (n=18) to a fear extinction task, and measured SCR, US expectancy and CS valence ratings. During extinction recall, low estradiol was associated with greater recovery of SCR, but was not related to US expectancy or CS evaluation. Importantly, women using hormonal contraceptives showed a dissociation between SCR and cognitive beliefs: they exhibited a greater recovery of SCR during extinction recall, yet reported similar US expectancy and CS valence ratings to the other female groups. This divergence underscores the importance of assessing multiple measures of fear when examining the role of estradiol in human fear extinction, especially when considering the potential of estradiol as an enhancement for psychological treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:27544848

  1. Dissociable neural systems underwrite logical reasoning in the context of induced emotions with positive and negative valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Walton Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How emotions influence syllogistic reasoning is not well understood. fMRI was employed to investigate the effects of induced positive or negative emotion on syllogistic reasoning. Specifically, on a trial-by-trial basis participants were exposed to a positive, negative, or neutral picture, immediately prior to engagement in a reasoning task. After viewing and rating the valence and intensity of each picture, participants indicated by keypress whether or not the conclusion of the syllogism followed logically from the premises. The content of all syllogisms was neutral, and the influence of belief-bias was controlled for in the study design. Emotion did not affect reasoning performance, although there was a trend in the expected direction based on accuracy rates for the positive (63% and negative (64% versus neutral (70% condition. Nevertheless, exposure to positive and negative pictures led to dissociable patterns of neural activation during reasoning. Therefore, the neural basis of deductive reasoning differs as a function of the valence of the context.

  2. The Application Research of Inventory Control with Multi -objective Constraints under the Perspective of Supply Chain---A Case Analysis of Industrial Lubricating Oil Supply Chain%库存控制之供应链多目标视角下的应用研究--以工业润滑油供应链为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 李英英

    2016-01-01

    〔Abstract〕 Study on inventory control of supply chain has become a trend , different from the conventional single target study on in-ventory control , the author made the emphasis on the study on minimizing inventory cost and maximizing the average satisfaction rate of cus -tomer demand and built a multi -objective inventory control model . In the end , the model and the solution were applied to the lubricating oil supply chain , which was helpful for making decisions for these enterprises in the lubricating oil supply chain .%供应链环境下库存控制的研究已经成为趋势,区别于常规的单目标库存控制的研究,本文以工业润滑油供应链为依托,提出了在供应链背景下考虑供应链库存成本最小化和客户平均需求满足率最大化为目标的库存控制研究思路,构建了多目标库存控制模型。最后将所建的供应链视角下多目标库存控制决策模型进行实证分析,为目标供应链上的企业做出生产、销售等决策提供依据。

  3. 链与链基于价格竞争和规模不经济的纵向控制结构选择%Choice of vertical control structure of chain-to-chain competition under price competition and scale diseconomies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海霞; 艾兴政; 唐小我

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of price competition and scale diseconomies on the choice of vertical control structure under the chain-to-chain model,and addresses the evolution process and the equilirum of the vertical structure from the aspect of manufacturer’s performance and supply chain’s performance.The centralized control structure is a dominant equilibrium for the supply chain and the manufacturer when the price competition is relatively weak,and the threshold intensity of price competition is influenced by the scale diseconomies.The decentralized control structure is a dominant equilibrium when the price competition is fiercest from the attitude of the supply chain’s performance.%考察价格竞争和规模不经济因素对链与链纵向控制结构选择的影响,并从制造商的绩效角度和供应链系统的绩效角度识别了纵向控制结构的动态演变过程及最终均衡结构,得到当价格竞争强度相对较弱且严重依赖于规模不经济效应时,不管是从制造商角度还是供应链系统角度,一体化结构为占优均衡结构;当价格竞争惨烈但又严重依赖于规模不经济效应时,分散化结构为供应链系统的占优均衡结构.

  4. Dynamic Coordination Mechanisms of Quality Control in Two-echelon Supply Chains%两级供应链上质量控制的动态协调机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪江涛; 黄沛

    2011-01-01

    Quality management problems caused by poor supply chain management (SCM) are prevalent. Examples of poor SCM include companies, such as Heinz and KFC, which were involved in the Sudan red incident in 2005. Another example is “Sanlu" milk powder. Sanlu recalled its milk powder in 2008 after a number of children were poisoned. Toyota filed safety recalls on many lines of vehicles, including RAV4, Camry, Highlander and Sequoia, in 2010 because of safety issues. All of these notorious events have sounded alarms for better quality management in the supply chain. Although improving product quality is gaining attention, many challenges lie ahead of implementing quality programs across supply chain partners. The objective of this paper is to adopt a differential game to study quality control problems coordinated by a manufacturer and a supplier in the two-echelon supply chain.First, we introduced the Stackelberg model as a quality control game model in a two-echelon supply chain. In the general noncooperative quality control game situation, a manufacturer acted as the leader and optimal action policies could be obtained for manufacturer and supplier. We then analyzed the optimal action selection of two partners in the cooperative quality control game situation. After comparing these two game equilibrium results, we found that cooperative quality control game structure is superior to general non-cooperative quality control game structure during the process of quality management in the two-echelon supply chain.Finally, a numerical example was given to verify the research results. This paper provides a theoretical basis for supply chain partners to conduct quality management practices and choose right game structures.%文章应用微分博弈的方法研究了由单一制造商和单一供应商组成的两级供应链上的质量控制的协调问题.首先讨论了制造商作为供应链上质量控制的领导者而供应商作为跟随者的Stackelberg博弈情形,得

  5. Business intelligence for improving supply chain risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Daniels, H.A.M.; Hofman, W.; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Filipe, J.

    2014-01-01

    The risk management over a supply chain has to be founded on the management controls in each of the partner companies in the chain. Inevitably, the business relationship and operations dependence bind the control efforts of partner companies together. This proposes challenges for supply chain risk m

  6. Enterprise based on supply chain inventory control research and optimization%基于供应链的企业库存成因及优化控制的研究(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 冯定根; 黄惠良

    2013-01-01

    Based on the idea of a comprehensive enterprise inventory management, the inventory cost, inventory control experience, the optimization of inventory system management and the results of previous studies were analyzed, using inventory management concepts and methods of advanced enterprises, to large manufacturing enterprise as the core research object, on the set of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors for the integration of the supply chain as the foundation the research framework, using the supply chain system theory as research method, analysis of the inventory management present situation, affecting factors and reasons, put forward the corresponding countermeasures of inventory control from the optimization of production management, the integration of internal supply chain and inter enterprise supply chain perspective, in order to achieve inventory optimization of comprehensive, improve operational efficiency.%基于企业全面库存的管理思想,对库存成本、库存控制、库存系统优化等管理经验与前人研究成果进行分析,借鉴先进企业的库存管理理念和方法,以大型制造企业为核心研究对象,在集供应商、制造商、经销商为一体的供应链作为研究框架的基础上,运用供应链系统理论作为研究方法,分析了库存管理现状、影响因素及产生原因,从优化生产管理、整合企业内部供应链和跨企业供应链的角度提出了库存控制的相应对策,以实现全面的库存优化,提高经营效益。

  7. The Risk Control Model of Supply Chain on Drug in Dazhou%基于达州市中药物供应链风险控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗银锋; 李爱民; 贾剑

    2014-01-01

    For the problem on risk control of supply chain on drug in Dazhou, from the three angles of internal, external and global risk, we select 20 specific indicators which include qualified rate of products, weather conditions, and so on. Then we use analytic hierarchy process method to rank the weight of these indicators in the risk of supply chain, select 5 indexes: the rate of qualified products, the development cycle, cash turnover time, manufacturing costs, climatic conditions, with weight maximum for the drug risk, put forward the reasonable suggestions on how to control drug risk of supply chain for 5 indexes. Finally, the gray prediction of drug risk of supply chain is given.%针对达州市中药物供应链风险控制问题,从内部风险、外部风险、全局风险三个角度,选择了产品合格率、气候条件等20个具体指标,通过层次分析法对20个指标在供应链风险中的权重大小进行了排序,筛选出对中药物风险影响权重最大的五个指标分别是:产品合格率、研发周期、现金周转时间、制造成本、气候条件,接着针对这五个指标如何控制中药物供应链风险提出了合理的建议。最后给出了中药物供应链风险的灰色预测。

  8. Supply Chain-based Enterprise Inventory Cause and Optimal Control Research%基于供应链的企业库存成因及优化控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 冯定根; 黄惠良

    2014-01-01

    Based on the idea of a comprehensive enterprise inventory management, management experience in inventory cost, inventory control experience and inventory system optimization and previous research achievements are analyzed. With the inventory management concepts and methods of advanced enterprises used for reference, with large-scale manufacturing enterprises as the core research object, with the supply chain integrating suppliers, manufacturers and dealers as the research framework, with supply chain system theories as research methods, the inventory management status, influential factors and relevant cause are analyzed, with relevant countermeasures for inventory control presented in terms of production management optimization, enterprise internal supply chain integration and cross-enterprise supply chain, to realize an all-round inventory optimization and increase in enterprises' operation benefits.%基于企业全面库存管理思想,对库存成本、库存控制、库存系统优化等管理经验与前人研究成果进行分析,借鉴先进企业的库存管理理念和方法,以大型制造企业为核心研究对象,在集供应商、制造商、经销商为一体的供应链作为研究框架的基础上,运用供应链系统理论作为研究方法,分析了库存管理现状、影响因素及产生原因,从优化生产管理、整合企业内部供应链和跨企业供应链的角度提出库存控制的相应对策,以实现全面的库存优化,从而提高企业的经营效益。

  9. Supply chain system control strategy simulation with supplier’s multi-productivity%供应商具备多级生产率的供应链控制策略仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢; 孙小明

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies supply chain cost control strategy with supplier’s multi-productivity. On the basis of meet customer and retailer’s random order, with target to reduce supply chain overall operation cost, this paper uses Arena simulation platform to model, simulate and optimize multi-layer supply chain inventory system. In the end, it determines proper retailer’s inventory strategy and supplier’s product and inventory strategy. In sum, the paper provides more scientific and reasonable strategy for supply chain system control strategy with multi-productivity. Also, this paper has certain signifi-cance for future similar study.%研究供应商具有多级生产率的供应链库存成本控制策略问题。在满足客户与销售商随机性订单需求的基础上,以供应链的整体运营成本最低为目标,运用Arena仿真平台对由供应商、销售商、客户构成的多级供应链库存系统进行了建模和仿真优化,制定合理的销售商的库存策略以及供应商的生产库存策略。为具备多级生产率的供应链系统控制策略提供了一种更科学合理的决策方法,对以后的类似研究具有一定的借鉴意义。

  10. Research on Inventory Concentrated Control under Natural Gas Supply Chain Security Strategy%天然气供应链安全战略下的库存集中控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红红; 孙家庆; 姚景芳; 杨永志

    2014-01-01

    Demands of natural gas in China in recent years maintains a rapid growth trend ,leading to domestic supply and demand contradictory intensifies , and due to the imperfection of the pricing mechanism , gas prices'up trend obviously , all these reasons above result in the problems of the natural gas supply chain security which is more and more serious .Inventory Centralized control problem under Natural Gas supply chain security strategy has become a research hotspot .Based on the deep analysis on necessity of inventory centralized control under Natural Gas supply chain security strategy , Its implementation principles and some countermeasures are discussed in detail .The conclusion for Natural Gas supply chain security strategy in China has the high reference and reference .%随着我国天然气需求的快速增长以及对外依存度的提高,我国天然气供应链安全问题已成为事关国家安全战略的重大问题。天然气供应链安全战略下的库存集中控制问题已成为当前研究的热点。文中在深入分析库存集中控制在天然气供应链安全战略中的作用的基础上,对其实施原则与对策进行了较为详细的论述。其结论对于我国实施天然气供应链安全战略具有较高的参考和借鉴作用。

  11. Studies on exposure status of inhabitants to water-arsenic valence states in areas with endemic arsenism in the Datong basin in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; GAO Jianguo; CHENG Xiaotian; WANG Zhenghui; WEN Xinping; HAN Lingling; SANG Zhiping; ZHANG Jie; DUAN Hushun; LIANG Binfeng

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the distribution of water-arsenic(As)valence states and its relationship to areas with endemic arsenism in the Datong basin.Drinking water samples of patients with endemic arsenism and a control group were examined using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry(HG-AFS).We analyzed the data using SPSS10.0 for Windows.The As(Ⅲ)/As ratio was 52.1%in the water sample,exceeding the national standard of 0.05 mg/L.The As(Ⅲ)/As ratio significantly varied among the difierent stages in the disease-state groups,and with the control group(X2=22.4,P<0.01).The As(Ⅲ)/As(Ⅴ)ratio significantly varied in the four groups(X2=26.19,P<0.01),with a tendency to increase along with the seriousncss of the disease state.The most common type of drinking water arsenic valence state was As(Ⅲ)in the endemic diseaseareas.Endemic arsenism was positively correlated with As(Ⅲ).This led us to conclude that the fraction of each water-arsenic valence state should be studied when determining the arsenic content of drinking water.

  12. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate market

  13. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polcari Ann

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP recorded during a neutral and an upsetting memory were used to assess HEV in 28 (20 F right-handed subjects who were either victims of childhood maltreatment (N = 12 or healthy controls. In a sub-population, we determined HEV by emotional response to lateral visual field stimulation (LVFS, in which vision is limited to one, then the other hemifield. We compare a number of morphometric and functional brain measures between individuals who have right-negative versus left-negative HEV. Results Using AEPs to determine HEV, we found 62% of controls and 67% of maltreated subjects had right negative HEV. There was a strong interaction between HEV-laterality and gender, which together accounted for 60% of individual variability in total grey matter volume (GMV. HEV-laterality was associated with differences in hippocampal volume, amygdala/hippocampal ratios, and measures of verbal, visual and global memory. HEV-laterality was associated also with different constellations of symptoms comparing maltreated subjects to controls. Emotional response to LVFS provided a convenient and complementary measure of HEV-laterality that correlated significantly with the HEVs determined by AEPs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that HEV-laterality, like handedness or gender, is an important individual difference with significant implications for brain and behavioral research, and for guiding lateralized treatments such as rTMS.

  14. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow. (paper)

  15. Quality Control and Organization Model of Online Media Supply Chain%网络传媒业供应链质量控制策略与组织模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于同奎; 张阳; 陈倩; 屈会会

    2014-01-01

    Internet media supply chain is composed of content maker who provide valuable digital products such as entertainment and information,web site as a intermediate and consumers.We study the quality control and operation model of this supply chain.Firstly,game theory is used to obtain the strategies of content maker and web site when making decisions independently.The Nash equilibrium shows that the "free-riding" incentive hinders the supply chain to achieve the highest profit.Then their strategies in the vertical integrated supply chain are studied by optimization method,it is shown that coordination effect of vertical integration can improve overall profit.Taking the cost of vertical integration into consideration,the effect of the quality elasticity of demand,equality of profit distribution and quality control cost to whether adopt vertical integration is also investigated.The research is expected to help our understanding of the quality control and organization model of internet media supply chain.%网络传媒供应链由内容制作商提供有价值的信息产品(如娱乐、资讯等)并通过网站提供给消费者.产品质量控制对网络传媒供应链至关重要.首先利用博弈论的方法分析内容制作商和网站分别独立决策时的策略,纳什均衡揭示双方的“搭便车”动机使供应链整体利润无法达到最优.然后利用最优化的方法分析他们在垂直整合模式下的策略,发现协调决策可以提高整体利润.最后考虑垂直整合模式的新增成本,分析需求质量弹性、利润分配均匀性和质量控制成本等因素对供应链是否采取垂直整合模式的影响.帮助理解网络媒体产业的质量控制策略和供应链组织模式.

  16. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  17. Antisymmetric double exchange in trimeric mixed-valence clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of antisymmetric double exchange (AS DE) interaction is developed for the mixed-valence (MV) trimeric [dn-dn-dn±1] clusters of orbitally non-degenerate ions. Strong isotropic double exchange (DE) and Heisenberg exchange interactions (t-J model) form isotropic trigonal states 2S+1Γi (Γi=A1, A2, E) of the MV trimers. Taking into account the spin-orbit coupling results in the vector-type AS DE interaction in these clusters. For the MV trimers with si=1/2, the Hamiltonian of the AS DE coupling has the form HASDEZ=2iΣαβKαβZT-circumflexαβ(SβZ-SαZ), where KαβZ is the antisymmetric (K→ij=-K→ji) vector parameter of the AS DE interaction and Tαβ is the isotropic transfer operator. The operator HASDEZ describes the vector-type spin-transfer interaction induced by the spin-orbit coupling. The microscopic consideration of the AS DE coupling shows that the vector AS DE parameter K→ij is linearly proportional to the spin-orbit coupling constant λ and electron transfer parameter t. The AS DE coupling results in the new effect: the linear AS DE splittings Δ of the 2S+1E DE terms, Δ are proportional to the cluster AS DE parameter KZ=(KabZ+KbcZ+KcaZ)/3. The vector of the AS DE interaction is directed along the trigonal Z-axis: KZ≠0, KX=KY=0. For the delocalized [d9-d10-d10] ([Cu(II)Cu2(I)]) cluster, the linear AS DE fine splitting Δ=2KZ√3 of the ground 2E DE term determines strong anisotropy of the Zeeman splitting, axial anisotropy of g-factors, and magnetic properties. The AS DE coupling mixes the 2S+1A1 and 2S'+1A2, 2S+1E and 2S'+1E' DE terms, ΔS=0,±1. The mixing of the DE levels 2S+1Γi by the AS DE coupling and Dzialoshinsky-Moriya AS exchange (HDM=ΣαβG→αβ[S→αxS→β]) determines the second-order AS contributions {∼[(n1KZ+n2GZ)2/(n3t+n4J)], KZ>>GZ, GZ=(GabZ+GbcZ+GcaZ)/3} to the cluster zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters DS(2S+1Γi) of the axial anisotropy (HAN=DS(2S+1Γi)[Sz2-S(S+1)/3], DSZ). The second-order AS DE

  18. Toc Approach for Supply Chain Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Ainapur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field of Supply Chain Management witnessed rapid growth in recent past and proved to be a successful tool for organizations growth. Success of supply chain improvement initiative lies in selection of appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs using best suitable supply chain framework. These KPI’s are to be measured, monitored and controlled with proper review mechanism. This study presents a methodology for identification of the constraint KPI from the supply chain metrics. Selection of the KPI’s is done using Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR framework. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for decomposing the goal into micro level for analyzing and prioritizing KPIs. Subsequently, benchmarking study is carried by comparing foundry industry KPIs with global best practice industry average. Goal Programming function is formulated using AHP ratings and solved using WINQSB software. Finally Theory of Constraint (TOC management philosophy is applied for finding the constraints for supply chain performance enhancement.

  19. Identification of three adjacent amino acids of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain which control the affinity and the specificity of the interaction with interleukin-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Imler, J L; Miyajima, A; Zurawski, G

    1992-01-01

    The beta chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R beta) and the interleukin-3 (IL-3) binding protein AIC2A are members of the family of cytokine receptors, which also includes the receptors for growth hormone (GHR) and prolactin. A four amino acid sequence of AIC2A has recently been shown to be critical for IL-3 binding. We analyze here the function of the analogous sequence of human IL-2R beta and identify three amino acids, Ser132, His133 and Tyr134, which play a critical role in I...

  20. Effects of supplemental long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content on circulating inflammatory markers in a randomized controlled trial of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Flock, Michael R.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; William S. Harris; Gaugler, Trent L.; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2014-01-01

    The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated (n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may have anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the dose-response effect of EPA+DHA supplementation on circulating TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP and explored associations between red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUFA content and TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP. Young adults with low fish intake (n = 116) received one of five doses (0, 300, 600, 900, or 1,800 mg/d EPA+DHA) for 5 months. There were no significan...

  1. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  2. 产学研知识创新联盟知识链运作的风险控制机制%Risk Control Mechanism of Knowledge Chain Operation in Knowledge Innovation Alliance among Industries, Universities and Reseach Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玲诺; 史建锋; 孙玉忠; 于瀚

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge innovation alliance among industries, universities and research institutes forms a complicated knowledge operation system. In the system, knowledge chain is the running mode of knowledge innovation process. In the process of knowledge chain operation , there are some potential risks such as knowledge shared insufficiently, knowledge transferred and fused poorly, transformation and upgrade of knowledge positioning inaccurately, etc. The construction of the risk control mechanism is to build a harmony and soluble, shared mechanism, a rapidly transferred mechanism, and a sustainable operated mechanism. According to the internal logicality of the mechanism, strategic alliance is the best mode of the knowledge innovation alliance, to boost the benefit maximization of knowledge chain operation in the league system. In the strategic alliance, experts of knowledge innovation should play a role not only in the midstream of the knowledge chain, but also throughout the whole process of knowledge chain operation, especially in the downstream of the knowledge chain-marketing operation.%知识链运行过程潜藏着知识共享不足、知识转移融合不良、知识转型升级定位不准等风险.控制风险机制建设具体表现为和谐共融、共溶的共享机制,快速传递机制,可持续运行机制.而根据机制运行的内在逻辑性,要推动联盟内知识链运行的效益最大化,战略联盟是产学研知识创新联盟最好的模式.在战略联盟内知识创新专家的作用不能停止在知识链的中游,而应贯穿在知识链运行的全过程,直接参与知识链的下游-市场端运作.

  3. Study on Evaluation of Internal Control of Supply Chain Based on BSC-FANP%基于 BSC-FANP 供应链内部控制评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉红; 尤建新; 唐述毅; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the overall effectiveness and promote the sustainable development of the supply chain has always been the focus of supply chain management .To solve this problem ,an evaluation system of internal con-trol of supply chain based on balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process is proposed .First, the balanced scorecard is used to build an efficiency-oriented evaluation index system to improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain , which consists of four indicators and twelve secondary indicators .Then , the evaluation index weight through fuzzy analytic network process is designed .Furthermore, multiplication and addition ( weighted average ) function of fuzzy analytic network process to calculate and synthesize the weight of evaluation indicators and secondary indicators is used .Finally, an example of Shanghai retail supply chain is given , with the balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process mode built in this paper , to analyse and evaluate their supply chain and its node enterprise .The example shows the feasibility and practicability of the model .%提升供应链整体功效、促进供应链持续发展一直以来都是供应链管理关注的重点,针对该问题建立一个基于平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型的供应链内部控制评价体系。首先运用平衡计分卡构建一个由4个维度、12个指标组成的以提高整体效率为导向的评价指标体系;然后通过模糊网络分析法对其进行指标权重的设计,运用模糊网络分析法的乘和加(加权平均)算子进行评价指标/维度的权重计算及合成;最后,以上海某零售业供应链为例,运用建立的平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型对供应链及其节点企业内部控制现状进行分析、评价,证明了该模型的可行性和实用性。

  4. Discrete Quantum Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Faigle, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    A framework for finite-dimensional quantum Markov chains on Hilbert spaces is introduced. Quantum Markov chains generalize both classical Markov chains with possibly hidden states and existing models of quantum walks on finite graphs. Quantum Markov chains are based on Markov operations that may be applied to quantum systems and include quantum measurements, for example. It is proved that quantum Markov chains are asymptotically stationary and hence possess ergodic and entropic properties. With a quantum Markov chain one may associate a quantum Markov process, which is a stochastic process in the classical sense. Generalized Markov chains allow a representation with respect to a generalized Markov source model with definite (but possibly hidden) states relative to which observables give rise to classical stochastic processes. It is demonstrated that this model allows for observables to violate Bell's inequality.

  5. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  6. The temporal dynamics of reversal learning: P3 amplitude predicts valence-specific behavioral adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Kayla R; Ait Oumeziane, Belel; Hélie, Sebastien; Foti, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Adapting behavior to dynamic stimulus-reward contingences is a core feature of reversal learning and a capacity thought to be critical to socio-emotional behavior. Impairment in reversal learning has been linked to multiple psychiatric outcomes, including depression, Parkinson's disorder, and substance abuse. A recent influential study introduced an innovative laboratory reversal-learning paradigm capable of disentangling the roles of feedback valence and expectancy. Here, we sought to use this paradigm in order to examine the time-course of reward and punishment learning using event-related potentials among a large, representative sample (N=101). Three distinct phases of processing were examined: initial feedback evaluation (reward positivity, or RewP), allocation of attention (P3), and sustained processing (late positive potential, or LPP). Results indicate a differential pattern of valence and expectancy across these processing stages: the RewP was uniquely related to valence (i.e., positive vs. negative feedback), the P3 was uniquely associated with expectancy (i.e., unexpected vs. expected feedback), and the LPP was sensitive to both valence and expectancy (i.e., main effects of each, but no interaction). The link between ERP amplitudes and behavioral performance was strongest for the P3, and this association was valence-specific. Overall, these findings highlight the potential utility of the P3 as a neural marker for feedback processing in reversal-based learning and establish a foundation for future research in clinical populations. PMID:27059320

  7. Differential Activation of Amygdala Arc Expression By Positive and Negatively Valenced Emotional Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eYoung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine is released in the amygdala following negatively arousing learning conditions. This event initiates a cascade of changes including the transcription of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc expression, an early-immediate gene associated with memory encoding. Recent evidence suggests that the valence of emotionally laden encounters may generate lateralized, as opposed to symmetric release of this transmitter in the right or left amygdala. It is currently not clear if valence-induced patterns of selective norepinephrine output across hemispheres are also reproduced in downstream pathways of cellular signaling necessary for memory formation. This question was addressed by determining if Arc expression is differentially distributed across the right and left amygdala following exposure to positively or negatively valenced learning conditions respectively. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups exposed to the Homecage only, 5 auditory tones only, or 5 auditory tones paired with footshock (0.35mA during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Western blot analysis revealed that Arc expression in the right amygdala was elevated significantly above that observed in the left amygdala 60 and 90 minutes following fear conditioning. Similarly, subjects exposed to a a negatively valenced outcome consisting of an unexpected reduction in food rewards showed a greater level of Arc expression in only the right, but not left basolateral amygdala. Presenting a positively valenced event involving an unexpected increase in food reward magnitude following bar pressing, resulted in significantly greater Arc expression in the left, but not right basolateral amygdala (p

  8. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  9. Rare beryllium icosahedra in the intermediate valence compound CeBe13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zakiya S; Macaluso, Robin T; Bauer, E D; Smith, J L; Thompson, J D; Fisk, Z; Stanley, George G; Chan, Julia Y

    2004-11-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments show that the Be atoms in CeBe13 form a Be12 icosahedra, which is a very unusual structural feature due, in part, to the remarkably low valence electron count of Be. Magnetization studies show that CeBe13 displays intermediate valence behavior, in which valence fluctuations between the Ce 4f0 and 4f1 states give rise to enhanced electronic specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. Calculations using ab initio theory were used to determine the electronic structure and bonding and to give insight into the relationship between the crystal structure, the bonding, and the intermediate valence behavior of CeBe13. The hybridization between the localized f electrons and the conduction electrons is responsible for the large values of the electronic specific heat coefficient (gamma approximately 100 mJ/mol K2) and magnetic susceptibility (chi approximately 1 x 10-3 emu/mol), which is in marked contrast to those of ordinary metals that have gamma approximately 1 mJ/mol K2 and chi approximately 1 x 10-5 emu/mol values. The magnetic susceptibility, chi = M/H versus T, of a single crystal of CeBe13 exhibits a broad maximum at Tmax approximately 130 K and is typical of intermediate valence systems with an unusually large energy scale (Kondo), TK approximately 500 K.

  10. Cerium valence change in the solid solutions Ce(Rh1-xRux)Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid solutions Ce(Rh1-xRux)Sn were investigated by means of susceptibility measurements, specific heat, electrical resistivity, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements as well as XAS data show a cerium valence change in dependence on the ruthenium content. Higher ruthenium content causes an increase from 3.22 to 3.45 at 300 K. Furthermore χ and χ-1 data indicate valence fluctuation for cerium as a function of temperature. For example, Ce(Rh0.8Ru0.2)Sn exhibits valence fluctuations between 3.42 and 3.32 in the temperature range of 10 to 300 K. This could be proven by using the interconfiguration fluctuation (ICF) model introduced by Sales and Wohlleben. Cerium valence change does not influence the tin atoms as proven by 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, but it influences the electrical properties. Ce(Rh0.9Ru0.1)Sn behaves like a typical valence fluctuating compound, and higher ruthenium content causes an increase of the metallic behavior. (orig.)

  11. Gender differences in preferences for coaching as an occupation: the role of self-efficacy, valence, and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, C B; Chelladurai, P

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the role of self-efficacy, occupational valence, valence of coaching, and perceived barriers in preference to coach at the high school, 2-year college, Division III, Division II, and Division I levels. The participants, 191 Big Ten university basketball players (94 men, 97 women), responded to a specially constructed instrument. The genders did not differ in their coaching self-efficacy, preferred occupational valence, and perceived barriers. Relative to men, women perceived greater valence in coaching (p coach perceived greater valence in coaching (p coach. Perceived self-efficacy and preferred occupational valence were differentially related to the desire to coach at various levels. Working Hours most negatively affected the desire to coach at every level (R > .20). PMID:9635332

  12. Tuning the Mn valence state in new Ca(0.66)Mn(2-x)Al(x)O4 (x≤ 0.4) oxides: impact on magnetic and redox properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesturgez, Stéphanie; Goglio, Graziella; Weill, François; N'Guyen, Olivier; Toulemonde, Olivier; Durand, Etienne; Hernandez, Julien; Demourgues, Alain

    2016-03-21

    New Ca(0.66)Mn(2-x)Al(x)O4 (x≤ 0.4) solid solutions crystallizing with the CaFe2O4-type structure (SG: Pnma) were synthesized for the first time by the glycine-nitrate process. The structures were determined on the basis of XRD Rietveld analysis and electron diffraction investigation. While the CaMn3O6 ('Ca(0.66)Mn2O4') oxide adopts a monoclinic unit cell, the Al substitution for Mn (x = 0.2, 0.4) leads to an orthorhombic cell with only two Mn atomic positions, with different valence states, and 33% of Ca sites empty. The Ca molar concentration decreases down to 0.6 in order to increase the Mn valence leading to a phase mixture, whereas a slight Ca content increase up to 0.7 leads to a decrease of Mn valence in the pure phase. The Al(3+) ions are located at a specific Mn site because their ionic radii are close to that of Mn(4+) and a more isotropic environment. The unit cell parameters and volume strongly decrease for a low Al content and tend to an asymptotic value of x = 0.33-0.4, around the limit of solubility. As the Al content increases, the Mn valence state in the same slightly distorted octahedral site increases up to 4+ whereas the other octahedral site is highly elongated and corresponds mainly to Jahn-Teller Mn(3+). At x = 0.33, these two Mn sites correspond to Mn(4+) and Mn(3+) respectively. Moreover, the aluminium content increase induces a weakening of the global antiferromagnetic long range interactions between the ferromagnetic chains. The Al substitution leads to the change of the Mn valence distribution as well as the unit cell symmetry of the CaMn3O6 phase. These 1D tunnel networks stabilizing the Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) valence states can be reduced under Ar/5%H2 between T = 300 °C and T = 600 °C (heating rate = 2 °C min(-1)) into pure Mn(2+) rocksalt solid solution despite the large difference in ionic radii. The re-oxidation leads to the same CaFe2O4-type structure and several redox cycles can be operated. The relationship between the two double

  13. Supply Chain Coordination with Controllable Lead Time and Asymmetric Information%信息不对称条件下可控提前期供应链协调机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡娜; 徐学军

    2011-01-01

    Current literature shows that Just-in-Time (JIT) can significantly reduce lead time and inventory-related costs simultaneously. Time-based competition (TBC) focusing on the reduction of overall system lead time has been one of favorite topics for both researchers and practitioners. Lead time reduction can lower the amounts of safety stock, reduce the loss caused by stock-outs, and improve customer service levels. In today' s hyper competitive environment, lead time reduction is becoming an effective way to increase supply chain response and an important source of competitive advantage. However, in most of the traditional economic order quantity (EOQ) literature dealing with inventory problem, either using deterministic or probabilistic models, lead time is viewed as a prescribed constant or a stochastic variable. Therefore, controlling lead time is not feasible and realistic in practical situations. To overcome the issue, an increasing number of literatures consider lead time as a decision variable. Still, these literatures either consider the controllable lead time optimization problem from the perspective of a single facility, or consider inventory models with controllable lead time from the perspective of integrated supply chains. An integrated supply chain assumes that a central planner possesses perfect information and has the power to impose a globally optimal inventory policy on each entity in order to maximize overall channel performance.In this paper, we make two major contributions to the present literature on supply chain optimization problems related to controllable lead time. First, we relax the assumption in the former literature from the perspective of supply chain by asserting that long-term strategic partnerships between vendor and buyer are well established and each party can bargain and cooperate with each other to obtain an optimal integrated joint policy under centralized decision. We further assume that the vendor and the buyer aim to maximize

  14. Bullwhip effect control strategy in supply chain networks with limited information sharing%信息共享受限条件下的供应链网络系统牛鞭效应控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翀; 刘思峰

    2012-01-01

    研究在信息共享受限条件下供应链网络库存系统的牛鞭效应控制问题,建立了包括市场需求、信息可获得性、信息及时性等不确定性因素的库存网络系统状态转移模型,从系统内部动力学机制的角度分析了牛鞭效应的成因,提出了动态库存控制策略,并给出了策略参数设计的线性矩阵不等式组算法.运用系统稳定性理论,深入分析了信息共享对牛鞭效应的影响,并通过仿真结果验证了库存控制策略的有效性和实用性.%The bullwhip effect problem in supply chain networks with limited information sharing is studied. Based on the dynamic mechanism of inventories in supply chain networks, a supply chain inventory network system state transition model is presented, which includes uncertainties of demands, information availability and fluency. Then a dynamic inventory control strategy is proposed and transformed into the optimization problem of linear matrix inequalities. Furthermore, the value of information sharing in reducing the bullwhip effect is studied. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in reducing bullwhip effect and in improving supply chain performance.

  15. Research on the Supply Chain Coordination of Cash Flow Controlling in Context of Time-sensitive Demand%时间敏感型供应链的资金流协同问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书智; 关旭; 马士华

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly analyzes the concept of supply chain cash flow service provider and the effect of them in suppl chain cash flow operation. Considering a situation in a time-sensitive supply chain, the manufacturer could not achieve the optimal purchase and production decition due to the financial constraint. With the involvement of cash flow service provider, manufacturer can increase the purchase and production quantities by raising funds from the cash flow service providers. Firstly, the two-stage Stackelberg model about dynamic interactive decision-making behaviors between manufacturer and cash flow service provider is analyzed. Then an improved operation model that ensures the supply chain profits optimized through the way of effective cash flow controlling by cash flow service provider. Finally,a simulation example shows the effectiveness of the conclusion.%考虑在一个时间敏感型的供应链环境中,市场需求由制造商的承诺交货时间来确定.制造商由于自身资金有限无法实现最优的采购和生产决策,因此需要向资金流服务商贷款来增加其采购和生产的数量.在此模式下,首先分析了制造商和资金流服务商在主从博弈情况下各自的最优选择;然后提出改进模式:资金流服务商通过对供应链资金流的控制,促使供应链的整体收益达到最大.研究结果证明,快速地为企业提供资金支持能够有效增大供应链整体绩效.

  16. Multistage Inventory Control System in Retail-chain Based on MAS%MAS在连锁零售企业多级库存控制中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵川; 薛红

    2013-01-01

    Efficient logistics management is the precondition of fast development of retail-chain.In an increasingly complex economy environment,the sever problems such as high inventories,high cost of distribution,goodsstopping,disorderly delivery and distribution lag must be solved in retail-chain.An optimization model of inventory in store and distribution center in the periodic replenishment cases is presented.It solves the problem of multi-stage inventory optimization in retail-chain.A multistage inventory control system based on Multi-AgentSystem(MAS) is also established.It solves the widespread problems of distribution disorder and distribution lag in retail-chain multistage inventory.%高效的物流管理模式是连锁零售企业快速发展的基础和保障.在日益复杂的市场经济环境下,连锁零售企业必须解决库存量高,配送成本高,断货,配送无序,配送滞后等问题.针对这些问题,提出了一种在非等周期补货情况下,门店和配送中心库存水平的优化模型,解决了连锁零售业多级库存优化问题;建立了基于Multi-Agent-System的多级库存智能管理系统,解决了在连锁零售企业多级库存中普遍存在的配送无序、配送滞后等问题.

  17. Inventory Cost Control Model in a Supply Chain Under Asymmetric Information%不对称信息下供应链库存成本控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽君; 吴晓会; 闫伟超

    2012-01-01

    考虑到信息不对称对供应链企业库存成本控制造成的影响,以单个制造商和单个零售商组成的一个两级供应链为研究对象,假设供应链企业的产品需求与时间有关,分别分析了信息对称和信息不对称条件下,制造商、零售商和供应链整体的利润情况,并建立了相应的数量折扣协调机制,研究其对三者成本控制的影响.研究表明,在信息不对称的条件下,该协调机制可以有效降低制造商、零售商以及供应链整体的库存成本,达到了良好的供应链协调效果.最后通过算例分析进行了验证.%Being taken the impact of the information asymmetry on cost control in supply chain,a supply chain composed by a manufacturer and a retail was established.Supposing that the demand was time-related,in the two situations of information symmetry and information asymmetry,the whole profit situation of the manufacturer,the retail merchant and the supply chain was analyzed and the quantity discount coordinated mechanism was established accordingly.Research results showed that this reasonable coordination mechanism could effectively reduce the supply chain inventory cost.In the end,an example was made which illustrates the correlative conclusions.

  18. Transfer of noncovalent chiral information along an optically inactive helical peptide chain: allosteric control of asymmetry of the C-terminal site by external molecule that binds to the N-terminal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousaka, Naoki; Inai, Yoshihito

    2009-02-20

    This study aims at demonstrating end-to-end transfer of noncovalent chiral information along a peptide chain. The domino-type induction of helical sense is proven by using achiral peptides 1-m of bis-chromophoric sequence with different chain lengths: H-(Aib-Delta(Z)Phe)(m)-(Aib-Delta(Z)Bip)(2)-Aib-OCH(3) [m = 2, 4, and 6; Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid; Delta(Z)Phe = (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydrophenylalanine; Delta(Z)Bip = (Z)-beta-(4,4'-biphenyl)-alpha,beta-didehydroalanine]. They all showed the tendency to adopt a 3(10)-helix. Whereas peptide 1-m originally shows no circular dichroism (CD) signals, marked CD signals were induced at around 270-320 nm based on both the beta-aryl didehydroresidues by chiral Boc-proline (Boc = tert-butoxycarbonyl). The observed CD spectra were interpreted on the basis of the exciton chirality method and theoretical CD simulation of several helical conformations that were energy-minimized. The experimental and theoretical CD analysis reveals that Boc-l-proline induces the preference for a right-handed helicity in the whole chain of 1-m. Such noncovalent chiral induction was not observed in the corresponding N-terminally protected 1-m. Obviously, helicity induction in 1-m originates from the binding of Boc-proline to the N-terminal site. In the 17-mer (1-6), the information of helix sense reaches the 16th residue from the N-terminus. We have monitored precise transfer of noncovalent chiral stimulus along a helical peptide chain. The present study also proposes a primitive allosteric model of a single protein-mimicking backbone. Here chiral molecule binding the N-terminal site of 1-6 controls the chiroptical signals and helical sense of the C-terminal site about 30 A away.

  19. A Positive GATA Element and a Negative Vitamin D Receptor-Like Element Control Atrial Chamber-Specific Expression of a Slow Myosin Heavy-Chain Gene during Cardiac Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gang Feng; Nikovits, William; Schleinitz, Mark; Stockdale, Frank E.

    1998-01-01

    We have used the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) 3 gene to study the molecular mechanisms that control atrial chamber-specific gene expression. Initially, slow MyHC 3 is uniformly expressed throughout the tubular heart of the quail embryo. As cardiac development proceeds, an anterior-posterior gradient of slow MyHC 3 expression develops, culminating in atrial chamber-restricted expression of this gene following chamberization. Two cis elements within the slow MyHC 3 gene promoter, a GATA-bindi...

  20. Effects of valence and origin of emotions in word processing evidenced by event related potential correlates in a lexical decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT. We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects’ task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375ms at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670ms. The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words.

  1. Effects of Valence and Origin of Emotions in Word Processing Evidenced by Event Related Potential Correlates in a Lexical Decision Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K; Spustek, Tomasz; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT). We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli) help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects' task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375 ms) at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz) region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670 ms). The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words. PMID:26973569

  2. Electronic structure of InTe, SnAs and PbSb: Valence-skip compound or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Izumi; Yasutomi, Kouki; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Odagiri, Kousuke; Nishio, Taichiro

    2016-08-01

    InTe, SnAs and PbSb formally have unusual valence states, In2+, Sn3+ and Pb3+. All of them have B1 crystal structure at some pressure range. They are candidates of the valence-skip compound, which may have negative effective Coulomb interaction Ueff electronic structures by ab-initio calculations, and calculated the number of s-electrons at the cation site. We found that InTe is favorable to emerge valence skip, while PbSb is not favorable for valence skip. SnAs is between these two. These findings well agree with the experimental results.

  3. Core-core and core-valence correlation energy atomic and molecular benchmarks for Li through Ar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Frisch, Michael J; Petersson, George A

    2015-12-01

    We have established benchmark core-core, core-valence, and valence-valence absolute coupled-cluster single double (triple) correlation energies (±0.1%) for 210 species covering the first- and second-rows of the periodic table. These species provide 194 energy differences (±0.03 mEh) including ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomization energies. These results can be used for calibration of less expensive methodologies for practical routine determination of core-core and core-valence correlation energies. PMID:26646872

  4. AB INITIO STUDY ON VALENCE INDICES AND REACTIVITIES OF SOME BORAENS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 王友良

    1991-01-01

    In the pressnt paper, 3-21G ab initio molecular orbital calculations arc performed on diborane B2H6 and the substituted bridged-atom species H4B2X2(X=F, C1, OH, NH2, CH3),and these geometries are optimized with the energy gradient technique. According to the quantum chemical definition of atomic valence, the valences of the bridged-atoms are calculated to studtd the characteristion of the bridging bond B-X-B. Some larger boranes B4H10, B5H9, and B5H11 are also calculated to discuss the valence indices and analyze the reactiveities of the bridged-atoms.

  5. Orbital momentum distributions and binding energies for the complete valence shell of molecular iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete valence shell binding energy spectrum (8-43eV) of I2 has been measured by using electron momentum spectroscopy at 1000eV. The complete inner valence region, corresponding to ionization from the 10 σu and 10 σg orbitals, has been measured for the first time and shows extensive splitting of the ionization strength due to electron correlation effects in the ion. Many-body calculations using the Green's function method have been carried out and are compared with the data. Momentum distributions, measured in both the outer and inner valence regions, are compared with those given by SCF orbital wave functions calculated with a number of different basis sets. Computed orbital position and momentum density maps for oriented I2 molecules are discussed in comparison with the measured and calculated spherically averaged momentum distributions

  6. Valence band structure of strained Si/(111)Si1-xGex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The strained Si techique has been widely adopted in the high-speed and high-performance devices and circuits. Based on the valence band E-k relations of strained Si/(111)Si1-xGex, the valence band and hole effective mass along the [111] and [-110] directions were obtained in this work. In comparison with the relaxed Si, the valence band edge degeneracy was partially lifted, and the significant change was observed band structures along the [111] and [-110] directions, as well as in its corresponding hole effective masses with the increasing Ge fraction. The results obtained can provide valuable references to the investigation concerning the Si-based strained devices enhancement and the conduction channel design related to stress and orientation.

  7. f_K/f_pi in Full QCD with Domain Wall Valence Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, S R; Orginos, K; Savage, M J

    2006-01-01

    We compute the ratio of pseudoscalar decay constants f_K/f_pi using domain-wall valence quarks and rooted improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. By employing continuum chiral perturbation theory, we extract the Gasser-Leutwyler low-energy constant L_5, and extrapolate f_K/f_pi to the physical point. We find: f_K/f_pi = 1.218 (+- 0.002) (+0.011 -0.024) where the first error is statistical and the second error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation and fitting procedures. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the determination by the MILC collaboration, calculated using Kogut-Susskind valence quarks, indicating that systematic errors arising from the choice of lattice valence quark are small.

  8. The use of symmetrized valence and relative motion coordinates for crystal potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, H. L.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1980-01-01

    Symmetrized valence coordinates are linear combinations of conventional valence coordinates which display the symmetry of a set of atoms bound by the valence bonds. Relative motion coordinates are relative translations, or relative rotations, of two or more strongly bonded groups of atoms among...... which relatively weak forces act. They are useful for expressing interactions between molecules in molecular crystals and should be chosen, also, to reflect the symmetry of the interacting groups. Since coordinates defined by these procedures possess elements of symmetry in common with the bonding...... interaction constants coupling coordinates of unlike symmetry with regard to the crystal point group are necessarily zero. They may be small, also, for coordinates which belong to different representations of the local symmetry when this is not the same as for the crystal. Procedures are given for defining...

  9. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Mak, Christine W. Y.; Yeung, Dannii; Duan, Wenjie; Tang, Sandy; Yeung, June C.; Ching, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral) of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China) or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong) with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language. PMID:26226604

  10. Emotional Valence, Arousal, and Threat Ratings of 160 Chinese Words among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M Y Ho

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide ratings of valence/pleasantness, arousal/excitement, and threat/potential harm for 160 Chinese words. The emotional valence classification (positive, negative, or neutral of all of the words corresponded to that of the equivalent English language words. More than 90% of the participants, junior high school students aged between 12 and 17 years, understood the words. The participants were from both mainland China and Hong Kong, thus the words can be applied to adolescents familiar with either simplified (e.g. in mainland China or traditional Chinese (e.g. in Hong Kong with a junior secondary school education or higher. We also established eight words with negative valence, high threat, and high arousal ratings to facilitate future research, especially on attentional and memory biases among individuals prone to anxiety. Thus, the new emotional word list provides a useful source of information for affective research in the Chinese language.

  11. Experimental and calculated momentum densities for the complete valence orbitals of the antimicrobial agent diacetyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guo-Lin; Ren Xue-Guang; Zhang Shu-Feng; Ning Chuan-Gang; Zhou Hui; Li Bin; Li Gui-Qin; Deng Jing-Kang

    2005-01-01

    The first electronic structural study of the complete valence shell binding energy spectra of the antimicrobial agent diacetyl, encompassing both the outer and inner valence regions, is reported. The binding energy spectra as well as the individual orbital momentum profiles have been measured by using a high resolution (e, 2e) electron momentum spectrometer (EMS) at an impact energy of 1200eV plus the binding energy, and using symmetric noncoplanar kinematics.The experimental orbital electron momentum profiles are compared with self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical profiles calculated using the Hartree-Fock approximation and Density Functional theory predictions in the target Kohn-Sham approximation which includes some treatment of correlation via the exchange and correlation potentials with a range of basis sets. The pole strengths of the main ionization peaks from the inner valence orbitals are estimated.

  12. From discrete [Mn4] cluster to 1D complex: Two new mixed-valence manganese complexes with slow magnetization relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A tetranuclear manganese complex [Mn4(HL)4(MeOH)4(SCN)2]·3MeOH (1) and a one-dimensional assembly of [Mn4] units, [Mn4(HL)4(MeOH)4(N(CN)2)2]·2.5MeOH (2) (H3L = 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-phenol), have been synthesized and studied. Complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the triclinic space group P 1and monoclinic space group P21/n, respectively. Complex 1 possesses a mixed-valence tetranuclear dicubane unit, which comprises two MnⅡ and two MnⅢ ions. Complex 2 is built from the similar tetranuclear [Mn4] units connected through two N(CN)2-anions into a 1-D chain. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibilities of 1 and 2 indicates ferromagnetic interactions between the manganese ions. Frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals of alternating current magnetic susceptibilities are observed in the low temperature range for both complexes, indicating a slow magnetic relaxation.

  13. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  14. Understanding the Chain Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, John Simeon

    2013-01-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously "flow" out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, if h1 is sufficient, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. We show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an anomalous reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. We propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 is proportional to h1.

  15. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of krypton atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d, 4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s ← 4p of krypton atom have been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole excitations in 5p ← 4p are compared with the calculations of Amusia et al. (Phys. Rev. A 67 022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.

  16. High-Resolution Conversion Electron Spectroscopy of Valence Electron Configurations (CESVEC) in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    First measurements with the Zurich $\\beta$-spectrometer on sources from ISOLDE have demonstrated that high resolution spectroscopy of conversion electrons from valence shells is feasible.\\\\ \\\\ This makes possible a novel type of electron spectroscopy (CESVEC) on valence-electron configurations of tracer elements in solids. Thus the density of occupied electron states of impurities in solids has been measured for the first time. Such data constitute a stringent test of state-of-the-art calculations of impurity properties. Based on these results, we are conducting a systematic investigation of impurities in group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  17. Time-resolved imaging of purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockett, Paul; Bisgaard, Christer Z.; Clarkin, Owen J.;

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions are manifestations of the dynamics of molecular valence electrons and their couplings to atomic motions. Emerging methods in attosecond science can probe purely electronic dynamics in atomic and molecular systems(1-6). By contrast, time-resolved structural-dynamics methods......,17): in both cases, this sensitivity derives from the ionization-matrix element(18,19). Here we demonstrate a time-resolved molecular-frame photoelectron-angular-distribution (TRMFPAD) method for imaging the purely valence-electron dynamics during a chemical reaction. Specifically, the TRMFPADs measured during...

  18. Distribution Functions of the Nucleon and Pion in the Valence Region

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Roy J.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an experimental and theoretical perspective on the behavior of unpolarized distribution functions for the nucleon and pion on the valence-quark domain; namely, Bjorken-x \\gtrsim 0.4. This domain is key to much of hadron physics; e.g., a hadron is defined by its flavor content and that is a valence-quark property. Furthermore, its accurate parametrization is crucial to the provision of reliable input for large collider experiments. We focus on experimental extractions of distributio...

  19. The Key Points Analysis of Supply Chain Perspective of Food Quality and Safety Control%供应链视角下食品质量安全控制的关键点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金丽; 李真; 邹瑾

    2013-01-01

    文中借助食品供应链相关理论,通过对食品原材料供应、生产加工、包装、储存、输配送、销售等影响食品质量安全的各环节关键点进行分析;提出积极推行安全食品供应链国际标准ISO22000,强化食品质量安全的监督与管理,以及构建以条码技术为核心的食品质量安全追溯体系等食品质量安全控制的措施。为食品供应链各经济利益主体进行食品质量安全控制及政府进行食品安全监管指明方向。%This paper by means of the food supply chain -related theory,through the food supply of raw materials, production and processing,packaging,storage,transmission and distribution,sales and other effects of food quality and safety of the various aspects of the key points for analysis;propose actively promote safe food supply chain with international standards ISO22000,strengthen food quality and safety supervision and management,as well as to bar code technology to build the core of food quality and safety traceability system and other food quality and safety control measures.For the food supply chain,various economic stakeholders in food quality and safety control of food safety regulation and government direction.

  20. Toc Approach for Supply Chain Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Ainapur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many foundries are operating at lower levels than the installed capacities. Study of 56 foundries acrossIndia has shown that only 68% of installed capacities are being utilized. This is mainly because of lack ofco-ordination among the supply chain partners. This study is an effort in identifying these gaps using TOCapproach which will help in supply chain performance enhancement.Field of Supply Chain Management witnessed rapid growth in recent past and proved to be a successfultool for organizations growth. Success of supply chain improvement initiative lies in selection ofappropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs using best suitable supply chain framework. Theseperformance indicators are to be measured, monitored and controlled with proper review mechanism.This study presents a methodology for identification of the KPI’s from the supply chain metrics suitablefor foundries. Selection of the KPI’s is done using Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCORframework. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for decomposing the goal into micro level foranalyzing and prioritizing KPIs. In order to study the gap between as-is-state and as-to-be state,benchmarking is carried by comparing foundry industry KPIs with global best practice industry average.To optimize the supply chain performance, Goal Programming function is formulated using AHP ratingsand solved using WINQSB software. Theory of Constraint (TOC management philosophy is applied forfinding the constraints, on improving these constraints supply chain performance enhancement isachieved.

  1. Autonomic effects of music in health and Crohn's disease: the impact of isochronicity, emotional valence, and tempo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Uwe Krabs

    Full Text Available Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction.To address these issues, three experiments were conducted, with a total of n = 138 healthy subjects and n = 19 CD patients. Heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and electrodermal activity (EDA were recorded while participants listened to joyful pleasant music, isochronous tones, and unpleasant control stimuli.Compared to silence, both pleasant music and unpleasant control stimuli elicited an increase in HR and a decrease in a variety of HRV parameters. Surprisingly, similar ANS effects were elicited by isochronous tones (i.e., simply by a tactus. ANS effects did not differ between pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, and different tempi of the music did not entrain ANS activity. Finally, music-evoked ANS effects did not differ between healthy individuals and CD patients.The isochronous pulse of music (i.e., the tactus is a major factor of music-evoked ANS effects. These ANS effects are characterized by increased sympathetic activity. The emotional valence of a musical piece contributes surprisingly little to the ANS activity changes evoked by that piece.

  2. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  3. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  4. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this chaper, we have reviewed and surveyed the literature on supply chain collaboration. As mentioned above, the game theory models that include cooperative behaviour among retailers seem to be a natural framework to model cooperation (collaboration) in supply chains that consist of a supplier and a finite number of retailers. Various researchers in this area have already adopted several cooperative models dealing with supply chain coordination, and it is expected to see many more in the n...

  5. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  6. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  7. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  8. 基于控制论的3种供应链动态特性比较%Dynamic performance of three kinds of supply chains based on control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 吕国力; 贾经冬

    2011-01-01

    基于自动控制理论,以APIOBPCS (Automatic Pipeline,Inventory and OrderBased Production Control System)订货系统为基础,采用模拟仿真的方法,考察传统二级供应链(TSC,Traditional two-echelon Supply Chain)、需求信息共享 (DIS,Demand Information Sharing)二级供应链和供应商管理库存(VMI,Vendor Managed Inventory)这3种典型二级供应链系统在阶跃需求信息时,不同系统参数对系统订单、在制品量和库存量的影响,并对3种系统的动态响应特性进行了对比研究.研究结果表明:对于阶跃需求信息,生产提前期Tp越小,系统响应峰值越小,响应速度越快;参数Ti,Tw和Ta在不同范围内对系统峰值和调节时间的影响趋势有所不同,需要根据供应链整体目标进行选择.而且一种供应链系统往往不能兼顾系统的响应峰值和调节时间两个特性,应综合考虑响应峰值和调节时间对系统整体绩效的影响,选择适当的管理策略优化供应链系统,以提高供应链的整体运行效率.%Based on the APIOBPCS (automatic pipeline, inventory and order based production control system), three kinds of two-echelon supply chains were established using the discrete control theory: traditional, demand information sharing and vendor managed inventory two-echelon supply chain. It developed the transfer function models of the systems. On this basis, the dynamic responses of the three systems to stepwise customer demand were analyzed by simulation. As the system parameters change, the performance of the three kinds of supply chains were compared, as well as the fluctuations of the system order, works in process and inventory. Simulation result showed that the smaller Tp was, the better the performance of supply chain was. The impact of Ti,Tw and Ta on peak value were different from the impact on settling time. Any system of three kinds of supply chain was not better than the other twos when peak value and settling time were both taken

  9. Incentive mechanisms for food safety control in pork supply chains : a study on the relationship between finishing pig producers and slaughterhouses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Food borne illness today still results in high societal costs, even though FBOs have implemented food safety control systems. In addition, the susceptibility to food borne diseases of the human population is likely to increase in the coming decades. Thus food safety control needs to be improved. Sin

  10. Adaptive proportional integral differential control based on radial basis function neural network identification of a two-degree-of-freedom closed-chain robot%两自由度闭链机器人的神经网络自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正洪; 王勇; 李艳

    2008-01-01

    A closed-chain robot has several advantages over an open-chain robot, such as high mechanical rigidity, high payload, high precision. Accurate trajectory control of a robot is essential in practical use. This paper presents an adaptive proportional integral differential (PID) control algorithm based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network for trajectory tracking of a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) closed-chain robot. In this scheme, an RBF neural network is used to approximate the unknown nonlinear dynamics of the robot, at the same time, the PID parameters can be adjusted online and the high precision can be obtained. Simulation results show that the control algorithm accurately tracks a 2-DOF closed-chain robot trajectories. The results also indicate that the system robustness and tracking performance are superior to the classic PID method.

  11. 供应链成本管理视阈下的铁路工程造价控制研究%Research of Railway Engineering Cost Control under the Perspective of Supply Chain Cost Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母广法

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of railway project construction, project cost is also increasing. In order to bet⁃ter control the project cost, it is necessary to make innovations and positively adopt modern management methods. Based on this, the article develops analysis of the cost control of railway engineering from the perspective of supply chain cost management.%随着铁路工程建设的不断发展,工程造价也日益增加。为了可以更好的控制工程造价,需要积极的进行创新,并积极的采用现代化的管理方式。基于此,本文从供应链成本管理角度对铁路工程造价控制进行研究。

  12. 75 FR 16157 - Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pharmaceutical Supply Chain; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``2010 PDA/FDA Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Workshop... upon a series of controls across the entire supply chain from sourcing of incoming starting...

  13. Enterprise Based on Supply Chain Inventory Control Research and Optimization%基于供应链企业库存成因及优化控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 冯定根

    2013-01-01

    基于企业全面库存管理思想,对库存成本、库存控制、库存系统优化等管理经验与前人研究成果进行分析,借鉴先进企业的库存管理理念和方法,以大型制造企业为核心研究对象,在集供应商、制造商、经销商为一体的供应链作为研究框架的基础上,运用供应链系统理论作为研究方法,分析了库存管理现状、影响因素及产生原因,从优化生产管理、整合企业内部供应链和跨企业供应链的角度提出库存控制的相应对策,以实现全面的库存优化,提高经营效益。%Based on the idea of a comprehensive enterprise inventory management , the inventory cost , in-ventory control experience , the optimization of inventory system management and the results of previous studies were analyzed, using inventory management concepts and methods of advanced enterprises , to large manufacturing enter-prise as the core research object , on the set of suppliers , manufacturers , distributors for the integration of the supply chain as the foundation the research framework , using the supply chain system theory as research method , analysis of the inventory management present situation , affecting factors and reasons , put forward the corresponding counter-measures of inventory control from the optimization of production management , the integration of internal supply chain and inter enterprise supply chain perspective , in order to achieve inventory optimization of comprehensive , improve operational efficiency .

  14. Minimizing the Impact of Electromagnetic Interference Affecting the Control System of Personal Rapid Transit in the Context of the Competitiveness of the Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Włodzimierz; Dyduch, Janusz; Paś, Jacek

    2011-06-01

    Personal Rapid Transit control system is exploited in diverse electromagnetic enlivenments. The unintentional or intentional electromagnetic disturbances on a vast railway area can disturb operation of PRT control system. The security systems are responsible for security of humans and goods transpiration and therefore their disturbance can threaten life or health their disturbance can threaten life or health of people exploitation decisions in the reference to these systems. The paper presents the ways of minimization of the influence of electromagnetic disturbances on PRT control system.

  15. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin-Gal, I; Elsholz, AKW; Muth, C; Girguis, PR; Kolter, R; Losick, R

    2013-04-29

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa(3) and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/NADH ratio via binding of NAD(+) to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration.

  16. Determining the Diagnostic Value of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA in the Differentiation of Blood Samples of Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Healthy Controls Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasali Niazi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is now a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Nowadays, different methods are used to diagnose tuberculosis. Although classical microbiological methods (such as sputum smear are specific, they have little sensitivity and the culture is also time-consuming. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in blood samples in terms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, this study examines diagnostic power of this test in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis compared with other standard methods. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, blood samples were taken from 40 TB patients and 40 non-TB cases. Following DNA extraction by the commercial kit QIAGEN, the PCR assay was performed using IS6110 primer.Results: In this study, there were 80 people in two groups of TB and non-TB cases. Each group composed of 14 men (35% and 26 women (65%. Sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values obtained 37.5, 100, 100 and 61.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Despite high costs of using PCR for TB diagnosis, sensitivity of this method is low due to various factors and cannot replace current standard methods for TB diagnosis such as smear and culture. It can only be used as a complementary method to confirm diagnosis in strongly suspected cases of tuberculosis.

  17. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...

  18. Electron momentum distributions and binding energies for the valence orbitals of hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron binding energy spectra and momentum distributions have been obtained for the valence orbitals of HBr and HI using noncoplanar symmetric electron coincidence spectroscopy at 1200eV. The weakly bonding inner valence ns orbitals, which have not been previously observed, have their spectroscopic (pole) strength severely split among a number of ion states. For HBr the strength of the main inner valence (ns) transition is 0.42 0.03 whereas for HI it is 0.37 0.04, in close agreement with that observed for the valence s orbitals of the corresponding isoelectronic inert gas atoms. The spectroscopic strength for the two outermost orbitals is found to be close to unity, in agreement with many body Green's function calculations. The measured momentum distributions are compared with several spherically averaged MO momentum distributions, as well as (for HBr) with a Green's function calculation of the generalized overlap amplitude (GOA). The GOA momentum distributions are in excellent agreement with the HBr data, both in shape and relative magnitude. Not all of the MO momentum distributions are in reasonable agreement with the data. Comparison is also made with the calculated momentum distributions for Kr, Br, Xe and I

  19. Valence-based age differences in medial prefrontal activity during impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Leshikar, Eric D; Shih, Joanne Y; Aizenman, Avigael; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    Reports of age-related changes to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity during socio-cognitive tasks have shown both age-equivalence and under recruitment. Emotion work illustrates selective mPFC response dependent on valence, such that negative emotional images evoke increased ventral mPFC activity for younger adults, while older adults recruit vmPFC more for positive material. By testing whether this differential age-related response toward valenced material is also present for the social task of forming impressions, we may begin to understand inconsistencies regarding when age differences are present vs. absent in the literature. Using fMRI, participants intentionally formed impressions of positive and negative face-behavior pairs in anticipation of a memory task. Extending previous findings to a social task, valence-based reversals were present in dorsal and ventral mPFC, and posterior cingulate cortex. Younger adults elicited increased activity when forming negative impressions, while older adults had more recruitment when forming positive impressions. This suggests an age-related shift toward emphasizing positive social information may be reflected in the recruitment of regions supporting forming impressions. Overall, the results indicate an age-related shift in neural response to socio-cognitive stimuli that is valence dependent rather than a general age-related reduction in activity, in part informing prior inconsistencies within the literature.

  20. Voice and Valence-Altering Operations in Falam Chin: A Role and Reference Grammar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyzes voice and valence-altering operations in Falam Chin, a Tibeto-Burman language of Burma. The data is explained within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which supplies several key concepts particularly useful for generalizing the behavior of the Falam Chin operations. The first is RRG's…

  1. Calculation of the valence electron structures of alloying cementite and its biphase interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志林; 李志林; 刘伟东

    2001-01-01

    The valence electron structures of alloying cementite θ-(Fe, M)3C and ε-(Fe, M)3C andthose of the biphase interfaces between them and α-Fe are calculated with Yu's empirical electrontheory of solid and molecules. The calculation results accord with the actual behavior of alloys.

  2. Core and Valence Structures in K beta X-ray Emission Spectra of Chromium Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Deluigi, Maria; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Lopez-Diaz, Gaston; Tirao, German; Stutz, Guillermo; Riveros de la Vega, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the core and valence transitions in chromium in a series of materials with a number of different ligands and including the oxidation states: Cr-II, Cr-III, Cr-IV, and Cr-VI. To study the core-to-core transitions we employ the CTM4XAS program and investigate the shapes, widths, intensities

  3. The effect of an extinction cue on ABA-renewal: Does valence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safet

  4. The Effect of an Extinction Cue on ABA-Renewal: Does Valence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The present human fear conditioning study examined whether the valence of an extinction cue has a differential effect on attenuating renewal that is induced by removal of the extinction context. Additionally, the study aimed to assess whether such attenuating effect is based on a modulatory or safety-signal role of the cue. In acquisition,…

  5. Brain activations to emotional pictures are differentially associated with valence and arousal ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje B M Gerdes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the neural responses triggered by emotional pictures, but the specificity of the involved structures such as the amygdala or the ventral striatum is still under debate. Furthermore, only few studies examined the association of stimuli’s valence and arousal and the underlying brain responses. Therefore, we investigated brain responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging of 17 healthy subjects to pleasant and unpleasant affective pictures with comparable arousal levels and afterwards assessed ratings of valence and arousal. As expected, unpleasant pictures strongly activated the right and left amygdala, the right hippocampus, and the medial occipital lobe, whereas pleasant pictures elicited significant activations in left occipital regions, and in parts of the medial temporal lobe. The direct comparison of unpleasant and pleasant pictures which were comparable in arousal clearly indicated stronger amygdala activation in response to the unpleasant pictures. Most important, correlational analyses revealed on the one hand that the arousal of unpleasant pictures was significantly associated with activations in the right amygdala and the left caudate body. On the other hand, valence of pleasant pictures was significantly correlated with activations in the right caudate head, extending to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex. These findings support the notion that the amygdala is primarily involved in processing of unpleasant stimuli, and the stronger the more arousing the stimuli are, whereas reward-related structures like the NAcc primarily responds to pleasant stimuli, the stronger the more positive the valence of these stimuli is.

  6. Electric-field-driven electron-transfer in mixed-valence molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Enrique P.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Lent, Craig S.

    2016-07-01

    Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata is a computing paradigm in which digital information is encoded by the charge configuration of a mixed-valence molecule. General-purpose computing can be achieved by arranging these compounds on a substrate and exploiting intermolecular Coulombic coupling. The operation of such a device relies on nonequilibrium electron transfer (ET), whereby the time-varying electric field of one molecule induces an ET event in a neighboring molecule. The magnitude of the electric fields can be quite large because of close spatial proximity, and the induced ET rate is a measure of the nonequilibrium response of the molecule. We calculate the electric-field-driven ET rate for a model mixed-valence compound. The mixed-valence molecule is regarded as a two-state electronic system coupled to a molecular vibrational mode, which is, in turn, coupled to a thermal environment. Both the electronic and vibrational degrees-of-freedom are treated quantum mechanically, and the dissipative vibrational-bath interaction is modeled with the Lindblad equation. This approach captures both tunneling and nonadiabatic dynamics. Relationships between microscopic molecular properties and the driven ET rate are explored for two time-dependent applied fields: an abruptly switched field and a linearly ramped field. In both cases, the driven ET rate is only weakly temperature dependent. When the model is applied using parameters appropriate to a specific mixed-valence molecule, diferrocenylacetylene, terahertz-range ET transfer rates are predicted.

  7. Pion's valence-quark GPD and its extension beyond DGLAP region

    CERN Document Server

    Mezrag, C; Rodríguez-Quintero, J

    2015-01-01

    We briefly report on a recent computation, with the help of a fruitful algebraic model, sketching the pion valence dressed-quark generalized parton distribution and, very preliminary, discuss on a possible avenue to get reliable results in both Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) and Efremov-Radyushkin-Brodsky-Lepage (ERBL) kinematial regions.

  8. Comparison of moments from the valence structure function with QCD predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moments (both ordinary and Nachtmann) of the nucleon valence structure function measured in high Q2 γFe scattering are presented, supplemented by data from deep inelastic eD scattering. These data seem to agree with QCD predictions for vector gluons. The QCD parameter Λ is found to be of the order 0.5 GeV. (Auth.)

  9. XPEEM valence state imaging of mineral micro-intergrowths with a spatial resolution of 100nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. D.; Schofield, P. F.; Scholl, A.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Bridges, J. C.

    2003-03-01

    The crystal chemistry and textural relationships of minerals hold a vast amount of information relating to the formation, history and stability of natural materials. The application of soft X-ray spectroscopy to mineralogical material has revealed that 2p (L{2,3}) spectra provide a sensitive fingerprint of the electronic states of 3d metals. In bulk powdered samples much of the textural and microstructural information is lost, but the area-selectivity capability of X-ray Photo-Emission Electron Microscopy (XPEEM) provides the ability to obtain valence state information from mineral intergrowths with a submicron spatial resolution. Using the state-of-the-art PEEM2 facility on beamline 7.3.1.1 at the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, USA, a range of minerals, mineral intergrowths and mineralogical textures have been studied for a broad suite of geological, planetary and environmental science materials. High-quality, multi-element valence images have been obtained showing the distribution/variation of the metal valence states across single grains or mineral intergrowths/textures at the l00 nm scale and quantitative valence state ratios can be obtained from areas of 0.01 μ m^2.

  10. Talking about alcohol consumption: health campaigns, conversational valence, and binge drinking intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hendriks; G.-J. de Bruijn; B. van den Putte

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although research has shown that whether people talk about health issues influences health campaign effects, no evidence exists on whether conversational valence fulfils a mediating role within health campaign effects. In the context of alcohol consumption, this two-wave experimental res

  11. Valence band hybridization in N-rich GaN1-xAsx alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Shan, W.; Ager III, J.W.; Kimura, A.; Tang, H.F.; Kuech, T.F.

    2004-05-04

    We have used photo-modulated transmission and optical absorption spectroscopies to measure the composition dependence of interband optical transitions in N-rich GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys with x up to 0.06. The direct bandgap gradually decreases as x increases. In the dilute x limit, the observed band gap approaches 2.8 eV; this limiting value is attributed to a transition between the As localized level, which has been previously observed in As-doped GaN at 0.6 eV above the valence band maximum in As-doped GaN, and the conduction band minimum. The structure of the valence band of GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} is explained by the hybridization of the localized As states with the extended valence band states of GaN matrix. The hybridization is directly confirmed by soft x-ray emission experiments. To describe the electronic structure of the GaN{sub 1-x}As{sub x} alloys in the entire composition range a linear interpolation is used to combine the effects of valence band hybridization in N-rich alloys with conduction band anticrossing in As-rich alloys.

  12. Exploratory spectrum calculations using overlap valence quarks on a staggered sea

    OpenAIRE

    UKQCD Collaboration; Bowler, K. C.; Joó, B.; Kenway, R.D.; Maynard, C.M.; Tweedie, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present exploratory results for the hadron mass spectrum and pseudoscalar meson decay constants using mixed actions. We use improved staggered sea quarks and HYP-smeared overlap valence quarks. We obtain good signals on 10 configurations at one lattice spacing and two different sets of sea quark masses.

  13. Cheminoes: A Didactic Game to Learn Chemical Relationships between Valence, Atomic Number, and Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis F.; Hincapié, Gina; Alzate, María Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Cheminoes is a didactic game that enables the meaningful learning of some relations between concepts such as chemical element, valence, atomic number, and chemical symbol for the first 36 chemical elements of the periodic system. Among the students who have played the game, their opinions of the activity were positive, considering the game to be a…

  14. Electric-field-driven electron-transfer in mixed-valence molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Enrique P; Corcelli, Steven A; Lent, Craig S

    2016-07-01

    Molecular quantum-dot cellular automata is a computing paradigm in which digital information is encoded by the charge configuration of a mixed-valence molecule. General-purpose computing can be achieved by arranging these compounds on a substrate and exploiting intermolecular Coulombic coupling. The operation of such a device relies on nonequilibrium electron transfer (ET), whereby the time-varying electric field of one molecule induces an ET event in a neighboring molecule. The magnitude of the electric fields can be quite large because of close spatial proximity, and the induced ET rate is a measure of the nonequilibrium response of the molecule. We calculate the electric-field-driven ET rate for a model mixed-valence compound. The mixed-valence molecule is regarded as a two-state electronic system coupled to a molecular vibrational mode, which is, in turn, coupled to a thermal environment. Both the electronic and vibrational degrees-of-freedom are treated quantum mechanically, and the dissipative vibrational-bath interaction is modeled with the Lindblad equation. This approach captures both tunneling and nonadiabatic dynamics. Relationships between microscopic molecular properties and the driven ET rate are explored for two time-dependent applied fields: an abruptly switched field and a linearly ramped field. In both cases, the driven ET rate is only weakly temperature dependent. When the model is applied using parameters appropriate to a specific mixed-valence molecule, diferrocenylacetylene, terahertz-range ET transfer rates are predicted. PMID:27394108

  15. Valence-based age differences in medial prefrontal activity during impression formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Leshikar, Eric D; Shih, Joanne Y; Aizenman, Avigael; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-01-01

    Reports of age-related changes to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity during socio-cognitive tasks have shown both age-equivalence and under recruitment. Emotion work illustrates selective mPFC response dependent on valence, such that negative emotional images evoke increased ventral mPFC activity for younger adults, while older adults recruit vmPFC more for positive material. By testing whether this differential age-related response toward valenced material is also present for the social task of forming impressions, we may begin to understand inconsistencies regarding when age differences are present vs. absent in the literature. Using fMRI, participants intentionally formed impressions of positive and negative face-behavior pairs in anticipation of a memory task. Extending previous findings to a social task, valence-based reversals were present in dorsal and ventral mPFC, and posterior cingulate cortex. Younger adults elicited increased activity when forming negative impressions, while older adults had more recruitment when forming positive impressions. This suggests an age-related shift toward emphasizing positive social information may be reflected in the recruitment of regions supporting forming impressions. Overall, the results indicate an age-related shift in neural response to socio-cognitive stimuli that is valence dependent rather than a general age-related reduction in activity, in part informing prior inconsistencies within the literature. PMID:23998453

  16. Spin dynamics of the intermediate-valence compound EuCu2Si2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Mignot, J.-M.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Lazukov, V. N.; Nefeodova, E. V.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Bewley, R. I.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic magnetic response of the intermediate-valence compound EuCu2Si2 has been studied using inelastic neutron scattering. At low temperatures, strong renormalization of the F-7(0) -> F-7(1) spin-orbit transition energy is detected; it is likely to be related to partial delocalization of the f

  17. Electron spectroscopy of valence and core states of U intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of valence and core level spectra of uranium intermetallic compounds are analyzed using different theoretical models. The shortcomings of the different approximations are discussed and it is pointed out how these models have to be extended for a realistic description of U compounds. (orig.)

  18. Neural modulation of directed forgetting by valence and arousal: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Sara N; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2016-10-01

    Intentional forgetting benefits memory by removing no longer needed information and promoting processing of more relevant materials. This study sought to understand how the behavioural and neurophysiological representation of intentional forgetting would be impacted by emotion. We took a novel approach by examining the unique contribution of both valence and arousal on emotional directed forgetting. Participants completed an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral words at high and lower levels of arousal while brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Behaviourally, recognition of to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) items varied as a function of valence and arousal with reduced directed forgetting for high arousing negative and neutral words. In the brain, patterns of frontal and posterior activation in response to TBF and TBR cues respectively replicated prior EEG evidence to support involvement of inhibitory and selective rehearsal mechanisms in item directed forgetting. Interestingly, emotion only impacted cue-related posterior activity, which varied depending on specific interactions between valence and arousal. Together, results suggest that the brain handles valence and arousal differently and highlights the importance of considering in a collective manner the multidimensional nature of emotion in experimentation. PMID:27507422

  19. Oxidation States of GRIM Glasses in EET79001 Based on Vanadium Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S. R.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2010-03-01

    Mean vanadium valences determined by microXANES for gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses in EET79001 ranged from 3.0 to 3.6. Mean fO2 ranged from IW-1.2 to IW+1.4. Variable oxidation state is consistent with impact reduction of regolith precursors.

  20. Reproducing affective norms with lexical co-occurrence statistics : Predicting valence, arousal, and dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.M.; Recchia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Human ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance are frequently used to study the cognitive mechanisms of emotional attention, word recognition, and numerous other phenomena in which emotions are hypothesized to play an important role. Collecting such norms from human raters is expensive and time co