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Sample records for chain reaction-based suppression

  1. Polymerase chain reaction-based gene removal from plasmids

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    Vishnu Vardhan Krishnamurthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains supplementary figures and methods to the research article entitled, “Multiplex gene removal by two-step polymerase chain reactions” (Krishnamurthy et al., Anal. Biochem., 2015, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2015.03.033, which presents a restriction-enzyme free method to remove multiple DNA segments from plasmids. Restriction-free cloning methods have dramatically improved the flexibility and speed of genetic manipulation compared to conventional assays based on restriction enzyme digestion (Lale and Valla, 2014. DNA Cloning and Assembly Methods, vol. 1116. Here, we show the basic scheme and characterize the success rate for single and multiplex gene removal from plasmids. In addition, we optimize experimental conditions, including the amount of template, multiple primers mixing, and buffers for DpnI treatment, used in the one-pot reaction for multiplex gene removal.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction-based molecular diagnosis of cutaneous infections in dermatopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Brian L

    2012-12-01

    Conventional methods, including microscopy, culture, and serologic studies, are a mainstay in the diagnosis of cutaneous infection. However, owing to limitations associated with these techniques, such as low sensitivity for standard microscopy and in the case of culture delay in diagnosis, polymerase chain-reaction based molecular techniques have taken on an expanding role in the diagnosis of infectious processes in dermatopathology. In particular, these assays are a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infection, leprosy, Lyme disease, syphilis, rickettsioses, leishmaniasis, and some fungal and viral infections. Already in the case of tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infection, standardized polymerase chain-reaction assays are commonly used for diagnostic purposes. With time, additional molecular-based techniques will decrease in cost and gain increased standardization, thus delivering rapid diagnostic confirmation for many difficult-to-diagnose cutaneous infections from standard formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens.

  3. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Riemerella anatipestifer from ducks in Kerala, India

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    Manju Soman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to isolate and characterize Riemerella anatipestifer organisms from disease outbreaks in ducks in Kerala. Materials and Methods: Ducklings, suspected of Riemerella infection, were sacrificed and subjected to post-mortem examination. Heart blood smears and impression smears from liver and spleen were examined for the presence of pathogenic organisms. Heart blood, lung, liver, and spleen collected aseptically from the birds were subjected to isolation trials in brain heart infusion agar and 10% bovine blood agar. The isolates were characterized based on morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests, and their identity were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR amplified DNA was sequenced. The antibiotic sensitivity testing of the isolates were carried out using six antibiotics viz ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, and gentamicin. Results: Colonies suggestive of Riemerella organisms could be isolated on blood agar. Biochemical characterization and PCR confirmed the identity of isolates as R. anatipestifer. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product showed 99% homology to the R. anatipestifer sequences in the NCBI. The antibiogram revealed that the organisms were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the PCR assay can facilitate fast and proper identification of R. anatipestifer infection in ducks. The assay can also differentiate between R. anatipestifer and Pasteurella multocida and can replace the traditional methods of differentiation which are cumbersome and time-consuming.

  4. Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniela Camargos; Madureira, Ana Paula; Amaral, Lara Cotta; Sanchez, Bruno Antônio Marinho; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de; Carvalho, Luzia Helena

    2014-02-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene) were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34) of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

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    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  6. Submicroscopic malaria parasite carriage: how reproducible are polymerase chain reaction-based methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods for the diagnosis of malaria infection are expected to accurately identify submicroscopic parasite carriers. Although a significant number of PCR protocols have been described, few studies have addressed the performance of PCR amplification in cases of field samples with submicroscopic malaria infection. Here, the reproducibility of two well-established PCR protocols (nested-PCR and real-time PCR for the Plasmodium 18 small subunit rRNA gene were evaluated in a panel of 34 blood field samples from individuals that are potential reservoirs of malaria infection, but were negative for malaria by optical microscopy. Regardless of the PCR protocol, a large variation between the PCR replicates was observed, leading to alternating positive and negative results in 38% (13 out of 34 of the samples. These findings were quite different from those obtained from the microscopy-positive patients or the unexposed individuals; the diagnosis of these individuals could be confirmed based on the high reproducibility and specificity of the PCR-based protocols. The limitation of PCR amplification was restricted to the field samples with very low levels of parasitaemia because titrations of the DNA templates were able to detect < 3 parasites/µL in the blood. In conclusion, conventional PCR protocols require careful interpretation in cases of submicroscopic malaria infection, as inconsistent and false-negative results can occur.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction-based screening for the ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae F89 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goire, N; Lahra, M M; Ohnishi, M; Hogan, T; Liminios, A E; Nissen, M D; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M

    2013-04-04

    Emergence and spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins is a major problem threatening treatment of gonorrhoea and is further highlighted by the recent report of a second ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain (F89) in Europe, initially observed in France and subsequently identified in Spain. N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance has acquired new importance and molecular tools have the potential to enhance bacterial culture-based methods. In this study, we established a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for direct detection of the F89 strain. A key component of this screening protocol was the development of a hybridisation probe-based melting curve analysis assay (mosaic501-hybPCR) to detect the presence of an A501P substitution on the N. gonorrhoeae mosaic penicillin binding protein 2 (PBP2) sequence, an important characteristic of the F89 strain. The mosaic501-hybPCR was evaluated using plasmid-derived positive controls (n=3) and characterised gonococcal (n=33) and non-gonococcal (n=58) isolates. The protocol was then applied to 159 clinical specimens from Sydney, Australia, collected during the first half of the year 2012 that were N. gonorrhoeae PCR-positive. Overall, the results indicate that the PCR-based protocol is suitable for direct detection of the N. gonorrhoeae F89 strain in non-cultured clinical samples. It therefore provides an additional tool to aid investigations into the potential spread of F89 strain throughout Europe and elsewhere.

  8. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for isolating clones from a complimentary DNA library in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Thor Einar; Stephenson, Sally; Xiao, Yin; Whitehead, Jon; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-10-01

    The sheep (Ovis aries) is favored by many musculoskeletal tissue engineering groups as a large animal model because of its docile temperament and ease of husbandry. The size and weight of sheep are comparable to humans, which allows for the use of implants and fixation devices used in human clinical practice. The construction of a complimentary DNA (cDNA) library can capture the expression of genes in both a tissue- and time-specific manner. cDNA libraries have been a consistent source of gene discovery ever since the technology became commonplace more than three decades ago. Here, we describe the construction of a cDNA library using cells derived from sheep bones based on the pBluescript cDNA kit. Thirty clones were picked at random and sequenced. This led to the identification of a novel gene, C12orf29, which our initial experiments indicate is involved in skeletal biology. We also describe a polymerase chain reaction-based cDNA clone isolation method that allows the isolation of genes of interest from a cDNA library pool. The techniques outlined here can be applied in-house by smaller tissue engineering groups to generate tools for biomolecular research for large preclinical animal studies and highlights the power of standard cDNA library protocols to uncover novel genes.

  9. Dynein modifiers in C. elegans: light chains suppress conditional heavy chain mutants.

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    Sean M O'Rourke

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-dependent motor protein that functions in mitotic cells during centrosome separation, metaphase chromosome congression, anaphase spindle elongation, and chromosome segregation. Dynein is also utilized during interphase for vesicle transport and organelle positioning. While numerous cellular processes require cytoplasmic dynein, the mechanisms that target and regulate this microtubule motor remain largely unknown. By screening a conditional Caenorhabditis elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutant at a semipermissive temperature with a genome-wide RNA interference library to reduce gene functions, we have isolated and characterized twenty dynein-specific suppressor genes. When reduced in function, these genes suppress dynein mutants but not other conditionally mutant loci, and twelve of the 20 specific suppressors do not exhibit sterile or lethal phenotypes when their function is reduced in wild-type worms. Many of the suppressor proteins, including two dynein light chains, localize to subcellular sites that overlap with those reported by others for the dynein heavy chain. Furthermore, knocking down any one of four putative dynein accessory chains suppresses the conditional heavy chain mutants, suggesting that some accessory chains negatively regulate heavy chain function. We also identified 29 additional genes that, when reduced in function, suppress conditional mutations not only in dynein but also in loci required for unrelated essential processes. In conclusion, we have identified twenty genes that in many cases are not essential themselves but are conserved and when reduced in function can suppress conditionally lethal C. elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutants. We conclude that conserved but nonessential genes contribute to dynein function during the essential process of mitosis.

  10. Degenerate Oligonucleotide Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Extensive Amplicon Profiling of Breast Cancers : A New Approach for the Molecular Analysis of Paraffin-Embedded Cancer Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Daigo, Yataro; Chin, Suet-Feung; Gorringe, Kylie L.; Bobrow, Lynda G; Bruce A J Ponder; Pharoah, Paul D P; Caldas, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a protocol for degenerate oligonucleotide-primed-polymerase chain reaction-based array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) that, when combined with a laser microdissection technique, allows the analysis of cancer cell populations isolated from routine, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Comparison of copy number changes detected by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed-polymerase chain reaction-based array CGH to those detected by conventional array CGH ...

  11. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Ximenes; Eduardo Brandão; Paula Oliveira; Abraham Rocha; Tamisa Rego; Rafael Medeiros; Ana Aguiar-Santos; João Ferraz; Christian Reis; Paulo Araujo; Luiz Carvalho; Melo, Fabio L

    2014-01-01

    The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuche...

  12. Development, validation, and standardization of polymerase chain reaction-based detection of E-coli O157

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulmawjood, A.; Bulte, M.; Roth, S.;

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for the detection of E. coli O157 as the first part of a multicenter validation and standardization project. The assay is based on amplification of sequences of the rfbE O157 gene and includes an internal amplification control. The...... selectivity of the assay was evaluated against 155 strains, including 32 E. coli O157, 38 E. coli non-O157, and 85 non-E. coli. It was shown to be highly inclusive (100%) and exclusive (100%). The assay has a 100% detection probability of approximately 2 x 10(3) cells per reaction....

  13. A rapid, efficient, and economical inverse polymerase chain reaction-based method for generating a site saturation mutant library.

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    Jain, Pankaj C; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2014-03-15

    With the development of deep sequencing methodologies, it has become important to construct site saturation mutant (SSM) libraries in which every nucleotide/codon in a gene is individually randomized. We describe methodologies for the rapid, efficient, and economical construction of such libraries using inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We show that if the degenerate codon is in the middle of the mutagenic primer, there is an inherent PCR bias due to the thermodynamic mismatch penalty, which decreases the proportion of unique mutants. Introducing a nucleotide bias in the primer can alleviate the problem. Alternatively, if the degenerate codon is placed at the 5' end, there is no PCR bias, which results in a higher proportion of unique mutants. This also facilitates detection of deletion mutants resulting from errors during primer synthesis. This method can be used to rapidly generate SSM libraries for any gene or nucleotide sequence, which can subsequently be screened and analyzed by deep sequencing.

  14. Comparison of different polymerase chain reaction-based approaches for clonality assessment of immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangements in B-cell neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, P W; Langerak, A W; Kerkhof, E; Wolvers-Tettero, I L; Boor, P P; Mulder, A H; Vrints, L W; Coebergh, J W; van Krieken, J H; Schuuring, E; Kluin, P M; van Dongen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Several frequently applied polymerase chain reaction strategies for analysis of immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangements were compared by analyzing 70 B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and 24 reactive lymphoid lesions. Southern blot analysis was used as the "gold standard" for clonality ass

  15. Detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method.

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    Intapan, Pewpan M; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Imtawil, Kanokwan J; Pumidonming, Wilawan; Prasongdee, Thidarat K; Miwa, Masanao; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2005-02-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure for the detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in stool samples was developed and compared with Stoll's egg count method. The primers were designed on the basis of a previously constructed pPH-13-specific DNA probe, which produced an approximate 0.5-kb amplified product. This PCR method could detect as few as 5 eggs in 0.6 g of artificially inoculated feces of a healthy control cat or as little as 1 x 10(-4) ng of P. heterotremus genomic DNA. The assay had 100% sensitivity in all infected cats. The method did not yield an approximate 0.5-kb product with DNA from other parasites such as Gnathostoma spinigerum, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola gigantica, Echinostoma malayanum, Opisthorchis viverrini, Dirofilaria immitis, and Taenia saginata; exceptions were Paragonimus siamensis and Paragonimus westermani. In addition, no genomic DNA from Escherichia coli, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Acinetobacter anitratus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, beta-Streptococcus grA, and Proteus mirabilis or from the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts of P. heterotremus was amplified in the PCR assay. This assay has great potential for application in clinical epidemiological studies.

  16. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ximenes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  17. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses

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    Ji Yeon Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, lily mottle virus (LMoV, lily symptomless virus (LSV. Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single-or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.

  18. Suppression of uninvolved immunoglobulins defined by heavy/light chain pair suppression is a risk factor for progression of MGUS

    OpenAIRE

    Katzmann, JA; Clark, R.; Kyle, RA; Larson, DR; Therneau, TM; Melton, LJ; Benson, JT; Colby, CL; Dispenzieri, A; Landgren, O; Kumar, S; Bradwell, AR; Cerhan, JR; Rajkumar, SV

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that the suppression of uninvolved immunoglobulin in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as detected by suppression of the isotype-specific heavy and light chain (HLC-pair suppression) increases the risk of progression to malignancy. This approach required quantitation of individual heavy/light chains (for example, IgGλ in IgGκ MGUS patients). Of 1384 MGUS patients from Southeastern Minnesota seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1960 to 1994, baseline serum sampl...

  19. Diagnosis of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis from formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Biwas Jyotirmay; Bagyalakshmi R; Therese Lily

    2008-01-01

    New molecular biological technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) can identify the species from paraffin-embedded tissue section. We demonstrated Aspergillus fumigatus fungus by PCR-based RFLP technique from paraffin section of an eyeball of an eight- month-old child removed for endogenous endophthalmitis.

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based prognostic models in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Tina M; Jensen, Andreas K; Holst, René;

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiplex analysis for genes known to have prognostic value in an attempt to design a clinically useful classification model in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure transcript levels of 28 relevant genes in 194 de...

  1. Development of a Low-cost Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Method for Studying Differentially Expressed Genes in Developing Rice Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Wan Wendy Fung; Hoi Yee Chow; Tik Wan Law; Biao Dong; Hoi Shan Kwan

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression studies are important for revealing gene functions putatively involved in biological processes. We were interested in identifying differentially expressed genes during leaf development in rice, We combined the RNA arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) and dot blot hybridization methods to screen a rice leaf primordium cDNA library. Three developmental stages during vegetative growth were examined. The cDNA clones showing different hybridization patterns were further analyzed and verified. Here we demonstrate that the combination of RAP-PCR and dot blot hybridization could provide an efficient and relatively low-cost cDNA library screening approach to discover genes not previously known to be associated with leaf development in rice. We believe that the findings described here will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the developmental processes of rice leaf.

  2. Use of sodC versus ctrA for real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Neisseria meningitidis in sterile body fluids

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    Fábio Takenori Higa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of a newly described sodC-based real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for detecting Neisseria meningitidis in normally sterile sites, such as cerebrospinal fluid and serum. The sodC-based RT-PCR assay has an advantage over ctrA for detecting nongroupable N. meningitidis isolates, which are commonly present in asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage. However, in our study, sodC-based RT-PCR was 7.5% less sensitive than ctrA. Given the public health impact of possible false-negative results due to the use of the sodC target gene alone, sodC-based RT-PCR for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis should be used with caution.

  3. Optimisation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based strategy for the detection and quantification of human herpesvirus 6 DNA in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Miriam YH Ueda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 may cause severe complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Monitoring this virus and providing precise, rapid and early diagnosis of related clinical diseases, constitute essential measures to improve outcomes. A prospective survey on the incidence and clinical features of HHV-6 infections after HSCT has not yet been conducted in Brazilian patients and the impact of this infection on HSCT outcome remains unclear. A rapid test based on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has been optimised to screen and quantify clinical samples for HHV-6. The detection step was based on reaction with TaqMan® hydrolysis probes. A set of previously described primers and probes have been tested to evaluate efficiency, sensitivity and reproducibility. The target efficiency range was 91.4% with linearity ranging from 10-106 copies/reaction and a limit of detection of five copies/reaction or 250 copies/mL of plasma. The qPCR assay developed in the present study was simple, rapid and sensitive, allowing the detection of a wide range of HHV-6 loads. In conclusion, this test may be useful as a practical tool to help elucidate the clinical relevance of HHV-6 infection and reactivation in different scenarios and to determine the need for surveillance.

  4. Optimisation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based strategy for the detection and quantification of human herpesvirus 6 DNA in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Miriam YH; Alvarenga, Paulo G; Real, Juliana M; Moreira, Eloisa de Sá; Watanabe, Aripuanã; Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Vescovi, Matheus; Novis, Yana; Rocha, Vanderson; Seber, Adriana; Oliveira, Jose SR; Rodrigues, Celso A; Granato, Celso FH

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) may cause severe complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Monitoring this virus and providing precise, rapid and early diagnosis of related clinical diseases, constitute essential measures to improve outcomes. A prospective survey on the incidence and clinical features of HHV-6 infections after HSCT has not yet been conducted in Brazilian patients and the impact of this infection on HSCT outcome remains unclear. A rapid test based on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been optimised to screen and quantify clinical samples for HHV-6. The detection step was based on reaction with TaqMan® hydrolysis probes. A set of previously described primers and probes have been tested to evaluate efficiency, sensitivity and reproducibility. The target efficiency range was 91.4% with linearity ranging from 10-106 copies/reaction and a limit of detection of five copies/reaction or 250 copies/mL of plasma. The qPCR assay developed in the present study was simple, rapid and sensitive, allowing the detection of a wide range of HHV-6 loads. In conclusion, this test may be useful as a practical tool to help elucidate the clinical relevance of HHV-6 infection and reactivation in different scenarios and to determine the need for surveillance. PMID:26038958

  5. A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area

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    Teiliane Rodrigues Carneiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®. PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

  6. Analysis of p53 gene mutations in human gliomas by polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, F H; Kupsky, W J; Li, Y W; Sreepathi, P

    1994-03-01

    Mutations in the p53 gene have been recognized in brain tumors, and clonal expansion of p53 mutant cells has been shown to be associated with glioma progression. However, studies on the p53 gene have been limited by the need for frozen tissues. We have developed a method utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the direct analysis of p53 mutation by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and by direct DNA sequencing of the p53 gene using a single 10-microns paraffin-embedded tissue section. We applied this method to screen for p53 gene mutations in exons 5-8 in human gliomas utilizing paraffin-embedded tissues. Twenty paraffin blocks containing tumor were selected from surgical specimens from 17 different adult patients. Tumors included six anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), nine glioblastomas (GBs), and two mixed malignant gliomas (MMGs). The tissue section on the stained glass slide was used to guide microdissection of an unstained adjacent tissue section to ensure > 90% of the tumor cell population for p53 mutational analysis. Simultaneously, microdissection of the tissue was also carried out to obtain normal tissue from adjacent areas as a control. Mutations in the p53 gene were identified in 3 of 17 (18%) patients by PCR-SSCP analysis and subsequently confirmed by PCR-based DNA sequencing. Mutations in exon 5 resulting in amino acid substitution were found in one thalamic AA (codon 158, CGC > CTT: Arg > Leu) and one cerebral hemispheric GB (codon 151, CCG > CTG: Pro > Leu).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A new morphologically distinct avian malaria parasite that fails detection by established polymerase chain reaction-based protocols for amplification of the cytochrome B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Križanauskienė, Asta; Bensch, Staffan; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Asghar, Muhammad; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Scebba, Sergio; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2012-06-01

    Plasmodium polymorphum n. sp. (Haemosporida, Plasmodiidae) was found in the skylark, Alauda arvensis (Passeriformes: Alaudidae), during autumnal migration in southern Italy. This organism is illustrated and described based on the morphology of its blood stages. The most distinctive feature of this malaria parasite is the clear preference of its blood stages (trophozoites, meronts, and gametocytes) for immature red blood cells, including erythroblasts. Based on preference of erythrocytic meronts for immature red blood cells, P. polymorphum is most similar to species of the subgenus Huffia . This parasite can be readily distinguished from all other bird malaria parasites, including Plasmodium ( Huffia ) spp., due to preferential development and maturation of its gametocytes in immature red blood cells, a unique character for avian Plasmodium spp. In addition, the margins of nuclei in blood stages of P. polymorphum are markedly smooth and distinct; this is also a distinct diagnostic feature of this parasite. Plasmodium polymorphum has been recorded only in the skylark; it is probably a rare parasite, whose host range and geographical distribution remain unclear. Microscopic examination detected a light infection of Plasmodium relictum (lineage GRW11, parasitemia of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b ) of P. polymorphum from the microscopically positive sample by using published and newly designed primers for DNA amplification of avian Plasmodium spp. The light parasitemia of P. relictum was easily detectable using several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays, but P. polymorphum was undetectable in all applied assays. Quantitative PCR also showed the presence of light parasitemia (0.06%) of the lineage GRW11 in this sample. This supports the conclusion that the morphologically distinct parasite observed along with P. relictum and predominant in the sample is genetically dissimilar from the lineage GRW11 based on cyt b sequence. In samples with co

  8. Slow knot formation by suppressed self-reptation in a collapsed polymer chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Naoki; Maki, Yasuyuki

    2012-02-01

    Chain-expansion processes from knotted globules have been measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in the mixed solvent tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) + water (2.5 vol %) by static light scattering. The solution was quenched from the Θ temperature of 41.5 ∘C to 37.0 ∘C, aged there for a time period tp, and then returned rapidly to the Θ temperature. The chain-expansion process was determined as a time evolution of the expansion factor α2 after the temperature increase. The measurement was carried out by changing the aging time tp from 240 to 7200 min, and the molecular weight from Mw = 4.0 × 106 to 1.5 × 107, by taking advantage of the extremely slow chain aggregation in the solution. The chain-expansion process obtained for Mw = 1.22 × 107 became slow with increasing tp, which revealed the knot formation in single globules. The characteristic time of the chain expansion from globules aged for tp = 7200 min was found to depend on the molecular weight as Mw2.7. This exponent, which is close to 3, demonstrated a disentanglement process due to self-reptation. The present data were compared with the previous data of the chain expansion from compact globules aged at 25.0 ∘C. The comparison made at Mw = 1.22 × 107 and at the same values of tp revealed that the chain expansion from the globules aged at 25.0 ∘C was much faster than that from the globules at 37.0 ∘C, indicating a lower knot density in the more compact globules. It was conjectured that the knot formation due to self-reptation would be suppressed in a compact globule because an entire conformational change required by knot formation would become difficult to occur in the confined space of high segment concentration, particularly for a long polymer chain. The chain collapse of PMMA in the mixed solvent has been observed to occur extremely slowly at the later stage. This slow process was explained by the suppressed self-reptation.

  9. Thermostable Mismatch-Recognizing Protein MutS Suppresses Nonspecific Amplification during Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Kuramitsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-related technologies are hampered mainly by two types of error: nonspecific amplification and DNA polymerase-generated mutations. Here, we report that both errors can be suppressed by the addition of a DNA mismatch-recognizing protein, MutS, from a thermophilic bacterium. Although it had been expected that MutS has a potential to suppress polymerase-generated mutations, we unexpectedly found that it also reduced nonspecific amplification. On the basis of this finding, we propose that MutS binds a mismatched primer-template complex, thereby preventing the approach of DNA polymerase to the 3' end of the primer. Our simple methodology improves the efficiency and accuracy of DNA amplification and should therefore benefit various PCR-based applications, ranging from basic biological research to applied medical science.

  10. Mn(III)(tetra-biphenyl-porphyrin)-TCNE single-chain magnet via suppression of the interchain interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ryuta; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2012-08-20

    A single-chain magnet (SCM) of [Mn(TBPP)(TCNE)]·4m-PhCl(2) (1), where TBPP(2-) = meso-tetra(4-biphenyl)porphyrinate; TCNE(•-) = tetracyanoethenide radical anion; m-PhCl(2) = meta-dichlorobenzene, was prepared via suppression of interchain interactions. 1 has a one-dimensional alternating Mn(III)(porphrin)-TCNE(•-)chain structure similar to those of a family of complexes reported by Miller and co-workers. From a comparison of the static magnetic properties of 1 with other Mn(III)(porphyrin)-TCNE(•-) chains, a magneto-structural correlation between the intrachain magnetic exchange and both the dihedral angle between the mean plane on [Mn(TBPP)(TCNE)] and Mn-N≡C was observed. The ac magnetic susceptibility data of 1 could be fit with the Arrhenius law, indicating that slow magnetic relaxation and ruling out three-dimensional long-range ordering and spin-glass-like behavior. The Cole-Cole plot for 1 was semicircular, verifying that it is an SCM. Therefore, 1 is an ideal single-chain magnet with significantly strong intrachain magnetic exchange interactions beyond the Ising limit.

  11. Two novel nonradioactive polymerase chain reaction-based assays of dried blood spots, genomic DNA, or whole cells for fast, reliable detection of Z and S mutations in the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Knudsen, I; Jensen, P K;

    1992-01-01

    Two new nonradioactive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for the Z and S mutations in the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene are presented. The assays take advantage of PCR-mediated mutagenesis, creating new diagnostic restriction enzyme sites for unambiguous discrimination between test samples...... from individuals who are normal, heterozygous, or homozygous for the mutations. We show that the two assays can be performed with purified genomic DNA as well as with boiled blood spots. The new assays were validated by parallel testing with a technique in which PCR is combined with allele...

  12. Shigella flexneri suppresses NF-κB activation by inhibiting linear ubiquitin chain ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten F; Liu, Zixu; Chen, Didi; Alto, Neal M

    2016-01-01

    The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is a multimeric E3 ligase that catalyses M1 or linear ubiquitination of activated immune receptor signalling complexes (RSCs). Mutations that disrupt linear ubiquitin assembly lead to complex disease pathologies including immunodeficiency and autoinflammation in both humans and mice, but microbial toxins that target LUBAC function have not yet been discovered. Here, we report the identification of two homologous Shigella flexneri type III secretion system effector E3 ligases IpaH1.4 and IpaH2.5, which directly interact with LUBAC subunit Heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase-1 (HOIL-1L) and conjugate K48-linked ubiquitin chains to the catalytic RING-between-RING domain of HOIL-1-interacting protein (HOIP). Proteasomal degradation of HOIP leads to irreversible inactivation of linear ubiquitination and blunting of NF-κB nuclear translocation in response to tumour-necrosis factor (TNF), IL-1β and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Loss of function studies in mammallian cells in combination with bacterial genetics explains how Shigella evades a broad spectrum of immune surveillance systems by cooperative inhibition of receptor ubiquitination and reveals the critical importance of LUBAC in host defence against pathogens. PMID:27572974

  13. Use of Blood Smears and Dried Blood Spots for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Infection and Plasmodium falciparum in Severely Ill Febrile African Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Dondorp, Arjen M; Turner, Paul; Woodrow, Charles J; Imwong, Mallika

    2016-02-01

    Molecular approaches offer a means of testing archived samples stored as dried blood spots in settings where standard blood cultures are not possible. Peripheral blood films are one suggested source of material, although the sensitivity of this approach has not been well defined. Thin blood smears and dried blood spots from a severe pediatric malaria study were assessed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to detect non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; MisL gene), Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), and Plasmodium falciparum (18S rRNA). Of 16 cases of NTS and S. pneumoniae confirmed on blood culture, none were positive by PCR using DNA extracts from blood films or dried blood spots. In contrast, four of 36 dried blood spots and two of 178 plasma samples were PCR positive for S. pneumoniae, despite negative bacterial blood cultures, suggesting false positives. Quantitative assessment revealed that the effective concentration of P. falciparum DNA in blood films was three log orders of magnitude lower than for dried blood spots. The P. falciparum kelch13 gene could not be amplified from blood films. These findings question the value of blood PCR-based approaches for detection of NTS and S. pneumoniae, and show that stored blood films are an inefficient method of studying P. falciparum.

  14. Sulfasalazine Treatment Suppresses the Formation of HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Homodimer in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Liu, Su-Qin; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2015-12-29

    Human leukocytic antigen-B27 heavy chain (HLA-B27 HC) has the tendency to fold slowly, in turn gradually forming a homodimer, (B27-HC)₂ via a disulfide linkage to activate killer cells and T-helper 17 cells and inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to trigger the IL-23/IL-17 axis for pro-inflammatory reactions. All these consequences lead to the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Sulfasalazine (SSA) is a common medication used for treatment of patients with AS. However, the effects of SSA treatment on (B27-HC)₂ formation and on suppression of IL-23/IL-17 axis of AS patients remain to be determined. In the current study, we examine the (B27-HC)₂ of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the mean grade of sarcoiliitis and lumbar spine Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) scores of 23 AS patients. The results indicated that AS patients without (B27-HC)₂ on PBMC showed the lower levels of mean grade of sarcoiliitis and the lumbar spine BASRI scores. In addition, after treatment with SSA for four months, the levels of (B27-HC)₂ on PBMCs were significantly reduced. Cytokines mRNA levels, including TNFα, IL-17A, IL-17F and IFNγ, were also significantly down-regulated in PBMCs. However, SSA treatment did not affect the levels of IL-23 and IL-23R mRNAs.

  15. Sulfasalazine Treatment Suppresses the Formation of HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Homodimer in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chun Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocytic antigen-B27 heavy chain (HLA-B27 HC has the tendency to fold slowly, in turn gradually forming a homodimer, (B27-HC2 via a disulfide linkage to activate killer cells and T-helper 17 cells and inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress to trigger the IL-23/IL-17 axis for pro-inflammatory reactions. All these consequences lead to the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Sulfasalazine (SSA is a common medication used for treatment of patients with AS. However, the effects of SSA treatment on (B27-HC2 formation and on suppression of IL-23/IL-17 axis of AS patients remain to be determined. In the current study, we examine the (B27-HC2 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, the mean grade of sarcoiliitis and lumbar spine Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI scores of 23 AS patients. The results indicated that AS patients without (B27-HC2 on PBMC showed the lower levels of mean grade of sarcoiliitis and the lumbar spine BASRI scores. In addition, after treatment with SSA for four months, the levels of (B27-HC2 on PBMCs were significantly reduced. Cytokines mRNA levels, including TNFα, IL-17A, IL-17F and IFNγ, were also significantly down-regulated in PBMCs. However, SSA treatment did not affect the levels of IL-23 and IL-23R mRNAs.

  16. Sulfasalazine Treatment Suppresses the Formation of HLA-B27 Heavy Chain Homodimer in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Lu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Liu, Su-Qin; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lai, Ning-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocytic antigen-B27 heavy chain (HLA-B27 HC) has the tendency to fold slowly, in turn gradually forming a homodimer, (B27-HC)₂ via a disulfide linkage to activate killer cells and T-helper 17 cells and inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to trigger the IL-23/IL-17 axis for pro-inflammatory reactions. All these consequences lead to the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Sulfasalazine (SSA) is a common medication used for treatment of patients with AS. However, the effects of SSA treatment on (B27-HC)₂ formation and on suppression of IL-23/IL-17 axis of AS patients remain to be determined. In the current study, we examine the (B27-HC)₂ of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the mean grade of sarcoiliitis and lumbar spine Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) scores of 23 AS patients. The results indicated that AS patients without (B27-HC)₂ on PBMC showed the lower levels of mean grade of sarcoiliitis and the lumbar spine BASRI scores. In addition, after treatment with SSA for four months, the levels of (B27-HC)₂ on PBMCs were significantly reduced. Cytokines mRNA levels, including TNFα, IL-17A, IL-17F and IFNγ, were also significantly down-regulated in PBMCs. However, SSA treatment did not affect the levels of IL-23 and IL-23R mRNAs. PMID:26729099

  17. Tumor-suppressive functions of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao; Li, Yandong; Gao, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Long chain acyl CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) is a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism with marked preference for arachidonic acid (AA). Recent reports have implicated its crucial roles in tumorigenesis. However in gastric cancer (GC), the expression and function of ACSL4 remain unclear. In the present study, we identified ACSL4 as a potential tumor suppressor in GC. The ACSL4 expression in GC samples was evaluated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of ACSL4 were frequently downregulated in cancer tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous mucosa control tissues. Cell-based functional assays exhibited that ectopic expression of ACSL4 inhibits cell growth, colony formation and cell migration, whereas ACSL4 knockdown enhanced these effects. In a nude mice model, ACSL4 knockdown also promoted subcutaneous xenografts' growth in vivo. Moreover, western blot analysis revealed that ACSL4 expression had a significant effect on FAK and P21 protein level. These findings suggest that ACSL4 plays a tumor-suppressive role and could be a potential therapeutic target in GC. PMID:26949059

  18. Aplicabilidade da metodologia de reação de polimerase em cadeia em tempo real na determinação do percentual de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos Applicability of the real-time polymerase chain reaction based-methods in quantification of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Eudes Fagundes de Barros

    2008-02-01

    2003, which requires labeling for all foods or food ingredients, with a stricter labeling threshold of 1%. Although polymerase chain reaction technology has some limitations, the high sensitivity and specificity explain why it has been the first choice of most analytical laboratories interested in detection of genetically modified organisms and their derived products. Among the currently available methods, polymerase chain reaction-based methods are accepted, considering the sensitivity and reliability for detection of genetically modified-derived material in routine analysis. In this paper, a review of currently available polymerase chain reaction methods for screening and quantifying genetically modified-derived ingredients is presented, discussing their applicability and limitations.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of genetically modified soy in enteral nutrition formulas by polymerase chain reaction based methods Avaliação qualitativa e quantitativa de soja geneticamente modificada em fórmulas de nutrição enteral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Eudes Fagundes de Barros

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of Roundup Ready soybean in enteral nutrition formulas sold in Brazil. METHODS: A duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction based on the amplification of the lectin gene and the construction of the recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybean (35S promoter and chloroplast transit peptide gene was performed in order to analyze the deoxyribonucleic acid obtained from nine soy protein isolate-containing formulas. RESULTS: Despite the highly processed nature of the food matrices, amplifiable deoxyribonucleic acid templates were obtained from all tested samples, as judged by the amplification of the lectin gene sequence. However, amplicons relative to the presence of Roundup Ready soybean were restricted to one of the nine enteral nutrition formulas analyzed as well as to the soybean reference powder, as expected. Quantitative analysis of the genetically modified formula by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction showed a content of approximately 0.3% (w/w of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid from the Roundup Ready soybean. CONCLUSION: The results show that one of the formulas contained genetically modified soy, pointing to the need of regulating the use of transgenic substances and of specific labeling in this product category.OBJETIVO: Investigar a ocorrência de soja transgênica em fórmulas de suporte nutricional comercializadas no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi desenvolvido o método da reação em cadeia da polimerase duplex, com base na amplificação do gene na lectina, e na construção do ácido desoxirribonucléico recombinante da soja transgênica tolerante a glifosato (promotor 35S e gene de peptídeo de trânsito de cloroplasto, a fim de avaliar o ácido desoxirribonucléico extraído a partir das nove fórmulas contendo isolado protéico de soja. RESULTADOS: Apesar do alto grau de processamento aos quais os produtos avaliados foram submetidos, foi poss

  20. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K. Danner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP+ B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 (P value = 0.01]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  1. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of β-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). β-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that β-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in β-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  2. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perng-Kuang Chang

    2015-09-01

    acid degradation. Since secondary metabolism occurs after active growth has ceased, this growth stimulation resulted in suppression of expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes. On the other hand, increased activities in degradation pathways for branched-chain amino acids probably are required for the activation of the aflatoxin pathway by providing building blocks and energy regeneration. Metabolic flux in primary metabolism apparently has an important role in the expression of genes of secondary metabolism.

  3. Suppression of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by 2-Phenylethanol Is Associated with Stimulated Growth and Decreased Degradation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L; Li, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    branched-chain amino acid degradation. Since secondary metabolism occurs after active growth has ceased, this growth stimulation resulted in suppression of expression of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes. On the other hand, increased activities in degradation pathways for branched-chain amino acids probably are required for the activation of the aflatoxin pathway by providing building blocks and energy regeneration. Metabolic flux in primary metabolism apparently has an important role in the expression of genes of secondary metabolism. PMID:26404375

  4. A fast and simple method for the polymerase chain reaction-based sexing of livestock embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, K C S; Carneiro, I S; Rios, D B; Feltrin, C; Ribeiro, A K C; Gaudêncio-Neto, S; Martins, L T; Aguiar, L H; Lazzarotto, C R; Calderón, C E M; Lopes, F E M; Teixeira, L P R; Bertolini, M; Bertolini, L R

    2016-01-01

    Embryo sexing is a powerful tool for livestock producers because it allows them to manage their breeding stocks more effectively. However, the cost of supplies and reagents, and the need for trained professionals to biopsy embryos by micromanipulation restrict the worldwide use of the technology to a limited number of specialized groups. The aim of this study was to couple a fast and inexpensive DNA extraction protocol with a practical biopsy approach to create a simple, quick, effective, and dependable embryo sexing procedure. From a total of 1847 sheep and cattle whole embryos or embryo biopsies, the sexing efficiency was 100% for embryo biopsies, 98% for sheep embryos, and 90.2% for cattle embryos. We used a primer pair that was common to both species and only 10% of the total extracted DNA. The whole protocol takes only 2 h to perform, which suggests that the proposed procedure can be readily applied to field conditions. Moreover, in addition to embryo sexing, the procedure can be used for further analyses, such as genotyping and molecular diagnosis in preimplantation embryos. PMID:27050974

  5. Mapping a Mutation in "Caenorhabditis elegans" Using a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Edith M.

    2014-01-01

    Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified within the "Caenorhabditis elegans" genome. SNPs present in the genomes of two isogenic "C. elegans" strains have been routinely used as a tool in forward genetics to map a mutation to a particular chromosome. This article describes a laboratory exercise in which…

  6. Triplex DNA: A new platform for polymerase chain reaction-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Miao, Xiangmin; Ling, Liansheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific PCR amplification and DNA contamination usually accompany with PCR process, to overcome these problems, here we establish a sensor for thrombin by sequence-specific recognition of the PCR product with molecular beacon through triplex formation. Probe A and probe B were designed for the sensor, upon addition of thrombin, two probes hybridized to each other and the probe B was extended in the presence of Klenow Fragment polymerase and dNTPs. The PCR amplification occurred with further addition of Taq DNA Polymerase and two primers, the PCR product was recognized by molecular beacon through triplex formation. The fluorescence intensity increased with the logarithm of the concentration of thrombin over the range from 1.0 × 10(-12) M to 1.0 × 10(-7) M, with a detection limit of 261 fM. Moreover, the effect of DNA contamination and non - specific amplification could be ignored completely in the proposed strategy. PMID:26268575

  7. Short chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR-S6K pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeongho; Kim, Myunghoo; Kang, Seung G; Jannasch, Amber Hopf; Cooper, Bruce; Patterson, John; Chang H Kim

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are highly produced in the intestine and potentially regulate the immune system. We studied the function of SCFAs in regulation of T cell differentiation into effector and regulatory T cells. We report that SCFAs can directly promote T cell differentiation into T cells producing IL-17, IFN-γ, and/or IL-10 depending on cytokine milieu. This effect of SCFAs on T cells is independent of GPR41- or GPR43 but dependent on direct histone ...

  8. Silencing or inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) suppresses free heavy chain expression and Th17 responses in ankylosing spondylitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Liye; Ridley, Anna; Hammitzsch, Ariane; Al-Mossawi, Mohammad Hussein; Bunting, Helen; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Chan, Antoni; Kollnberger, Simon; Bowness, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) are strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ERAP1 is a key aminopeptidase in HLA class I presentation and can potentially alter surface expression of HLA-B27 free heavy chains (FHCs). We studied the effects of ERAP1 silencing/inhibition/variations on HLA-B27 FHC expression and Th17 responses in AS. Methods Flow cytometry was used to measure surface expression of HLA class I in peripher...

  9. A medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of NF-κB signaling and blocks cytoskeletal organization and survival in mature osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders.

  10. Branched-chain amino acids ameliorate fibrosis and suppress tumor growth in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Cha

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA reduce the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with obesity and hepatitis C virus infection by improving insulin resistance (IR. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic effects of BCAA on the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN-induced HCC and liver cirrhosis in a rat model. METHODS: Male SD rats received weekly intraperitoneal injections of DEN (50 mg/kg of body weight for 16 weeks to induce HCC. They were fed a diet containing 3% casein, 3% or 6% BCAA for 13 weeks beginning 6 weeks after DEN administration. DEN was used to induce HCC through stepwise development from cirrhosis to HCC. The effect of BCAA was evaluated in tumor tissues by histopathologic analyses, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. RESULTS: The mean area and number of dysplastic nodules (DNs and tumors in the casein group tended to be larger than those in the BCAA group 16 weeks after DEN administration. The mean fibrotic area in the BCAA group was smaller than that in the casein group. The BCAA group showed decreased mRNA levels for markers of fibrosis, angiogenesis, and apoptosis inhibition. Compared with the casein group, the BCAA group had lower levels of α-smooth muscle actin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p-β-catenin, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and caspase-3 protein expression, as well as a higher level of cleaved caspase-3 protein expression. CONCLUSIONS: BCAA supplementation of the diet ameliorated liver fibrosis and HCC development in a DEN-induced rat model of HCC with liver cirrhosis, but not in the IR model. These results provide a rationale for anti-fibrosis and chemoprevention using BCAA treatment for HCC with liver cirrhosis, as well as decreasing the ammonia level.

  11. Pictet-Spengler reaction-based biosynthetic machinery in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ge, Hui Ming; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Nan; Mei, Ya Ning; Jiang, Rong; Li, Sui Jun; Chen, Chao Jun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Xu, Qiang; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2014-12-23

    The Pictet-Spengler (PS) reaction constructs plant alkaloids such as morphine and camptothecin, but it has not yet been noticed in the fungal kingdom. Here, a silent fungal Pictet-Spenglerase (FPS) gene of Chaetomium globosum 1C51 residing in Epinephelus drummondhayi guts is described and ascertained to be activable by 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT). The activated FPS expression enables the PS reaction between 1-MT and flavipin (fungal aldehyde) to form "unnatural" natural products with unprecedented skeletons, of which chaetoglines B and F are potently antibacterial with the latter inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. A gene-implied enzyme inhibition (GIEI) strategy has been introduced to address the key steps for PS product diversifications. In aggregation, the work designs and validates an innovative approach that can activate the PS reaction-based fungal biosynthetic machinery to produce unpredictable compounds of unusual and novel structure valuable for new biology and biomedicine. PMID:25425666

  12. Pictet–Spengler reaction-based biosynthetic machinery in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ge, Hui Ming; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Nan; Mei, Ya Ning; Jiang, Rong; Li, Sui Jun; Chen, Chao Jun; Jiao, Rui Hua; Xu, Qiang; Ng, Seik Weng; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The Pictet–Spengler (PS) reaction constructs plant alkaloids such as morphine and camptothecin, but it has not yet been noticed in the fungal kingdom. Here, a silent fungal Pictet–Spenglerase (FPS) gene of Chaetomium globosum 1C51 residing in Epinephelus drummondhayi guts is described and ascertained to be activable by 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT). The activated FPS expression enables the PS reaction between 1-MT and flavipin (fungal aldehyde) to form “unnatural” natural products with unprecedented skeletons, of which chaetoglines B and F are potently antibacterial with the latter inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. A gene-implied enzyme inhibition (GIEI) strategy has been introduced to address the key steps for PS product diversifications. In aggregation, the work designs and validates an innovative approach that can activate the PS reaction-based fungal biosynthetic machinery to produce unpredictable compounds of unusual and novel structure valuable for new biology and biomedicine. PMID:25425666

  13. Detection of Francisella tularensis in blood by polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Long, G W; Oprandy, J J; Narayanan, R. B.; Fortier, A H; Porter, K R; Nacy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for Francisella tularensis which we evaluated by using spiked blood samples and experimentally infected mice. The assay detected both type A and type B F. tularensis at levels equivalent to one CFU/microliter of spiked blood. Results from polymerase chain reaction-based assay of limiting dilutions of blood from mice infected with the live vaccine strain agreed closely with results from blood culture.

  14. Quarkonium suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Petreczky

    2003-04-01

    I discuss quarkonium suppression in equilibrated strongly interacting matter. After a brief review of basic features of quarkonium production I discuss the application of recent lattice data on the heavy quark potential to the problem of quarkonium dissociation as well as the problem of direct lattice determination of quarkonium properties in finite temperature lattice QCD.

  15. A highly selective and non-reaction based chemosensor for the detection of Hg2+ ions using a luminescent iridium(III complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shiu-Hin Chan

    Full Text Available We report herein a novel luminescent iridium(III complex with two hydrophobic carbon chains as a non-reaction based chemosensor for the detection of Hg(2+ ions in aqueous solution (<0.002% of organic solvent attributed to the probe solution. Upon the addition of Hg(2+ ions, the emission intensity of the complex was significantly enhanced and this change could be monitored by the naked eye under UV irradiation. The iridium(III complex shows high specificity for Hg(2+ ions over eighteen other cations. The system is capable of detecting micromolar levels of Hg(2+ ions, which is within the range of many chemical systems.

  16. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  17. Screening of Riboflavin-Producing Lactobacilli by a Polymerase-Chain-Reaction-Based Approach and Microbiological Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar; Brahma, Biswajit; De, Sachinandan

    2016-03-01

    Riboflavin has an important role in various cellular metabolic activities through its participation in oxidation-reduction reactions. In this study, as many as 60 lactobacilli were screened for the presence or absence of riboflavin biosynthesis genes and riboflavin production. Of these, only 14 strains were able to grow in a commercial riboflavin-free medium. We observed that the presence of riboflavin biosynthesis genes is strain-specific across different species of lactobacilli. The microbiological assay was found to be appreciably reproducible, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive and, hence, can be employed for screening the riboflavin-producing strains. The study thus represents a convenient and efficient method for selection of novel riboflavin producers. These riboflavin(+) strains thus identified and characterized could be explored as potent candidates for the development of a wide range of dairy- and cereal-based foods for the delivery of in situ riboflavin to consumers.

  18. Falling chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  19. Grazer-induced chain lenght plasticity reduces grazing risk in a marine diatom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Johanna; Thor, Peter; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    We show that Skeletonema marinoi suppresses chain formation in response to copepod cues. The presence of three different copepod species (Acartia tonsa, Centropages hamatus, or Temora longicornis) significantly reduced chain length. Furthermore, chain length was significantly reduced when S. mari...

  20. Unwrapping Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Cambou, A D; Hamm, E; Hanna, J A; Menon, N; Santangelo, C D; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    A loop of chain can move along its own tangents, maintaining a steady shape. An open-ended chain undergoing a nontrivial motion must change its shape. One consequence is that chains pulled around objects will fail to follow the contours of the objects, unwrapping themselves instead. This short note accompanies a fluid dynamics video submission (83068) to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2012.

  1. Falling chains

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C W; Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional falling motion of a bungee chain suspended from a rigid support and of a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Their Lagrangians are found to contain no explicit time dependence. As a result, these falling chains are conservative systems. Each of their Lagrange's equations of motion is shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show in particular that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when the transferred link is emitted by the emitting subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling bungee chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. In the simplified one-dimensional treatment, the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the falling bungee chain is found to be converted by the chain tension at the rigid support into the internal kinetic energy of the chain. However, as t...

  2. Dose calculation from a D-D-reaction-based BSA for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate dose in a knee phantom from a D-D-reaction-based Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). The BSA consists of a D(d,n)-reaction-based neutron source enclosed inside a polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector. The polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector sizes were optimized to deliver the highest ratio of thermal to fast neutron yield at the knee phantom. Then neutron dose was calculated at various depths in a knee phantom loaded with boron and therapeutic ratios of synovium dose/skin dose and synovium dose/bone dose were determined. Normalized to same boron loading in synovium, the values of the therapeutic ratios obtained in the present study are 12-30 times higher than the published values.

  3. Dose calculation from a D-D-reaction-based BSA for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Khalid [Department of Physics, Hail University, Hail (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: khalidafnan@uoh.edu.sa; Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and Center for Applied Physical Sciences, Box No. 1815, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Maalej, N.; Elshahat, B. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals and Center for Applied Physical Sciences, Box No. 1815, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-04-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate dose in a knee phantom from a D-D-reaction-based Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS). The BSA consists of a D(d,n)-reaction-based neutron source enclosed inside a polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector. The polyethylene moderator and graphite reflector sizes were optimized to deliver the highest ratio of thermal to fast neutron yield at the knee phantom. Then neutron dose was calculated at various depths in a knee phantom loaded with boron and therapeutic ratios of synovium dose/skin dose and synovium dose/bone dose were determined. Normalized to same boron loading in synovium, the values of the therapeutic ratios obtained in the present study are 12-30 times higher than the published values.

  4. Chain Gang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters. Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  5. Reconstitution of ST2 (IL-1R4) specific for IL-33 activity; no suppression by IL-1Ra though a common chain IL-1R3 (IL-1RAcP) shared with IL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Eunsom; Kwak, Areum; Lee, Jungmin; Hong, Jaewoo; Lee, Jongho; Youn, Sulah; Bae, Suyoung; Kim, Busun; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kang, Tae-Bong; Her, Erk; Choi, Dong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Youngmin; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptors are composed of ST2 (also known as IL-1R4), a ligand binding chain, and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP, also known as IL-1R3), a signal transducing chain. IL-1R3 is a common receptor for IL-1α, and IL-1β, IL-33, and three IL-36 isoforms. A549 human lung epithelial cells are highly sensitive to IL-1α and IL-1β but not respond to IL-33. The lack of responsiveness to IL-33 is due to ST2 expression. ST2 was stably transfected into A549 cells to reconstitute its activity. RT-PCR and FACS analysis confirmed ST2 expression on the cell surface of A549/ST2 cells. Upon IL-33 stimulation, A549/ST2 cells induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in a dose dependent manner while A549/mock cells remained unresponsive. There was no difference in IL-1α and IL-1β activity in A549/ST2 cells compared to A549/mock cells despite the fact that IL-33 shares IL-1R3 with IL-1α/β. IL-33 activated inflammatory signaling molecules in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Anti-ST2 antibody and soluble recombinant ST2-Fc abolished IL-33-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in A549/ST2 cells but the IL-1 receptor antagonist failed to block IL-33-induced cytokines. This result demonstrates for the first time the reconstitution of ST2 in A549 human lung epithelial cell line and verified its function in IL-33-mediated cytokine production and signal transduction. PMID:27031441

  6. Chain Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-er

    2004-01-01

    By means of the idea of measurements on the crossed space-time nonlocal observables, we extend the mechanism for the two-way quantum teleportation to the chain teleportation among N spatially separated spin-1/2 systems. Since in the process only the local interactions are used, the microcausality is automatically satisfied.

  7. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  8. Suppression of behavior by timeout punishment when suppression results in loss of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A; Baron, A

    1968-09-01

    This investigation, using rats as subjects and punishment by timeout for responses maintained on a ratio schedule, sought to determine whether behavior would be suppressed by timeout punishment when such suppression also reduced reinforcement density or frequency. A series of experiments indicated that timeout punishment suppressed responding, with the degree of suppression increasing as a function of the duration of the timeout period. Suppressive effects were found to decrease as a function of increases in deprivation (body weight) and were eliminated when the punished response also was reinforced. It was concluded that timeout can produce aversive effects even when loss of reinforcement results. An alternative interpretation of the findings, based on the effects of extinction periods and delay of reinforcement on chained behavior, was discussed.

  9. Suppression of behavior by timeout punishment when suppression results in loss of positive reinforcement1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arnold; Baron, Alan

    1968-01-01

    This investigation, using rats as subjects and punishment by timeout for responses maintained on a ratio schedule, sought to determine whether behavior would be suppressed by timeout punishment when such suppression also reduced reinforcement density or frequency. A series of experiments indicated that timeout punishment suppressed responding, with the degree of suppression increasing as a function of the duration of the timeout period. Suppressive effects were found to decrease as a function of increases in deprivation (body weight) and were eliminated when the punished response also was reinforced. It was concluded that timeout can produce aversive effects even when loss of reinforcement results. An alternative interpretation of the findings, based on the effects of extinction periods and delay of reinforcement on chained behavior, was discussed. PMID:5722425

  10. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    GH suppression test; Glucose loading test; Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test ... during the suppression test, the provider will suspect gigantism or acromegaly. You may need to be retested to confirm ...

  11. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  12. Conversion Reaction-Based Oxide Nanomaterials for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-04-01

    Developing high-energy-density electrodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is of primary importance to meet the challenges in electronics and automobile industries in the near future. Conversion reaction-based transition metal oxides are attractive candidates for LIB anodes because of their high theoretical capacities. This review summarizes recent advances on the development of nanostructured transition metal oxides for use in lithium ion battery anodes based on conversion reactions. The oxide materials covered in this review include oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, copper, nickel, molybdenum, zinc, ruthenium, chromium, and tungsten, and mixed metal oxides. Various kinds of nanostructured materials including nanowires, nanosheets, hollow structures, porous structures, and oxide/carbon nanocomposites are discussed in terms of their LIB anode applications. PMID:26627913

  13. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  14. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  15. Doping Scheme of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Atomic chains, precise structures of atomic scale created on an atomically regulated substrate surface, are candidates for future electronics. A doping scheme for intrinsic semiconducting Mg chains is considered. In order to suppress the unwanted Anderson localization and minimize the deformation of the original band shape, atomic modulation doping is considered, which is to place dopant atoms beside the chain periodically. Group I atoms are donors, and group VI or VII atoms are acceptors. As long as the lattice constant is long so that the s-p band crossing has not occurred, whether dopant atoms behave as donors or acceptors is closely related to the energy level alignment of isolated atomic levels. Band structures are calculated for Br-doped (p-type) and Cs-doped (n-type) Mg chains using the tight-binding theory with universal parameters, and it is shown that the band deformation is minimized and only the Fermi energy position is modified.

  16. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  17. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  18. Establishment of a Flexible Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Platform for Detecting Prevalent Deafness Mutations Associated with Variable Degree of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Ahn, Soyeon; Oh, Seung-Ha; Song, Ju Hun; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Many cutting-edge technologies based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been employed to identify candidate variants responsible for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, these methods have limitations preventing their wide clinical use for primary screening, in that they remain costly and it is not always suitable to analyze massive amounts of data. Several different DNA chips have been developed for screening prevalent mutations at a lower cost. However, most of these platforms do not offer the flexibility to add or remove target mutations, thereby limiting their wider use in a field that requires frequent updates. Therefore, we aimed to establish a simpler and more flexible molecular diagnostic platform based on ethnicity-specific mutation spectrums of SNHL, which would enable bypassing unnecessary filtering steps in a substantial portion of cases. In addition, we expanded the screening platform to cover varying degrees of SNHL. With this aim, we selected 11 variants of 5 genes (GJB2, SLC26A4, MTRNR1, TMPRSS3, and CDH23) showing high prevalence with varying degrees in Koreans and developed the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit, a real-time PCR-based method using the MeltingArray technique and peptide nucleic acid probes. The results of 271 DNA samples with wild type sequences or mutations in homo- or heterozygote form were compared between the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit and Sanger sequencing. The positive and negative predictive values were 100%, and this method showed perfect agreement with Sanger sequencing, with a Kappa value of 1.00. The U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit showed excellent performance in detecting varying degrees and phenotypes of SNHL mutations in both homozygote and heterozygote forms, which are highly prevalent in the Korean population. This platform will serve as a useful and cost-effective first-line screening tool for varying degrees of genetic SNHL and facilitate genome-based personalized hearing rehabilitation for the Korean population. PMID:27583405

  19. Detection of subgenomic mRNA of feline coronavirus by real-time polymerase chain reaction based on primer-probe energy transfer (P-sg-QPCR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornyák, Ákos; Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila;

    2012-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis is one of the most severe devastating diseases of the Felidae. Upon the appearance of clinical signs, a cure for the infected animal is impossible. Therefore rapid and proper diagnosis for both the presence of the causative agent, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and the ma...

  20. Establishment of a Flexible Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Platform for Detecting Prevalent Deafness Mutations Associated with Variable Degree of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Hee; Kim, Ah Reum; Kim, Min Young; Ahn, Soyeon; Oh, Seung-Ha; Song, Ju Hun; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Many cutting-edge technologies based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been employed to identify candidate variants responsible for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, these methods have limitations preventing their wide clinical use for primary screening, in that they remain costly and it is not always suitable to analyze massive amounts of data. Several different DNA chips have been developed for screening prevalent mutations at a lower cost. However, most of these platforms do not offer the flexibility to add or remove target mutations, thereby limiting their wider use in a field that requires frequent updates. Therefore, we aimed to establish a simpler and more flexible molecular diagnostic platform based on ethnicity-specific mutation spectrums of SNHL, which would enable bypassing unnecessary filtering steps in a substantial portion of cases. In addition, we expanded the screening platform to cover varying degrees of SNHL. With this aim, we selected 11 variants of 5 genes (GJB2, SLC26A4, MTRNR1, TMPRSS3, and CDH23) showing high prevalence with varying degrees in Koreans and developed the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit, a real-time PCR-based method using the MeltingArray technique and peptide nucleic acid probes. The results of 271 DNA samples with wild type sequences or mutations in homo- or heterozygote form were compared between the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit and Sanger sequencing. The positive and negative predictive values were 100%, and this method showed perfect agreement with Sanger sequencing, with a Kappa value of 1.00. The U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit showed excellent performance in detecting varying degrees and phenotypes of SNHL mutations in both homozygote and heterozygote forms, which are highly prevalent in the Korean population. This platform will serve as a useful and cost-effective first-line screening tool for varying degrees of genetic SNHL and facilitate genome-based personalized hearing rehabilitation for the Korean population. PMID:27583405

  1. Hidden Complications of Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Najmi, Sadia; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the suppression of thoughts may seem to be an effective solution, this strategy can lead to an exacerbation of the very thought that one is attempting to suppress. This ironic effect is the most obvious unwanted outcome of suppression and has now been investigated empirically for more than two decades. However, the fact that suppression is an effortful process implies that, even when suppression does not lead to an ironic rebound of the unwanted thought, it puts an insidious cognitiv...

  2. Interactions between surround suppression and interocular suppression in human vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chun Cai

    Full Text Available Several types of suppression phenomena have been observed in the visual system. For example, the ability to detect a target stimulus is often impaired when the target is embedded in a high-contrast surround. This contextual modulation, known as surround suppression, was formerly thought to occur only in the periphery. Another type of suppression phenomena is interocular suppression, in which the sensitivity to a monocular target is reduced by a superimposed mask in the opposite eye. Here, we explored how the two types of suppression operating across different spatial regions interact with one another when they simultaneously exert suppressive influences on a common target presented at the fovea. In our experiments, a circular target grating presented to the fovea of one eye was suppressed interocularly by a noise pattern of the same size in the other eye. The foveal stimuli were either shown alone or surrounded by a monocular annular grating. The orientation and eye-of-origin of the surround grating were varied. We found that the detection of the foveal target subjected to interocular suppression was severely impaired by the addition of the surround grating, indicating strong surround suppression in the fovea. In contrast, when the interocular suppression was released by superimposing a binocular fusion ring onto both the target and the dichoptic mask, the surround suppression effect was found to be dramatically decreased. In addition, the surround suppression was found to depend on the contrast of the dichoptic noise with the greatest surround suppression effect being obtained only when the noise contrast was at an intermediate level. These findings indicate that surround suppression and interocular suppression are not independent of each other, but there are strong interactions between them. Moreover, our results suggest that strong surround suppression may also occur at the fovea and not just the periphery.

  3. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  4. Bacterial turbulence reduction by passive magnetic particle chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-An; I, Lin

    2013-09-01

    We report the experimental observation of the bacterial turbulence reduction in dense E. coli suspensions by increasing the coupling of passive particle additives (paramagnetic particles). Applying an external magnetic field induces magnetic dipoles for particles and causes the formation of vertical chain bundles, which are hard for bacterial flows to tilt and break. The larger effective drag coefficient of chains causes slow horizontal motion of chains, which in turn form obstacles to suppress bacterial flows through the strong correlation in coherent bacterial clusters and intercluster interaction. The interruption of the upward energy flow from individual self-propelling bacteria to the larger scale in the bacterial turbulence with multiscaled coherent flow by the chain bundle leads to more severe suppression in the low frequency (wave number) regimes of the power spectra.

  5. Automated polymerase chain reaction in capillary tubes with hot air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, C T; Fillmore, G C; Hillyard, D R

    1989-06-12

    We describe a simple, compact, inexpensive thermal cycler that can be used for the polymerase chain reaction. Based on heat transfer with air to samples in sealed capillary tubes, the apparatus resembles a recirculating hair dryer. The temperature is regulated via thermocouple input to a programmable set-point process controller that provides proportional output to a solid state relay controlling a heating coil. For efficient cooling after the denaturation step, the controller activates a solenoid that opens a door to vent hot air and allows cool air to enter. Temperature-time profiles and amplification results approximate those obtained using water baths and microfuge tubes.

  6. Tremor suppression in ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihov Georgy S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocardiogram recordings are very often contaminated by high-frequency noise usually power-line interference and EMG disturbances (tremor. Specific method for interference cancellation without affecting the proper ECG components, called subtraction procedure, was developed some two decades ago. Filtering out the tremor remains a priori partially successful since it has a relatively wide spectrum, which overlaps the useful ECG frequency band. Method The proposed method for tremor suppression implements the following three procedures. Contaminated ECG signals are subjected to moving averaging (comb filter with linear phase characteristic with first zero set at 50 Hz to suppress tremor and PL interference simultaneously. The reduced peaks of QRS complexes and other relatively high and steep ECG waves are then restored by an introduced by us procedure called linearly-angular, so that the useful high frequency components are preserved in the range specified by the embedded in the ECG instrument filter, usually up to 125 Hz. Finally, a Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter is applied for supplementary tremor suppression outside the QRS complexes. Results The results obtained show a low level of the residual EMG disturbances together with negligible distortion of the wave shapes regardless of rhythm and morphology changes.

  7. Discrete Quantum Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Faigle, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    A framework for finite-dimensional quantum Markov chains on Hilbert spaces is introduced. Quantum Markov chains generalize both classical Markov chains with possibly hidden states and existing models of quantum walks on finite graphs. Quantum Markov chains are based on Markov operations that may be applied to quantum systems and include quantum measurements, for example. It is proved that quantum Markov chains are asymptotically stationary and hence possess ergodic and entropic properties. With a quantum Markov chain one may associate a quantum Markov process, which is a stochastic process in the classical sense. Generalized Markov chains allow a representation with respect to a generalized Markov source model with definite (but possibly hidden) states relative to which observables give rise to classical stochastic processes. It is demonstrated that this model allows for observables to violate Bell's inequality.

  8. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  9. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.)

  10. Understanding the Chain Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, John Simeon

    2013-01-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously "flow" out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, if h1 is sufficient, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. We show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an anomalous reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. We propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 is proportional to h1.

  11. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  12. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  13. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this chaper, we have reviewed and surveyed the literature on supply chain collaboration. As mentioned above, the game theory models that include cooperative behaviour among retailers seem to be a natural framework to model cooperation (collaboration) in supply chains that consist of a supplier and a finite number of retailers. Various researchers in this area have already adopted several cooperative models dealing with supply chain coordination, and it is expected to see many more in the n...

  14. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  15. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  16. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  17. Vibration Reduction of Open-chain Flexible Manipulators by Optimizing Independent Motions of Branch Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Yushu; Gao Zhihui; Yun Chao

    2008-01-01

    In order to suppress vibration in flexible manipulators, a new type of manipulator mechanism with controllable local degrees of freedom is proposed. This mechanism consists of a main chain and some branch links. The main chain is of a flexible open-chain configuration with an end-effector installed at its tip, and the rigid branch links are able to perform active movements. It is proved by kinematics and dynamic analysis that, the branch links bear no direct kinematic relation to the main chain, but their independent motions can strongly affect the dynamic behavior and performance of the flexible manipulator. Then comes a new idea of suppressing vibration, in which independent motions of the branch links are used to suppress the undesired vibration of the flexible main chain through dynamic coupling. On this basis, an optimal method for reducing vibration of flexible manipulators is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of this method is verified by numerical simulations.

  18. Summation of punishment suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houten, R; Rudolph, R

    1971-01-01

    In two experiments, eight rats were trained to lever press with food on a variable-interval schedule. Bar pressing produced shock on a variable-interval schedule in the presence of two independently presented stimuli, a light and a tone. Two rats in each experiment received alternative presentations of the light and the tone and were consequently always in the presence of a stimulus that signalled variable-interval punishment. The other two rats in each experiment were treated similarly except that they received periods in which neither light nor tone was present. During these periods, bar pressing was not punished. The two stimuli that signalled punishment were then presented simultaneously to evaluate the effect of stimulus compounding on response suppression. The subjects trained without punishment-free periods did not show summation to the compound stimulus; the subjects trained with punishment-free periods showed summation of suppression. The major difference between the two experiments was the longer mean interval of variable-interval punishment used in the second experiment. This manipulation made the summation effect more resistant to extinction and thus increased its magnitude. PMID:16811483

  19. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...

  20. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  1. Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Ie, Amanda Yen Lin

    2014-01-01

    The present research assessed whether levels of depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive-compulsive distress, and psychopathy were differentially related to distinct thought suppression profiles. As a means to achieving this goal, the Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression (PETS) scale was constructed to measure the frequencies with which various target thoughts are suppressed. The PETS scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and scores were positively co...

  2. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  3. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  4. Controlling Synfire Chain by Inhibitory Synaptic Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Takashi; Câteau, Hideyuki; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Okada, Masato

    2007-04-01

    The propagation of highly synchronous firings across neuronal networks, called the synfire chain, has been actively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The temporal accuracy and remarkable stability of the propagation have been repeatedly examined in previous studies. However, for such a mode of signal transduction to play a major role in processing information in the brain, the propagation should also be controlled dynamically and flexibly. Here, we show that inhibitory but not excitatory input can bidirectionally modulate the propagation, i.e., enhance or suppress the synchronous firings depending on the timing of the input. Our simulations based on the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model demonstrate this bidirectional modulation and suggest that it should be achieved with any biologically inspired modeling. Our finding may help describe a concrete scenario of how multiple synfire chains lying in a neuronal network are appropriately controlled to perform significant information processing.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect in ferroelectric Ising chain magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan; Liu, Jia; Yu, Nai-sen; Du, An

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in multiferroic chain system by adopting the elastic Ising-chain model. Based on the transfer-matrix method, the magnetothermal quantities of characterizing MCE behaviors including the entropy, entropy change and adiabatic cooling rate are rigorously determined. Combined with analysis of ground-state, we mainly discuss results in an antiferromagnetic regime associated with ferroelectric transition. Our results show that the entropy change is greatly enhanced near the saturation field as frustration parameter varies in this regime, and accompanied with remarkable inverse MCE, indicating the enormous potential of multiferroic system in low-temperature refrigeration. Meanwhile we also observe a prominent temperature variation in the isoentropy curves close to zero-temperature ferroelectric transition, but this enhancing MCE signal is very sensitive to the thermal fluctuations, and can be strongly suppressed even under a small temperature.

  6. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  7. Predictors for partial suppression of spermatogenesis of hormonal male contraception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Wen Li; Yi-Qun Gu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To analyze factors influencing the efficacy of hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis for male contraception. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted, involving 43 subjects, who did not achieve azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia when given monthly injections of 500 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU), defined as partial suppressors compared with 855 subjects who had suppressed spermatogenesis (complete suppressors). Sperm density, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations at the baseline and the suppression phase were compared between partial and complete suppressors. Polymorphisms of androgen receptor (AR) and three single nucleotide variants and their haplotypes of FSH receptor (FSHR) genes determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing technique were compared between 29 partial and 34 complete suppressors. Results: Baseline serum LH level was higher and serum LH as well as FSH level during the suppression phase was less suppressed in partial suppressors. Additionally, in a logistic regression analysis larger testis volume, higher serum FSH concentrations alone, or interaction of serum LH, FSH, testosterone and sperm concentrations were associated with degree of suppression. The distribution of polymorphisms of AR or FSH receptor genes did not differ between partial and complete suppressors. In cases with incomplete FSH suppression (FSH > 0.2 IU/L), the chances of reaching azoospermia were 1.5 times higher in the subjects with more than 22 CAG triplet repeats. Conclusion: Partial suppression of spermatogenesis induced by 500 mg TU monthly injections is weakly influenced by hormonal and clinical features but not polymorphism in AR and FSHR genes.

  8. A Color-Reaction-Based Biochip Detection Assay for RIF and INH Resistance of Clinical Mycobacterial Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenfei; Peng, Jingfu; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shulin; Zhou, Boping; Jiang, Danqing; Chen, Jianbo; Ding, Bingbing; Zhu, Bin; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis places importance on the detection of TB (tuberculosis) drug susceptibility. Conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a lengthy process. We developed a rapid enzymatic color-reaction-based biochip assay. The process included asymmetric multiplex PCR/templex PCR, biochip hybridization, and an enzymatic color reaction, with specific software for data operating. Templex PCR (tem- PCR) was applied to avoid interference between different primers in conventional multiplex- PCR. We applied this assay to 276 clinical specimens (including 27 sputum, 4 alveolar lavage fluid, 2 pleural effusion, and 243 culture isolate specimens; 40 of the 276 were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria specimens and 236 were M. tuberculosis specimens). The testing process took 4.5 h. A sensitivity of 50 copies per PCR was achieved, while the sensitivity was 500 copies per PCR when tem-PCR was used. Allele sequences could be detected in mixed samples at a proportion of 10%. Detection results showed a concordance rate of 97.46% (230/236) in rifampicin resistance detection (sensitivity 95.40%, specificity 98.66%) and 96.19% (227/236) in isoniazid (sensitivity 93.59%, specificity 97.47%) detection with those of DST assay. Concordance rates of testing results for sputum, alveolar lavage fluid, and pleural effusion specimens were 100%. The assay provides a potential choice for TB diagnosis and treatment.

  9. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  10. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  11. Supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hollstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics. Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-inductive findings, it may be hypothesized that logistical systems do have a positive effect on supply chain risk management activities.  Result/conclusion:  Flexibility and capacity, as well as redundancy and standardization, are often viewed as being conflictionary. It shows, however, that in the light of supply chain risk management, those factors may yield a common benefit if proper logistics systems are applied.  

  12. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  13. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  14. Supply chain reliability modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-01-01

    Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the ...

  15. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Rodrigue Ghomsi 1982

    2015-01-01

    Companies are now progressively looking beyond themselves to come up with ways to improve revenue and profit margins. This has resulted in a heightened focus on the efficiency of the supply chains. Inefficient supply chains are being perceived as cavities that can deprive the firm from its cash flows when inventory is not required and sales revenue when product is not available at the point of sales. This has stimulated development of business models that intend to leverage and enhance the su...

  16. Variance bounding Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.

  17. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  18. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aidonis, D.; Folinas, D.; Triantafillou, D.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). During the 2-Days Conference m...

  19. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  20. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  1. Issues on Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although supply chain is regarded as an integrated pr ocess, actually, researchers and practitioners have primarily investigated the v arious processes of the supply chain individually. The competitive field in most markets requires well-designed integrated supply chain instead of individual o perations. In this paper, some traditional thinking of supply chain is given fir st, then SCM (Supply Chain Management) is introduced, which views the entire sup ply chain as a whole rather than individual process a...

  2. A 2-chain can interlock with a k-chain

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Julie; Langerman, Stefan; O'Rourke, Joseph; Snoeyink, Jack; Zhong, Jianyuan K.

    2004-01-01

    One of the open problems posed in [3] is: what is the minimal number k such that an open, flexible k-chain can interlock with a flexible 2-chain? In this paper, we establish the assumption behind this problem, that there is indeed some k that achieves interlocking. We prove that a flexible 2-chain can interlock with a flexible, open 16-chain.

  3. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  4. A 2-chain can interlock with an open 10-chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Bin; O'Rourke, Joseph; Zhong, Jianyuan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is an open problem, posed in \\cite{SoCG}, to determine the minimal $k$ such that an open flexible $k$-chain can interlock with a flexible 2-chain. It was first established in \\cite{GLOSZ} that there is an open 16-chain in a trapezoid frame that achieves interlocking. This was subsequently improved in \\cite{GLOZ} to establish interlocking between a 2-chain and an open 11-chain. Here we improve that result once more, establishing interlocking between a 2-chain and a 10-chain. We present argu...

  5. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  6. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  7. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  8. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  9. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  10. Building the resilient supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Martin; Peck, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In today’s uncertain and turbulent markets, supply chain vulnerability has become an issue of significance for many companies. As supply chains become more complex as a result of global sourcing and the continued trend to ‘leaning-down’, supply chain risk increases. The challenge to business today is to manage and mitigate that risk through creating more resilient supply chains.

  11. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T3) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T4) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T4 and l-T3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T3 and d-T4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T3 or d-T4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100%

  12. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  13. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  14. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  15. Development Value Chains meet Business Supply Chains : The concept of Global Value Chains unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); S. Vellema (Sietze)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractValue chain promotion is considered a key element of private sector development strategies and pro-poor growth. However, (value) chain concepts are rather complex and unclear. This paper unravels the concept of global value chains and studies the diversity of key value chain-related (sup

  16. Economy, market and chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focu

  17. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin;

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  18. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  19. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies o...

  20. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how to i...

  1. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  2. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  3. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  4. Standard handbook of chains chains for power transmission and material handling

    CERN Document Server

    Chain Association, American

    2005-01-01

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives

  5. Noise sources and noise suppression in CMOS imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Hancock, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms for noise coupling in CMOS imagers are complex, since unlike a CCD, a CMOS imager has to be considered as a full digital-system-on-a-chip, with a highly sensitive front-end. In this paper, we analyze the noise sources in a photodiode CMOS imager, and model their propagation through the signal chain to determine the nature and magnitude of noise coupling. We present methods for reduction of noise, and present measured data to show their viability. For temporal read noise reduction, we present pixel signal chain design techniques to achieve near 2 electrons read noise. We model the front-end reset noise both for conventional photodiode and CTIA type of pixels. For the suppression of reset noise, we present a column feedback-reset method to reduce reset noise below 6 electrons. For spatial noise reduction, we present the design of column signal chain that suppresses both spatial noise and power supply coupling noise. We conclude by identifying problems in low-noise design caused by dark current spatial distribution.

  6. A Dual-Purpose Ion-Accelerator for Nuclear-Reaction-Based Explosives-and SNM-Detection in Massive Cargo

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, M B; Vartsky, D; Bar, D; Böttger, R; Brandis, M; Bromberger, B; Feldman, G; Friedman, E; Heflinger, D; Lauck, R; Löb, S; Maier-Komor, P; Mardor, I; Mor, I; Speidel, K -H; Tittelmeier, K; Weierganz, M

    2010-01-01

    A dual-purpose ion-accelerator concept, capable of serving as radiation source in a versatile, nuclear-reaction-based cargo inspection system, is presented. The system will automatically and reliably detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of concealed explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM). It will be cost-effective, employing largely-common hardware, but different reactions/DAQ-modes. Typical expected throughput is 10-20 aviation containers/hr. PACS: 25.20.Dc; 25.40.Ny; 27.20.+n; 29.27.Fh; 79.77.+g; 89.20.Bb; 89.20.Dd Keywords: Cargo inspection; Nuclear-reaction-based methods; Explosives detection; SNM detection

  7. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  8. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  9. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  10. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  11. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer. © 2013 by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.......Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen......-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems...

  12. Perioperative supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  13. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  14. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles...... applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  15. Demand chain management-integrating marketing and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Jüttner, Uta; Christopher, Martin; Baker, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper endorses demand chain management as a new business model aimed at creating value in today's marketplace, and combining the strengths of marketing and supply chain competencies. Demand chain design is based on a thorough market understanding and has to be managed in such a way as to effectively meet differing customer needs. Based on a literature review as well as the findings from a co-development workshop and focus group discussions with marketing and supply chain professionals, a...

  16. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  17. Input chains and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...

  18. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  19. Inclusive Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula; Safadi, Raed; Taglioni, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This report's focus is making global value chains (GVCs) more inclusive. To achieve inclusiveness is by overcoming participation constraints for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and facilitation access for Low Income Developing Countries (LIDCs). The underlying assumption is that most firms in LIDCs are SMEs. Even larger firms in LIDCs are likely to face similar challenges to SMEs, including a less supportive domestic operating environment and weaker institutions that lead to higher fixed ...

  20. Polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation...

  1. The innovation value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  2. Tax efficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borralho, Joana Patrícia Costeira

    2014-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration. This case started with the following question: How supply chains and tax policy interact? This question was the starting point for this study and was developed under the areas of Logistics and International Tax Policy. In order to support this study, the adopted methodology was the selection of a Multinational company – LPR Portugal – which has the transportation and distribution in the European Union as a scope of service and...

  3. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  4. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Ann E; Smyth, Frederick L; Beadel, Jessica R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility. PMID:23776442

  5. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role, activ

  6. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  7. Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success

    OpenAIRE

    Ann E Lambert; Smyth, Frederick L.; Jessica R Beadel; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differe...

  8. Adjustable Chain Trees for Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  9. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  10. Suppression of heavy-current grid interference with spectrometer operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mains hum interference with the spectrometric signal is manifest in peak deformation and deteriorated energy resolution. A pulse generator can be used in testing whether spectral peaks are expanded due to the mains hum. If this is the case, the penetration of spurious voltage in the amplification chain can be suppressed by improved instrument earthing using the floating or the resting earth system or by decreasing instrument sensitivity to interference using a balanced coaxial connection of the preamplifier to the amplifier, adjusting a lower derivative constant, or selecting an amplifier with a small input circuit non-linearity. (Ha)

  11. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  12. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented.

  13. Risk Management in Logystics Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Butrin, Andrey; Vikulov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to risk management of supply chain. The authors considered indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers.

  14. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  15. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model can be used to develop an Academic Chain Operation Reference Model.

  16. On chains of centered valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chibloun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study chains of centered valuations of a domain A and chains of centered valuations of A [X1,…,Xn] corresponding to valuations of A. Finally, we make some applications to chains of valuations centered on the same ideal of A [X1,…,Xn] and extending the same valuation of A.

  17. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  18. Suppressive Effect of Long-Chain Base from Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa on the Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and Underlying Mechanism%叶瓜参长链碱抑制3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛磊; 徐慧; 田迎樱; 徐杰; 王玉明; 王静凤; 薛长湖

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究叶瓜参长链碱(long-chain base from the sea cucumber Cucumariafrondosa,Cf-LCB)对3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化的作用,并探讨其作用机制.方法:以四甲基偶氮唑蓝(methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium,MTT)法检测Cf-LCB对3T3-L1前脂肪细胞增殖活性的影响;采用传统鸡尾酒法诱导3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化为成熟脂肪细胞,分别采用油红O染色和甘油三酯(triglycerides,TG)含量测定法评价其对3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化的影响;反转录实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应(quantity real-time reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction,qRT-PCR)法检测脂肪细胞分化关键基因CCAAT增强子结合蛋白αt (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha,C/EB Pα)、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体γ(peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors gamma,PPARγ)以及WNT/β-catenin通路关键基因WNT10b (wingless-type MMTV integration site family members)、卷曲蛋白l(frizzled protein1,FZ1)、低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白6 (LDL-receptor-related protein6,LRP6)和β-连环蛋白(β3-catenin)的mRNA表达水平;Western blotting法检测WNT/β-catenin通路关键基因LRP6和β-catenin的蛋白表达量.结果:Cf-LCB能显著抑制3T3-L1前脂肪细胞的增殖;抑制3T3-L1细胞脂滴形成以及C/EBPα和PPARγ mRNA表达;显著上调WNT/β-catenin通路关键基因FZ1、LRP6和β-catenin mRNA表达,对WNT10b的表达无影响;显著促进RP和β--catenin的蛋白表达,提高核内β-catenin含量.结论:Cf-LCB能够显著抑制3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化,其作用机制与激活WNT/β-catenin通路有关.

  19. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  20. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  1. Musical Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  2. Longwall AFC chain tension measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, P.; Guan, Z.; Pienaar, B.

    2009-10-01

    CRC Mining has developed a chain tension meter to measure the AFC chain tension during the operation. The device was certified Ex ia IP55 by SIMTARS for use in hazardous areas. In June 2007 this device was successfully trialled in an Australian longwall face. The trial was run monitoring AFC chain tensions over a few shifts. The dynamic behaviour and unequal sharing of load between the chains were recorded and found to be significant. During this trial the robustness of the tension meter electronics and protection housing was demonstrated, the measurement of AFC chain tensions on a working face can be achieved reliably. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Overcoming the adverse effects of substrate on the waveguiding properties of plasmonic nanoparticle chains

    OpenAIRE

    Rasskazov,, Ilia,; Karpov,, Sergey; Panasyuk,, George,; Markel, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We have studied numerically the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in linear periodic chains of plasmonic nanoparticles of different shapes. The chains are deposited on top of a thick dielectric substrate. While in many commonly considered cases the substrate tends to suppress the SPP propagation, we have found that this adverse effect is practically absent in the case when the nanoparticles have the shape of oblate spheroids with sufficiently small aspec...

  4. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  5. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  6. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  7. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Tibber, Marc S.; Elaine J Anderson; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the targ...

  8. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Samuel Tibber; Elaine J Anderson; Tracy eBobin; Elena eAntonova; Alice eSeabright; Bernice eWright; Patricia eCarlin; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the tar...

  9. Structure of Polymer Chains Confined in Vycor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Jyotsana; Sinha, Sunil K.; Auvray, Loïc

    1997-11-01

    We observe by Small Angle Neutron Scattering the structure of polystyrene chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in a model porous medium, Vycor. The size of the free chains in solution is always larger than the pore diameter, 70 Å. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated solvents and polymers enables us to measure directly the form factor of one single chain among the others. The penetration of the chains in the porous medium is almost complete for the concentration (Φ = 20%) and the range of molecular weight (35 000 coefficient of the chains between the porous medium and the free solution and the asymptotic behavior of the structure factors indicate that polystyrene adsorbs onto the bare surface of Vycor. We show that silanizing Vycor suppresses this adsorption. Nous observons par diffusion de neutrons aux petits angles la structure de chaînes de polystyrène en solution semi-diluée confinées dans un milieu poreux modèle, le Vycor. La taille des chaînes en solution à l'état libre est toujours supérieure au diamètre des pores, 70 Å. L'utilisation d'un mélange adéquat de solvants et de polymères hydrogénés et deutérés nous permet de mesurer directement le facteur de forme d'une seule chaîne au milieu des autres. La pénétration des chaînes dans le milieu poreux est presque totale pour la concentration (Φ = 20%) et la gamme de poids moléculaire (35 000 coefficients de partage des chaînes entre le milieu poreux et la solution libre ainsi que le comportement asymptotique des facteurs de structure montrent que le polystyrène s'adsorbe sur la surface nue du Vycor. Nous montrons que la silanisation du Vycor supprime cette adsorption.

  10. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  11. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  12. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTEDPIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric actuator has the benefits of flexibility of its position, without time lag and wide bandpass characteristics. The early results of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test using the piezoeletric actuator were presented in Ref.[1]. A rigid rectangular wing model is constrained by a plunge spring and a pitch spring, and a pair of piezoelectric actuators is bonded on both sides of the plunge spring so as to carry out the active control. Refs.[2,3] reported two flutter suppression wind tunnel tests where the distributed piezoelectric actuators were used. In Ref.[2] low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted with aluminum and composite plate-like rectangular models fully covered by piezoelectric actuators. Flutter speed is increased by 11%. In Ref.[3] a composite plate-like swept back model with piezoceramic actuators bonded on the inboard surface was tested in a transonic wind tunnel and a 12% increment of flutter dynamic pressure was achieved.  In the present investigation, an aluminum plate-like rectangular model with inboard bonded piezoceramic actuators is adopted. Active flutter suppression control law has been designed. A series of analyses and ground tests and, finally, low-speed wind tunnel tests with the active control system opened and closed are conducted. Reasonable results have been obtained.

  13. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  14. Fatty Acid Competition as a Mechanism by Which Enterobacter cloacae Suppresses Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination and Damping-Off

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Karin; Nelson, Eric B.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between plant-associated microorganisms play important roles in suppressing plant diseases and enhancing plant growth and development. While competition between plant-associated bacteria and plant pathogens has long been thought to be an important means of suppressing plant diseases microbiologically, unequivocal evidence supporting such a mechanism has been lacking. We present evidence here that competition for plant-derived unsaturated long-chain fatty acids between the biologi...

  15. Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation and diagnosis of a growing number of diseases. PCR is also used in forensics laboratories. PCR can identify genes that have been implicated in the development of cancer. The present paper is an attempt to review basics of PCR in relation to its methods, application and use.

  16. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  17. PHONONS IN POLYACENIC CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. Rafil; M. Tamine; B. Bourahla; R. Tigrine; S. Amoudache; A. Khater

    2006-01-01

    We have theoretically resolved phonon excitations in quasi-two-dimensional organic crystals of polyacenic semiconductor material which may be obtained by the pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. A model for studying the dynamical properties using three polyacene chains is proposed with the aim to present the vibrational properties of this structure. It employs the formalism of solid states in two dimensions which admit phonons. A simulation process of the two-dimensional lattice structure shows that elastic waves may explain the existence of vibrational modes in the frequency range 100-400 cm-1. The presence of acoustic and optical like phonons is discussed in terms of the elastic force constants. A hyperfine resonance structure is obtained. It allows the analysis of the dynamical evolution in thin films of polyacene. It is found that the behavior of the phonon density of states exhibits resonance between modes in the structure.

  18. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-01-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approx10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negat...

  19. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i......The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of interplays between products and supply chains. In academia, there seem to be an acknowledgement that the nature of a given product has a major influence on the performance of the supply chain associated with it – for one.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...

  20. Supply chain collaboration under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Saad; Eckert, Claudia; Earl, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In fluctuating economic conditions such as global recession, supply chains operate under changing conditions of uncertainty. The impact of this uncertainty and associated risk might be mitigated by collaboration. This paper proposes a model of supply chain collaboration based on information exchange and decision coordination at both the strategic and tactical levels. However, a collaborative supply chain can be exposed to associated risks such as the failure of individual actors. Governance r...

  1. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  2. Social Media and Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Markova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain management a reference with the main concepts of social media: social profiles, social applications, brand outposts and communities, and the social ecosystem.

  3. Social Media and Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Markova; Tatjana Petkovska-Mirčevska

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain manageme...

  4. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. T

  5. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues. PMID:17848022

  6. SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF AN E-COMMERCE CHAIN (E-CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gilberto Mendes do Reis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper purpose to explore the relationships between supply chain strategies and product performance in retail e-commerce. In this case, we concern that in current, in order to bear up under competition, organizations have to manage their supply chains so that they meet the needs of their final customers. With this concept in mind, the research presented in this study focuses on establishing the right strategy for supply chains according to their product segment. Thus, after a Literature Review, the paper explain a methodology based in different authors studies. Finally the article focuses on a pratical case in e-commerce retail that describes its application in this field. The research shows that it is possible to use a methodology for classifying supply chains using chain strategies and product features. The use of the right strategy for supply chains will improve the competitive advantage of businesses. One limitation is that the methodology study focuses on only two e-commerce segment; future studies may go further in refining the proposed framework for other segments. The aim of this research is to offer businesses a model for evaluating supply chains, allowing them to improve the performance of their products and services by using the right strategy for supply chains. The classification proposal of this paper presents an original model for classification of supply chains based on different studies on the theme.

  7. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  8. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  9. Realities of Supply Chain Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampstra, R.P.; Ashayeri, J.; Gattorna, J.

    2006-01-01

    Successful supply chain collaboration (SCC) practices are rather exceptional, yet collaboration is believed to be the single most pressing need in supply chain management.In this paper we discuss the realities of SCC, present prerequisites for the collaboration process, indicate where the process st

  10. Synthesis of π-conjugated polymers containing aminoquinoline-borafluorene complexes in the main-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Yuichiro; Nagai, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2012-04-13

    The regulation of electron transfer between a conjugated polymer and ligands orthogonally connected to the main-chain is reported. Poly(arylene-ethynylene)s containing aminoquinoline-borafluorene complexes in the main-chain are synthesized in good yields by a Sonogashira-Hagihara coupling. Single crystal X-ray analysis of a model compound has elucidated the complex's structure in which the aminoquinolate moiety and the borafluorene ring are connected directly and orthogonally. Moreover, the optical properties of the polymers are characterized by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra. Perfluorinated alkyl chain-containing polymers show strong emission, while hydrocarbon chain-containing ones exhibit only a slight emission. DFT calculation suggests that an electron transfer from the excited main-chain to the aminoquinolate ligand is suppressed because of the lowered LUMO level by introducing the electron withdrawing groups, resulting in the significant emission.

  11. Chaos suppression through asymmetric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Vidal, G.; Mancini, H.; Mendoza, C.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-12-01

    We study pairs of identical coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, we have used Roessler (in the funnel and no funnel regimes), Lorenz, and four-dimensional chaotic Lotka-Volterra models. In all four of these cases, a pair of identical oscillators is asymmetrically coupled. The main result of the numerical simulations is that in all cases, specific values of coupling strength and asymmetry exist that render the two oscillators periodic and synchronized. The values of the coupling strength for which this phenomenon occurs is well below the previously known value for complete synchronization. We have found that this behavior exists for all the chaotic oscillators that we have used in the analysis. We postulate that this behavior is presumably generic to all chaotic oscillators. In order to complete the study, we have tested the robustness of this phenomenon of chaos suppression versus the addition of some Gaussian noise. We found that chaos suppression is robust for the addition of finite noise level. Finally, we propose some extension to this research.

  12. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem;

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  13. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  14. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    ). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies......The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction...... between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section...

  15. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan;

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  16. Polymerase chain reaction-based clonality testing in tissue samples with reactive lymphoproliferations: usefulness and pitfalls. A report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, A.W.; Molina, T.J.; Lavender, F.L.; Pearson, D.; Flohr, T.; Sambade, C.; Schuuring, E.; Saati, T. Al; Dongen, J.J.M. van; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Lymphoproliferations are generally diagnosed via histomorphology and immunohistochemistry. Although mostly conclusive, occasionally the differential diagnosis between reactive lesions and malignant lymphomas is difficult. In such cases molecular clonality studies of immunoglobulin (Ig)/T-cell recept

  17. Polymerase chain reaction-based clonality testing in tissue samples with reactive lymphoproliferations : usefulness and pitfalls. A report of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, A. W.; Molina, T. J.; Lavender, F. L.; Pearson, D.; Flohr, T.; Sambade, C.; Schuuring, E.; Al Saati, T.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; Van Krieken, J. H. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Lymphoproliferations are generally diagnosed via histomorphology and immunohistochemistry. Although mostly conclusive, occasionally the differential diagnosis between reactive lesions and malignant lymphomas is difficult. In such cases molecular clonality studies of immunoglobulin (Ig)/T-cell recept

  18. Single-molecule study on polymer diffusion in a melt state: Effect of chain topology

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2013-08-06

    We report a new methodology for studying diffusion of individual polymer chains in a melt state, with special emphasis on the effect of chain topology. A perylene diimide fluorophore was incorporated into the linear and cyclic poly(THF)s, and real-time diffusion behavior of individual chains in a melt of linear poly(THF) was measured by means of a single-molecule fluorescence imaging technique. The combination of mean squared displacement (MSD) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis demonstrated the broad distribution of diffusion coefficient of both the linear and cyclic polymer chains in the melt state. This indicates the presence of spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the polymer diffusion which occurs at much larger time and length scales than those expected from the current polymer physics theory. We further demonstrated that the cyclic chains showed marginally slower diffusion in comparison with the linear counterparts, to suggest the effective suppression of the translocation through the threading-entanglement with the linear matrix chains. This coincides with the higher activation energy for the diffusion of the cyclic chains than of the linear chains. These results suggest that the single-molecule imaging technique provides a powerful tool to analyze complicated polymer dynamics and contributes to the molecular level understanding of the chain interaction. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Elastic Behavior of Polymer Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Lu; Tao Chen; Hao-jun Liang

    2008-01-01

    The elastic behavior of the polymer chain was investigated in a three-dimensional off-lattice model. We sample more than 109 conformations of each kind of polymer chain by using a Monte Carlo algorithm, then analyze them with the non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity, and end with a statistical study. Through observing the effect of the chain flexibility and the stretching ratio on the mean-square end-to-end distance,the average energy, the average Helmholtz free energy, the elastic force, the contribution of energy to the elastic force, and the entropy contribution to elastic force of the polymer chain, we find that a rigid polymer chain is much easier to stretch than a flexible polymer chain. Also, a rigid polymer chain will become difficult to stretch only at a quite high stretching ratio because of the effect of the entropy contribution.These results of our simulation calculation may explain some of the macroscopic phenomena of polymer and biomacromolecular elasticity.

  20. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA projections for inefficient supply chains. Meanwhile this approach aims at providing an easy, efficient and more practical approach based on the performance evaluation for the multi-member supply chain. And ultimately, this model is illustrated by an numerical example of Chinese commercial bank, and case study application to provide of machine-making supply chain.

  1. Engineered decoherence: Characterization and suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Swathi S.; Mahesh, T. S.

    2014-06-01

    Due to omnipresent environmental interferences, quantum coherences inevitably undergo irreversible transformations over certain time scales, thus leading to the loss of encoded information. This process, known as decoherence, has been a major obstacle in realizing efficient quantum information processors. Understanding the mechanism of decoherence is crucial in developing tools to inhibit it. Here we utilize a method proposed by Teklemariam et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062316 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.062316] to engineer artificial decoherence in the system qubits by randomly perturbing their surrounding ancilla qubits. Using a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum register, we characterize the artificial decoherence by noise spectroscopy and quantum process tomography. Further, we study the efficacy of dynamical decoupling sequences in suppressing the artificial decoherence. Here we describe the experimental results and their comparisons with theoretical simulations.

  2. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse;

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...... for the change of length and for the stiffness change are significantly different - the stiffness change being about 10 times faster. Both force measurements and Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance measurements indicate that the actuation process is complex and involves at least two different processes...

  3. How to suppress undesired synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    It is delightful to observe the emergence of synchronization in the blinking of fireflies to attract partners and preys. Other charming examples of synchronization can also be found in a wide range of phenomena such as, e.g., neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in communication networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge of the system, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement in mitigation is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected ele...

  4. Benzene ring chains with lithium adsorption: Vibrations and their implications

    CERN Document Server

    Stegmann, Thomas; Seligman, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Lithium adsorption on aromatic molecules and polyacenes have been found to produce strong distortions associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking and lesser ones in more general cases. For polyphenyls we find similar, but more varied behaviour; an important feature is the fact that adsorption largely suppresses the torsion present in naked polyphenyl. The spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different structures of skeletons and adsorbates. In the more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essential followed by the adsorbate. Based on this we propose the possible use of such a chain of adsorbates on a chain of benzene rings as a quantum register with the lowest vibrations transmitting qubits for control gates. To strengthen this view and to show the effect of heavier alkalines we also present the very symmetric adsorption of ten rubidium atoms on pentaphenyl.

  5. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-08-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness. PMID:15995700

  6. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  7. New sensors and processing chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yaakoubi, Nourdin

    2014-01-01

    A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.

  8. Markov chains theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sericola, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Markov chains are a fundamental class of stochastic processes. They are widely used to solve problems in a large number of domains such as operational research, computer science, communication networks and manufacturing systems. The success of Markov chains is mainly due to their simplicity of use, the large number of available theoretical results and the quality of algorithms developed for the numerical evaluation of many metrics of interest.The author presents the theory of both discrete-time and continuous-time homogeneous Markov chains. He carefully examines the explosion phenomenon, the

  9. Chains of Mean Field Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, S. Hamed; Macris, Nicolas; Urbanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of Curie-Weiss (CW) spin systems, possibly with a random field, each of which is placed along the positions of a one-dimensional chain. The CW systems are coupled together by a Kac-type interaction in the longitudinal direction of the chain and by an infinite range interaction in the direction transverse to the chain. Our motivations for studying this model come from recent findings in the theory of error correcting codes based on spatially coupled graphs. We find tha...

  10. Quantum information processing with trapped ion chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Timothy Andrew

    Trapped atomic ion systems are currently the most advanced platform for quantum information processing. Their long coherence times, pristine state initialization and detection, and precisely controllable and versatile interactions make them excellent quantum systems for experiments in quantum computation and quantum simulation. One of the more promising schemes for quantum computing consists of performing single and multi-qubit quantum gates on qubits in a linear ion crystal. Some of the key challenges of scaling such a system are the individual addressing of arbitrary subsets of ions and controlling the growing complexity of motional mode interactions as the number of qubits increases or when the gates are performed faster. Traditional entangling quantum gates between ion qubits use laser pulses to couple the qubit states to the collective motion of the crystal, thereby generating a spin-spin interaction that can produce entanglement between selected qubits. The intrinsic limitations on the performance of gates using this method can be alleviated by applying optimally shaped pulses instead of pulses with constant amplitude. This thesis explains the theory behind this pulse shaping scheme and how it is implemented on a chain of Yb ions held in a linear radiofrequency 'Paul' trap. Several experiments demonstrate the technique in chains of two, three, and five ions using various types of pulse shapes. A tightly focused individual addressing beam allows us to apply the entangling gates to a target pair of ions, and technical issues related to such tight focusing are discussed. Other advantages to the pulse shaping scheme include a robustness against detuning errors and the possibility of suppressing undesirable coupling due to optical spillover on neighboring ions. Combined with ion shuttling, we harness these features to perform sequential gates to different qubit pairs in order to create genuine tripartite entangled states and demonstrate the programmable quantum

  11. Two Effects of Firepower: Attrition and Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    A new basis for the quantitative study of ground combat is introduced that argues the inadequacy of attrition models and the need to incorporate the effects of suppression of the enemy with firepower. A quantitative approach to suppression of enemy fire is offered. Then an analysis shows that the effect of own fire in suppressing enemy fire will, in suitable, frequent circumstances, reverse the conclusions derived from the Lanchester square law, so that the sq...

  12. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analo...

  13. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  14. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  15. Exact error estimation for solutions of nuclide chain equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact solution of nuclide chain equations within arbitrary figures is obtained for a linear chain by employing the Bateman method in the multiple-precision arithmetic. The exact error estimation of major calculation methods for a nuclide chain equation is done by using this exact solution as a standard. The Bateman, finite difference, Runge-Kutta and matrix exponential methods are investigated. The present study confirms the following. The original Bateman method has very low accuracy in some cases, because of large-scale cancellations. The revised Bateman method by Siewers reduces the occurrence of cancellations and thereby shows high accuracy. In the time difference method as the finite difference and Runge-Kutta methods, the solutions are mainly affected by the truncation errors in the early decay time, and afterward by the round-off errors. Even though the variable time mesh is employed to suppress the accumulation of round-off errors, it appears to be nonpractical. Judging from these estimations, the matrix exponential method is the best among all the methods except the Bateman method whose calculation process for a linear chain is not identical with that for a general one. (author)

  16. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  17. Gravity Waves from Chain Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashoorioon, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Chain inflation proceeds through a series of first order phase transitions, which can release considerable gravitational waves (GW). We demonstrate that bubble collisions can leave an observable signature for future high-frequency probes of GWs, such as advanced LIGO, LISA and BBO. A "smoking gun" for chain inflation would be wiggles in the spectrum (and consequently in the tensor spectral index) due to the multiple phase transitions. The spectrum could also be distinguished from a single first order phase transition by a small difference in the amplitude at low frequency. A second origin of GWs in chain inflation are tensor modes from quantum fluctuations; these GW can dominate and be observed on large scales. The consistency relation between scalar and tensor modes is different for chain inflation than for standard rolling models and is testable by Cosmic Microwave Background experiments. If inflation happened through a series of rapid tunnelings in the string landscape, future high frequency probes of GW c...

  18. Ownership Structure in Agrifood Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); W.J.J. Bijman (Jos)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses the impact of ownership structure on investments in a three-party supply chain from an incomplete contracting perspective. Circumstances are determined in which a marketing cooperative is the unique first-best ownership structure.

  19. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung ...

  20. Supply Chain Management and Hypercompetition

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzab, H,; Grant, DB; Teller, C.; Halldorsson, A

    2008-01-01

    Firms nowadays face significant challenges in their operating environments, which have been characterised in two different ways. From a strategic management perspective these environments are in a state of hypercompetition while from a logistics or supply chain perspective these environments require market responsiveness predicated upon agile supply chains. However, firms must also rely on many interorganizational relationships to ensure efficient and effective movements within their supply c...

  1. Product Classification in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lihong; Xu, Yaoxuan

    2010-01-01

    Oriflame is a famous international direct sale cosmetics company with complicated supply chain operation but it lacks of a product classification system. It is vital to design a product classification method in order to support Oriflame global supply planning and improve the supply chain performance. This article is aim to investigate and design the multi-criteria of product classification, propose the classification model, suggest application areas of product classification results and intro...

  2. The chain re-action

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 18 March, beam commissioning started in the first ‘link’ of the accelerator chain – LINAC 2. This marks the start of what will be the longest period of beam operations in CERN’s history, with the accelerator complex remaining operational throughout the winter to supply the LHC. The Bulletin finds out what is being done to make sure the whole chain is ready for this historic run.

  3. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......, network theory, innovation theory, competence development and political science, which are proposed as focus in future capacity development as part of governmental strategies, which aim at supporting emergence and stabilisation of environmental concerns as part of product chain dynamics....

  4. Developing sustainable food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, B. Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into so...

  5. Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van Schie (Kevin); E.G. Geraerts (Elke); M.C. Anderson (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch on retrieval suppression has produced varying results concerning whether negatively valenced memories are more or less suppressible than neutral memories. This variability may arise if, across studies, participants adopt different approaches to memory control. Cognitive and neur

  6. Suppression of the initial transient in Monte Carlo criticality simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criticality Monte Carlo calculations aim at estimating the effective multiplication factor (k-effective) for a fissile system through iterations simulating neutrons propagation (making a Markov chain). Arbitrary initialization of the neutron population can deeply bias the k-effective estimation, defined as the mean of the k-effective computed at each iteration. A simplified model of this cycle k-effective sequence is built, based on characteristics of industrial criticality Monte Carlo calculations. Statistical tests, inspired by Brownian bridge properties, are designed to discriminate stationarity of the cycle k-effective sequence. The initial detected transient is, then, suppressed in order to improve the estimation of the system k-effective. The different versions of this methodology are detailed and compared, firstly on a plan of numerical tests fitted on criticality Monte Carlo calculations, and, secondly on real criticality calculations. Eventually, the best methodologies observed in these tests are selected and allow to improve industrial Monte Carlo criticality calculations. (author)

  7. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  8. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical supply chains present considerable complexity issue for the formulation of optimal plans due to significant uncertainty in the supply chain. The primary goal of biopharmaceutical supply chain planning is to provide reliable supply to patients while coping with various supply chain risks. In chapter 1 first I discuss the key elements and basic characteristics of the biopharmaceutical supply chain . Then I present the major challenges in biopharmaceutical supply chain planning...

  9. Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions

    OpenAIRE

    van Schie, Kevin; Geraerts, Elke; Anderson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch on retrieval suppression has produced varying results concerning whether negatively valenced memories are more or less suppressible than neutral memories. This variability may arise if, across studies, participants adopt different approaches to memory control. Cognitive and neurobiological research points to two mechanisms that achieve retrieval suppression: thought-substitution and direct suppression (Benoit & Anderson, 2012; Bergström, de Fockert, & Richardson-Klavehn, ...

  10. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  11. Linear chains and chain-like fractals from electrostatic heteroaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anthony Y; Hauch, Kip D; Berg, John C; Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    The internal structure of materials prepared by aggregation of oppositely charged polystyrene spheres (electrostatic heteroaggregation) is investigated by static light scattering, optical microscopy, and Brownian dynamics simulation. Light scattering indicates ultralow mass fractal dimensions, as low as 1.2. Such low fractal dimensions, approaching the theoretical limit of a linear object, imply a chaining mechanism. Optical micrographs reveal linear chains with the particle charge alternating down the chains. Brownian dynamics simulation gives additional support for a chaining mechanism. For the polystyrene system (120-nm primary particle diameters), the fractal dimension is found to increase from 1.2 to 1.7 as the background electrolyte is increased. In terms of electrostatic screening, the results match those reported recently for larger polystyrene spheres. The low fractal dimensions appear to represent a crossover from linear chains to a structure of diffusion-limited aggregates; however, experiments under density-neutral conditions imply that sedimentation plays an important role in the formation of ultralow fractal dimensions. The practical implication is that microcomposites with a locally uniform distribution of starting materials and almost any degree of branching can be prepared from oppositely charged particles. PMID:12742045

  12. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, EH; Hindriks, [No Value; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, A; Van Knippenberg, A; Hindriks, I; van Knipppenberg, A.

    2004-01-01

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in self-con

  13. Coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction enables selective identification of K-Ras mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaorong; Xie, Li; Hou, Zhibo; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Wei, Jia; Ding, Yitao; Liu, Baorui

    2011-09-01

    Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing is the standard assay for the detection of K-Ras mutations. However, this method is deficient in identifying small numbers of mutation-bearing cells, and tumor-cell enrichment methods such as microdissection or macrodissection are labor intensive and not always achievable. We applied the recently described coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction, which amplifies minority alleles selectively, to detect K-Ras mutations directly in 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens and compared the results with those of conventional polymerase chain reaction. To avoid a false-negative result from the coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction assay, we applied a more sensitive peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction method as the gold standard. Dilution experiments indicated an approximately 5-fold improvement in sensitivity with coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing. Conventional polymerase chain reaction detected K-Ras mutations in 11 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens (37.9%), whereas coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction could identify all of those mutations as well as mutations in 10 additional samples, for a total of 21 (72.4%, P = .002) of 29. Unlike peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction, coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction identified all K-Ras mutations in specimens in which tumor cells accounted for at least 20% of the total. Adoption of coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction is straightforward and requires no additional reagents or instruments. The technique is a good strategy to detect K-Ras mutations selectively in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

  14. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinghong; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  15. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2016-02-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  16. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...... are applicable and effective? This study seeks to explore SCM practices, and identify practical and theoretical gaps in toy supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This article includes a longitudinal and in-depth case study during the past year in an international toy manufacturer, which includes...

  17. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  18. Chains of Mean Field Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, S Hamed; Urbanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of mean field spin systems, each of which is placed on the positions of a one-dimensional chain, coupled together by a Kac-type interaction along the chain. We analyze the simplest possible cases where the individual system is a Curie-Weiss model, possibly with a random field. We are interested in the regime where the size of each mean field model tends to infinity and, the length of the chain and range of the Kac interaction are large but finite. Below the critical temperature, there appears a series of equilibrium states representing kink-like interfaces between the two equilibrium states of the individual system. The van der Waals curve oscillates periodically around the Maxwell plateau. These oscillations have a period inversely proportional to the chain length and an amplitude exponentially small in the range of the interaction; in other words the spinodal points of the chain model lie exponentially close to the phase transition threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations is clo...

  19. Acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for extraction of three classes of pesticides from fruit juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-29

    A sample preparation method involving acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorous detection has been developed for the analysis of three classes of pesticides in juice samples. In this method, a basic organic solvent (p-chloroaniline) is used as an extraction solvent. It is dissolved in acidified deionized water and then injected into an alkaline aqueous sample solution. After injection, an acid-base reaction occurs and deprotonation of the organic solvent leads to formation of tiny droplets of the extractant and subsequent extraction of the analytes from sample solution. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.05-0.43ngmL(-1) and 0.17-1.43ngmL(-1), respectively. Extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were between 39.2 and 84.1% and between 548 and 1178, respectively. Relative standard deviations of less than 8.6% for the extraction of 2.0ngmL(-1) of each pesticide were obtained for intra- (n=6) and inter-day (n=4) precisions. Finally, different juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and penconazole, diniconazole, triadimenol, and acetamiprid were determined in some samples at ngmL(-1) levels. PMID:26755415

  20. Hydrogen suppresses UO 2 corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbol, Paul; Fors, Patrik; Gouder, Thomas; Spahiu, Kastriot

    2009-08-01

    Release of long-lived radionuclides such as plutonium and caesium from spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repositories will depend mainly on the dissolution rate of the UO 2 fuel matrix. This dissolution rate will, in turn, depend on the redox conditions at the fuel surface. Under oxidative conditions UO 2 will be oxidised to the 1000 times more soluble UO 2.67. This may occur in a repository as the reducing deep groundwater becomes locally oxidative at the fuel surface under the effect of α-radiolysis, the process by which α-particles emitted from the fuel split water molecules. On the other hand, the groundwater corrodes canister iron generating large amounts of hydrogen. The role of molecular hydrogen as reductant in a deep bedrock repository is questioned. Here we show evidence of a surface-catalysed reaction, taking place in the H 2-UO 2-H 2O system where molecular hydrogen is able to reduce oxidants originating from α-radiolysis. In our experiment the UO 2 surface remained stoichiometric proving that the expected oxidation of UO 2.00 to UO 2.67 due to radiolytic oxidants was absent. As a consequence, the dissolution of UO 2 stopped when equilibrium was reached between the solid phase and U 4+ species in the aqueous phase. The steady-state concentration of uranium in solution was determined to be 9 × 10 -12 M, about 30 times lower than previously reported for reducing conditions. Our findings show that fuel dissolution is suppressed by H 2. Consequently, radiotoxic nuclides in spent nuclear fuel will remain immobilised in the UO 2 matrix. A mechanism for the surface-catalysed reaction between molecular hydrogen and radiolytic oxidants is proposed.

  1. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow. (paper)

  2. Towards biotracing in food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran;

    2011-01-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the int......Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly......, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs...

  3. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  4. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  5. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  6. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... correspond to disposed products with high residual value, whereas functional products correspond to disposed products with low residual value. Furthermore, the PRV and the speed at which returned products lose their value are considered in order to determine the configuration of the reverse supply chain...

  7. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  8. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r

  9. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.;

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  10. MANAGING RISK IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Karppinen, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis the focus was to study risk management in supply chain management. During the work different types of risks were studied and how they affect purchasing in industry. The purpose of the work was also to enhance the writer’s ability to do his own daily work and to bring new views to his employer for managing a supply chain. In this work different techniques which have been introduced in the industry were reviewed. During the work, an interview survey was made among the ...

  11. Suppressive effects of 3-bromopyruvate on the proliferation and the motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is an analogue of pyruvate, which is the final product of glycolysis that enters the citric acid cycle. The present study aimed to investigate the suppressive effects of 3BP on the proliferation and motility of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. HLF and PLC/PRF/5 cells were cultured with 3BP and subjected to an MTS assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Cell motility was analyzed using a scratch assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine the expression levels of cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9. Proliferation of both cell lines was significantly suppressed by 3BP at 100 µM (P<0.05). The expression level of cyclin D1 was decreased after 3BP treatment at 100 µM in both cell lines (P<0.05). Pyknotic nuclei were observed in the cells cultured with 3BP at 100 µM. These results revealed that 3BP suppressed cell proliferation, decreased the expression of cyclin D1, and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. 3BP significantly suppressed motility in both cell lines (P<0.05). The expression level of MMP9 was significantly decreased (P<0.05). 3BP suppressed the proliferation and motility of HCC cells by decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9. PMID:26530887

  12. Reseach of Supply Chain Modeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The supply chain modeling technology is research. Firstly, the concept of supply chain and supply chain management is introduced. Secondly, enterprise-modeling methods, such as CIM-OSA, GIM-GRAI, PERA and ARIS, are analyzed and compared. The supply chain modeling technology is studied. Then the ARIS-based supply chain modeling method is proposed and the supply chain operation reference model is set up. Finally, the applications of ARIS-based supply chain modeling method in Shanghai Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. (STGC) is described in detail.

  13. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible...... and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  14. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman Jaya; Machfud Machfud; Sapta Raharja; Marimin Marimin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain cons...

  15. Supply Chains and Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Rolf A.E.; Buergelt, Doreen; Seidel-Lass, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Judged by its currency, the supply chain is one of the more successful metaphors in economics. The metaphor borrows from mechanics the idea of the chain, that is something that consists of elements that are linked to each of their two immediate neighbors and which jointly provide a strong but flexible connection. The metaphor transplants the chain-idea into the sphere of economics where, before the introduction of supply chains, chains were, for most economists, things best left in the care o...

  16. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  17. Research on Integrated Green Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lei; WANG Xu

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the analyzing product life cycle and value chain management in green supply chain, integrated green supply chain is put forward and constructed which involve lean production, agile manufacturing and green supply chain. This integrated structure provides an effective method for resolving some questions such as cost, market, environment, etc. in enterprise. A case study is presented at the end of paper to demonstrate how integrated supply chain implemented successfully in enterprise.

  18. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  19. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  20. Supply chain management and optimization in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Pirim, Harun; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces general supply chain terminology particularly for novice readers, state of the art supply chain management and optimization issues and problems in manufacturing. The book provides insights for making supply chain decisions, planning and scheduling through supply chain network. It introduces optimization problems, i.e. transportation of raw materials, products and location, inventory of plants, warehouses and retailers, faced throughout the supply chain network.

  1. Ontological Supply Chain Management: Concepts, Applications, Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ilter, H. Kemal

    2013-01-01

    SCOM: Multi-Layer Ontological Model for Supply Chain Systems© aims to create a model for tracking and tracing products, agents, flows and operations of a supply chain with an upper ontology.  It will hopefully let us to track or trace most properties in not-usual supply chains such as interstellar supply chains (eg. raw materials from the planet Mars), health-related supply chains (eg. blood products), food management (eg. genetic structures of agricultural products), envir...

  2. Effects of tic suppression: ability to suppress, rebound, negative reinforcement, and habituation to the premonitory urge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Matt W; Woods, Douglas W; Nicotra, Cassandra M; Kelly, Laura M; Ricketts, Emily J; Conelea, Christine A; Grados, Marco A; Ostrander, Rick S; Walkup, John T

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) represents a safe, effective non-pharmacological treatment for Tourette's disorder that remains underutilized as a treatment option. Contributing factors include the perceived negative consequences of tic suppression and the lack of a means through which suppression results in symptom improvement. Participants (n = 12) included youth ages 10-17 years with moderate-to-marked tic severity and noticeable premonitory urges who met Tourette's or chronic tic disorder criteria. Tic frequency and urge rating data were collected during an alternating sequence of tic freely or reinforced tic suppression periods. Even without specific instructions regarding how to suppress tics, youth experienced a significant, robust (72%), stable reduction in tic frequency under extended periods (40 min) of contingently reinforced tic suppression in contrast to periods of time when tics were ignored. Following periods of prolonged suppression, tic frequency returned to pre-suppression levels. Urge ratings did not show the expected increase during the initial periods of tic suppression, nor a subsequent decline in urge ratings during prolonged, effective tic suppression. Results suggest that environments conducive to tic suppression result in reduced tic frequency without adverse consequences. Additionally, premonitory urges, underrepresented in the literature, may represent an important enduring etiological consideration in the development and maintenance of tic disorders.

  3. The Service-Profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...

  4. Smallest Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is focused on the general aspect of atomic chain electronics that I have been studying. Results have been published before, but are being rederived here using a new physical/mathematical picture/model, which deepens the physical understanding. Precise adatom structures can be used as a template on a regulated surface with no uncertainty.

  5. Synchronizing the Retail Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Vlist

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDit proefschrift ontwerpt een retail supply chain, die beter en goedkoper is dan de gangbare. Dit wordt bereikt door de distributie te synchroniseren op de productie¬momenten. Goederen zouden direct uit productie al stroomafwaarts moeten bewegen, van fabrikant naar retailer, tegen lage k

  6. Supply Chain Simulation : A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of simulation in supply chain management.It reviews four types of simulation, namely spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discreteevent simulation, and business games.Which simulation type should be applied, depends on the type of managerial question to be answered b

  7. Preisdifferenzierung im Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Koppers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In the field of marketing, pricing is a valuable and long-established steering tool. But in the logistics context of co-operative strategies like supply chain management, this field is mainly neglected. Therefore, the author describes the basic principles and effects of price differentiation and suggests some further research regarding pricing in SCM considerations as well as co-operative pricing concepts.

  8. Supply Chain Management: een overzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    De laatste jaren wordt voor het managen van het netwerk van bedrijven die betrokken zijn bij het tot stand komen van producten of diensten het woord Supply Chain Management, ook wel SCM, gebruikt. SCM wordt als term vooral in grote industrieën gebruikt. Bijna ieder bedrijf heeft echter een toelevern

  9. Light chain (AL amyloidosis: update on diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenzweig Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Light chain (AL amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the pathologic production of fibrillar proteins comprised of monoclonal light chains which deposit in tissues and cause organ dysfunction. The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. The goal of treatment is eradication of the monoclonal plasma cell population and suppression of the pathologic light chains which can result in organ improvement and extend patient survival. Standard treatment approaches include high dose melphalan (HDM followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT or oral melphalan with dexamethasone (MDex. The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. A risk adapted approach to SCT followed by novel agents as consolidation reduces treatment related mortality with promising outcomes. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting pathologic plasma cells and amyloid precursor proteins or fibrils are being developed. Referral of patients to specialized centers focusing on AL amyloidosis and conducting clinical trials is essential to improving patient outcomes.

  10. Strangeness suppression in the unquenched quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Roelof; García-Tecocoatzi, Hugo; Santopinto, Elena

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the strangeness suppression in the proton in the framework of the unquenched quark model. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the values extracted from CERN and JLab experiments.

  11. Strangeness suppression in the unquenched quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, Roelof; Santopinto, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the strangeness suppression in the proton in the framework of the unquenched quark model. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the values extracted from CERN and JLab experiments.

  12. Quadratic dynamical decoupling with nonuniform error suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroz, Gregory; Lidar, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Departments of Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, and Physics, and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze numerically the performance of the near-optimal quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) single-qubit decoherence errors suppression method [J. West et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 130501 (2010)]. The QDD sequence is formed by nesting two optimal Uhrig dynamical decoupling sequences for two orthogonal axes, comprising N{sub 1} and N{sub 2} pulses, respectively. Varying these numbers, we study the decoherence suppression properties of QDD directly by isolating the errors associated with each system basis operator present in the system-bath interaction Hamiltonian. Each individual error scales with the lowest order of the Dyson series, therefore immediately yielding the order of decoherence suppression. We show that the error suppression properties of QDD are dependent upon the parities of N{sub 1} and N{sub 2}, and near-optimal performance is achieved for general single-qubit interactions when N{sub 1}=N{sub 2}.

  13. On the suppression of vaccination dissent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Dissenters from the dominant views about vaccination sometimes are subject to adverse actions, including abusive comment, threats, formal complaints,censorship, and de registration, a phenomenon that can be called suppression of dissent. Three types of cases are examined: scientists and physicians; a high-profile researcher; and a citizen campaigner. Comparing the methods used in these different types of cases provides a preliminary framework for understanding the dynamics of suppression in terms of vulnerabilities.

  14. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  15. The social consequences of expressive suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Emily A.; Egloff, Boris; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Smith, Nancy C.; Erickson, Elizabeth A.; Gross, James J.

    2003-01-01

    At times, people keep their emotions from showing during social interactions. The authors' analysis suggests that such expressive suppression should disrupt communication and increase stress levels. To test this hypothesis, the authors conducted 2 studies in which unacquainted pairs of women discussed an upsetting topic. In Study 1, one member of each pair was randomly assigned to (a) suppress her emotional behavior, (b) respond naturally, or (c) cognitively reappraise in a way that reduced e...

  16. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Davidson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform. We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform.

  17. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sanei; S. Mamizadeh-Chatghayeh

    2010-01-01

    Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA p...

  18. Supply Chain Management Performance in Tourism. Continental Hotels Chain Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Ţigu; Bogdan Călăreţu

    2013-01-01

    With its origins in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM) concept is covering all managerial aspects of the flow of materials and information from source to customer, across the entire range of materials handling and movement functions, and throughout an organization and its supply channels. In tourism, these issues relate to the whole process of providing tourism services from sourcing of raw materials, products or different services) to supply and distribution, and SCM performance can ul...

  19. Bond-length alternation and charge transfer in a linear carbon chain encapsulated within a single-walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusznyák, Á.; Zólyomi, V.; Kürti, J.; Yang, S.; Kertesz, M.

    2005-10-01

    The physical properties of a linear carbon chain encapsulated within single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated with density-functional theory using periodic boundary conditions. The dominant feature of an isolated carbon chain is the Peierls dimerization and the opening of a Peierls gap. The two weakly interacting subsystems (infinite carbon chain and nanotube) establish a common Fermi level, resulting in charge transfer (CT) which leads to a metallic combined system with a high density of states at the Fermi level. The rigid band model provides useful insights. Unusual physics arises from the effects of CT and chain-tube orbital hybridization which both tend to suppress the Peierls dimerization. Implications for the observed Raman spectrum of the chain-nanotube system are discussed.

  20. chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pérez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las barreras y aranceles al comercio exterior han disminuido significativamente gracias a los acuerdos multilaterales y los mecanismos de integración entre las naciones. Los costos logísticos representan una proporción significativa del precio final de los artículos, especialmente de los commodities. Por esta razón, minimizar los costos logísticos es un desafío importante para las naciones para fomentar la competitividad del comercio exterior y en particular para aprovechar la renta de los recursos naturales. En este artículo, proponemos un marco de referencia integral para la medición de costos logísticos, enfocado en determinar los extra-costos que resultan por procedimientos ineficientes y la falta de políticas públicas y regulaciones de las entidades públicas. Estos elementos no han sido considerados en la literatura, y este artículo aborda esta brecha. Como caso de estudio, presentamos la aplicación del marco de referencia para estimar los extra-costos en algunas cadenas logísticas de recursos naturales en Bolivia. Se presenta una discusión de los resultados encontrados, así como recomendaciones para trabajo futuro.

  1. The chain relation in sofic subshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kazda, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives a characterisation of the chain relation of a sofic subshift. Every sofic subshift $\\Sigma$ can be described by a labelled graph $G$. Factorising $G$ in a suitable way we obtain the graph $G/_\\approx$ that offers insight into some properties of the original subshift. Using $G/_\\approx$ we describe first the chain relation in $\\Sigma$, then characterise chain-transitive sofic subshifts, chain-mixing sofic subshifts and finally the attractors of the subshift dynamic system. At the end we present (straightforward) algorithms deciding chain-transitivity and chain-mixing properties of a sofic subshift and listing all the attractors of the subshift system.

  2. Den teoretiske udvikling af Supply Chain Strategimodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvad Johansen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    segmentering via postponement-princippet, har givet mærkbare forbedringer. Det beskrives endvidere, hvordan produkternes livscyklus påvirker valget af supply chain design. Begrebet Demand Chain Management( DCM), hvormed strategimodeller bruger klassiske marketingelementer sammen med Supply Chain Management......Denne artikel beskriver med udgangspunkt i artikler og virksomhedseksempler udviklingen inde for supply chain strategimodeller. Ved hjælp af tidligere udviklede koncepter besvares spørgsmålet: “Hvad er den rette supply chain for mine produkter?”. Virksomhedseksempler beskriver, hvordan supply chain...... (SCM), bliver behandlet og der udvikles en DCM-strategimodel....

  3. Supply Chain Reorganization and Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-bin

    2001-01-01

    Three generic forms of governance--hierarchy, hybrid and market are proposed in the newinstitutional economics, giving an abstract description of alternative coordination and control mechanisms forgeneral use. While this theory is known as far away from being operational and specified, a few researchersin the management and organization area are trying to extend Galbraith and/or Mintzberg's organizationaldesign theories into the application of logistical coordination for obtaining a smooth flow of products along thesupply chain within and without the focal organization. In this paper, we present an explorative case study onthe design of various organizational architectures of logistics activities and their relevant coordinationmechanisms, especially internal and external contracts as one new kind of hybrid mechanisms forcoordinating effective supply chains.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VALUE CHAIN OF THE GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN AND THE SCOPE OF THE CHAIN ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Thai

    2013-01-01

    The value chain of vegetable industry is a line of production processing business of vegetable under the mode of globalization, of which, economic subjects of many countries involve in the different stages in the chain. The method of global approach under the value chain has been developed over time and is used as an analysis tool in market research of the global vegetable industry. Three key elements of the pattern of analysis scope of the global vegetable value chain analysis of the global ...

  5. Supply Chain Simulation: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of simulation in supply chain management.It reviews four types of simulation, namely spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discreteevent simulation, and business games.Which simulation type should be applied, depends on the type of managerial question to be answered by the model.Moreover, this paper summarizes novel sensitivity and robustness analyses.This sensitivity analysis yields a shortlist of the truly important factors in large simulation models with (sa...

  6. The Milk Supply Chain Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Howard; Thanassoulis, John

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an Oxford University research project into the UK liquid milk supply chain. Financial sponsorship was kindly provided by the Milk Development Council (MDC) and by DEFRA. The research reported here is independent academic research which is not designed to further any group‟s particular agenda. We have striven to be as objective as possible. The project's aim is to investigate the competitive forces which influence the buyerseller relationsh...

  7. Organizing the Global Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Pol Antràs; Davin Chor

    2012-01-01

    We develop a property-rights model of the firm in which production entails a continuum of uniquely sequenced stages. In each stage, a final-good producer contracts with a distinct supplier for the procurement of a customized stage-specific component. Our model yields a sharp characterization for the optimal allocation of ownership rights along the value chain. We show that the incentive to integrate suppliers varies systematically with the relative position (upstream versus downstream) at whi...

  8. Demand and Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A.A. van der Veenl:; Robben, Henry S.J.

    1999-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de recente ontwikkelingen met be-trekking tot de managementactiviteiten gericht op de keten die begint bij het winnen van grondstoffen en via toeleveranciers, fabrikanten en de (detail)handel loopt naar de eindgebruikers. De moderne denkbeelden op dit terrein worden samengevat met de term Demand & Supply Chain Management (DSCM); het management van de keten die onafhankelijke klanten en leveranciers verbindt als ware het een enkele en-titeit met het doel om waa...

  9. Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies have become an increasingly critical lens through which researchers analyze the genomic, clinical and bibliographic data that fuels scientific research. Of particular relevance are methods, such as enrichment analysis, that quantify the importance of ontology classes relative to a collection of domain data. Current analytical techniques, however, remain limited in their ability to handle many important types of structural complexity encountered in real biological systems including class overlaps, continuously valued data, inter-instance relationships, non-hierarchical relationships between classes, semantic distance and sparse data. Results In this paper, we describe a methodology called Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA and illustrate its use through a MCOA-based enrichment analysis application based on a generative model of gene activation. MCOA models the classes in an ontology, the instances from an associated dataset and all directional inter-class, class-to-instance and inter-instance relationships as a single finite ergodic Markov chain. The adjusted transition probability matrix for this Markov chain enables the calculation of eigenvector values that quantify the importance of each ontology class relative to other classes and the associated data set members. On both controlled Gene Ontology (GO data sets created with Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens annotations and real gene expression data extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, the MCOA enrichment analysis approach provides the best performance of comparable state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion A methodology based on Markov chain models and network analytic metrics can help detect the relevant signal within large, highly interdependent and noisy data sets and, for applications such as enrichment analysis, has been shown to generate superior performance on both real and simulated data relative to existing

  10. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  11. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah U. Olugu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In today’s manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain management. To explore the extent of research in supply chain performance measurement and establish the gap in knowledge in supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation. Approach: Literatures in the area of supply chain performance measurement had been extensively reviewed. Both traditional and fuzzy logic approaches to supply chain performance measurement were scrutinized. Further scrutiny was carried out to establish potential research areas in the application of fuzzy logic operations in supply chain performance measurement. Results: The supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation was identified as a new direction in measuring the uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding supply chain performance measurement. Direction for further studies in the application of fuzzy logic operation in supply chain management and its performance measurement were also identified. Conclusion: Result of this study implied that there is still a gap in knowledge in the area of supply chain performance measurement. This new direction of studies involved extending the existing supply chains to incorporate product recovery after the useful life.

  12. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR VALUE CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The Porter Value Chain has been widely adopted by the business community as a mechanism to understand and comprehend complexity in business environments, with the ultimate goal of structuring the business to maximize its competitive advantage. Implementing the Value Chain is not easy: a number of organizations can testify to their failure to derive any benefits at all from this concept. To overcome this problem, an approach is presented to assist the organization in creating a Value Chain reference model within the broader context of the organization’s enterprise architecture.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “Porter Waardeketting” is ’n algemene aanvaarde praktyk wat deur maatskappye gebruik word om die kompleksiteit van besigheidsomgewings mee te verstaan. Die uiteindelike doel hiervan is om die besigheid se mededings voordele te optimiseer. Om die Waardekettingkonsep te implementeer, is nie ’n maklike taak nie – verskeie organisasies kan getuig van mislukte implementeringspogings. Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n benadering beskryf wat gebruik kan word om die organisasie te help om ’n Waardekettingmodel te skep in die bree konteks van die organisasie se besigheidsargitektuur.

  13. Anaphylactoid reaction based on RBL -2H3 cell model in vitro%非免疫性过敏反应细胞模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵吟; 李钦; 郑晓亮; 张信岳

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过非免疫性刺激物C48/80诱导大鼠嗜碱性粒细胞白血病细胞株RBL-2H3细胞脱颗粒反应正交试验,优化非免疫性过敏反应细胞模型建立条件.方法:在不同的孵育时间下,C48/80与不同浓度的RBL-2H3细胞共孵育,通过测定β-氨基己糖苷酶的释放率确定建立非免疫型过敏反应细胞模型的最优实验条件,并且分析不同检测方法间的差异.结果:不同浓度、不同孵育时间下的RBL-2H3细胞均可受C48/80诱导发生典型的脱颗粒反应,但不同条件下的脱颗粒程度和β-氨基己糖苷酶释放率都有显著差异.结论:当RBL-2H3细胞浓度为2×105 mL、孵育时间60 min时,细胞的感受性较好,其脱颗粒程度与药物浓度呈正相关.%AIM: To observe the effects of C48/80 on RBL-2H3 cell degranulation orthogonal test, optimize the experimental conditions and discuss the possible detection methods of anaphylactoid reaction . METHODS: The β-hex-osaminidase assay of RBL-2H3 cells incubated with C48/80 were tested by orthogonal test considering two laboratorial factors time and cell concentration. According the results the optimized cell model in vitro were set up and disscus the superior and the inferior aspects between different detection means. RESULTS: Different concentrations and time could make significance difference on RBL-2H3 cell model with degranulation. CONCLUSION: Anaphylactoid reaction based on RBL -2H3 cell model in vitro could be buill up on the cell concentration of 2 × 105 under 60 minutes incubation time , which may be appropriate conditions in order to get stable cell model because the degranualtion was significantly increased and dose-dependent under this condition.

  14. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  15. Transition Probability Estimates for Reversible Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Telcs, Andras

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides transition probability estimates of transient reversible Markov chains. The key condition of the result is the spatial symmetry and polynomial decay of the Green's function of the chain.

  16. Supply chain strategies, issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, supply chain operations and relationships among supply chain partners have become highly challenging, necessitating new approaches, e.g., the development of new models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models discusses supply chain issues and models with examples from actual industrial cases. Expert authors with a wide spectrum of knowledge working in various areas of supply chain management from various geographical locations offer refreshing, novel and insightful ideas and address possible solutions using established theories and models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models features studies that have used mathematical modeling, statistical analyses and also descriptive qualitative studies. The chapters cover many relevant themes related to supply chains and logistics including supply chain complexity, information sharing, quality (six sigma), electronic Kanbans, inventory models, scheduling, purchasing and contracts. To facilitate easy reading, the chapters that deal with suppl...

  17. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  18. Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaye, Adolf; Genovese, Andrea; Barrett, John W.; Koh, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address issues such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geogra...

  19. Supply chain management in product development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tzortzopoulos, Patricia; Kagioglou, Mike; Cooper, Rachel; Dyson, E

    2009-01-01

    Mounting emphasis on construction supply chain management (CSCM) is due to both global sourcing of materials and a shortage of labor. These factors force increasing amounts of value-added work to be conducted off-site deep in the supply chain. Construction Supply Chain Management Handbookcompiles in one comprehensive source an overview of the diverse research and examples of construction supply chain practice around the world.Reflecting the emergence of CSCM as an important area of multi-nati...

  20. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Mansy, Sheref S.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed.

  1. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheref S. Mansy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed.

  2. Australian Lamb Supply Chain: A Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, supply chain management has played an important role to lead agribusiness today to succeed in their business goals, to gain competitive advantages, and to improve business performance. As the result of that, there has been extensive studying in a popular topic of strategic supply chain management in order to improve business performance as well as along supply chain performance under the real situation. This is because in current business world, supply chain practices are ...

  3. Kooperationsanforderungen im Supply Chain Management (SCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpp, Matthias; Koppers, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the general concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM) is described and the scientific cooperation models in the supply chain are discussed. Though there are several models to explain cooperations there is no clear perspective on the needed competencies in companies to shape a successful cooperation e.g. within a supply chain. Instead companies rely solely on experience and intuition in order to create and steer supply chain relationships with high business values. In order to mit...

  4. Model protocells from single-chain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Sheref S

    2009-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed. PMID:19399223

  5. BUSINESS TENDENCIES IN SERVICES WITHIN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Skowron-Grabowska

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. Client satisfaction and improvement in profitability are two basic goals while organizing supply chain. In the paper author tried to prove that there is a correlation between organization of supply chain and subjective evaluation of economic situation by enterprises. Logistics integration helps enterprises to find their place in the supply chain.

  6. Supply Chain Integration: Challenges and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in technological development are forcing businesses to continuously innovate to improve their competitiveness, which is particularly evident in logistics and supply chain management (SCM), where innovation impacts both the strategic and operational levels. Supply Chain Innovation for Competing in Highly Dynamic Markets: Challenges and Solutions investigates the role of innovation in the management of supply chains of today. This book focuses on supply chain integration from both...

  7. Linking corporate strategy and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this paper: The paper researches the linkages between corporate and supply chain strategy. It represents a stage of an on-going research initiative aimed at providing a framework for understanding systematically the integration of corporate strategy making and supply chain management. Design/methodology/approach: The paper engaged itself in the theory/literature related to strategic and supply chain management. Four generic levels of strategy are linked to supply chain ma...

  8. Supply Chain Management in the Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Fredrik

    2000-01-01

    In this licentiate thesis the implications of a deliberate use of logistics knowledge have been investigated by describing and analyzing the use of a supply chain management approach in the construction industry.
    A five-step approach is used in the thesis. First, theoretical models are developed from the supply chain management literature. Two models are elaborated; One model identifying supply chain criteria and the other comparing traditional to supply chain-based.

  9. A concept for collaborative supply chain planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfnes, E.; Dreyer, H.C.; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge for many manufacturers is the increased complexity of the supply chain, and as supply chains get more complicated enterprises require better tools for supply chain planning and execution. Many vendors offer systems to plan and control in-house operations, whereas mainly large v...... discusses current supply chain planning solutions and presents a more simple and adaptive concept to be used in both SMEs and larger enterprises....

  10. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  11. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... was aliquoted into two vials (A and B). The first vial (A) was used for post-column infusion experiments to visualize ion suppression. The second vial (B) was spiked with the 18 analytes in concentrations corresponding to the middle of the reference intervals of the analytes. The serum samples were analysed....... The S-monovette and Vacuette tubes resulted in up to 49% and 33% lower peak areas, respectively. The analytes subjected to major ion suppression, when using the three blood collection devices, were 9-OH-risperidone, risperidone, duloxetine, and perphenazine. None of the three BD Vacutainer serum tubes...

  12. Magnetic Properties of Quantum Ferrimagnetic Spin Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shoji

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibilities of spin-$(S,s)$ ferrimagnetic Heisenberg chains are numerically investigated. It is argued how the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic features of quantum ferrimagnets are exhibited as functions of $(S,s)$. Spin-$(S,s)$ ferrimagnetic chains behave like combinations of spin-$(S-s)$ ferromagnetic and spin-$(2s)$ antiferromagnetic chains provided $S=2s$.

  13. Secure Supply Chains: Design Restrictions & Organizational Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludema, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    An important issue in the design of secure supply chains is the understanding of the relation between supply chains and the organizational responsibility of specific parts of these supply chains. Organizational boundaries change over time by means of vertical and/or horizontal (des)-integration and

  14. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  15. Systematic Methodology of Integrated Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is a strategy for global competition. Th e characteristics of SCM are integration, systematic and coordination. Using sys tematic, coordination thoughts and integration theory, a new model of enterprise integration based on supply chain management is put forward and an implementing paradigm for systematic methodology of supply chain management is developed.

  16. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  17. Principles in Halal Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Maznah Che Ghazali,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new framework to optimise the design of halal food supply chains, called the “Halal Supply Chain Model”. In this research the main logistics business processes are defined, which are the determinants for the halal supply chain performance. Design

  18. Experiences with the Mango Chain Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Zuñiga-Arias, G.; Sterrenburg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The mango chain game is a simulation game used for research purposes. It facilitated studying the bargaining power of Costa Rican mango producers in international supply chains of mango. The game simulates a simplified mango export chain in which real world local producers can play the role of produ

  19. Consistency and Refinement for Interval Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delahaye, Benoit; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel;

    2012-01-01

    Interval Markov Chains (IMC), or Markov Chains with probability intervals in the transition matrix, are the base of a classic specification theory for probabilistic systems [18]. The standard semantics of IMCs assigns to a specification the set of all Markov Chains that satisfy its interval const...

  20. Extending the "Knowledge Advantage": Creating Learning Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Tayyab; Walker, Derek; Finegan, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a synergy between the approaches of knowledge management in a learning organisation and supply chain management so that learning chains can be created in order to unleash innovation and creativity by managing knowledge in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: Through extensive literature…

  1. Absence of force suppression in rabbit bladder correlates with low expression of heat shock protein 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Richard A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitroglycerin can induce relaxation of swine carotid artery without sustained reductions in [Ca2+]i or myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC phosphorylation. This has been termed force suppression and been found to correlate with ser16-phosphorylation of heat shock protein 20 (HSP20. We tested for the existence of this mechanism in a smooth muscle that is not responsive to nitric oxide. Methods Isometrically mounted mucosa free rabbit bladder strips were contracted with carbachol and relaxed with 8-Br-cGMP, forskolin, or isoprenaline. Results Contraction was associated with a highly cooperative relation between MRLC phosphorylation and force such that very small increases in MRLC phosphorylation induced large increases in force. Relaxation induced by 8-Br-cGMP, forskolin, or isoprenaline did not shift the MRLC phosphorylation-force relation from that observed with carbachol alone, i.e. there was no force suppression. HSP20 content was negligible (approximately two hundred-fold less than swine carotid. Conclusion The lack of force suppression in the absence of HSP20 is consistent with the hypothesized role for HSP20 in the force suppression observed in tonic smooth muscles.

  2. Large-scale identification and analysis of suppressive drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar B; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Guvenek, Aysegul; Cokol, Melike; Cetiner, Selim; Giaever, Guri; Iossifov, Ivan; Nislow, Corey; Shoichet, Brian; Roth, Frederick P

    2014-04-24

    One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound ("drug") pairs. Among 440 ordered drug pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their suppression behavior, we provide an estimate of the prevalence of suppressive interactions between anti-fungal compounds as 17%. Analysis of the drug suppression network suggested that Bromopyruvate is a frequently suppressive drug and Staurosporine is a frequently suppressed drug. We investigated potential explanations for suppressive drug interactions, including chemogenomic analysis, coaggregation, and pH effects, allowing us to explain the interaction tendencies of Bromopyruvate. PMID:24704506

  3. Isolating Soil Drought-Induced Genes from Maize Seedling Leaves Through Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-yong; HUANG Su-hua; SHI Yun-su2; SONG Yan-chun; ZHAO Jiu-ran; WANG Feng-ge; WANG Tian-yu; LI Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a forward cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using seedling leaves of CN165, a drought-tolerant maize inbred line. In the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library, 672 positive clones were picked up randomly. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of each clone, all the single clones were sequenced. Totally 598 available sequences were obtained. After cluster analysis of the EST sequences, 80 uniESTs were obtained, among which 57 uniESTs were contigs and 23 uniESTs were singlets. The results of BLASTN showed that all the uniESTs had homologous sequences in the nr database. The BLASTX results indicated that 68 uniESTs had significant protein homology, 8 uniESTs with homology of unknown proteins and putative proteins, and 4 uniESTs without protein homology. Those drought stress-induced genes were involved in many metabolism pathways to regulate plant growth and development under drought stress.

  4. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Flutter suppression using distributed piezoelectric actuators has been analyzed and tested. In constructing the finite element equation, effects of piezoelectric matrices are investigated. LQG method is used in designing the control law. In reducing the order of the control law, both balance realization and LK methods are used. For the rational approximation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces LS method is improved. In determining the piezoelectric constants d31 a new dynamic response method is developed. Laser vibrameter is used to pick up the model response and in ground resonance test the model is excited by piezoelectric actuators. Reasonable agreement of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test with calculated results is obtained.

  5. Immune suppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, David H; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Effective immunotherapy, whether by checkpoint blockade or adoptive cell therapy, is limited in most patients by a key barrier: the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Suppression of tumor-specific T cells is orchestrated by the activity of a variety of stromal myeloid and lymphoid cells. These often display inducible suppressive mechanisms that are triggered by the same anti-tumor inflammatory response that the immunotherapy intends to create. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of how the immunosuppressive milieu develops and persists is critical in order to harness the full power of immunotherapy of cancer.

  6. Suppression pool swell analysis using CFD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional axi-symmetric model of suppression pool of Containment Studies Facility (CSF) along with single vent pipe was modeled to estimate the jet and hydrodynamic loads due to flow of steam air mixture during simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The analysis was carried out using CFD ACE+ software with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach. The flow velocity variation through vent pipe was estimated using in-house containment thermal hydraulic code CONTRAN, was given as input at inlet boundary condition. The transient calculations were performed for 20 seconds and suppression pool level variation, pressure loads over the floor, walls and vent pipes etc were evaluated. (author)

  7. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.;

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  8. BAER suppression during posterior fossa dural opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Shields

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We hypothesized that the cochlear nerve and vessels entering the acoustic meatus were compressed or stretched when subjected to tissue shift. This movement caused cochlear nerve dysfunction that resulted in BAER suppression. BAER was partially restored after the tumor was decompressed, dura repaired, and bone replaced. BAER was not suppressed following durotomy for removal of a meningioma lying posterior to the cochlear complex. Insight into the mechanisms of durotomy-induced BAER inhibition would allay the neurosurgeon′s anxiety during the operation.

  9. Task motivation influences alpha suppression following errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Rebecca J; Bissey, Bryn; Worby-Selim, Sharoda

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research is to examine the influence of motivation on a novel error-related neural marker, error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Participants completed an attentionally demanding flanker task under conditions that emphasized either speed or accuracy or under conditions that manipulated the monetary value of errors. Conditions in which errors had greater motivational value produced greater ERAS, that is, greater alpha suppression following errors compared to correct trials. A second study found that a manipulation of task difficulty did not affect ERAS. Together, the results confirm that ERAS is both a robust phenomenon and one that is sensitive to motivational factors. PMID:24673621

  10. Semiflexible Chains at Surfaces: Worm-Like Chains and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Baschnagel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We give an extended review of recent numerical and analytical studies on semiflexible chains near surfaces undertaken at Institut Charles Sadron (sometimes in collaboration with a focus on static properties. The statistical physics of thin confined layers, strict two-dimensional (2D layers and adsorption layers (both at equilibrium with the dilute bath and from irreversible chemisorption are discussed for the well-known worm-like-chain (WLC model. There is mounting evidence that biofilaments (except stable d-DNA are not fully described by the WLC model. A number of augmented models, like the (super helical WLC model, the polymorphic model of microtubules (MT and a model with (strongly nonlinear flexural elasticity are presented, and some aspects of their surface behavior are analyzed. In many cases, we use approaches different from those in our previous work, give additional results and try to adopt a more general point of view with the hope to shed some light on this complex field.

  11. Supply Chain Management Performance in Tourism. Continental Hotels Chain Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ţigu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With its origins in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM concept is covering all managerial aspects of the flow of materials and information from source to customer, across the entire range of materials handling and movement functions, and throughout an organization and its supply channels. In tourism, these issues relate to the whole process of providing tourism services from sourcing of raw materials, products or different services to supply and distribution, and SCM performance can ultimately be measured by customer satisfaction. Thus, an important component of tourism SCM is the demand management. Therefore, this study aims to highlight the features of the concept of SCM and demand management in tourism, with an emphasis on a hotel chain in Romania, based on research and analysis of tourist traffic indicators as well as assessment of customers satisfaction. The sources of information are the internal company statistics, as well as various hotels booking websites that offer customers’ feedback. The results of the study provide a snapshot of how the hotel demand management can influence SCM performance in tourism.

  12. Anomalous dielectric response of the copper oxide chains in LiCuVO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to investigate the low-lying electronic excitations in the strongly correlated chain copper oxide LiCuVO4 in the range 0.7-6.5 eV at temperatures 6 - 350 K. The Zhang-Rice singlet (ZRS) state has been evidenced in edge-sharing copper oxide chains for the first time. Temperature dependence of the ZRS peak identified in the dielectric response along the chains follows spin correlations within the chains that make ZRS apparent at 6 K but strongly suppressed and invisible at 300 K. This behavior is in a good agreement with recent cluster calculations within a pd-Hubbard model. The integrated optical conductivity for polarization along the chains confirms the redistribution of the spectral weight between ZRS and non-bonding O 2p states below 80 K. The corresponding effective number of charge carriers transferred between the states is 0.02 electrons per Cu atom indicating the kinetic energy gain of about 10 meV, which is of the same order of magnitude as the exchange integrals of the competing nearest J1=-2.1 meV and next-nearest J2 = 4.3 meV neighbor interactions. For polarization perpendicular to the chains, no spectral weight transfer between individual bands is observed.

  13. Clathrin light chain directs endocytosis by influencing the binding of the yeast Hip1R homologue, Sla2, to F-actin

    OpenAIRE

    Boettner, Douglas R.; Friesen, Helena; Andrews, Brenda; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The role of clathrin light chain (CLC) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis is not completely understood. Previous studies showed that the CLC N-terminus (CLC-NT) binds the Hip1/Hip1R/Sla2 family of membrane/actin–binding factors and that overexpression of the CLC-NT in yeast suppresses endocytic defects of clathrin heavy-chain mutants. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this suppression, we performed synthetic genetic array analysis with a clathrin CLC-NT deletion mutation (clc1-Δ19-76). clc...

  14. When does TMAO fold a polymer chain and urea unfold it?

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Jagannath; Berne, B J

    2013-01-01

    Longstanding mechanistic questions about the role of protecting osmolyte trimethylamine N- oxide (TMAO) which favors protein folding and the denaturing osmolyte urea are addressed by studying their effects on the folding of uncharged polymer chains. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we show that 1-M TMAO and 7-M urea solutions act dramatically differently on these model polymer chains. Their behaviors are sensitive to the strength of the attractive dispersion interactions of the chain with its environment: when these dispersion interactions are high enough, TMAO suppresses the formation of extended conformations of the hydrophobic polymer as compared to water, while urea promotes formation of extended conformations. Similar trends are observed experimentally on real protein systems. Quite surprisingly, we find that both protecting and denaturing osmolytes strongly interact with the polymer, seemingly in contrast with existing explanations of the osmolyte effect on proteins. We show that what rea...

  15. Research on the development of weed-suppressing rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochuan ZHOU; Decheng LU; Hong LI; Daoqiang HUANG; Ruowei MIAO

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop weed-suppressing rice varieties in a weed-suppressing nursery by specific secondary metabolite markers of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice variety Feng-Hua-Zhan was screened out by a specific secondary metabolite marker of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice No. 1, a new rice line with good quality, was also developed using this method. The genetic backgrounds and research directions of weed-suppressing rice varieties are discussed in this paper.

  16. A study of inter-species ion suppression in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of some phospholipid classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Spiro; El Banna, Nadine; Tfaili, Sana; Chaminade, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Phospholipid quantification in biological samples is crucial and is increasingly studied in lipidomics. Quantitative studies are often performed using commercially available standards of phospholipid classes in order to mimic the composition of biological samples. For this, studies are conducted by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, the matrix components and the co-elution of several phospholipid species lead to the phenomenon of ion suppression. As a result, a decrease in the response of phospholipid species in mass spectrometry MS is observed. In fact, inter-species ion suppression affects the efficiency of phospholipid (PL) ionization and might also influence the quantitative results. The aim of this work is to study the PL inter-species ion suppression phenomenon in electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry on a triple quadrupole TQ and an LTQ-Orbitrap in order to improve quantification in natural and biological samples. Thus, the phospholipid MS response was evaluated to study the effect of acyl chain length, the degree, and the position of unsaturation on acyl chain and the effect of the polar head group structure. A number of saturated and unsaturated phospholipid species and mixtures were analyzed in different ionization modes to a better understanding of inter-species ion suppression phenomenon. PL molecular species responded differently according to the length of fatty acid chains, the number of unsaturation, and the nature of the polar head group. Fatty acid chain length showed to have the most marked effect on MS response.

  17. Compressibility of Nickel Nanoparticle Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Dong; TANG Ling-Yun; LI Yan-Chun; LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    We perform the high-pressure energy dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments of nickel nanoparticle chain using a synchrotron source under quasi-hydrostatic compression up to 44.7GPa. There is no phase transition over the pressure range. The bulk modulus Kg, the first pressure derivative of bulk modulus K'0 and the volume Vo are calculated from the pressure-volume data using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. A decrease of compressibility is observed, in agreement with the Hall-Petch effect.

  18. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN WITH SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    János Benkõ

    2010-01-01

    Supply Chain Management faces a lot of challenging issues involving difficult decisions which can be company-oriented and customer-oriented issues. In this study we deal with customeroriented issues. For example, a customer’s demand may not be fully satisfied from stock on hand and the shortage may be backordered or the sale may be lost. Either way, it is desirable to balance the holding cost which depends on the magnitude of inventory against the cost of not fully satisfying customer demand....

  19. TBA for the Toda chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.; Teschner, J.

    2010-06-15

    We give a direct derivation of a proposal of Nekrasov-Shatashvili concerning the quantization conditions of the Toda chain. The quantization conditions are formulated in terms of solutions to a nonlinear integral equation similar to the ones coming from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz. This is equivalent to extremizing a certain function called Yang's potential. It is shown that the Nekrasov-Shatashvili formulation of the quantization conditions follows from the solution theory of the Baxter equation, suggesting that this way of formulating the quantization conditions should indeed be applicable to large classes of quantized algebraically integrable models. (orig.)

  20. Supply chain management - safety aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing economy, growing customer requirements and competition make the service level higher. Delivery safety - as the highest priority - has to be maintained at the same time. Customers more and more often require transport to be very flexible, fast, and complex in terms of carrying every quantity of goods of different sizes, from and to different countries, through customs clearance, storing and distribution of shipments. Meeting these requirements depends on complex information on transport processes and their safety. The article presents safety foundations and institution Authorized Economic Operator - AEO in supply chains.

  1. Integration of Forestry Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanzhan; LAN; Liqun; WANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Smile Curve and Michael E. Porter’ value chain model,this paper points out that China’s forestry industry stays at the low end of the value chain for a long time. Raw materials are imported from foreign countries and also sold in foreign countries. Then,the authors analyze characteristics and existing problems of China’s forestry industrial chain. They put forward the development direction of China’s forestry industrial chain with reference to International Paper Company. Finally,they present their recommendations for integration of China’s forestry industrial chain.

  2. Maintaining Power Relations in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ibishukcu, Ozlem; Datar, Aniket

    2016-01-01

    Managing supply chain relations has evolved over a decade and many companies have given importance to regulate their relations in supply chain relations to stay competitive in the market. In this context of adjusting relations among supply chain members, central point of discussion is the role of power. Power can be a component that persuades one member of supply chain to do certain things that he/she wouldn’t agree on doing it voluntarily. The implication of that power among supply chain mem...

  3. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular......; type I fimbriae expression significantly reduced cellular chain formation, presumably by steric hindrance. Cellular chain formation did not appear to be specific to E coli K-12. Although many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were found to form rather homogeneous, flat biofilms, three isolates...

  4. Heat transport in coupled inhomogeneous chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Tao; Bai Meng; Hu Ke; Tang Yi

    2011-01-01

    We first investigate the heat transport in a network model consisting of two coupled dimerized chains. Results indicate that the thermal resistance of each chain increases with the decrease of the mass ratio γ of the two types of atoms. Then, we find, when a light impurity or a heavy one is added in the two coupled homogeneous chains and coupled with a particle of another chain, the interface thermal resistances Rlint andRγint present different dependences on the mass ratio γ'. Finally, a persistent circulation of energy current is observed in coupled inhomogeneous chains with two pairs of interchain coupling.

  5. The fishing industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling P.;

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing supply chain aspects such as distribution planning and optimal use of raw materials are widely used. However, modelling based on a holistic chain view is less studied, and food-related aspects such as quality and shelf life issues enforce additional...... requirements onto the chains. In this paper, we consider the supply chain structure of the Danish fishing industry and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. This is a first step toward innovative supply chain modelling aimed to identify benefits...

  6. Oral branched-chain amino acids decrease whole-body proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Williams, B. D.; Stuart, C. A.; Lane, H. W.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports the effects of ingesting branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, and isoleucine) on protein metabolism in four men. METHODS: To calculate leg protein synthesis and breakdown, we used a new model that utilized the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and the sampling of the leg arterial-venous difference and muscle biopsies. In addition, protein-bound enrichments provided for the direct calculation of muscle fractional synthetic rate. Four control subjects ingested an equivalent amount of essential amino acids (threonine, methionine, and histidine) to discern the effects of branched-chain amino acid nitrogen vs the effects of essential amino acid nitrogen. Each drink also included 50 g of carbohydrate. RESULTS: Consumption of the branched-chain and the essential amino acid solutions produced significant threefold and fourfold elevations in their respective arterial concentrations. Protein synthesis and breakdown were unaffected by branched-chain amino acids, but they increased by 43% (p < .05) and 36% (p < .03), respectively, in the group consuming the essential amino acids. However, net leg balance of phenylalanine was unchanged by either drink. Direct measurement of protein synthesis by tracer incorporation into muscle protein (fractional synthetic rate) revealed no changes within or between drinks. Whole-body phenylalanine flux was significantly suppressed by each solution but to a greater extent by the branched-chain amino acids (15% and 20%, respectively) (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that branched-chain amino acid ingestion suppresses whole-body proteolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle in normal men.

  7. Synchronization and suppression of chaos in non-locally coupled map lattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R M Szmoski; S E De S Pinto; M T Van Kan; A M Batista; R L Viana; S R Lopes

    2009-12-01

    We considered coupled map lattices with long-range interactions to study the spatiotemporal behaviour of spatially extended dynamical systems. Coupled map lattices have been intensively investigated as models to understand many spatiotemporal phenomena observed in extended system, and consequently spatiotemporal chaos. We used the complex order parameter to quantify chaos synchronization for a one-dimensional chain of coupled logistic maps with a coupling strength which varies with the lattice in a power-law fashion. Depending on the range of the interactions, complete chaos synchronization and chaos suppression may be attained. Furthermore, we also calculated the Lyapunov dimension and the transversal distance to the synchronization manifold.

  8. 石墨烯在光催化反应中应用的研究进展%Research progress in photocatalytic reactions based on graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗恺; 汪浩; 刘晶冰; 严辉

    2012-01-01

    Graphene,an atomic thick nanosheet of covalently organized two-dimensional lattice of sp2 bonded carbon atoms,has recently received tremendous attention as a hot point in the field of new photocatalytic materials.Of particular interest is its efficient charge conductivity in electron-transfer process and large theoretical specific surface area.Thus,graphene has been seen as an ideal substituent of carbon nanotubes with photocatalysts to improve photocatalytic performance.Herein the research achievements on photocatalytic reactions based on grapheme are reviewed.Five factors impacting the photocatalytic efficiency of semiconductors are first analyzed.They are the bandgap,the position of the energy band,the recombination probability of the excited electon/hole pair,the crystallinity of the photocatalyts and the absoptive capacity of the photocatalyts.Then,the fundamental mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity is discussed,and the advance in compositing method,coating method,and self-photocatalytic reactions of grapheme to adjust the bandgap of the photocatalyts is summarized.At the end,the evidence from both theory and experiment of regulating the bandgap is presented.%石墨烯是近年来人们发现和合成的一种新型二维平面纳米材料,由于其优良的导电性能和巨大的比表面积,研究者们用石墨烯与光催化材料复合,改善其光催化性能,这已成为新型光催化材料的研究热点之一。本文阐述了近年来国内外对于石墨烯在光催化反应中应用的研究动态和主要成果,分析了影响半导体材料光催化效率的5个因素,即禁带宽度、能带位置、激发电子-空穴复合概率、光催化剂结晶性和光催化剂吸附性能。介绍了石墨烯提高光催化效率的方法,重点介绍了石墨烯在复合、包覆和自身参与光催化反应3个方法中的具体应用,提出通过石墨烯与某些特定的光催化材料复合而改变其禁带宽度,可为今后通过

  9. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Jaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain considered were farmers, collectors, agro-industry and exporter. Sustainability dimensions considered in this research were the economic, social, environmental and material resources. The performance of each aspect was analyzed by using Multi-dimensional scaling and leverage analysis. The result of the research showed that the composite of Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability index was 33.53 which mean less sustainable level. Therefore it is recommended to reengineering the Gayo coffee supply chain by considering all of the four sustainability dimensions above.

  10. The fish industry - toward supply chain modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Nielsen, Jette; Larsen, Erling;

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for simulating and optimizing aspects of supply chains such as distribution, planning, and optimal handling of raw materials are widely used. However, modeling based on a holistic chain view including several or all supply chain agents is less studied, and food-related aspects...... such as quality and shelf-life issues enforce additional requirements onto the chains. In this article, we consider the supply chain structure of the fish industry. We discuss and illustrate the potential of using mathematical models to identify quality and value-adding activities. The article provides a first...... step toward innovative supply chain modeling aimed to identify benefits for all agents along chains in the fish industry....

  11. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keer, Jan; Meijers, Björn; Delforge, Michel; Verhoef, Gregor; Poesen, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of "heavy chain MGUS" have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma. PMID:27213064

  12. Two Cases of Heavy Chain MGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Keer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy chain diseases are rare variants of B-cell lymphomas that produce one of three classes of immunoglobulin heavy chains, without corresponding light chains. We describe two patients with asymptomatic heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy. The first patient is a 51-year-old woman with alpha paraprotein on serum immunofixation. The second case is a 46-year-old woman with gamma paraprotein on urine immunofixation. Neither patient had corresponding monoclonal light chains. Workup for multiple myeloma and lymphoma was negative in both patients. These two cases illustrate that heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy can exist in the absence of clinically apparent malignancy. Only a few reports of “heavy chain MGUS” have been described before. In the absence of specialized guidelines, we suggest a similar follow-up as for MGUS, while taking into account the higher probability of progression to lymphoma than to myeloma.

  13. Determining an optimal supply chain strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, many companies want to become efficient and flexible, but have struggled, in part, because they have not been able to formulate optimal supply chain strategies. Often this is as a result of insufficient knowledge about the costs involved in maintaining supply chains and the impact of the supply chain on their operations. Hence, these companies find it difficult to manufacture at a competitive cost and respond quickly and reliably to market demand. Mismatched strategies are the root cause of the problems that plague supply chains, and supply-chain strategies based on a one-size-fits-all strategy often fail. The purpose of this article is to suggest instruments to determine an optimal supply chain strategy. This article, which is conceptual in nature, provides a review of current supply chain strategies and suggests a framework for determining an optimal strategy.

  14. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  15. Normal dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish the parameters of adrenal imaging under dexamethasone suppression (DS), 18 normotensive, normal male volunteers underwent dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintiscanning. Five control groups were established and given dexamethasone, either 8 mg for 2 days or 4 mg for 7 days before 6β-[1311]iodomethyl-norcholesterol (NP-59) administration. NP-59 was given in doses of 2, 1, or 0.5 mCi. Early visualization (3-5 days) of the adrenals was noted in the groups on the 8 mg DS regimen with either 1 or 2 mCi of NP-59. Late visualization (5-7 days) was noted in the groups that received 4 mg DS and either 2, 1, or 0.5 mCi of MP-59, respectively. The normal adrenal will demonstrate uptake of NP-59 under DS, and the duration of DS before imaging is the critical factor as to when discernible adrenal visualization will occur. The documentation of the normal suppression interval on these DS regimens provides a basis for the correct diagnostic interpretation of adrenal hyperfunction as seen on the dexamethasone-suppression NP-59 adrenal scan

  16. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  17. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  18. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  19. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  20. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression causes structural changes of the glucuronoxylan in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang eSong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available DUF579 (domain unknown function 579 genes have been reported to play diverse roles in cell wall biosynthesis, such as in glucuronoxylan (GX synthesis. As GX is a major type of hemicelluloses in hard wood species, how DUF579 genes function in wood formation remains to be demonstrated in planta. This study reports a Populus DUF579 gene, PtrDUF579-3, which is characterized for its function in wood cell wall formation. PtrDUF579-3 is localized in Golgi apparatus and catalyzes methylation of the glucuronic acid (GlcA in GX biosynthesis. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression in Populus caused a reduction in both the GlcA side chain number and GlcA side chain methylation on the GX backbone. The modified GX polymer through PtrDUF579-3 suppression was more susceptible to acid treatment and the PtrDUF579-3 suppressed plants displayed enhanced cellulose digestibility. These results suggest that PtrDUF579-3 is involved in GX biosynthesis and GX structure can be modified through PtrDUF579-3 suppression in Populus.

  1. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 Expression Causes Structural Changes of the Glucuronoxylan in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongliang; Gui, Jinshan; Liu, Chenchen; Sun, Jiayan; Li, Laigeng

    2016-01-01

    DUF579 (domain unknown function 579) genes have been reported to play diverse roles in cell wall biosynthesis, such as in glucuronoxylan (GX) synthesis. As GX is a major type of hemicelluloses in hard wood species, how DUF579 genes function in wood formation remains to be demonstrated in planta. This study reports a Populus DUF579 gene, PtrDUF579-3, which is characterized for its function in wood cell wall formation. PtrDUF579-3 is localized in Golgi apparatus and catalyzes methylation of the glucuronic acid (GlcA) in GX biosynthesis. Suppression of PtrDUF579-3 expression in Populus caused a reduction in both the GlcA side chain number and GlcA side chain methylation on the GX backbone. The modified GX polymer through PtrDUF579-3 suppression was more susceptible to acid treatment and the PtrDUF579-3 suppressed plants displayed enhanced cellulose digestibility. These results suggest that PtrDUF579-3 is involved in GX biosynthesis and GX structure can be modified through PtrDUF579-3 suppression in Populus. PMID:27148318

  2. Low-$\\ell$ power suppression in punctuated inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Mussadiq H; Malik, Manzoor A; Souradeep, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by Planck confirmation of an anomalously low value of the CMB temperature fluctuations up to multipole $\\ell<40$, we in this paper try to explain such feature by investigating case of punctuated inflation scenario. This form of inflation potential is inspired by MSSM wherein suppression of curvature perturbation power at large scales is produced by introducing period of fast-roll phase of the inflation sandwiched between two stages of slow-roll phase. We apply Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine posterior distribution and the best fit values of the model parameters using recent WMAP9 and Planck data. We show that WMAP9 and Planck results are consistent with each other. We shown that the Planck data gives much tighter constraints for punctuated inflation parameters. We find that punctuated inflation leads to better fit in CMB data compared to simple power law model. For WMAP9 data the improvement in fit is marginal ($\\Delta \\chi^2\\sim 4$), however, for WMAP9+Planck the improvement is si...

  3. Degree of Suppression of Mouse Myoblast Cell Line C2C12 Differentiation Varies According to Chondroitin Sulfate Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warita, Katsuhiko; Oshima, Nana; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C2C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time. After immunostaining of the formed myotubes with an anti-MHC antibody, we counted the number of nuclei in the myotubes and then calculated the fusion index (FI) as a measure of myotube differentiation. The FI values of all the CS-treated groups were lower than the FI value of the control group, especially the group treated with CS-E, which displayed notable suppression of myotube formation. To confirm that the sugar chain in CS-E is important in the suppression of differentiation, chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which catabolizes CS, was added to the media. The addition of ChABC led to the degradation of CS-E, and neutralized the suppression of myotube formation by CS-E. Collectively, it can be concluded that the degree of suppression of differentiation depends on the subtype of CS and that CS-E strongly suppresses myogenic differentiation. We conclude that the CS sugar chain has inhibitory action against myoblast cell fusion. PMID:27775651

  4. The tendency to suppress, inhibiting thoughts, and dream rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fiona; Bryant, Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Ironic control theory proposes that suppressing thoughts leads to increased occurrence of the suppressed thought because monitoring for the unwanted thought leads to intrusions. This study investigated the influence of suppressing unwanted thoughts on dream content. One hundred participants who had high or low levels of tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts nominated an intrusive thought, and half of the participants were instructed to suppress that thought for 5 min prior to sleeping. Participants completed a dream diary upon waking, which was subsequently rated by independent raters for dream content. In terms of the 79 participants who reported dreaming, more high suppressors who were instructed to suppress dreamt about the intrusive thought than high suppressors in the control condition. There was no difference between low suppressors in the suppression and control conditions. These results suggest that dream content can be influenced by attempted suppression prior to sleep, and this is particularly apparent in people with a tendency to suppress unwanted thoughts. PMID:16516140

  5. Gel Point Suppression in RAFT Polymerization of Pure Acrylic Cross-Linker Derived from Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mengguo; Huang, Yuerui; Lu, Mingjia; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hernández, Nacú B; Cochran, Eric W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), a cross-linker molecule, to high conversion (>50%) and molecular weight (>100 kDa) without macrogelation. Surprisingly, gelation is suppressed in this system far beyond the expectations predicated both on Flory-Stockmeyer theory and multiple other studies of RAFT polymerization featuring cross-linking moieties. By varying AESO and initiator concentrations, we show how intra- versus intermolecular cross-linking compete, yielding a trade-off between the degree of intramolecular linkages and conversion at gel point. We measured polymer chain characteristics, including molecular weight, chain dimensions, polydispersity, and intrinsic viscosity, using multidetector gel permeation chromatography and NMR to track polymerization kinetics. We show that not only the time and conversion at macrogelation, but also the chain architecture, is largely affected by these reaction conditions. At maximal AESO concentration, the gel point approaches that predicted by the Flory-Stockmeyer theory, and increases in an exponential fashion as the AESO concentration decreases. In the most dilute solutions, macrogelation cannot be detected throughout the entire reaction. Instead, cyclization/intramolecular cross-linking reactions dominate, leading to microgelation. This work is important, especially in that it demonstrates that thermoplastic rubbers could be produced based on multifunctional renewable feedstocks. PMID:27359245

  6. Structure of polymer chains under confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotsana Lal

    2008-11-01

    We observe by SANS the structure of neutral polystyrene and charged polystyrene sulphonate chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in a model nanoporous glass, Vycor. The size of the free chains in solution is always larger than the pore diameter, 70. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated solvents and polymers enables us to measure directly the form factor of one single chain among the others. Single chain form factor was observed both for bulk and confined chains using the condition of zero average contrast. Our measurements on neutral polymer chains are in agreement with the theoretical predictions established by Daoud and de Gennes for chains confined in a cylindrical pore when the chains are entangled and laterally squeezed but remain ideal at large scale along the cylinder axis because of the screening of the excluded volume interactions (so-called regime of ``semi-dilute cigars"). For confined charged polymers, a peak is observed whose intensity increases with molecular weight and the asymptotic 1/ scattering region is extended compared to the bulk. We infer that the chains are sufficiently extended, under the influence of confinement, to highlight the large scale disordered structure of Vycor even under contrast matched conditions. The asymptotic behaviour of the observed interchain structure factor is ≈ 1/2 and ≈ 1/ for free and confined chains respectively.

  7. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Zhang Lin-Xi; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations.In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond〈S2〉/(Nb2)and the shape factor(δ*)depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type.With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity Cv, and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas-liquid-solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains.

  8. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308). PMID:27094069

  9. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  10. A possible chain of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Ianole

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available On a world-wide basis there is a growing concern about organization' s capability to retain their top talents. In the specific case of a student's organization . Team Work - we confront with the same problems: how to inspire our members to act in the spirit of the values we share: professionalism, team work and voluntariate, and how to determine them to remain part of the system. This is where motivation appears like one of those terms that can mean very different things depending on exactly where you sit. The aim of the present paper is to draw a schematic picture of how it can work a chain of motivation in Team Work and other similar organizations.

  11. The stylohyoid chain: CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uysal Ramadan, Selma, E-mail: uysalselma@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Goekharman, Dilek, E-mail: gokharman@ttnet.net.t [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Pinar, E-mail: pkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kacar, Mahmut, E-mail: mkacar1961@gamil.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey); Kosar, Ugur, E-mail: ugurkosar@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara 06590 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    We aimed in this report to discuss the embryology, anatomy, theories of ossification and symptoms, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the stylohyoid chain (SHC) variations, together with the role of radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and three-dimensional (3D)-CT in showing these variations. Because CT/3D-CT additionally facilitates visualization of the entire SHC with different axes, it is the most valuable method for establishing the relationship between the SHC and the surrounding tissue. SHC variation can be discovered during CT performed for indications other than ossified SHC. It is important to diagnose whether or not the SHC is ossified, since one of the treatment procedures in ossified SHC is total excision. If the clinician and radiologist are aware of these variations observed in the SHC, patients with vague symptoms may be spared unnecessary investigations and may be properly diagnosed earlier.

  12. Spin chains and string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczenski, Martin

    2004-10-15

    Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.

  13. Revisiting Causality in Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaee, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying causal relationships is a key premise of scientific research. The growth of observational data in different disciplines along with the availability of machine learning methods offers the possibility of using an empirical approach to identifying potential causal relationships, to deepen our understandings of causal behavior and to build theories accordingly. Conventional methods of causality inference from observational data require a considerable length of time series data to capture cause-effect relationship. We find that potential causal relationships can be inferred from the composition of one step transition rates to and from an event. Also known as Markov chain, one step transition rates are a commonly available resource in different scientific disciplines. Here we introduce a simple, effective and computationally efficient method that we termed 'Causality Inference using Composition of Transitions CICT' to reveal causal structure with high accuracy. We characterize the differences in causes,...

  14. Breaking Continuous Flash Suppression: A New Measure of Unconscious Processing during Interocular Suppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Timo; Hebart, Martin N; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this “breaking continuous flash suppression” (b-CFS) p...

  15. Breaking continuous flash suppression: A new measure of unconscious processing during interocular suppression?

    OpenAIRE

    Timo eStein; Hebart, Martin N; Philipp eSterzer

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this breaking CFS (b-CFS) paradigm, differential uncon...

  16. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND MOMENTS OF CIRCULAR FREELY JOINTED CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Minghong

    1991-01-01

    The spatial distribution function and second moments of circular freely jointed chain are derived based on an analytical method. The circular Gauss chain, which is simple for long chains, is compared with the circular freely jointed chain, which is exact for short chains. It is shown that the Gauss chain model predicts a more compact configurational distribution than the exact freely jointed chain. The two chain models, however, become closer to each other when the chain length increases.It is found that the difference of the mean square radius of gyration calculated with these two chain models is a constant, independent of the chain length.

  17. Mathematical description of the position of mining chain links on a driving chain wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolipski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The paper analyzes effects of geometry on interaction between the chain and chain wheels of face conveyors in underground coal mines. Interaction between chain links and wheel toothing is investigated using mathematical models. Three mesh types are comparatively evaluated, so-called normal mesh, nominal mesh and special mesh. Chain position on the chain wheel is shown in 3 schemes. Mathematical formulae used for characterizing mesh types are derived. Effects of the following factors on interaction between a chain link and a chain wheel are analyzed: link quality and differences in quality and dimensions among chain links, friction wear of links and toothing, elastic and plastic chain elongation, friction between links and toothing. A geometric model of the interaction between the chain wheel and haulage chain (in the form of a double polygon) is used. The mathematical model permits the following problems to be analyzed: load distribution among chain links on a chain wheel, load distribution on toothing, load fluctuations, effects of friction wear of chain and toothing. Examples of practical use of the formulae are discussed. (14 refs.)

  18. Experiments of ECCS strainer blockage and debris settling in suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, G.E.; Johnson, A.B.; Murthy, P.; Padmanabhan

    1996-03-01

    If a rupture occurs in a nuclear power station pipe that leads to or from the reactor pressure vessel, the resultant Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) would initiate a chain of events involving complex flow phenomena. In a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), the steam or liquid pipe break pressurizes the dry well, forcing the inert containment gases and steam through downcomers into the suppression pool, thoroughly mixing any particulates and pipe insulation debris carried with the gas flow to the pool. As the steam flow decreases, its unsteady condensation at the end of the downcomers (Condensation Oscillation and Chugging) produces continued water motion in the suppression pool and downcomers. During the blowdown event, high pressure and then low pressure pumps automatically start injecting water from the suppression pool into the reactor to keep its temperature under control. Proper functioning of this Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is critical for the first 30 minutes or so, before operators have time to consider and align alternative sources of cooling water. A major concern for proper operation of the ECCS is the effect of fragmented insulation and plant particulates on the head loss at pump suction strainers. Sufficient loss could exceed the NPSH margin, causing cavitation with a resultant loss of pump capacity and longevity. The bead loss increases with the mass of debris accumulated on the pump strainers, which in turn is dependent on the debris concentration versus time in the suppression pool. This paper describes two sets of experiments that quantified the strainer head loss. One set of experiments considered the mixing and settling of fibrous insulation debris and fine iron oxide particles in the suppression pool during and after chugging. These tests used a reduced scale facility which duplicated the kinetic energy per unit water volume to define the concentration of the actual materials in the pool versus time.

  19. Antimycotics suppress the Malassezia extract-induced production of CXC chemokine ligand 10 in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Carren S; Kanda, Naoko; Makimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia, a lipophilic yeast, exacerbates atopic dermatitis. Malassezia products can penetrate the disintegrated stratum corneum and encounter subcorneal keratinocytes in the skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Type 1 helper T (Th1) cells infiltrate chronic lesions with atopic dermatitis, and antimycotic agents improve its symptoms. We aimed to identify Malassezia-induced chemokines in keratinocytes and examine whether antimycotics suppressed this induction. Normal human keratinocytes were incubated with a Malassezia restricta extract and antimycotics. Chemokine expression was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 activity was examined by luciferase assays. The tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT1 was analyzed by western blotting. The M. restricta extract increased the mRNA and protein expression of Th1-attracting CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation in keratinocytes, which was suppressed by a Janus kinase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine suppressed M. restricta extract-induced CXCL10 mRNA and protein expression and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation. These effects were similarly induced by 15-deoxy-Δ-(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ), a prostaglandin D2 metabolite. Antimycotics increased the release of 15d-PGJ2 from keratinocytes. The antimycotic-induced suppression of CXCL10 production and STAT1 activity was counteracted by a lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine may suppress the M. restricta-induced production of CXCL10 by inhibiting STAT1 through an increase in 15d-PGJ2 production in keratinocytes. These antimycotics may block the Th1-mediated inflammation triggered by Malassezia in the chronic phase of atopic dermatitis. PMID

  20. Toc Approach for Supply Chain Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Ainapur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field of Supply Chain Management witnessed rapid growth in recent past and proved to be a successful tool for organizations growth. Success of supply chain improvement initiative lies in selection of appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs using best suitable supply chain framework. These KPI’s are to be measured, monitored and controlled with proper review mechanism. This study presents a methodology for identification of the constraint KPI from the supply chain metrics. Selection of the KPI’s is done using Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR framework. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for decomposing the goal into micro level for analyzing and prioritizing KPIs. Subsequently, benchmarking study is carried by comparing foundry industry KPIs with global best practice industry average. Goal Programming function is formulated using AHP ratings and solved using WINQSB software. Finally Theory of Constraint (TOC management philosophy is applied for finding the constraints for supply chain performance enhancement.

  1. Position Paper on Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    This paper is intended to present and to analyze the concept of the Intelligent Supply Chain (ISC). The purpose of the paper is to: 1) Clarify the concept of the intelligent supply chain; 2) Identify emerging research opportunities; and 3) Specify a research engagement model for further exploration...... the concept of Intelligent Supply Chain and to establish an overall perspective based on information management. The claim made here is that the notion of the intelligent enterprise contributes with a new perspective on supply chain management that addresses the current challenges in an industrial supply...... chain. The argument is further that the existing information systems embodied in the standard enterprise information systems (EIS) have an important role in driving the development of modern supply chains though business processes. This is warranted by an analysis of the role of EIS on the development...

  2. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations...... in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply...

  3. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Biofuel Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    and multipolarity. Empirically, I do so by examining the evolutionary dynamics of governance in biofuel value chains, with specific focus on the key regulatory and institutional features that facilitated their emergence and expansion. First, I examine the formation, evolution, and governance of three national....../regional value chains (in Brazil, the US, and the EU); then, I provide evidence to support a trend towards the increasing but still partial formation of a global biofuel value chain and examine its governance traits....

  4. Antecedents and Dimensions of Supply Chain Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Durach, Christian F.; Wieland, Andreas; Machuca, Jose A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide groundwork for an emerging theory of supply chain robustness – which has been conceptualized as a dimension of supply chain resilience – through reviewing and synthesizing related yet disconnected studies. The paper develops a formal definition of supply chain robustness to build a framework that captures the dimensions, antecedents and moderators of the construct as discussed in the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The...

  5. Challenges of Responsible Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Krisztina Szegedi; Károly Norbert Kerekes

    2012-01-01

    Many firms are increasing their focus on their Supply Chain as a strategic factor. This focus has primarily emphasized cost reducing and risk minimizing, although some proactive companies began to manage their supply chain in a responsible way several years ago. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the part of the Corporate Social Responsibility literature that introduces responsibility to the field of supply chain management; furthermore, it processes public documents and Internet s...

  6. Sustainability management in apparel & footwear supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hau-chung; 鄭孝仲

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulatory Code of Conduct has widely been adopted by international brands to manage CSR issues in apparel and footwear supply chain for the last 2 decades. Increasingly, more apparel and footwear brands started to expand CSR scope to include environmental management in their supply chain. However, only very few international brands have disclosed their efforts on environmental management in their supply chain. This study aims to find out how apparel and footwear brands implement environ...

  7. Sustainability in Logistics and Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The HICL-Conference celebrates its 10th anniversary, indicating major interest in the research fields of supply chain management and logistics. They are dedicated to make recommendations for new approaches and solutions that enable companies to cope with current and future challenges in supply chains and logistics. The second volume of the 2015 conference provides valuable insights into the highly relevant topic of sustainability in logistics and supply chains. Contributions concern ...

  8. Technical Aspects of Cyber Kill Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Tarun; Mallari, Rao Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in targeted cyber-attacks has increased the interest of research in the field of cyber security. Such attacks have massive disruptive effects on rganizations, enterprises and governments. Cyber kill chain is a model to describe cyber-attacks so as to develop incident response and analysis capabilities. Cyber kill chain in simple terms is an attack chain, the path that an intruder takes to penetrate information systems over time to execute an attack on the target. This paper broa...

  9. BEHAVIOURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra-Codruta Popescu (Bîzoi); Cristian-Gabriel Bîzoi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has focused largely on the field of supply chain risk management. Numerous risks occur within supply chain management. Until lately, behavioural risks (implying large amount of losses) have been neglected and considered not relevant. In this paper we provide an analysis of the importance of including behavioural research in logistics and supply chain risk management, what has been written so far and potential future research directions. Until now, literature on logistics and supply...

  10. Spectral methods for quantum Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to contribute to our understanding of quantum time evolutions, whereby we focus on quantum Markov chains. The latter constitute a natural generalization of the ubiquitous concept of a classical Markov chain to describe evolutions of quantum mechanical systems. We contribute to the theory of such processes by introducing novel methods that allow us to relate the eigenvalue spectrum of the transition map to convergence as well as stability properties of the Markov chain.

  11. Wear of conveyor chains with polymer rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Kerremans, Vincent; Rolly, Tom; DE BAETS, PATRICK; De Pauw, Jan; Sukumaran, Jacob; Perez Delgado, Yeczain

    2011-01-01

    Roller conveyor chains are common used to transport goods in production lines or assembly lines, such as pallets, cars or steel coils. They are sometimes used in severe environments, soiled with water, foreign particles, chemicals or other contaminants. Normal use will result in wear of the components of the chain which can lead to unexpected failure and costly production downtime. Today, few literature on the wear of conveyor chain is available and there are almost no reliable test-rigs to g...

  12. Ground states for nonuniform periodic Ising chains

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Garcilazo, J. P.; Ramírez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We give a generalization of Morita's works on ground states of Ising chains, for chains with a periodic structure with different spins, and distant neighbor interactions. The main assumption is translational invariance. The length of the irreducible blocks is a multiple of the period of the chain. In the case of parity invariance, it restricts the length in general only in the diatomic case. There are degenerated states and under certain circumstances there could be nonregular ground states. ...

  13. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ezutah U. Olugu; Kuan Y. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In todays manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain manag...

  14. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Miralles, Eugenio; Gómez García, Carlos José; Borrás Almenar, Juan José

    1990-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2′‐bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising‐chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior. ,

  15. Achieving Supply Chain Integration within Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McDermotti; Malik Khalfan

    2012-01-01

    The main driver behind the adoption of supply chain management (SCM) philosophy into the construction industry was the successes within other industry sectors. SCM can be defined as network of different organisations, linked upstream and downstream in a chain, aiming to produce quality and value in the services and products for the end consumers through integrated processes and activities. In order to achieve the optimised level of integration of the whole supply chain, the industry has respo...

  16. Supply chain management tools and methods

    OpenAIRE

    IVANOVA, Ivelina

    2004-01-01

    In today's business environment, manufacturers need to manage their enterprises as an inseparable part of a supply chain. Key to achieving this is the creation of an extended and integrated information system. In an attempt to find out what needs to be done to improve current supply chain methods and tools, the current research project 1) reviewed the literature to establish current approaches to Supply Chain Management (SCM); 2) identified what tools and methods are availab...

  17. Supply chain management: An opportunity for metaheuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhinho-Louren??o, Helena

    2001-01-01

    In today?s highly competitive and global marketplace the pressure on organizations to find new ways to create and deliver value to customers grows ever stronger. In the last two decades, logistics and supply chain has moved to the center stage. There has been a growing recognition that it is through an effective management of the logistics function and the supply chain that the goal of cost reduction and service enhancement can be achieved. The key to success in Supply Chain...

  18. Sustaining Supply Chain Operations through Lean Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Suphattra Ketsarapong; Kong Suwantaranrangsri; Kongkiti Phusavat; Binshan Lin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to report a case study in a Thai Electronics Manufacturing deploying a lean manufacturing approach, and to discuss the value gained in their supply chain operations. These experiences can be adapted by others for design, redesign, and problem shooting when analyzing the performance of supply chain operations. Approach – The paper is based on actual activities in a case study. This paper begins by reviewing the relevant literature on supply chain operations and supply ...

  19. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  20. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-04-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin.

  1. Suppression of friction by mechanical vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zapperi, Stefano

    2009-08-21

    Mechanical vibrations are known to affect frictional sliding and the associated stick-slip patterns causing sometimes a drastic reduction of the friction force. This issue is relevant for applications in nanotribology and to understand earthquake triggering by small dynamic perturbations. We study the dynamics of repulsive particles confined between a horizontally driven top plate and a vertically oscillating bottom plate. Our numerical results show a suppression of the high dissipative stick-slip regime in a well-defined range of frequencies that depends on the vibrating amplitude, the normal applied load, the system inertia and the damping constant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the numerical results and derive a phase diagram indicating the region of parameter space where friction is suppressed. Our results allow to define better strategies for the mechanical control of friction. PMID:19792738

  2. Correcting intermittent central suppression improves binocular marksmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Eric S

    2007-04-01

    Intermittent central suppression (ICS) is a defect in normal binocular (two-eyed) vision that causes confusion in visual detail. ICS is a repetitive intermittent loss of visual sensation in the central area of vision. As the central vision of either eye "turns on and off", aiming errors in sight can occur that must be corrected when both eyes are seeing again. Any aiming errors in sight might be expected to interfere with marksmanship during two-eyed seeing. We compared monocular (one-eyed, patched) and binocular (two-eyed) marksmanship with pistol shooting with an Army ROTC cadet before and after successful therapy for diagnosed ICS. Pretreatment, monocular marksmanship was significantly better than binocular marksmanship, suggesting defective binocularity reduced accuracy. After treatment for ICS, binocular and monocular marksmanship were essentially the same. Results confirmed predictions that with increased visual stability from correcting the suppression, binocular and monocular marksmanship accuracies should merge. PMID:17484315

  3. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  4. Speckle Suppression Method for SAR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new speckle reduction method was proposed in terms of by Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD. In this method, the SAR image containing speckle noise was decomposed into a number of elementary components by using BEMD and then the extremal points are done the boundary equivalent extension after screening and the residual continue to be done the boundary equivalent extension until screening is completed, finally, the image was reconstructed, which reduced the speckle noise. Experimental results show that this method has good effect on suppressing speckle noise, compared to the average filter, median filter and gaussian filter and has advantages of sufficiently retaining edge and detail information while suppressing speckle noise.

  5. Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambre, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure.

  6. Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure

  7. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  8. Glare suppression by coherence gated negation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Edward Haojiang; Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of a weak target hidden behind a scattering medium can be significantly confounded by glare. We report a method, termed coherence gated negation (CGN), that uses destructive optical interference to suppress glare and allow improved imaging of a weak target. As a demonstration, we show that by permuting through a set range of amplitude and phase values for a reference beam interfering with the optical field from the glare and target reflection, we can suppress glare by an order of magnitude, even when the optical wavefront is highly disordered. This strategy significantly departs from conventional coherence gating methods in that CGN actively 'gates out' the unwanted optical contributions while conventional methods 'gate in' the target optical signal. We further show that the CGN method can outperform conventional coherence gating image quality in certain scenarios by more effectively rejecting unwanted optical contributions.

  9. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S; Celiktas, C

    2007-11-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60Co and 137Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. PMID:17703943

  10. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis.

  11. Myc suppression of Nfkb2 accelerates lymphomagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulated c-Myc expression is a hallmark of several human cancers where it promotes proliferation and an aggressive tumour phenotype. Myc overexpression is associated with reduced activity of Rel/NF-κB, transcription factors that control the immune response, cell survival, and transformation, and that are frequently altered in cancer. The Rel/NF-κB family member NFKB2 is altered by chromosomal translocations or deletions in lymphoid malignancies and deletion of the C-terminal ankyrin domain of NF-κB2 augments lymphocyte proliferation. Precancerous Eμ-Myc-transgenic B cells, Eμ-Myc lymphomas and human Burkitt lymphoma samples were assessed for Nfkb2 expression. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven apoptosis, proliferation, and lymphomagenesis was tested genetically in vivo. Here we report that the Myc oncoprotein suppresses Nfkb2 expression in vitro in primary mouse fibroblasts and B cells, and in vivo in the Eμ-Myc transgenic mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma (BL). NFKB2 suppression by Myc was also confirmed in primary human BL. Promoter-reporter assays indicate that Myc-mediated suppression of Nfkb2 occurs at the level of transcription. The contribution of Nfkb2 to Myc-driven lymphomagenesis was tested in vivo, where Nfkb2 loss was shown to accelerate lymphoma development in Eμ-Myc transgenic mice, by impairing Myc's apoptotic response. Nfkb2 is suppressed by c-Myc and harnesses Myc-driven lymphomagenesis. These data thus link Myc-driven lymphomagenesis to the non-canonical NF-κB pathway

  12. PUMA Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Carson-Walter, Eleanor B.; Kuan, Shih Fan; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Defective apoptosis contributes to tumorigenesis, although the critical molecular targets remain to be fully characterized. PUMA, a BH3-only protein essential for p53-dependent apoptosis, has been shown to suppress lymphomagenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of PUMA in intestinal tumorigenesis using two animal models. In the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium salt model, PUMA deficiency increased the multiplicity and size of colon tumors but reduced the frequency of β-cate...

  13. Temporal Analysis of Image-Rivalry Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Bhardwaj; Robert P. O'shea

    2012-01-01

    During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between two different images presented one to each eye. At any moment, one image is visible, dominant, while the other is invisible, suppressed. Alternations in perception during rivalry could involve competition between eyes, eye-rivalry, or between images, image-rivalry, or both. We measured response criteria, sensitivities, and thresholds to brief contrast increments to one of the rival stimuli in conventional rivalry displays and in a displa...

  14. Comoving suppression mechanism and cosmological constant problem

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we assume that the observer is fixed in a comoving frame of reference with $g_{00}=\\frac{\\lambda}{\\Lambda}$, where $\\lambda$ and $\\Lambda$ denote the comoving parameter and the cosmological constant, respectively. By using the {\\it comoving suppression mechanism} and {\\it Mach's principle} (the latter of which is used to determine the comoving parameter $\\lambda$), we calculate the vacuum energy density of quantum fluctuation field in the above-mentioned comoving frame of refer...

  15. Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Asuka; Moser, Jason S.; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are ‘culturally trained’ to down-regulate emotional processing when required to suppress emotional expressions. Such down-regulation, however, is unlikely for European Americans because their culture values emotional expression (vs control) more. To test these predictions, we adopted the...

  16. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...

  17. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa eMarzi; Antonio eRegina; Stefania eRighi

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase,...

  18. A Convnet for Non-maximum Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hosang, J.; Benenson, R.; Schiele, B.

    2015-01-01

    Non-maximum suppression (NMS) is used in virtually all state-of-the-art object detection pipelines. While essential object detection ingredients such as features, classifiers, and proposal methods have been extensively researched surprisingly little work has aimed to systematically address NMS. The de-facto standard for NMS is based on greedy clustering with a fixed distance threshold, which forces to trade-off recall versus precision. We propose a convnet designed to perform NMS of a given s...

  19. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis. PMID:17909897

  20. Subspace modelling for structured noise suppression

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Plastino, A

    2009-01-01

    The problem of structured noise suppression is addressed by i)modelling the subspaces hosting the components of the signal conveying the information and ii)applying a non-extensive nonlinear technique for effecting the right separation. Although the approach is applicable to all situations satisfying the hypothesis of the proposed framework, this work is motivated by a particular scenario, namely, the cancellation of low frequency noise in broadband seismic signals.

  1. An Equivalent Noise Investigation of Saccadic Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara L Watson; Krekelberg, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Visual stimuli presented just before or during an eye movement are more difficult to detect than those same visual stimuli presented during fixation. This laboratory phenomenon – behavioral saccadic suppression – is thought to underlie the everyday experience of not perceiving the motion created by our own eye movements – saccadic omission. At the neural level, many cortical and subcortical areas respond differently to perisaccadic visual stimuli than to stimuli presented during fixation. Tho...

  2. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goa...

  3. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Stephen E. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, South Campus Research Building 1, 7455 Fannin St., P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX 77030-1903 (United States)]. E-mail: sullrich@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression.

  4. Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when...

  5. Temporary Suppression of Tinnitus by Modulated Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reavis, Kelly M.; Rothholtz, Vanessa S.; Tang, Qing; Carroll, Jeff A.; Djalilian, Hamid; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Despite high prevalence of tinnitus and its impact on quality life, there is no cure for tinnitus at present. Here, we report an effective means to temporarily suppress tinnitus by amplitude- and frequency-modulated tones. We systematically explored the interaction between subjective tinnitus and 17 external sounds in 20 chronic tinnitus sufferers. The external sounds included traditionally used unmodulated stimuli such as pure tones and white noise and dynamically modulated stimuli known to ...

  6. Dexmedetomidine induced catecholamine suppression in pheochromocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjeev; Singh, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumour of chromaffin cells, though rare but a known cause of paroxysmal hypertension with a triad of headache, diaphoresis and palpitation. The biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is based on estimation of plasma nor-adrenaline, adrenaline and their metabolites in plasma or urine. Clonidine suppression test is performed to differentiate the raised catecholamine level due to pheochromocytoma or other than heochromocytoma especially in cases where plas...

  7. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain....

  8. Stochastically Perturbed Chains of Variable Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Nancy L.; Moreira, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study inference for chains of variable order under two distinct contamination regimes. Consider we have a chain of variable memory on a finite alphabet containing zero. At each instant of time an independent coin is flipped and if it turns head a contamination occurs. In the first regime a zero is read independent of the value of the chain. In the second regime, the value of another chain of variable memory is observed instead of the original one. Our results state that the ...

  9. Tests for intact and collapsed magnetofossil chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, R.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, new techniques for the detection of magnetofossils have been proposed, based on their unique first-order reversal curves (FORC) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) signatures. These signatures are related to the non-interacting (FORC) and strongly uniaxial anisotropy (FMR) of isolated chains of magnetic particles. However, little is known about the fate of these signatures in sediments where magnetosome chains collapsed during early diagenetic processes. Due to the impossibility of observing the particle arrangement in-situ, the structure of collapsed chains can only be inferred from TEM images of magnetic extracts and from first-principles consideration on the mechanical stability of magnetosome chains once the biological material around them is dissolved. The magnetic properties of double chains, produced by some strains of cocci, are also not known. According to these considerations, four main magnetofossil structures were taken into consideration: (1) isolated, linear chains, (2) double, half-staggered chains, where the gaps of one chain face the magnetosomes in the other chain, (3) double chains with side-to-side magnetosomes, which might result from a "jackknife" type of collapse of a single, long chain, and (4) zig-zag collapsed chains of elongated crystals, where the magnetosome long axes are perpendicular to the chain axis. The collapsed structures might be relevant in sediments where magnetofossils carry a significant part of the remanent magnetization, because chain collapse tends to cancel the original natural remanent magnetization. Detailed models for the hysteretic and anhysteretic properties of structures (1-4) have been calculated by taking realistic distributions of magnetosome size, elongation, and spacing into account, as inferred from a number of published TEM observations. Model calculations took a total of >2 years continuous running time on two computers in an effort to obtain realistic results, which are shown here for the

  10. Toc Approach for Supply Chain Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Ainapur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many foundries are operating at lower levels than the installed capacities. Study of 56 foundries acrossIndia has shown that only 68% of installed capacities are being utilized. This is mainly because of lack ofco-ordination among the supply chain partners. This study is an effort in identifying these gaps using TOCapproach which will help in supply chain performance enhancement.Field of Supply Chain Management witnessed rapid growth in recent past and proved to be a successfultool for organizations growth. Success of supply chain improvement initiative lies in selection ofappropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs using best suitable supply chain framework. Theseperformance indicators are to be measured, monitored and controlled with proper review mechanism.This study presents a methodology for identification of the KPI’s from the supply chain metrics suitablefor foundries. Selection of the KPI’s is done using Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCORframework. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is used for decomposing the goal into micro level foranalyzing and prioritizing KPIs. In order to study the gap between as-is-state and as-to-be state,benchmarking is carried by comparing foundry industry KPIs with global best practice industry average.To optimize the supply chain performance, Goal Programming function is formulated using AHP ratingsand solved using WINQSB software. Theory of Constraint (TOC management philosophy is applied forfinding the constraints, on improving these constraints supply chain performance enhancement isachieved.

  11. Responsive supply chain: modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Sinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected occurrence like natural calamity, abruptly change in customer demands, upgradation of technologies, necessity of compatible suppliers etc. is the most challenging issues even for efficient global supply chain management. Therefore, modeling of responsive supply chain is an emerging technology for sustaining any firm/industry in future competitive environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to not only analyze the performance of efficient supply chain management but also how to improve the performance of existing supply chain with the objective of developing a modeling of responsive supply chain management. The complexity of the model is also highlighted with the help of numerical example. This paper also explores the possibility to mathematical modeling of the responsive supply chain which will be an emerging topic for researchers and practitioners. The modeling of responsive supply chain can be employed as a competitive strategy for e-commerce, green supply chain, and compatible supplier selection problem. The another salient feature of this paper is that a distinct comparative literature review of the lean, agile, efficient, and responsive supply chain management has been presented.

  12. Hypergravity suppresses bone resorption in ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Tesshu; Kawaguchi, Amu; Okabe, Takahiro; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Nakamichi, Yuko; Nakamura, Midori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Wakitani, Shigeyuki

    2011-04-01

    The effects of gravity on bone metabolism are unclear, and little has been reported about the effects of hypergravity on the mature skeleton. Since low gravity has been shown to decrease bone volume, we hypothesized that hypergravity increases bone volume. To clarify this hypothesis, adult female rats were ovariectomized and exposed to hypergravity (2.9G) using a centrifugation system. The rats were killed 28 days after the start of loading, and the distal femoral metaphysis of the rats was studied. Bone architecture was assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone mineral density was measured using peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT). Hypergravity increased the trabecular bone volume of ovariectomized rats. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that hypergravity suppressed both bone formation and resorption and increased bone volume in ovariectomized rats. Further, the cell morphology, activity, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts exposed to hypergravity were evaluated in vitro. Hypergravity inhibited actin ring formation in mature osteoclasts, which suggested that the osteoclast activity was suppressed. However, hypergravity had no effect on osteoblasts. These results suggest that hypergravity can stimulate an increase in bone volume by suppressing bone resorption in ovariectomized rats.

  13. Suppression of Ostwald Ripening by Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A.; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable and coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Ostwald ripening must thus be suppressed to stabilize emulsions, e.g. to control the properties of pharmaceuticals, food, or cosmetics. Suppression of Ostwald ripening is also important in biological cells, which contain stable liquid-like compartments, e.g. germ granules, Cajal-bodies, and centrosomes. Such systems are often driven away from equilibrium by chemical reactions and can thus be called active emulsions. Here, we show that non-equilibrium chemical reactions can suppress Ostwald Ripening, leading to stable, monodisperse emulsions. We derive analytical approximations of the typical droplet size, droplet count, and time scale of the dynamics from a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics. We also compare these results to numerical simulations of the continuous concentration fields. Generally, we thus show how chemical reactions can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties in technology and nature.

  14. Neural Networks for Mindfulness and Emotion Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Murakami

    Full Text Available Mindfulness, an attentive non-judgmental focus on "here and now" experiences, has been incorporated into various cognitive behavioral therapy approaches and beneficial effects have been demonstrated. Recently, mindfulness has also been identified as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy. On the other hand, emotion suppression, which refers to trying to avoid or escape from experiencing and being aware of one's own emotions, has been identified as a potentially maladaptive strategy. Previous studies suggest that both strategies can decrease affective responses to emotional stimuli. They would, however, be expected to provide regulation through different top-down modulation systems. The present study was aimed at elucidating the different neural systems underlying emotion regulation via mindfulness and emotion suppression approaches. Twenty-one healthy participants used the two types of strategy in response to emotional visual stimuli while functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted. Both strategies attenuated amygdala responses to emotional triggers, but the pathways to regulation differed across the two. A mindful approach appears to regulate amygdala functioning via functional connectivity from the medial prefrontal cortex, while suppression uses connectivity with other regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thus, the two types of emotion regulation recruit different top-down modulation processes localized at prefrontal areas. These different pathways are discussed.

  15. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Tumour suppressive effects of WEE1 gene silencing in neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hosseini Tashnizi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the key role of WEE1 suppression to combat GBMs. Moreover, it showed beneficial possibilities of WEE1 suppression with different anticancer approaches for neurological malignancies.

  17. Mechanism study of organic antioxidant and inorganic salt on suppressing coal oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shui-jun; YU Ming-gao; JIA Hai-lin; ZUO Qiu-ling

    2007-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of Organic antioxidant and inorganic salt on suppressing coal oxidation were analyzed on the basis of the theory that coal oxidation mechanisms can be attributed to the free radical chain-type reaction mechanism.The inhibition curves on suppressing coal oxidation of the different type and different concentration of Organic antioxidant and inorganic salt were given through experimental study and data processing.Then some conclusions can be gained from the experimental study combining with theoretical analysis.First the inhibition mechanism of the organic antioxidant and inorganic salt is different.The former is that the chemical action is the dominant position.It can be called as the chain termination theory because the free radical is captured during coal oxidation.And the later is that the physical effect is the dominant position.It can be called as the decreasing-temperature theory because the liquid membrane which was formed by the inorganic salt can make coal body be the state of wetness and prevent oxygen from coal surface.Second the inhibition effect of the organic antioxidant is higher than the inorganic salt in the later period.But it is lower in the early period.

  18. Large-Scale Identification and Analysis of Suppressive Drug Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Guvenek, Aysegul; Cokol, Melike; Cetiner, Selim; Giaever, Guri; Iossifov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound (“drug”) pairs. Among 440 ordered drug pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their s...

  19. Large-scale identification and analysis of suppressive drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Çokol, Murat; Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar Bat-El; Yılancıoğlu, Kaan; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Güvenek, Ayşegül; Guvenek, Aysegul; Çokol, Melike

    2014-01-01

    One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound ("drug") pairs. Among 440 ordered drub pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their s...

  20. System and method for suppressing sublimation using opacified aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeff S. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Calliat, Thierry (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Jones, Steven M. (Inventor); Palk, Jong-Ah (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a castable, aerogel-based, ultra-low thermal conductivity opacified insulation to suppress sublimation. More specifically, the present invention relates to an aerogel opacified with various opacifying or reflecting constituents to suppress sublimation and provide thermal insulation in thermoelectric modules. The opacifying constituent can be graded within the aerogel for increased sublimation suppression, and the density of the aerogel can similarly be graded to achieve optimal thermal insulation and sublimation suppression.

  1. Incubation and suppression processes in creative problem solving

    OpenAIRE

    Gilhooly, KJ; Georgiou, GJ; Sirota, M; Paphiti-Galeano, A

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of thought suppression in incubation, using a delayed incubation paradigm. A total of 301 participants were tested over five conditions, viz., continuous work control, incubation with a mental rotations interpolated task, focussed suppression, unfocussed suppression and a conscious expression condition. Checks were made for intermittent work during the incubation condition. The target task was alternative uses for a brick. In the incubation and suppress...

  2. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Self, Matthew W.; Lorteije, Jeannette A. M.; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N.; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those containing orientation contrast. This effect is thought to be important for scene segmentation, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We asked whether it is possible to study these ...

  3. The role of suppression in figurative language comprehension✩

    OpenAIRE

    Gemsbacher, Morton Ann; Robertson, Rachel R.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the crucial role that suppression plays in many aspects of language comprehension. We define suppression as a general, cognitive mechanism, the purpose of which is to attenuate the interference caused by the activation of extraneous, unnecessary, or inappropriate information. We illustrate the crucial role that suppression plays in general comprehension by reviewing numerous experiments. These experiments demonstrate that suppression attenuates interference during l...

  4. Coating Thermoelectric Devices To Suppress Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Caillat, Thierry; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A technique for suppressing sublimation of key elements from skutterudite compounds in advanced thermoelectric devices has been demonstrated. The essence of the technique is to cover what would otherwise be the exposed skutterudite surface of such a device with a thin, continuous film of a chemically and physically compatible metal. Although similar to other sublimation-suppression techniques, this technique has been specifically tailored for application to skutterudite antimonides. The primary cause of deterioration of most thermoelectric materials is thermal decomposition or sublimation - one or more elements sublime from the hot side of a thermoelectric couple, changing the stoichiometry of the device. Examples of elements that sublime from their respective thermoelectric materials are Ge from SiGe, Te from Pb/Te, and now Sb from skutterudite antimonides. The skutterudite antimonides of primary interest are CoSb3 [electron-donor (n) type] and CeFe(3-x)Co(x)Sb12 [electron-acceptor (p) type]. When these compounds are subjected to typical operating conditions [temperature of 700 C and pressure <10(exp -5) torr (0.0013 Pa)], Sb sublimes from their surfaces, with the result that Sb depletion layers form and advance toward their interiors. As the depletion layer advances in a given device, the change in stoichiometry diminishes the thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of the device. The problem, then, is to prevent sublimation, or at least reduce it to an acceptably low level. In preparation for an experiment on suppression of sublimation, a specimen of CoSb3 was tightly wrapped in a foil of niobium, which was selected for its chemical stability. In the experiment, the wrapped specimen was heated to a temperature of 700 C in a vacuum of residual pressure <10(exp -5) torr (0.0013 Pa), then cooled and sectioned. Examination of the sectioned specimen revealed that no depletion layer had formed, indicating the niobium foil prevented sublimation of antimony at 700 C

  5. An online algorithm for generating fractal hash chains applied to digital chains of custody

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, Phillip G

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an online algorithm for generating Jakobsson's fractal hash chains. Our new algorithm compliments Jakobsson's fractal hash chain algorithm for preimage traversal since his algorithm assumes the entire hash chain is precomputed and a particular list of Ceiling(log n) hash elements or pebbles are saved. Our online algorithm for hash chain traversal incrementally generates a hash chain of n hash elements without knowledge of n before it starts. For any n, our algorithm stores only the Ceiling(log n) pebbles which are precisely the inputs for Jakobsson's amortized hash chain preimage traversal algorithm. This compact representation is useful to generate, traverse, and store a number of large digital hash chains on a small and constrained device. We also give an application using both Jakobsson's and our new algorithm applied to digital chains of custody for validating dynamically changing forensics data.

  6. Effects of suppression and appraisals on thought frequency and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Kathleen M; Woody, Sheila R

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive theories of obsessions highlight appraisals of personal significance and thought suppression in the development and maintenance of intrusive thoughts. The current study examined the role of personal significance within the context of a thought suppression paradigm. The primary aim was to examine whether suppression would have differential effects for target thoughts appraised as personally meaningful versus relatively unimportant. A blasphemous thought served as the target thought, and highly religious and nonreligious participants were recruited. Participants completed a two-interval thought suppression task; during interval 1 they were randomly assigned to suppress or not suppress the target thought and during interval 2, all participants were given "do not suppress" instructions. Suppression resulted in sustained frequency of thoughts in contrast to the decline in thought frequency observed for non-suppression. Differential effects of suppression were found across the two groups. Moreover, suppression was associated with increased negative mood and anxiety. Results suggest that suppression of personally meaningful thoughts is a counterproductive strategy. PMID:19765684

  7. Noise Suppression of a single Frequency Fiber Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kui; CUI Shu-Zhen; ZHANG Hai-Long; ZHANG Jun-Xiang; GAO Jiang-Rui

    2011-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of fiber laser noise suppression by the mode cleaner.The intensity noise of a single frequency fiber laser is suppressed near the shot noise limit after a sideband frequency of 3 MHz.Two series mode cleaners are used to improve the noise suppression.The noise reduction is over 27 dB at 3 MHz.

  8. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  9. Geometry behind chordal Loewner chains

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Manuel D; Gumenyuk, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Loewner Theory is a deep technique in Complex Analysis affording a basis for many further important developments such as the proof of famous Bieberbach's conjecture and well-celebrated Schramm's Stochastic Loewner Evolution (SLE). It provides analytic description of expanding domains dynamics in the plane. Two cases have been developed in the classical theory, namely the {\\it radial} and the {\\it chordal} Loewner evolutions, referring to the associated families of holomorphic self-mappings being normalized at an internal or boundary point of the reference domain, respectively. Recently there has been introduced a new approach [arXiv:0807.1594v1, arXiv:0807.1715v1, arXiv:0902.3116v1] bringing together, and containing as quite special cases, radial and chordal variants of Loewner Theory. In the framework of this approach we address the question what kind of systems of simply connected domains can be described by means of Loewner chains of chordal type. As an answer to this question we establish a necessary and ...

  10. Optimizing Supply Chain Performance in China with Country-Specific Supply Chain Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Herczeg, András; Vastag, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of country-specific supply chain coordination techniques ensures an optimal global supply chain performance. This paper looks at success factors going with a supply chain coordination strategy within the global supply chain of a successful, medium-sized, privately-owned company, one having locations in North America (USA), Europe (Hungary) and Asia (China). Through the shown GSL’s Chinese plant, we will endeavor to argue that increased collaboration in the supply network wi...

  11. A new framework for supply chain risk management through supply chain management capability

    OpenAIRE

    Göçer, Aysu; Yumurtacı, Işık Özge; Yurt, Öznur; Baltacıoğlu, Tunçdan

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain risk management is considered as one of the most powerful competitive tools for the companies. Therefore, the concept has caught the attention of researchers especially in the recent years. However, supply chain risk management has not been examined in the literature by considering the maturity and capability levels of supply chain members. This study aims to address this gap and develops a new framework on supply chain risk management which focuses on different...

  12. Flame Retardance and Smoke Suppression of CFA/APP/LDHs/EVA Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new intumescent flame-retardants (IFR system including the charing-foaming agent (CFA, ammonium polyphosphate (APP and modified-layered double hydroxides (LDHs with different transition metals (Ni, Co, Cu were used in the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA matrix. Both the limiting oxygen index and the vertical burning tests indicate that the CFA/APP system and LDHs have significant synergistic flame retardant effects. The morphology of combustion residues indicates that the many pores of residues can prevent the melt dripping. The thermal analysis shows that the flame retardants obviously enhanced the thermal degradation temperature of ethylene-based chains of the composites. The cone calorimeter test reveals that the CO2 and combustion residues have an important influence on the reduction of heat release rate (HRR, the smoke production rate (SPR, the production rate and the mean release yield of CO. The composite containing Cu (ELDH-Cu delivers an 82% reduction in peak heat release rate, while ELDH-Ni has the best CO suppression among all composites. This work not only confirms the flame retardance and smoke suppression of CFA/APP/LDH/EVA, but also provides an effective method for producing new flame retardants and smoke suppressants.

  13. Inflammatory cytokines suppress arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of inflammatory cytokines on arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), which is a phase-Ⅱ enzyme involved in the biotransformation of aromatic and heterocyclic amines found in food, drugs and the environment.METHODS: Human cholangiocarcinoma KKU-100 cells were treated with a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon-y, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α)for 48 h, and the effect on NAT1 activity was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, while NAT1 expression was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The oxidative stress on the cells was examined by the formation of nitric oxide,superoxide anion and glutathione (GSH) levels. The cells were also treated with S-nitroso-glutathione (GSNO), a nitric oxide donor, to see if the responses were similar to those obtained with the inflammatory cytokines.RESULTS: Cytokines suppressed NAT1 activity,reducing the Vmax without affecting the Km. Cytokines also had a significant impact on the induction of nitric oxide production and in reducing the redox ratios of glutathione (GSH) and GSH disulfide. Treatment with GSNO for 2-48 h reduced NAT1 activity without affecting the GSH ratio. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines and GSNO suppressed NAT1 mRNA expression.CONCLUSION: These findings indicate an association between inflammation and suppression of NAT1, which perhaps contributes to chemical-mediated toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  14. Differential and Synergistic Functionality of Acylsugars in Suppressing Oviposition by Insect Herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Leckie

    Full Text Available Acylsugars are secondary metabolites exuded from type IV glandular trichomes that provide broad-spectrum insect suppression for Solanum pennellii Correll, a wild relative of cultivated tomato. Acylsugars produced by different S. pennellii accessions vary by sugar moieties (glucose or sucrose and fatty acid side chains (lengths and branching patterns. Our objective was to determine which acylsugar compositions more effectively suppressed oviposition of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Middle East--Asia Minor 1 Group, tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande. We extracted and characterized acylsugars from four S. pennellii accessions with different compositions, as well as from an acylsugar-producing tomato breeding line. We also fractionated the acylsugars of one S. pennellii accession to examine the effects of its components. Effects of acylsugars on oviposition were evaluated by administering a range of doses to oviposition sites of adult whiteflies and thrips in non-choice and choice bioassays, respectively. The acylsugars from S. pennellii accessions and the tomato breeding line demonstrated differential functionality in their ability to alter the distribution of whitefly oviposition and suppress oviposition on acylsugar treated substrates. Tobacco thrips were sensitive to all compositions while western flower thrips and whiteflies were more sensitive to acylsugars from a subset of S. pennellii accessions. It follows that acylsugars could thus mediate plant-enemy interactions in such a way as to affect evolution of host specialization, resistance specificity, and potentially host differentiation or local adaptation. The acylsugars from S. pennellii LA1376 were separated by polarity into two fractions that differed sharply for their sugar moieties and fatty acid side chains. These fractions had different efficacies, with neither having activity approaching that of the

  15. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot-based analysis of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in different motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, Annemarie; Marroquin, Nicolai; Schmoll, Birgit; Vielhaber, Stefan; Just, Marlies; Mayer, Benjamin; Högel, Josef; Dorst, Johannes; Mertens, Thomas; Just, Walter; Aulitzky, Anna; Wais, Verena; Ludolph, Albert C; Kubisch, Christian; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Volk, Alexander E

    2014-05-01

    The GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This study determined the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in different motor neuron diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neuron diseases affecting primarily the first or the second motor neuron and hereditary spastic paraplegia). Whereas most studies on C9orf72 repeat expansions published so far rely on a polymerase chain reaction-based screening, we applied both polymerase chain reaction-based techniques and Southern blotting. Furthermore, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of Southern blotting of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in DNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines. C9orf72 repeat expansions were found in 27.1% out of 166 familial ALS patients, only once in 68 sporadic ALS patients, and not in 61 hereditary spastic paraplegia patients or 52 patients with motor neuron diseases affecting clinically primarily either the first or the second motor neuron. We found hints for a correlation between C9orf72 repeat length and the age of onset. Somatic instability of the C9orf72 repeat was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines compared with DNA derived from whole blood from the same patient and therefore caution is warranted for repeat length determination in immortalized cell lines.

  16. Molecular Wring Resonances in Chain Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the eigenfrequency of collective twist excitations in chain molecules can be in the megahertz and gigahertz range. Accordingly, resonance states can be obtained at specific frequencies, and phenomena that involve structural properties can take place. Chain molecules can alter the...

  17. Extremal hexagonal chains concerning largest eigenvalue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we define a roll-attaching operation of a hexagonal chain, and prove Gutman's conjecture affirmatively by using the operation. The idea of the proof is also applicable to the results concerning extremal hexagonal chains for the Hosoya index and Merrifield-Simmons index.

  18. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate market

  19. China Homeware Chain Sells Aussie Brands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Australian products are to take prominence on the shelves of a new chain of home decor retail stores in China. China-based manufacturer Thomas Bryson International Ltd, which is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange, will for the first time open a chain of Thomas Bryson homeware stores throughout China.

  20. China Homeware Chain Sells Aussie Brands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Australian products are to take prominence on the shelves of a new chain of home decor retail stores in China.China-based manufacturer Thomas Bryson International Ltd, which is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange, will for the first time open a chain of Thomas Bryson homeware stores throughout China.

  1. A modeling framework for supply chain simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In many industries logistic optimization on a company scale is no longer sufficient to meet the competition. Nowadays, competition takes place between supply chains. Intrinsic to the concept and success of a supply chain is the tuning of the activities of the companies involved. Given the complexity

  2. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  3. Qualitative methodology for efficient food chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Meerdink, G.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to efficiently design food supply chains. The goals of quality, cost and environmental load are looked at independently of each other. Food chains are made up of links and are designed to deliver a particular product with consumer-specified attributes. These attribu

  4. Vendor-Buyer Coordination in Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.J. Verheijen (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCollaboration between firms in order to coordinate supply chain operations can lead to both strategic and operational benefits. Many advanced forms of collaboration arrangements between firms exist with the aim to coordinate supply chain decisions and to reap these benefits. This dissert

  5. Stakeholder salience in humanitarian supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffling, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mitchell et al.(1997) developed a framework for assessing the salience of stakeholder groups based on their power, urgency and the legitimacy of their claim. This has been applied to illustrate the complexities of stakeholder interactions in humanitarian supply chains and to provide insights for their management and further research. Keywords: Supply chain management, Humanitarian logistics, Stakeholder salience

  6. The Future of Resilient Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donadoni, Mattia; Roden, Sinéad; Scholten, Kirstin;

    This research aims to advance theoretical understanding around the management of supply chain disruptions through a multi-stage Delphi study on supply chain resilience. Stage one focused on polling academic experts followed by a second stage with practitioners from automotive, electronics and food...

  7. Theory of chain association versus liquid condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roij, R. van

    1996-01-01

    We combine the original van der Waals description for liquid condensation with the association theory of ideal particles into a simple association theory of nonideal chains. The theory shows that vapor-liquid coexistence becomes metastable if the tendency to form weakly interacting chains is suffici

  8. Molecular dynamics studies of entangled polymer chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulacu, Monica Iulia

    2008-01-01

    The thesis presents three molecular dynamics studies of polymeric ensembles in which the chain entanglement plays the major role in the internal dynamics of the system. A coarse-grained model is used for representing the polymer chains as strings of beads connected by finite-extensible springs. In a

  9. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the l

  10. Towards effective food chains : models and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Top, J.L.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain management research can help in the analysis and redesign of value creation and the product flow throughout the chain from primary producer down to the consumer. The aim is to meet consumer and societal requirements effectively at minimal cost. In the Wageningen UR strategic research prog

  11. Enterprise Architecture in the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Koch, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Information systems in supply chain management (SCM) is common, bringing architecture on the agenda . The paper uses three perspectives on enterprise architecture (EA) in the supply chain: The correlation view, the remote view and the institutional view. It is shown that the EA in the domain...

  12. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlajic, J.V.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due

  13. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  14. Synchronize Your Supply Chain with RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    1 Executive Summary Driving efficiencies throughout your supply chain and increasing the velocity of items through the supply chain from creation to consumer is more than a business mandate today; it’s a matter of business survival. If your company doesn’t do it, your competition will. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a true next-generation

  15. Driving Value in The Upstream Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Helmold

    2011-01-01

    Lean principles and methods must be part of the total supplier management approach in any enterprise. Organisations can thus differentiate and create a competitive advantage. Surveys have shown that the lean integration of the supply chain and the elimination of waste within the upstream supply chain management lead to significant cost savings and benefits.

  16. Value Chain Responsibility in Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and value chain responsibility (VCR) have gained increasing importance for firms. The literature on these topics reports on CSR practices for established firms with existing technologies and stable value chains. This raises questions about the viability of CSR a

  17. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei

    2014-11-01

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.

  18. A conceptual framework for supply chain governance: An application to agri-food chains in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Chinese agri-food chains consist of the millions of small scale farmers, who are not well structured and organized in the supply chain. Owing to market liberalization and globalization, one of the most challenging issues along agri-food chains in China is becoming the issue of how to link

  19. Teaching Lean Six Sigma within a Supply Chain Context: The Airplane Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Scott C.; Goldsby, Thomas J.; Bailey, Ana M.; Oh, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Lean six sigma is a management methodology that firms can employ to achieve substantial improvement in supply chain performance. However, few pedagogical exercises facilitate students' use of a comprehensive set of lean six sigma principles within a supply chain context. We describe the Airplane Supply Chain Simulation that helps students…

  20. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and