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Sample records for chain evaluations tandar

  1. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator; Haz externo de protones en el acelerador TANDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, R.; Schuff, J.A.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Saint-Martin, G.; Oppezzo, O.; Bernaola, O.A.; Molinari, B.L.; Duran, H.A.; Policastro, L.; Palmieri, M.; Ibanez, J.; Stoliar, P.; Mazal, A.; Caraballo, M.E.; Burlon, A.; Cardona, M.A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Salfity, M.F.; Ozafran, M.J.; Naab, F.; Levinton, G.; Davidson, M.; Buhler, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, C.P. 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm{sup 2} approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  2. AMS measurement of 10Be concentrations in marine sediments from Chile Trench at the TANDAR laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D.; Arazi, A.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Martí, G. V.; Negri, A. E.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; de Barbará, E.; Gollan, F.; Hojman, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Samsolo, N.; Togneri, M.; Villanueva, D.

    2017-03-01

    The 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sediments samples from the Southern Chile Trench have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The samples were measured at the TANDAR accelerator, where the discrimination of the 10Be radionuclides was achieved by means of a passive absorber in front of an ionization chamber. This setup along with the high voltage available, provided a complete suppression of the 10B isobar interference. The obtained values for the 10Be concentrations, of the order of 109 atoms/g, are the first 10Be measurements from the Southern Chile Trench and offer an excellent tracer to quantitatively study the recycling of sediments in Andean magmas.

  3. Modeling for Green Supply Chain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM has become a practical approach to develop environmental performance. Under strict regulations and stakeholder pressures, enterprises need to enhance and improve GSCM practices, which are influenced by both traditional and green factors. This study developed a causal evaluation model to guide selection of qualified suppliers by prioritizing various criteria and mapping causal relationships to find effective criteria to improve green supply chain. The aim of the case study was to model and examine the influential and important main GSCM practices, namely, green logistics, organizational performance, green organizational activities, environmental protection, and green supplier evaluation. In the case study, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique is applied to test the developed model. The result of the case study shows only “green supplier evaluation” and “green organizational activities” criteria of the model are in the cause group and the other criteria are in the effect group.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, FTS

    2002-01-01

    Supply chain management has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage in different industries. For years, researchers have investigated the various processes within supply chain. There has been an increasing attention placed on performance, design and analysis of supply chain. However, the supply chain is a complex model so it is difficult to analyze the performance of a supply chain philosophically. To evaluate the control mechanism for a supply chain, simulation is o...

  5. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah U. Olugu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In today’s manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain management. To explore the extent of research in supply chain performance measurement and establish the gap in knowledge in supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation. Approach: Literatures in the area of supply chain performance measurement had been extensively reviewed. Both traditional and fuzzy logic approaches to supply chain performance measurement were scrutinized. Further scrutiny was carried out to establish potential research areas in the application of fuzzy logic operations in supply chain performance measurement. Results: The supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation was identified as a new direction in measuring the uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding supply chain performance measurement. Direction for further studies in the application of fuzzy logic operation in supply chain management and its performance measurement were also identified. Conclusion: Result of this study implied that there is still a gap in knowledge in the area of supply chain performance measurement. This new direction of studies involved extending the existing supply chains to incorporate product recovery after the useful life.

  6. Evaluating Reverse Supply Chain Efficiency: Manufacturer's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Wong, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to illustrate the use of fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA) in analyzing reverse supply chain (RSC) performance from the manufacturer's perspective. By using an alternative alpha-cut approach, the fuzzy DEA model was converted into a crisp linear programming problem, thereby...... usually ensures an environmentally friendly supply chain network, companies which have implemented RSC techniques since a longer duration do not necessarily have a more efficient supply chain in general....

  7. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ezutah U. Olugu; Kuan Y. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In todays manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain manag...

  8. Performance evaluation on aquatic product cold-chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The requirements for high quality and diversification aquatic products are increasing with the improvement of Chinese living standard. However, the distribution between place of production and place of consumption are uneven, which results in large cold-chain logistics demand for aquatic products. At present, the low-level development of cold chain logistics has a bad impact on the circulation of aquatic products in China. So it is very urgent to develop cold-chain logistics in China. Design/methodology/approach: In order to do this, we apply performance evaluation, a well-known management tool, to study Chinese aquatic product cold-chain logistics. In this paper we first propose SISP(Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model(Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation. Then an ANP-Fuzzy method is proposed to evaluate the operational performance of Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. Furthermore, a system dynamic model is built to simulate the impact of temperature on the profits in aquatic products cold-chain sales section. Findings: We find out within a reasonable temperature range, lower temperature brings higher profit level. Also, performance improvement methods are proposed and the simulation of performance evaluation system is developed. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the level of aquatic product cold-chain logistics in China. Originality/value: The paper proposes the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model (Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation.

  9. A Novel Evaluation Indicator System and Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Performance of Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xiyao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain performance evaluation is a research hotspot and lies in the core status in supply chain management. The study presents a new evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm for supply chain performance. First, the balanced score card is used to construct an evaluation indicator system for supply chain performance evaluation through analyzing the basic principle and connotation characteristics of supply chain management; Second analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithms are combined to satisfy the dynamic, subjective and transitional characteristics of evaluation indicators and improve evaluation accuracy. Thirdly the evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm are used in supply chain performance evaluation of fresh food products and the experimental results shows that the presented evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm has satisfied validity and feasibility.

  10. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  11. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

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    Juanqiong Gou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering supply chain. Findings: With the analysis of the characteristics of catering supply chain, we construct the performance evaluation model in order to guarantee the food safety, logistics efficiency, price stability and so on. Practical implications: In order to evolve an efficient and effective service supply chain, it can not only used to own enterprise improvement, but also can be used for selecting different customers, to choose a different model of development. Originality/value: This paper has a new definition of service-oriented catering supply chain. And it offers a model to evaluate the performance of this catering supply chain.

  12. AN EVALUATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

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    Marco Antonio Viana Borges

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thecharacteristics and challenges of the integrated market, along with the risinginternational cooperation and vertical disintegration, have led to the notionthat firms are linked in a global supply chain. This study is focused onconcepts and models organized for the development of a theoretical essay inGlobal Supply Chain Management to evaluate characteristics and opportunities inthis field. It was used references that cover the global market factorsinvolving economic, cultural, political and demographic issues that representopportunities and barriers for going global.  It was indentified that the challenge relatedto the international operations is to develop a global strategy considering theinfluence of political and economic factors in the trade, culturalcharacteristics, supply chain costs, infrastructure, technology, market andcompetitive rules. From the elements raised from theory for the configurationof a global supply chain approach, this study also identified gaps andquestions for future research agenda in the area.

  13. Evaluating the Role of Intermediaries in the Electronic Value Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marijn; Sol, Henk G.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a business engineering methodology that supports the identification of electronic intermediary roles in the electronic value chain. The goal of this methodology is to give stakeholders insight into their current, and possible alternative, situations by means of visualization, to evaluate the added value of business models using…

  14. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  15. Application of Grey-TOPSIS approach to evaluate value chain performance of tea processing chains

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    Richard Nyaoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an effective method to measure value chain performance and rank them based on qualitative criteria and to determine the ranking order of the various forms of performance under study. This approach integrates the advantage of grey systems theory and TOPSIS to evaluate and rank value chain performance. Grey-TOPSIS approach has been applied to measure and rank the value chain performance of various firms. The results indicate that the proposed model is useful to facilitate multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM problem under the environment of uncertainty and vagueness. The model also provides an appropriate ranking order based on the available alternatives. The Grey-TOPSIS approach that will be useful to the managers to use for solving the similar type of decision-making problems in their firms in the future has been discussed. Even though, the problem of choosing a suitable performance option is often addressed in practice and research, very few studies are available in the literature of Grey-TOPSIS decision models. Also, Grey-TOPSIS model application in the tea processing firms is non-existence hence this study is the very first to apply this model in evaluating value chain performance in the tea processing firms.

  16. Ergonomic evaluation of the wood cutting task using chain saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Gaurav; Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali; Muzammil, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Workers whose hands are regularly exposed to hand-arm vibration may suffer from damage to the tissues of the hands and arms, which cause the symptoms collectively known as hand-arm vibration syndrome. However, investigations have shown that vibration hazards can be controlled and risks might be reduced by good design of the task/tools. In the present study, an experiment was conducted for the evaluation of risk in operating chain saw. The evaluation of chain saw ergonomically performed based on four parameters--Discomfort level, EMG activity of seven different forearm muscles (ECRB, ECU, EPB, FCR, FDS, FCU and PT), angular deviation in hand-arm system and the vibration transfer to hand-arm system, while operating the chain saw on a wooden block. Ten male candidates participated for the discomfort level experiment, four participants volunteered for the EMG activity and angular deviation experiment and two participants were involved in vibration transfer recordings. The results showed that ECRB muscle was mostly affected muscle in this task of operating a chain saw. The findings also indicated that the problems were occurred due to the bad design of the rear handle of chain saw in association with the available vibration levels on hand arm system.

  17. Evaluating Investments For Services: A Value Chain Analysis Framework

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    Narcyz Roztocki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework based on value chain analysis to evaluate investments for services. The rationale for this approach is that to properly evaluate the benefits of any services investments, the value and cost interactions resulting from different business processes or activities need to be considered. To achieve reliable cost estimations, the framework employs a costing system, which integrates activity-based costing with the economic value added performance measure. The proposed framework is illustrated using a hypothetical case of an information technology investment in a car repair shop.

  18. Methodology for Performance Evaluation of Reverse Supply Chain

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    K.Arun Vasantha Geethan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around the world are employing reverse supply chain practices to overcome the regulations and generate profit making opportunities. As a result of the rapid progress in technology theproduct lifecycles are shrinking faster than ever. In the face of global competition, heightened environmental regulations and a wealth of additional profits and improved corporate image opportunities, performing the reverse supply chain operations at a world class level is becoming quintessential. These factors in addition to the inherent complexity of reverse supply chains due to the uncertainties associated with the quantity, quality, and timing of returns make returns management all the more complicated. This research spotlights on this particular problem from a consumer electronics industry perspective, as it poses the greatest challenges in handling returns due to the presence of high clock speed products and greater return volume and variability. In this research, Performance Evaluation Analytic for Reverse Logistics Methodology is developed to facilitate decision making from the perspective of an enterprise engaged in reverse logistics. It explores the various reverse logisticsfunctions and product lifecycle stages. It also develops some key business strategies and performance metrics that can be employed to be successful in returns handling. Deployment of this methodology intheir organizations provides them with a real world assessment of what strategies, reverse logistics functions, product lifecycle stages, or key performance indicators impact the Reverse LogisticsPerformance Value, thereby allowing them to continuously improve their returns management capabilities.

  19. Evaluating strategies for honey value chains in Brazil using a value chain structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana de Figueiredo Junior, Hugo; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Amaral Filho, do Jair; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Development organizations have used value chain analysis in defining interventions for the honey business in major exporting countries like Brazil. Yet, the impact of interventions has been unclear. This paper aims at evaluating strategies of three honey value chain streams in Brazil, selected fo

  20. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and

  1. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, van der, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chainsThe overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and effective method to analyse and redesign the SC to improve SC performance.BackgroundThe background and rationale of this thesis are discussed in Chapter 1. Interest in SCM has been spurred by recent socio-e...

  2. Lean Supply Chain Planning: A Performance Evaluation through Simulation

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    Rossini Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies look more and more for improving their efficiency to excel in the market. At the same time, the competition has moved from firm level to whole supply chain level. Supply chain are very complex systems and lacks of coordination among their members leads to inefficiency. Supply chain planning task is to improve coordination among supply chain members. Which is the best planning solution to improve efficiency is an open issue. On the other hand, Lean approach is becoming more and more popular among managers. Lean approach is recognize as efficiency engine for production systems, but effects of Lean implementation out of single firm boundaries is not clear. This paper aims at providing a theoretical and practical starting point for Lean implementation in supply chain planning issue. To reach it, a DES simulation model of a three-echelon and multi-product supply chain has been set. Lean management is a very broad topic and this paper focuses on two principles of “pull” and “create the flow”. Kanban system and setup-time and batch-size reductions are implemented in the lean-configured supply chain to apply “pull” and “create the flow” respectively. Lean principles implementations have been analyzed and compared with other supply chain planning policies: EOQ and information sharing (Visibility. Supported by the simulation study, this paper points Lean supply chain planning is a competitive planning policies to increase efficiency.

  3. Performance evaluation:= (process algebra + model checking) x Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, H.; Katoen, J.P.; Larsen, Kim G.; Nielsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Markov chains are widely used in practice to determine system performance and reliability characteristics. The vast majority of applications considers continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs). This tutorial paper shows how successful model specification and analysis techniques from concurrency theory c

  4. Three echelon supply chain design with supplier evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Kanika; Jha, P. C.; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    An effective supply chain management (SCM) facilitates companies to react to changing demand by swiftly communicating their needs to the supplier. Optimizing a supply chain (SC) performance is a key factor for success in long term SC relationships. Substantial information such as price, delivery...

  5. Methodology for Performance Evaluation of Reverse Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    K.Arun Vasantha Geethan; Jose, S; C.Sunil Chandar

    2011-01-01

    Enterprises around the world are employing reverse supply chain practices to overcome the regulations and generate profit making opportunities. As a result of the rapid progress in technology theproduct lifecycles are shrinking faster than ever. In the face of global competition, heightened environmental regulations and a wealth of additional profits and improved corporate image opportunities, performing the reverse supply chain operations at a world class level is becoming quintessential. Th...

  6. Evaluating Reverse Supply Chain Efficiency: Manufacturer’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasvi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to illustrate the use of fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA in analyzing reverse supply chain (RSC performance from the manufacturer’s perspective. By using an alternative α-cut approach, the fuzzy DEA model was converted into a crisp linear programming problem, thereby altering the problem to an interval programming one. The model is able to obtain precise and robust efficiency values. An investigation was also made between the obtained efficiency scores and certain relevant background information of the companies. The study revealed that while ISO 14001 certification usually ensures an environmentally friendly supply chain network, companies which have implemented RSC techniques since a longer duration do not necessarily have a more efficient supply chain in general.

  7. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

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    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  8. Research on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation of Fresh Agriculture Products Based on BP Neural Network

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    Hankun Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agricultural products is one of the key techniques and a research hotspot in supply chain management and in fields related. The paper designs a new evaluation indicator system and presents a new model for evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agriculture product companies. First, based on analyzing the specific characteristics of the supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture products, the paper designs a new evaluation indicator system including external and internal performance. Second, some improvements, such as adjusting dynamic strategy and the value of momentum factor, are taken to speed up calculation convergence and simplify the structure and to improve evaluating accuracy of the original BP evaluation model. Finally the model is realized with the data from certain supply chains of three fresh agriculture product companies and the experimental results show that the algorithm can improve calculation efficiency and evaluation accuracy when used for supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture product companies practically.

  9. Researches on Risk Evaluation of Green Agro-product Closed Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Closed supply chain is a superior form of management model of chain supply and an effective means of improving the modernization of agro-product circulation. Based on the research results of the current literatures on supply chain risk and agro-product supply chain, related subjects of the agro-product closed supply chain involving production, management and consumption are studied and analyzed and the primary risking factors in the supply chain system are classified as environmental risk, system risk, information risk, management risk and quality risk. Risk of agro-product closed supply chain is evaluated by using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and the values are acquired. The result shows that risk of agro-product closed supply chain is moderate with relatively high risk, which basically accords with the present actual situations. It can be seen from the index weights of various levels that the key first-level indices influencing the risks are system risk, information risk, quality and safety risk and the key second-level are the coordinating and controlling ability of core enterprises, the implementation of information traceability and the construction of quality safety system. Therefore, risk of agro-product closed supply chain should be reduced by taking prevention and controlling measures mainly from these aspects.

  10. Markov chain evaluation of acute postoperative pain transition states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Patrick J; Bzdega, Matthew; Fillingim, Roger B; Rashidi, Parisa; Aytug, Haldun

    2016-03-01

    Previous investigations on acute postoperative pain dynamicity have focused on daily pain assessments, and so were unable to examine intraday variations in acute pain intensity. We analyzed 476,108 postoperative acute pain intensity ratings, which were clinically documented on postoperative days 1 to 7 from 8346 surgical patients using Markov chain modeling to describe how patients are likely to transition from one pain state to another in a probabilistic fashion. The Markov chain was found to be irreducible and positive recurrent, with no absorbing states. Transition probabilities ranged from 0.0031, for the transition from state 10 to state 1, to 0.69 for the transition from state 0 to state 0. The greatest density of transitions was noted in the diagonal region of the transition matrix, suggesting that patients were generally most likely to transition to the same pain state as their current state. There were also slightly increased probability densities in transitioning to a state of asleep or 0 from the current state. An examination of the number of steps required to traverse from a particular first pain score to a target state suggested that overall, fewer steps were required to reach a state of 0 (range 6.1-8.8 steps) or asleep (range 9.1-11) than were required to reach a mild pain intensity state. Our results suggest that using Markov chains is a feasible method for describing probabilistic postoperative pain trajectories, pointing toward the possibility of using Markov decision processes to model sequential interactions between pain intensity ratings, and postoperative analgesic interventions.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation on Logistics Capability of the Supply Chain in Manufacturing Enterprise

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    Xianming Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of logistics capability of the supply chain in manufacturing enterprise, this study has established an evaluation system of logistics capability of the supply chain from four aspects. Rough sets theory is used to attribute importance to determine weights of the subspace dimension indicators and the membership function in fuzzy theory is used to determine the indicators of the level of the matrix. Combined with the theory of entropy, integrated weight of logistics capability of the supply chain of the matrix can be determined and quantified indicators will be achieved as an evaluation criterion. Finally, the established system of indicators and improved evaluation method are integrated to analyze the logistics capabilities of the supply chain in manufacturing enterprise; the evaluation method proves to be valid.

  12. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

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    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  13. Research on Evaluation on Agility of Agile Supply Chain Network Based on Complex Network Theory

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    Nai-Ru Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to add the network structure factors of agile supply chain network into agility evaluation. The paper firstly presents three concepts including node strength centrality, betweenness centrality, and network centrality. They are used to calculate the weight of node enterprises in the agile supply chain network. And then, a series of agility indicators are designed to evaluate agility of agile supply chain network. AHP is used to calculate the weight of the indicators. Next, these indicators are used to get initial agility evaluation matrix by means of Delphi method, Data Mining, and so forth. Then FCE is used to calculate the membership degree on agility of node enterprises by combining the evaluation matrix with the weight of indicators. Last, the evaluation result of comprehensive agility of agile supply chain network is calculated on the basis of considering the weight of node enterprises. This method can reflect the effect which the network structure of supply chain network makes on the agility of the supply chain network. It is a complement to the current evaluation methods of agility.

  14. Developing measures for the evaluation of information flow efficiency in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna A. Badenhorst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Member organisations in a supply chain are dependent on each other to provide material, services and information to perform optimally in the supply chain. Efficient, unrestricted information flow is needed in supply chains to function properly. Information flow is thus an element of supply chain management that needs to be managed. Yet, no indication could be found in supply chain management literature of the measurement of information flow efficiency. Hence, the aim of this article is to explore the measurement of information flow efficiency in supply chain management (SCM and exploratively develop possible measures (indicators and associated metrics to measure the efficiency of information flow.In this research the theory of information and related concepts, the basic notions of information systems and the models of business performance measurement were explored. Based on information flow theory and information flow characteristics a research instrument was developed. It was used in a survey to seek inputs from supply chain managers as to the usefulness of characteristics as indicators and metrics for the measurement of information flow efficiency in a supply chain. The main contribution of the study is the development of a conceptual framework of indicators and metrics that may be used to evaluate the efficiency of information flows in supply chains. The results of this study can be used as a basis for further studies to validate the instrument for measuring information flow efficiency and to develop scales to actually measure information flow efficiency.

  15. Evaluation and Design of Supply Chain Operations using DEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Chen (Chien-Ming)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPerformance evaluation has been one of the most critical components in management. As production systems nowadays consist of a growing number of integrated and interacting processes, the interrelationship and dynamic among processes have create a major challenge in measuring system and p

  16. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin Carole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  17. Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness Criteria in Supply Chain Management: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rostamzadeh; Mahdi Sabaghi; Ahmad Esmaili

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the proposed cost-effectiveness criteria in supply chain management using fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making (MADM) approach. Over the past few years, the determination of suitable cost-effectiveness criteria in the supply chain has become a key strategic issue. However, the nature of these kinds of decisions is usually complex and unstructured. Many quantitative and qualitative factors must be considered to determine the suitable crit...

  18. Evaluating opportunities to improve material and energy impacts in commodity supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2017-01-10

    When evaluated at the scale of individual processes, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) supply chain modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the US industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology and increases in industrial energy efficiency. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing three lightweight vehicle supply chains to the supply chain of a conventional, standard weight vehicle. Several of the lightweight vehicle supply chains are evaluated under manufacturing scenarios that include next-generation production technologies and next-generation materials. Results indicate that producing lightweight vehicles is more energy and emission intensive than producing the non-lightweight vehicle, but the fuel saved during vehicle use offsets this increase. In this case study, greater reductions in supply chain energy and emissions were achieved through the application of the next-generation technologies than from application of energy efficiency increases.

  19. Evaluation of postponement in the soluble coffee supply chain: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Potter, Andrew; Naim, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper, through a case study, evaluates postponement as an option to improve supply chain performances in a soluble coffee manufacturer. The main focus of the paper is on the development of a numerical data-driven methodology for quantifying the benefits of postponement obtained from the total...

  20. Evaluating Opportunities to Improve Material and Energy Impacts in Commodity Supply Chains.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2016-06-28

    When evaluated at the process level, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Material Flows through Industry (MFI) scenario modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the U.S. industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology, increases in industrial energy efficiency, and substitution between functionally equivalent materials. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing a steel supply chain to the supply chains of several functionally equivalent materials. Several of the alternatives to the baseline steel supply chain include next-generation production technologies and materials. Results of the case study show that aluminum production scenarios can out-perform the steel supply chain by using either an advanced smelting technology or an increased aluminum recycling rate. The next-generation material supply chains do not perform as well as either aluminum or steel, but may offer additional use phase reductions in energy and emissions that are outside the scope of the MFI tool. Future work will combine results from the MFI tool with a use phase analysis.

  1. Evaluating Supply Chain Management: A Methodology Based on a Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Tadeu Simon; Luiz Carlos Di Serio; Silvio Roberto Ignacio Pires; Guilherme Silveira Martins

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in supply chain management (SCM) by researchers and practitioners, there is still a lack of academic literature concerning topics such as methodologies to guide and support SCM evaluation. Most developed methodologies have been provided by consulting companies and are restricted in their publication and use. This article presents a methodology for evaluating companies’ degree of adherence to a SCM conceptual model. The methodology is based on Cooper, Lambert an...

  2. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-04-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks.

  3. Servo drive chain evaluation test set-up and configuration methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heera Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation test bench set-up for servo drive chain consists of various servo sub-modules viz., generic motion controller, servo drive amplifier, brushless AC servo motor, torque coupler, gear reducer and shaft encoder assembly for position feedback is considered. The module interfaces are established for efficient use in commissioning, diagnosing and qualifying the antenna tracking chain. Design methodology demonstrated and specifications of systems were derived. Design specifications of drive chain are configured through software tools for optimizing rate loop and position loop. The transient behaviour and response of servo system using Proportional Integral Derivative controller in time as well in frequency domain is analyzed. Stability conditions are simulated and verified. The test set up energised and test results of different inputs verified and following error minimised by tuning/ optimising the system.

  4. Evaluation of even- and odd-chain medium-chain triglycerides as energy sources for neonatal piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were evaluated as a supplemental energy source for the newborn piglet. In three experiments, piglets were force-fed 12 mi of MCT, varying in fatty acid (FA) composition. Blood fatty acid and ketone body concentrations peaked 1-2 h after force feeding then returned to baseline by 4 h, illustrating rapid digestion, absorption and oxidation. Peak 3-OH-butyrate concentrations never exceeded 80 {mu}M which is dramatically lower than observed in rats (>2 mM). Improved clinical energy status was also documented by elevated blood glucose concentration and lower nitrogen excretion than observed in fasted controls. Piglets showed an improvement in ability to utilize MCT between 6 and 18 h of age based on a two fold increase in blood concentration of FA and 3-OH-butyrate but no further change between 18 and 48 h. Peak plasma FA concentration decreased progressively as triglyceride-FA chain length increased from C7 (2.1 mM) to C10 (0.4 mM). In two subsequent experiments, hepatocyte metabolism of FA was studied. Hepatocytes oxidized (1-{sup 14}C)- C7 or C9 (1 mM) greater than 40% faster and consumed oxygen 7% faster than cells given C8 or C10. L-carnitine (1 mM) was without effect. Theoretical calculations from FA flux accounted for 95-140% of observed O{sub 2} consumption, indicating the FA were the major fuel source for the cells. Hepatocytes from 2 d pigs oxidized FA 48% faster than cells from 6 h pigs, but this was likely due to an increased metabolic rate observed in the older animals. No differences were detected in ability of small (700-950 g) pigs to oxidize FA relative to large (1,050-1,800 g) littermates. In a final in vivo experiment, pigs were continuously infused with 10 {mu}Ci of (1-{sup 14}C)-C7,C8, C9 or C10 via a catheter passed through the umbilical artery to the heart at a rate of 20, 50 or 100 mole FA/min for 5 h.

  5. Discussing and evaluating green supply chain suppliers: a case study of the printed circuit board industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Jong Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green supply-chain management is a novel idea that incorporates the concept of environmental protection into traditional supply-chain management in order to reduce environmental risks and impact. This study developed criteria for evaluating green suppliers on the basis of the green supply chain. The Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method was adopted to investigate the criteria for evaluating green suppliers, to explore inter criterion causal relationships and levels of mutual influence, and finally to discuss the mechanism for evaluating green suppliers, as well as the methods for selecting them.

  6. Supply Chain Collaboration Risk Evaluation Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wen; Wei Zhao; Rui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains are confronted with more complicated risks on the current financial crisis, as makes risk control in supply chain management more exigent. Supply chain collaboration, as the important part of supply chain management, is the key method of improving supply chains profits. This study introduces risk management into the mechanism of supply chain collaboration. In supply chain risk management, supply chain collaboration risk is recognized as an important section which can help SCM mo...

  7. Results Chains: a Tool for Conservation Action Design, Management, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Margoluis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day, the challenges to achieving conservation grow. Threats to species, habitats, and ecosystems multiply and intensify. The conservation community has invested decades of resources and hard work to reduce or eliminate these threats. However, it struggles to demonstrate that its efforts are having an impact. In recent years, conservation project managers, teams, and organizations have found themselves under increasing pressure to demonstrate measurable impacts that can be attributed to their actions. To do so, they need to answer three important questions: (1 Are we achieving our desired impact?; (2 Have we selected the best interventions to achieve our desired impact?; and (3 Are we executing our interventions in the best possible manner? We describe results chains, an important tool for helping teams clearly specify their theory of change behind the actions they are implementing. Results chains help teams make their assumptions behind an action explicit and positions the team to develop relevant objectives and indicators to monitor and evaluate whether their actions are having the intended impact. We describe this tool and how it is designed to tackle the three main questions above. We also discuss the purposes for which results chains have been used and the implications of their use. By using results chains, the conservation community can learn, adapt, and improve at a faster pace and, consequently, better address the ongoing threats to species, habitats, and ecosystems.

  8. Evaluating the modus operandi of construction supply chains using organisation control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Jagtap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are omnipresent. However, the modus operandi of the construction supply chainis not clearly established in the literature. This might be attributable to the character of construction projects and the structure of the construction industry. Formal and informal control mechanisms are well established in retail and manufacturing supply chains which is evident in improved product performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the construction supply chain especially at identifying the interplay of control mechanisms and their relationship with project performance. In the case of large and complex construction projects, the client-contractor relationship requires input control, behaviour control and output control for successful project delivery. In the light of organisation control theory and the existing literature on construction supply chains, this study evaluates the modus operandi of the client-contractor relationship based on three control mechanisms: input control (project risk and reward power, and intra-project communication, behaviour control (opportunism and output control (project performance using a structural equation model. A survey data of 258 construction professionals working on construction projects in India was collected. The study findings reveal that input control, in terms of project risk and reward power, and intraproject communication, largely influence behaviour control in terms of opportunism. However, behaviour controls do not directly affect output control in terms of project performance; rather, a direct effect of the input control mechanism of output control is particularly evident.

  9. Evaluation of IgG anti-toxoplasma avidity and polymerase chain reaction in the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elizabeth; Rivera, Raul; Cardona, Nestor; Sanchez, Victor; Lora, Fabiana; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Confirmatory tests for congenital toxoplasmosis were evaluated in 23 infected and 31 uninfected newborns. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was better than real-time polymerase chain reaction, but did not identify additional cases. Avidity tests added 2 new cases that were not identified by other criteria. Overall sensitivity was 82.6%. Avidity assay, but not polymerase chain reaction, increased the sensitivity of confirmatory assays in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  10. Workshop tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Maillard, D. [Energy and Raw Materials, 75 - Paris (France); Pumphrey, D. [Energy Cooperation, US Dept. of Energy (United States); Sverdrup, G.; Valdez, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Schindler, J. [LB-Systemtechnik (LBST), GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany); His, St.; Rozakis, St. [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Sagisaka, M. [LCA Research Centre (Japan); Bjornstad, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Madre, J.L. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite, 94 - Arcueil (France); Hourcade, J.Ch. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement le Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Ricci, A.; Criqui, P.; Chateau, B.; Bunger, U.; Jeeninga, H. [EU/DG-R (Italy); Chan, A. [National Research Council (Canada); Gielen, D. [IEA-International Energy Associates Ltd., Fairfax, VA (United States); Tosato, G.C. [Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP), 75 - Paris (France); Akai, M. [Agency of Industrial Science and technology (Japan); Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, DIW Berlin (Germany); Leban, R. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The aims of this workshop is to better characterize the future in integrating all the dynamic interaction between the economy, the environment and the society. It offers presentations on the Hydrogen chains evaluation, the micro-economic modelling for evaluation of bio-fuel options, life cycle assessment evolution and potentialities, the consumer valuation of energy technologies attributes, the perspectives for evaluation of changing behavior, the incentive systems and barriers to social acceptability, the internalization of external costs, the endogenous technical change in long-tem energy models, ETSAP/technology dynamics in partial equilibrium energy models, very long-term energy environment modelling, ultra long-term energy technology perspectives, the socio-economic toolbox of the EU hydrogen road-map, the combined approach using technology oriented optimization and evaluation of impacts of individual policy measures and the application of a suite of basic research portfolio management tools. (A.L.B.)

  11. Descriptive and predictive evaluation of high resolution Markov chain precipitation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    . Continuous modelling of the Markov process proved attractive because of a marked decrease in the number of parameters. Inclusion of seasonality into the continuous Markov chain model proved difficult. Monte Carlo simulations with the models show that it is very difficult for all the model formulations...... to reproduce the time series on event level. Extreme events with short (10 min), medium (60 min) and long (12 h) durations were investigated because of their importance in urban hydrology. Both the descriptive likelihood based statistics and the predictive Monte Carlo simulation based statistics are valuable......A time series of tipping bucket recordings of very high temporal and volumetric resolution precipitation is modelled using Markov chain models. Both first and second‐order Markov models as well as seasonal and diurnal models are investigated and evaluated using likelihood based techniques...

  12. Hesitant Trapezoidal Fuzzy QUALIFLEX Method and Its Application in the Evaluation of Green Supply Chain Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how to handle multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problems in which the criteria values of alternatives take the form of comparative linguistic expressions. Firstly, the new concept of hesitant trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (HTrFNs is provided to model the semantics of the comparative linguistic expressions. Then, the operational laws and the distance measures of HTrFNs are presented. Afterwards, a useful outranking method, the hesitant trapezoidal fuzzy QUALIFLEX method, is developed to handle the MCDM problems with hierarchical structure in the environment of HTrFN. At length, the proposed method is applied to evaluating green supply chain initiatives in order to achieve sustainable economic and environmental performance, and a case study concerned with a fashion retail chain is presented to demonstrate its feasibility and applicability, also, a comparative analysis with other relevant approaches is conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relation Analysis to Evaluate the Supply Chain Performance of the Wafer Testing House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the information age, the process of E-Commerce (EC operates quickly and the present enterprises of Taiwan have to face the Free Cross-Strait Market (FCSM with Mainland China, which will definitely change the model as well as the performance of the supply chain. Hence, this study focuses on the issue of supply chain performance evaluation of the wafer testing house in Taiwan. Approach: This investigation applied the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP to derive the weights of influential indicators for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house and the Grey Relation Analysis (GRA was used to evaluate the performance between the FCSM and EC aspects. Results: The analyzed results had identified the indicator weight of the supply chain performance evaluation in the wafer testing house and the indicator performances between different aspects were compared. The research results indicated that the FCSM aspect had better performance than EC aspect of the supply chain evaluation in the wafer testing house. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the analyzed results, the managers can find out the problems and improve the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house. This study not only can be a good basis for improvements of the case company, but also can be the reference for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house.

  14. Evaluating Internal and External Factors of Chain Store for Improvement in Iran: A Case Study (Etka Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to extract main indicators for review the internal and external dimensions of Etka chain stores and after the studying the organizational documentation and with using of the customer reviews, was determined the position of Etka chain stores in attractiveness and capabilities matrix. For any organization in any level, it is important to determine its position compared to competitors in terms of attractiveness and capabilities. Considering now that the "Etka chain stores" are the largest supplier of goods and services in Iran and in order to its mission tries to improve the processes of supply, storage, distribution, sales and after sales services company with an economic approach. According to peripheral changes in different dimensions of economic, political, social and also with the emergence fundamental paradigm in business such as service businesses, penetration of IT in business like E-commerce, the answer to this question is important “Where is the position of Etka chain stores in this industry?”. The data collection method is using the questionnaires. Finally the customer reviews have been analyzed.

  15. New Algorithm for Evaluating the Green Supply Chain Performance in an Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective green supply chain (GSC can help an enterprise obtain more benefits and reduce costs. Therefore, developing an effective evaluation method for GSC performance evaluation is becoming increasingly important. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of the current performance evaluations and algorithms for GSC performance evaluations were discussed and evaluated. Based on these findings, an improved five-dimensional balanced scorecard was proposed in which the green performance indicators were revised to facilitate their measurement. A model based on Rough Set theory, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Levenberg Marquardt Back Propagation (LMBP neural network algorithm was proposed. Next, using Matlab, the Rosetta tool, and the practical data of company F, a case study was conducted. The results indicate that the proposed model has a high convergence speed and an accurate prediction ability. The credibility and effectiveness of the proposed model was validated. In comparison with the normal Back Propagation neural network algorithm and the LMBP neural network algorithm, the proposed model has greater credibility and effectiveness. In practice, this method provides a more suitable indicator system and algorithm for enterprises to be able to implement GSC performance evaluations in an uncertain environment. Academically, the proposed method addresses the lack of a theoretical basis for GSC performance evaluation, thus representing a new development in GSC performance evaluation theory.

  16. Evaluating Supply Chain Management: A Methodology Based on a Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tadeu Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in supply chain management (SCM by researchers and practitioners, there is still a lack of academic literature concerning topics such as methodologies to guide and support SCM evaluation. Most developed methodologies have been provided by consulting companies and are restricted in their publication and use. This article presents a methodology for evaluating companies’ degree of adherence to a SCM conceptual model. The methodology is based on Cooper, Lambert and Pagh’s original contribution and involves analysis of eleven referential axes established from key business processes, horizontal structures, and initiatives & practices. We analyze the applicability of the proposed model based on findings from interviews with experts - academics and practitioners - as well as from case studies of three focal firms and their supply chains. In general terms, the methodology can be considered a diagnostic instrument that allows companies to evaluate their maturity regarding SCM practices. From this diagnosis, firms can identify and implement activities to improve degree of adherence to the reference model and achieve SCM benefits. The methodology aims to contribute to SCM theory development. It is an initial, but structured, reference for translating a theoretical approach into practical aspects.

  17. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  18. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  19. Scheduling Performance Evaluation of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Dynamic Index Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is crucial to the operation of logistics service supply chain (LSSC, so scientific performance evaluation method is required to evaluate the scheduling performance. Different from general project performance evaluation, scheduling activities are usually continuous and multiperiod. Therefore, the weight of scheduling performance evaluation index is not unchanged, but dynamically varied. In this paper, the factors that influence the scheduling performance are analyzed in three levels which are strategic environment, operating process, and scheduling results. Based on these three levels, the scheduling performance evaluation index system of LSSC is established. In all, a new performance evaluation method proposed based on dynamic index weight will have three innovation points. Firstly, a multiphase dynamic interaction method is introduced to improve the quality of quantification. Secondly, due to the large quantity of second-level indexes and the requirements of dynamic weight adjustment, the maximum attribute deviation method is introduced to determine weight of second-level indexes, which can remove the uncertainty of subjective factors. Thirdly, an adjustment coefficient method based on set-valued statistics is introduced to determine the first-level indexes weight. In the end, an application example from a logistics company in China is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. EVALUATION OF PHARMACIES IN ANKARA ABOUT SOME LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND COLD CHAIN RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the pharmacies in Ankara Centrum on some legal requirements and cold chain rules. We planned this study as a cross sectional research and performed it in Ankara 15-20 June 2000. Among the 1400 registered pharmacies in Ankara, stratified sampling chose 200; 189 could be reached. A questionnaire was formed in GATA Department of Public Health to evaluate cold chain rules, and also another observation form was filled for each pharmacy. Most common faults were lack of name tags (89.4%, lack of white uniforms (70.4%, and absence of pharmacist (42.3%. 95.8% mentioned that they received unprescribed drug requests; and 69.5% confessed that they gave unprescribed drugs. 42.1% said that they had food in the refrigerators they kept vaccines and biological materials. 55.8% of the responsible personnel had no knowledge about the suitable shelve for vaccines in the refrigerator. When comparing the pharmacies according to their placement, we found that there were considerable faults and especially these were more in hospital district pharmacies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(7.000: 148-155

  1. Evaluation of Supply Chain Efficiency Based on a Novel Network of Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li Fang; Meng, Jun; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Performance evaluation of supply chain (SC) is a vital topic in SC management and inherently complex problems with multilayered internal linkages and activities of multiple entities. Recently, various Network Data Envelopment Analysis (NDEA) models, which opened the “black box” of conventional DEA, were developed and applied to evaluate the complex SC with a multilayer network structure. However, most of them are input or output oriented models which cannot take into consideration the nonproportional changes of inputs and outputs simultaneously. This paper extends the Slack-based measure (SBM) model to a nonradial, nonoriented network model named as U-NSBM with the presence of undesirable outputs in the SC. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model in quantifying the efficiency and ranking the supply chain performance. By comparing with the CCR and U-SBM models, it is shown that the proposed model has higher distinguishing ability and gives feasible solution in the presence of undesirable outputs. Meanwhile, it provides more insights for decision makers about the source of inefficiency as well as the guidance to improve the SC performance.

  2. Testing and Evaluation for Web Usability Based on Extended Markov Chain Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Cheng-ying; LU Yan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    As the increasing popularity and complexity of Web applications and the emergence of their new characteristics, the testing and maintenance of large, complex Web applications are becoming more complex and difficult.Web applications generally contain lots of pages and are used by enormous users.Statistical testing is an effective way of ensuring their quality.Web usage can be accurately described by Markov chain which has been proved to be an ideal model for software statistical testing.The results of unit testing can be utilized in the latter stages, which is an important strategy for bottom-to-top integration testing, and the other improvement of extended Markov chain model (EMM) is to present the error type vector which is treated as a part of page node.This paper also proposes the algorithm for generating test cases of usage paths.Finally, optional usage reliability evaluation methods and an incremental usability regression testing model for testing and evaluation are presented.

  3. Identifying and evaluating E-procurement in supply chain risk by Fuzzy MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Memarzade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-procurement risks has emerged as an important issue for researchers and practitioners because mitigating supply chain risk helps improve firms’ as well as supply chains’ performance. E-marketplaces have been steadily growing and there have been significant interest in e-business research. There are different risks and uncertainties involved with E-marketplaces, which jeopardizes the sector but we have had a large amount of hype and the business still continue to grow. The primary aim of this study is to identify E-procurement risks and evaluate them using a fuzzy AHP framework. We contribute E-procurement risk by identifying 13 critical criteria and determine four important ones including the extent of acceptable information, interrelationship risk, lack of honesty in relationships and product quality and safety for evaluating suppliers’ risk.

  4. On the graph traversal method for evaluating linear binary-chain programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1999-01-01

    Grahne et al. have presented a graph algorithm for evaluating a subset of recursive queries. This method consists of two phases. In the first phase, the method transforms a linear binary-chain program into a set of equations over expressions containing predicate symbols. In the second phase, a graph is constructed from the equations and the answers are produced by traversing the relevant paths. A new algorithm is described which requires less time than Grahne’ s. The key idea of the improvement is to reduce the search space that will be traversed when a query is invoked. Further, the evaluation of cyclic data is speeded up by generating most answers directly in terms of the answers already found and the associated "path information" instead of traversing the corresponding paths as usual. In this way, this algorithm achieves a linear time complexity for both acyclic and most of cyclic data.

  5. Evaluation of the individual hydrogen bonding energies in N-methylacetamide chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The individual hydrogen bonding energies in N-methylacetamide chains were evaluated at the MP2/6-31+G** level including BSSE correction and at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) level including BSSE and van der Waals correction.The calculation results indicate that compared with MP2 results,B3LYP calculations without van der Waals correction underestimate the individual hydrogen bonding energies about 5.4 kJ m ol-1 for both the terminal and central hydrogen bonds,whereas B3LYP calculations with van der Waals correction produce almost the same individual hydrogen bonding energies as MP2 does for those terminal hydrogen bonds,but still underestimate the individual hydrogen bonding energies about 2.5 kJ mol-1 for the hydrogen bonds near the center.Our calculation results show that the individual hydrogen bonding energy becomes more negative (more attractive) as the chain becomes longer and that the hydrogen bonds close to the interior of the chain are stronger than those near the ends.The weakest individual hydrogen bonding energy is about-29.0 kJ m ol-1 found in the dimer,whereas with the growth of the N-methylacetamide chain the individual hydrogen bonding energy was estimated to be as large as-62.5 kJ mol-1 found in the N-methylacetamide decamer,showing that there is a significant hydrogen bond cooperative effect in N-methylacetamide chains.The natural bond orbital analysis indicates that a stronger hydrogen bond corresponds to a larger positive charge for the H atom and a larger negative charge for the O atom in the N-H···O=C bond,corresponds to a stronger second-order stabilization energy between the oxygen lone pair and the N-H antibonding orbital,and corresponds to more charge transfer between the hydrogen bonded donor and acceptor molecules.

  6. Methodical approach to profitability evaluation of logistic chain of enterprise’s trading capital financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Kolodizieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is the development and improvement of methodical approaches to evaluation of productivity of bank servicing taking into account introduction of the logistic approach to bank’s financial management. These researches suppose to solve such task as the creation of the relative index which application would allow to estimate above-mentioned productivity by using in calculations known indicators of bank’s, client’s and financial market’s activity. The results of the analysis. In modern competitive environment of banking system it is accruing the particular importance of the problem of search of new, perspective and effective approaches to banking services management, which are directed to full satisfaction client’s needs and maximizing bank’s profit and allowed to considerably increase the efficiency and productivity of above-mentioned services in the conditions of financial resources deficiency. One of such approaches is logistic approach which allows to reach optimal management of all bank’s streams, first of all financial streams. The important scientific task represents in scientific and methodical researches of application of the specified approach to management of bank activity. Despite of sufficient scientific researches devoted to the above problems, methods of evaluation of the efficiency of banking services connected with financial resources utilization, and which are considers the general productivity of all deal’s participants, aren't fully studied. According to authors it is expedient the logistic chain profitability index’s application to bank’s credit services management for achievement of compromise between bank’s and its client’s interest and optimal decision-making in logistic chain as a whole. As the logistic chain authors present the sequence of the processes which are assuming the transformation of interconnected financial streams by subjects of bank crediting

  7. Protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a 4-distance description of side-chain interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Yuval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation and modelling of residue-residue interactions within and between proteins is a key aspect of computational structure prediction including homology modelling, protein-protein docking, refinement of low-resolution structures, and computational protein design. Results Here we introduce a method for accurate protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a novel 4-distance description of residue-residue interaction geometry. Statistical 4-distance preferences were extracted from high-resolution protein structures and were used as a basis for a knowledge-based potential, called Hunter. We demonstrate that 4-distance description of side chain interactions can be used reliably to discriminate the native structure from a set of decoys. Hunter ranked the native structure as the top one in 217 out of 220 high-resolution decoy sets, in 25 out of 28 "Decoys 'R' Us" decoy sets and in 24 out of 27 high-resolution CASP7/8 decoy sets. The same concept was applied to side chain modelling in protein structures. On a set of very high-resolution protein structures the average RMSD was 1.47 Å for all residues and 0.73 Å for buried residues, which is in the range of attainable accuracy for a model. Finally, we show that Hunter performs as good or better than other top methods in homology modelling based on results from the CASP7 experiment. The supporting web site http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/hunter/ was developed to enable the use of Hunter and for visualization and interactive exploration of 4-distance distributions. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hunter can be used as a tool for evaluation and for accurate modelling of residue-residue interactions in protein structures. The same methodology is applicable to other areas involving high-resolution modelling of biomolecules.

  8. Supply Chain Collaboration Risk Evaluation Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are confronted with more complicated risks on the current financial crisis, as makes risk control in supply chain management more exigent. Supply chain collaboration, as the important part of supply chain management, is the key method of improving supply chains profits. This study introduces risk management into the mechanism of supply chain collaboration. In supply chain risk management, supply chain collaboration risk is recognized as an important section which can help SCM more efficiently. This study is aimed to present a collaboration risk analysis methods based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers similarity to solve this problem. By using two linguist terms probability of failure and severity of loss, supply chain collaboration risk can be calculated and expressed with linguistic term. At last, an example is used to identify the efficiency of this method.

  9. An Evaluation Model of Supply Chain Performances Using 5DBSC and LMBP Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei Fan; Shujun Zhang; Longzhao Wang; Yinsheng Yang; Kevin Hapeshi

    2013-01-01

    A high efficient Supply Chain (SC) would bring great benefits to an enterprise such as lntegrated resources,reduced logistics costs,improved logistics efficiency and high quality of overall level of services.So it is important to research various methods,performance indicator systems and technology for evaluating,monitoring,predicting and optimizing the performance of a SC.In this paper,the existing performance indicator systems and methods are discussed and evaluated.Various nature-inspired algorithms are reviewed and their applications for SC Performance Evaluation (PE) are discussed.Then,a model is proposed and developed using 5 Dimensional Balanced Scorecard (5DBSC) and LMBP (Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation) neural network for SC PE.A program is written using Matlab tool box to implement the model based on the practical values of the 14 indicators of 5DBSC of a given previous period.This model can be used to evaluate,predict and optimize the performance of a SC.The analysis results of a case study of a company show that the proposed model is valid,reliable and effective.The convergence speed is faster than that in the previous work.

  10. Development and evaluation of a reservoir model for the Chain of Lakes in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.

    2017-01-27

    Forecasts of flows entering and leaving the Chain of Lakes reservoir on the Fox River in northeastern Illinois are critical information to water-resource managers who determine the optimal operation of the dam at McHenry, Illinois, to help minimize damages to property and loss of life because of flooding on the Fox River. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey; the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Water Resources; and National Weather Service, North Central River Forecast Center began a cooperative study to develop a system to enable engineers and planners to simulate and communicate flows and to prepare proactively for precipitation events in near real time in the upper Fox River watershed. The purpose of this report is to document the development and evaluation of the Chain of Lakes reservoir model developed in this study.The reservoir model for the Chain of Lakes was developed using the Hydrologic Engineering Center–Reservoir System Simulation program. Because of the complex relation between the dam headwater and reservoir pool elevations, the reservoir model uses a linear regression model that relates dam headwater elevation to reservoir pool elevation. The linear regression model was developed using 17 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow measurements, along with the gage height in the reservoir pool and the gage height at the dam headwater. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients for all three linear regression model variables ranged from 0.90 to 0.98.The reservoir model performance was evaluated by graphically comparing simulated and observed reservoir pool elevation time series during nine periods of high pool elevation. In addition, the peak elevations during these time periods were graphically compared to the closest-in-time observed pool elevation peak. The mean difference in the simulated and observed peak elevations was -0.03 feet, with a standard deviation of 0.19 feet. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for peak prediction was

  11. Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness Criteria in Supply Chain Management: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rostamzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the proposed cost-effectiveness criteria in supply chain management using fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making (MADM approach. Over the past few years, the determination of suitable cost-effectiveness criteria in the supply chain has become a key strategic issue. However, the nature of these kinds of decisions is usually complex and unstructured. Many quantitative and qualitative factors must be considered to determine the suitable criteria. As the human decision-making process usually contains fuzziness and vagueness, a hierarchy of MADM model based on fuzzy-sets theory is used in this research. Using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, the weights of criteria and subcriteria are determined and then the final ranking is determined by technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS. Finally, fuzzy TOPSIS (FTOPSIS is employed to compare the results with classic TOPSIS. This paper concludes that the subcriteria in all the items are in the same rank.

  12. An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dalia

    The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers

  13. Evaluation of performance metrics of leagile supply chain through fuzzy MCDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Venkata Ramana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leagile supply chain management has emerged as a proactive approach for improving business value of companies. The companies that face volatile and unpredictable market demand of their products must pioneer in leagile supply chain strategy for competition and various demands of customers. There are literally many approaches for performance metrics of supply chain in general, yet little investigation has identified the reliability and validity of such approaches particularly in leagile supply chains. This study examines the consistency approaches by confirmatory factor analysis that determines the adoption of performance dimensions. The prioritization of performance enablers under these dimensions of leagile supply chain in small and medium enterprises are determined through fuzzy logarithmic least square method (LLSM. The study developed a generic hierarchy model for decision-makers who can prioritize the supply chain metrics under performance dimensions of leagile supply chain.

  14. Performance evaluation of railway blocking system based on markov chain and queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Yang

    2005-12-01

    Railway blocking system is the system with the high demanding of real-time performance. Firstly, the tasks and the time limits, which had to be handled for the blocking system, were introduced. The FCFS and the Markov chain were used to set the model for it. By analyzing the performance of the system with the FCFS model found out that it was not satisfied to the real-time performance. Secondly, NPPR model to evaluate the software real-time performance of the blocking processor was proposed. By evaluation, analysis and comparison, the results indicate that the NPPR model is prevail over the model of (M/M/1): (N/N/FCFS) in real-time performance. And the priorities of the tasks in the system should be given according to their time limit. With the principle of (M/M/1): (N/N/NPPR), if the priority was given to the tasks properly, the satisfied real-time performance will be gotten. The models were tested in forms software and the satisfied result has been gotten in practice.

  15. Evaluation of performance metrics of leagile supply chain through fuzzy MCDM

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Ramana, D.; K. Narayana Rao; J. Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Leagile supply chain management has emerged as a proactive approach for improving business value of companies. The companies that face volatile and unpredictable market demand of their products must pioneer in leagile supply chain strategy for competition and various demands of customers. There are literally many approaches for performance metrics of supply chain in general, yet little investigation has identified the reliability and validity of such approaches particularly in leagile supply ...

  16. A fuzzy multi criteria approach for evaluating green supplier's performance in green supply chain with linguistic preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Lixin; Olfat, Laya; Govindan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Today's international business environment has forced many firms to focus on supply chain management to gain a competitive advantage. During recent years, supplier selection process in the supply chain has become a key strategic consideration. With the growing worldwide awareness of environmental...... enough attention to environmental criteria as a means to evaluate suppliers. Now, many companies have begun to implement green supply chain management (GSCM) and to consider environmental issues and the measurement of their suppliers' environmental performance. This paper examines GSCM to propose a fuzzy...... protection and the corresponding increase in legislation and regulations, green purchasing has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Traditionally, companies consider criteria such as price, quality and lead time, when evaluating supplier performance and do not give...

  17. Tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The challenge of climate change implies to accelerate the pace of innovation and consequently to lead long-term basic and applied research with a planning horizon of several decades, far beyond the conditions of current market development. In such a context, the availability of efficient decision-aiding tools and methodologies, far more advanced than those presently operated, is a critical stake.The different categories of tools will have to be more complementary by design and the overall decision-aiding processes will have to integrate numerous system analysis approaches in order to take into account more deeply all economical, environmental and societal impacts. The general goal of the workshop was to address this imperative to break new ground in decision-aiding tools and methodologies to help us to prioritize energy R and D options, comparing the needs jointly with the state of art and with the potentiality of breakthroughs, mainly in environmental and social sciences. The expected outcome was to characterize the scope and limits of existing decision-aiding processes, to highlight the perspectives towards more advanced new ones, and, as such, to foster interdisciplinary cooperation by linking more closely social and environmental sciences with energy socio-economic modelling research. The workshop included four parts. The first three addressed specialized sessions, outlining three different categories of tools. The fourth one was dedicated to the perspective of a combined use of these complementary tools in order to have methodologies available for covering the whole field of energy and social sciences issues. After this last session, there was a closing synthesis of the two day's work on the challenges to take up and the ways to go. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: H2A Project/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (G. Sverdrup); E3DataBase/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (J. Schindler); Micro-economic modelling for evaluation

  18. Evaluation of the Influence of the Logistic Operations Reliability on the Total Costs of a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukinskiy Valery

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in logistics integral processes between the material and related flows in supply chains are getting developed more and more. However, in spite of increasing volume of statistical data which reflect the integral processes, the influence evaluation issues of the logistic operations reliability indexes on the total logistics costs remain open and require the corresponding researches implementation.

  19. Further Evaluations of Functional Communication Training and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement to Treat Multiple Functions of Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Muething, Colin S.; Gainey, Summer; Hoffman, Katherine; Fragale, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated functional communication training (FCT) combined with a chained schedule of reinforcement procedure for the treatment of challenging behavior exhibited by two individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and autism. Following functional analyses that suggested that challenging behavior served multiple functions for both participants,…

  20. Parallel GPGPU Evaluation of Small Angle X-ray Scattering Profiles in a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Lubomir Dimitrov; Andreetta, Christian; Hamelryck, Thomas Wim

    2013-01-01

    Inference of protein structure from experimental data is of crucial interest in science, medicine and biotechnology. Low-resolution methods, such as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), play a major role in investigating important biological questions regarding the structure of proteins in soluti......, and implements a caching procedure employed in the partial forward model evaluations within a Markov chain Monte Carlo framework....

  1. An evaluation of serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum by use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Posadas-Quintana, José de Jesús; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Saravia, Luis E; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Blackall, Patrick J; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the ability of a recently proposed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) to determine the serogroups (A, B, and C) of Avibacterium paragallinarum was evaluated. A total of 12 reference strains and 69 field isolates of Av. paragallinarum from Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru were included in the study. With some exceptions (which were serotyped in the current study), all of the isolates and strains had been previously examined by 2 serotyping schemes (Page and Kume) or were the formal reference strains for the schemes. Three of 6 (50%) reference strains of serogroup A, 2 (100%) of serogroup B, and 1 of 4 (25%) reference strains of serogroup C were correctly serotyped by the mPCR. With the field isolates, the mPCR correctly recognized 16 of the 17 serogroup A isolates, 10 of the 12 serogroup B isolates, and 18 of the 37 serogroup C isolates. Overall, the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR test was as follows: 82.6% and 87.3% (serogroup A), 85.7% and 71.9% (serogroup B), and 46.3% and 100% (serogroup C). The poor performance of the mPCR in terms of recognition of serogroup C isolates (low sensitivity of 46.3%) and the relatively high level of uncertainty about the accuracy of the serogroup A and B results (specificity of 87.3% and 71.9%, respectively) means that the assay cannot be recommended as a replacement for conventional serotyping.

  2. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction: another tool to evaluate viable virus content in live attenuated orf vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Prasad Bora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay based on the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene of orf virus (ORFV for the quality control of attenuated orf vaccine is reported. Primary lamb testis (PLT cells were infected with orf vaccine virus and harvested at a critical time point to obtain maximum viable virus content as determined by real-time PCR. DNA extracted from these harvests was subjected to real-time PCR. A critical time point for the harvesting of PLT cells infected with various log10 dilutions of vaccine virus was found to be 42 h (highest slope of 3.335, which was obtained by comparing the slopes of standard curves of different time intervals. The assay was employed to evaluate viable virus content in different batches of orf vaccine. The titres estimated by real-time PCR and conventional TCID50 were comparable with a correlation of 0.8169. Thus, the real-time PCR assay could provide an alternative method or supplementary tool to estimate live ORFV particles in attenuated orf vaccine.

  3. Performance evaluation of corrosion-affected reinforced concrete bridge girders using Markov chains with fuzzy states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B ANOOP; K BALAJI RAO

    2016-08-01

    A methodology for performance evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge girders in corrosive environments is proposed. The methodology uses the concept of performability and considers both serviceability- and ultimate-limit states. The serviceability limit states are defined based on the degree of cracking (characterized by crack width) in the girder due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement, and the ultimate limit states are defined based on the flexural load carrying capacity of the girder (characterized in terms of rating factor using the load and resistance factor rating method). The condition of the bridge girder is specified by the assignment of a condition state from a set of predefined condition states. Generally, the classification of condition states is linguistic, while the condition states are considered to be mutually exclusive and collectivelyexhaustive. In the present study, the condition states of the bridge girder are also represented by fuzzy sets to consider the ambiguities arising due to the linguistic classification of condition states. A non-homogeneous Markov chain (MC) model is used for modeling the condition state evolution of the bridge girder with time. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a severely distressed beam of the Rocky Point Viaduct. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with those obtained using conventional MC model. It is noted that the use of MC with fuzzy states leads to conservative decision making for the problem considered in the case study.

  4. EVALUATION OF RFID APPLICATION IN APPAREL RETAIL IN SUPPLIER AND CUSTOMER CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, P. C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the application of RFID in retail apparel stock. The use of RFID in Brazil has been limited to large enterprises and supply operations, not in the retail supply chain link. Therefore, this article brings interesting findings about RFID and its application in retail. The case study was used such as qualitative research approach and semi-structured interview. For this method, a roadmap of open and closed questions was used. Data were analyzed by checking all the points of the questionnaires from the literature review, which were organized with field research to complete the discussion of the case. Both interviewers agreed as to the advantages of RFID: an average return; new opportunities; high contribution to the company; reduction of time taken for inventory. With regard to disadvantages, the first interviewer noted the interference of RFID tag, and the second interviewer disagreed. The research revealed that RFID takes greater accuracy and better inventory management; fewer out-of-stock events; timely replenishment; maintenance costs reduction of inventory; level of high customer service; agility of payment in cashiers; best shopping experience; and better prevention of losses. One of the problems identified was the registration of products on the client.

  5. Evaluation of Cold Chain Practices in Urban Health Centers of a Metro City in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Krishnappa, Arvind B Anniappan, Narayana H Voderhobli, Shantha Kumar Krishna, Sudarshana Yathiraj, Pruthvish Sreekantaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Family Health Survey report (NFHS-3 reports revealed that immunization coverage in India among children between 12-23 months was low at 43.5%. In lieu of strengthening Routine Immu-nization (RI, Government of Karnataka undertook state-wide training of Medical officers and Health workers on RI with concurrent efforts of strengthening cold chain system in health centers. With this background, this study was undertaken to assess the cold chain practices in urban health centers of Bangalore city. Methodology: This Cross-sectional study was conducted during Octo-ber-December 2008 in three-zones of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP covering 35 units. Physical verification of the available cold chain equipments was done using predesigned pretested checklist and face to face interview of cold chain handlers was employed. Results: Of 35 centers, 33(94% and 32(91% of them had atleast one functional Ice-lined refrigerator(ILR and one deep freezer(DF respectively. Good storage code practice was practiced in 12 out of 33 ILRs. Functional thermometer was available in 31(91% ILRs of which 23(74% had temperature in the recommend range. With respect to knowledge of cold chain handlers on RI, 86% were trained on RI and their overall knowledge regarding cold chain practices was satisfactory except for knowledge on temperature in DF and on conditioning of ice-packs. Conclusion: Availability of cold chain equipments has improved and Cold storage practice was good/fair in most of the centers. Knowledge of cold chain handlers was low with respect to select cold chain practices.

  6. An exploratory study to evaluate Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotypes and infection outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabit AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrar K Thabit,1,2 David P Nicolau1,3 1Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA Background: Clostridium difficile infection ranges from mild to severe prolonged diarrhea with systemic symptoms. Previous studies have assessed the correlation of some disease severity parameters to C. difficile ribotypes. However, certain clinical parameters of interest have not yet been evaluated.Aim: We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate the correlation of C. difficile ribotypes to parameters not assessed previously, notably days to diarrhea resolution (in terms of days to formed stools and days to less than three stools per day, length of hospital stay, 30-day recurrence rates, and 30-day readmission rates. Additional severity parameters evaluated include leukocytosis, serum creatinine, fever, and nausea/vomiting.Methods: Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates from baseline stool samples of 29 patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the parameters of interest.Results: The most common ribotypes were 027 (38%, 014/020 (21%, and 106/174 (21%. Numerically, 027 ribotype patients required more days to less than three stools per day versus 014/020 and 106/174 ribotype patients (P=0.2. The three ribotypes were similar regarding time to formed stools, duration of hospitalization, and 30-day readmission rate (P=0.2, 0.6, and 0.8, respectively. Recurrence within 30 days occurred in two patients with 027 and two patients with 014/020 (P=0.6. Leukocytosis and fever were more prominent with 027 than with 014/020 and 106/174 (P=0.04 for both parameters, although the degree of nausea/vomiting did not differ between the three groups (P=0.3. A serum creatinine level ≥1.5 times the premorbid level was seen in only three

  7. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  8. A Literature Review of Supply Chain Evaluation%供应链评价研究评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝龙; 曾佑新; 吴书芳

    2011-01-01

    在对国内外相关文献进行整理分析的基础上,综述了供应链评价的发展历程及供应链评价的内容;对供应链评价的主要方法和关键评价指标进行了整理分析;在此基础上总结出供应链评价中存在的问题,并对供应链评价的发展趋势做了展望。%The overview of research on the development history and content of supply chain evaluation is presented,which is based on the analysis of relevant domestic and overseas references.The primary methods and evaluation indexes of supply chain evaluation were summed up and analyzed.Then this review pointed out some existing issues to be solved in the evaluation system,and forecasted the development prospect of supplement chain evaluation.

  9. Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann Hansen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Per T.; Jensen, Bo Amdi;

    Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy.......Value of the free light chain analysis in the clinical evaluation of response in multiple myeloma patients receiving anti-myeloma therapy....

  10. A new Integration Model to Evaluate Strategic Performance of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Gholampour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Supply Chain Management (SCM is one of the most important and complex issues for automakers in the world. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the factors that predict strategic performance of supply chain by doing quantitative research at Iran Khodro Company (IKCO in Iran. Based on supply chain theories, strategic performance of supply chain was predicted by Information Technology (IT, Organizational Learning (OL, and Product Innovation (PRI in our research at the first time in an automotive company. Stratified random sampling was used to determine the sample size. Accordingly, 250 questionnaires were distributed among experts and supply chain specialists at IKCO. According to Supplying Automotive Parts Company (SPSC variable as the main dependent variable, Path Analysis (PA technique was used to explore casual relationships among variables using multiple regression analysis in SPSS. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was utilized based on Maximum Likelihood (ML analysis of normality, outliers, composite reliability, and validity to test hypotheses by using AMOS. PA, measurement model, and structural model were analyzed in order to examine the conceptual model. The results from multiple regression, path analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM were same. Thus, all hypotheses were supported by SPSS and SEM analyses. The findings of the study are discussed in detail.

  11. EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY PROGRESS WITH TECHNOLOGY IN A SPANISH HOTEL CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario González-Rodriguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes in the total factor productivity index of a Spanish hotel chain in the period from 2007 to 2010 with the purpose of identifying efficiency patterns for the chain in a period of financial crisis. The Data envelopment analysis (DEA Malmquist productivity index was used to estimate productivity change in 38 hotels of the AC chain. Results reveal AC hotels’ efficiency trends and, therefore, their competitiveness in the recession period; they also show the changes experienced in these hotels’ total productivity and its components: technological and efficiency changes. Positive efficiency changes were due to positive technical efficiency rather than technological efficiency. The recession period certainly influenced the performance of AC Hotels, which focused on organizational changes rather than investing in technology.

  12. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains....... Similarities of the main environmental impacts were identified to rationalize and justify the selection of key performance indicators chosen for a simplified web based LCA tool developed within the EC funded project SENSE (FP7). Life Cycle Assessment methodology covered many of the key challenges identified...... but will not be sufficient to address all environmental impacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  13. Identification and evaluation of modularization practices in an automotive supplier: progressivity analysis of transferring activities in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Prieto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The automotive value chain has more and more been making room to a strategy of which activities of product design and production have been transferred to the module suppliers. The transfer of value-added activities occurs from assembler to the module suppliers. The former assume the role of integrators within the supply chain. The supply chain participants have started to strengths their competencies in order to obtain advantages in the economy of scale and scope. In this context, the present work aims at investigating the valued-added transfer between first and second tiers of automotive supply chain in new product development and production. The work was carried out from an evaluation of a supplier with regard to modularization. The theoretical background considers the concepts of integrated and modular architecture as well as the progressiveness of competencies among suppliers. It adopts single cased as the research methodological approach. The literature points out that the process of modularization either in product development or in production offer benefits for both sides: assemblers and suppliers. The results from the investigated supplier shows inherent benefits due to the acquisition of new technologies that enable an increase of technical and management learning in projects of new products. Therefore, it demonstrates that in this modularity environment, the potential of value-added transfer is associated to the level of progressiveness of competencies that are incorporated to deliver module solutions to assemblers; the investigated supplier can be categorized in an “embrionary” stage.

  14. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane

    2014-01-01

    but will not be sufficient to address all environmental im-pacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage...

  15. An Evaluation of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method for the Rasch Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seock-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Examined the accuracy of the Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for estimating item and person (theta) parameters in the one-parameter logistic model. Analyzed four empirical datasets using the Gibbs sampling, conditional maximum likelihood, marginal maximum likelihood, and joint maximum likelihood methods. Discusses the conditions…

  16. Evaluation of Income and Employment Generation from Cassava Value Chain in the Nigerian Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oni Timothy Olukunle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Population in poverty and related statistics such as unemployment and income inequality in Nigeria is quite unacceptably high. In 2012, the country has unemployment of 23.9 per cent broken down to 17.1 per cent in the rural areas and 25.6 per cent in the urban centres. Cassava is now one of the priority crops to be used as a springboard to wriggle out of the menace of unemployment in the country. While cassava production is increasing at 3per cent every year, the country continues to import various industrial products that can be made from the crop. Therefore the paper analyzed the capacity of cassava value chain to create new jobs and generate increased income and employment in the economy. Framework of analysis of collected primary data was based on the concept of value chain. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages and measures of central tendency were employed in the analysis and presentation of results. Results showed that in the cassava value chain, increased income and employment can be generated through development of the chain especially at the stages of production, processing and industrial utilization. The implication is that increased generation of employment which is required for growth lies with increased industrial processing and utilisation of cassava for expanded production of non-food and non-traditional industrial products of cassava that are competitive to penetrate export markets. In this way, opportunities to generate increased income and employment will be enormous and diversified. Policy recommendations towards development of the cassava chain included efficient investment in infrastructure in the rural sector.

  17. Analysis of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Methods%供应链绩效评价方法探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文军

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the era of economic globalization and knowledge economy ,the previous competition between enterprises is evolved into competition among supply chains .The requirement How to evaluate the performance of supply chain with a scientific,effective,comprehensive and objective methods is becoming more and more urgent .In this background,this paper proposed for using Actor Analysis Method to evaluate the supply chain ,and has carried on the empirical analysis .%随着经济全球化和知识经济时代的到来,以往企业之间的竞争正在演变为供应链与供应链之间的竞争。如何对供应链绩效进行科学、有效、全面和客观的评价要求变得越来越迫切。在此背景下,提出了用因次分析法对其进行评价,并进行了实证分析。

  18. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the 'golden standard'. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present in the polar lipid fraction, which may be favourable from a bioavailability and stability viewpoint. Consumption of microalgae oil ensures intake of sterols and carotenoids. The intake of sterols, including cholesterol and phytosterols, is probably not relevant. The intake of carotenoids is however definitely significant and could give the microalgae oils a nutritional added value compared to fish oil.

  19. A Mathematical Approach to Supply Complexity Management Efficiency Evaluation for Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the factors of complexity due to the globalization of supply chain and to measure the management efficiency of the factors which cause the supply complexity within supply chain. This study conducts an analysis to utilize linear programming and bootstrapping, targeting 12 Korean companies among the selected companies in Fortune Global 500. According to the results from the analysis, 4 companies with relatively high management efficiency of the factors which cause the supply complexity and 8 companies with relatively low management efficiency are found. The research findings reveal that public companies with the small number of products, factories, and providers relatively manage the supply complexity compared to private companies. Moreover, this study suggests projection point as a direction for relatively less efficient companies and excess quantity of input which should reduce for its achievement. This study also has an implication to establish a further standard of efficiency to manage the supply complexity for companies.

  20. Evaluating Stationary Distribution of the Binary GA Markov Chain in Special Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mitavskiy, Boris S.; Cannings, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution, yet, rather little is known about the stationary distribution. On the other hand, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information abo...

  1. Performance evaluation of Warshall algorithm and dynamic programming for Markov chain in local sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ibrahim; Kamal, Md Sarwar

    2015-03-01

    Markov Chain is very effective in prediction basically in long data set. In DNA sequencing it is always very important to find the existence of certain nucleotides based on the previous history of the data set. We imposed the Chapman Kolmogorov equation to accomplish the task of Markov Chain. Chapman Kolmogorov equation is the key to help the address the proper places of the DNA chain and this is very powerful tools in mathematics as well as in any other prediction based research. It incorporates the score of DNA sequences calculated by various techniques. Our research utilize the fundamentals of Warshall Algorithm (WA) and Dynamic Programming (DP) to measures the score of DNA segments. The outcomes of the experiment are that Warshall Algorithm is good for small DNA sequences on the other hand Dynamic Programming are good for long DNA sequences. On the top of above findings, it is very important to measure the risk factors of local sequencing during the matching of local sequence alignments whatever the length.

  2. EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ALERT CHAIN IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN (SPAIN): How can the meteorological risk managers help researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Laura; Guerrero-Higueras, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Vicente; Lorente, José Manuel; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-Manso, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    Evaluating the meteorological alert chain, or, how information is transmitted from the meteorological forecasters to the final users, passing through risk managers, is a useful tool that benefits all the links of the chain, especially the meteorology researchers and forecasters. In fact, the risk managers can help significantly to improve meteorological forecasts in different ways. Firstly, by pointing out the most appropriate type of meteorological format, and its characteristics when representing the meteorological information, consequently improving the interpretation of the already-existing forecasts. Secondly, by pointing out the specific predictive needs in their workplaces related to the type of significant meteorological parameters, temporal or spatial range necessary, meteorological products "custom-made" for each type of risk manager, etc. In order to carry out an evaluation of the alert chain in Castilla y León, we opted for the creation of a Panel of Experts made up of personnel specialized in risk management (Responsible for Protection Civil, Responsible for Alert Services and Hydrological Planning of Hydrographical Confederations, Responsible for highway maintenance, and management of fires, fundamentally). In creating this panel, a total of twenty online questions were evaluated, and the majority of the questions were multiple choice or open-ended. Some of the results show how the risk managers think that it would be interesting, or very interesting, to carry out environmental educational campaigns about the meteorological risks in Castilla y León. Another result is the elevated importance that the risk managers provide to the observation data in real-time (real-time of wind, lightning, relative humidity, combined indices of risk of avalanches, snowslides, index of fires due to convective activity, etc.) Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Junta de Castilla y León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  3. Evaluer la création de valeur du supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbe-Costes, Nathalie

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Le Supply Chain Management (SCM) est « créateur de valeur ». Mais, de quelle[s] valeur[s] parlons-nous ? Pour qui ? Et comment l'évaluer ? Le caractère transversal et multi parties prenantes de ces « nouvelles » pratiques interorganisationnelles rend ces questions complexes. Notre contribution tentera d'apporter quelques réponses, si possibles non simplificatrices, utiles tant pour le chercheur en Sciences de Gestion, que pour le praticien impliqué dans des supply chai...

  4. A proposal for a process of selection, bibliometrics and sistemic review of articles on the supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Della Bruna Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management has been widely studied through scientific researches and publications, presenting well grounded concepts in both academic and business areas. Meanwhile, the topic of Performance Evaluation is newer and its concepts are still under consolidation. In this context, the paper aims to propose a process for selection and analysis of a portfolio of scientific articles on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation. To do this, it illustrates a process for searching and selecting articles from scientific databases and analyzes them through Bibliometrics and Systemic Review. As a result, a portfolio of 18 papers aligned to the research subject was obtained and the journals, authors and articles with higher academic relevance were identified. The Systemic Review, in turn, has highlighted the knowledge gaps of the evaluated papers and, from these, developed a research question and objective aiming to answer them. These latter will guide the continuity of this research. Finally, it is expected that the proposed process can be useful for researchers wishing to apply it to their research topics.

  5. Evaluation of the serum free light chain (sFLC) analysis in prediction of response in symptomatic multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann Hansen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Per T; Nielsen, Lars C;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational data from clinical studies indicate that the goal of first-line therapy in newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) should be very good partial response (VGPR) or better, preferably before high-dose treatment. We evaluated the value of early...... measurements of involved free light chains (iFLC) in prediction of high-quality responses. Measuring iFLC has a potential advantage due to a short half-life compared to the half-life of the M-protein. METHODS: In 36 multiple myeloma (MM) patients, we measured serial changes in iFLC and M-protein after start...

  6. Application of SCOR Model in Supply Chain Performance Evaluation%SCOR模型在供应链绩效评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶淑雯

    2014-01-01

    Effective supply chain management can improve the competitiveness of enterprises .As the core of the supply chain management ,supply chain performance evaluation has play a decisive role for the successful operation of the supply chain . This article introduces the SCOR model firstly ,then present the application of SCOR model in performance evaluation of supply chain.%高效的供应链管理能提升企业的竞争力。作为供应链管理的核心组成部分,供应链绩效评价对于供应链的成功运作具有举足轻重的作用。文中首先对SCOR模型进行介绍,进而从实践角度出发,介绍了SCOR模型在供应链绩效评价中的应用。

  7. An Investment Evaluation of a RFID-Enabled Meat Supply Chain: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety and quality of meat they purchase from supermarkets. A study by Mohammed [1] proposed a RFID (Radio Frequency Identification-enabled monitoring system for meat supply chains to improve the traceability of meat products throughout their entire supply chain with the aim of maintaining product safety. This paper extends that work to examine the economic feasibility for the proposed RFID-enabled monitoring system. To this aim, a multi-criteria optimization model was developed. The considered criteria were minimizing the total cost, maximizing consumer satisfaction, maximizing product freshness and maximizing profits. In order to obtain Pareto solutions from the developed model, a new solution approach was developed and its results were compared to two traditional solution approaches. A case study was applied conducive to an examination for the applicability of the developed model and the performance of the proposed solution approaches. Results have proved the feasibility of the proposed RFID-enabled monitoring system in terms of economic costs in addition to the capability of the developed optimization model in obtaining a trade-off among the considered criteria.

  8. Evaluation of food chain transfer of the antibiotic oxytetracycline and human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsaner, Maliwan; Hawker, Darryl W

    2013-10-01

    There has been recent concern regarding the possibility of antibiotics entering the aquatic food chain and impacting human consumers. This work reports experimental results of the bioconcentration of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) by the Asian watermeal plant (Wolffia globosa Hartog & Plas) and bioaccumulation of OTC in watermeal and water by the seven-striped carp (Probarbus jullieni). They show, for the first time, the extent to which OTC is able to transfer from water to plant to fish and enter the food chain. The mean bioconcentration factor (dry weight basis) with watermeal was 1.28 × 10(3) L kg(-1). Separate experiments were undertaken to characterize accumulation of OTC by carp from water and watermeal. These showed the latter pathway to be dominant under the conditions employed. The bioconcentration and biomagnification factors for these processes were 1.75 L kg(-1) and 2 × 10(-4) kg g(-1) respectively. Using an aqueous concentration range of 0.34-3.0 μg L(-1), hazard quotients for human consumption of contaminated fish of 1.3 × 10(-2) to 1.15 × 10(-1) were derived.

  9. A Performance Evaluation System for Agricultural Services in Agricultural Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangeneh Morteza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is comparing all possible scenarios to improve the performance of agricultural supply chain (ASC. For this purpose, at first all scenarios is discussed and the main constraints, i.e. available budget and time, is considered. In this study the drivers to improve the performance of ASC is select and distribute the best agricultural service packages in the target ASC. All discussed scenarios need a selection procedure. So a multilevel approach is developed to select the best service package for each scenario. All selection methods are based on performance measurement which had been selected in first level of the approach. Fuzzy decision making and Analytic Hierarchy Process have been used for the approach. A numerical example is solved at the end of the paper to show the capability of the approach and comparing the scenarios.

  10. Evaluation of the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic column prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamat Turson; Xiao Lei Zhuang; Hui Na Liu; Ping Jiang; Xiang Chao Dong

    2009-01-01

    To make more homogenous organic monolithic structure,reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer(RAFT)process was employed in the synthesis of the clenbuterol imprinted polymer.In the synthesis,the influence of synthetic conditions on the polymer structure and separation efficiency was studied.The result demonstrated that the imprinted columns prepared with RAFT process have higher column efficiency and selectivity than the columns prepared with conventional polymerization in the present study,which may result from the higher surface area,smaller pore size and the narrower globule size distribution in their structures.The result indicated that RAFT polymerization provided better conditions for the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic polymer preparation.

  11. Induction therapy pre-autologous stem cell transplantation in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Yi L; Kumar, Shaji K; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis K; Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Go, Ronald S; Leung, Nelson; Kapoor, Prashant; Dingli, David; Kyle, Robert A; Russell, Stephen; Lust, John A; Hayman, Suzanne R; Lin, Yi; Zeldenrust, Steven; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus on whether patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) should receive induction therapy prior to an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). This study investigated the relationships between baseline bone marrow plasmacytosis (BMPC), cardiac staging, and pre-transplant induction in AL patients. All patients who received ASCT for AL within 12 months of diagnosis were included. Patient characteristics and outcomes were abstracted. Univariate and multivariate modeling was performed. Among 415 AL patients, 35% had induction prior to ASCT. Post-ASCT hematologic CR plus VGPR rates were significantly higher in those with baseline BMPC ≤ 10% compared to BMPC >10% (58% versus 40%, P = 0.0013). Significant risk factors for lack of attainment of CR included attenuated dose melphalan conditioning, baseline BMPC > 10%, no induction, and male gender. The 5-year OS for the entire group was 65%. On multivariate analysis, risk factors for inferior OS included no induction therapy, advanced AL amyloid staging, BMPC > 10%, attenuated conditioning melphalan dose, and male gender. Patients with Mayo 2012 stage I-II patients with BMPC ≤ 10%, who comprised 56% of the ASCT population fared exceedingly well regardless of whether or not they received induction therapy with a 5-year OS of 81 to 83%. Induction therapy pre-ASCT may improve outcomes among AL patients due to a rapid reduction of toxic light chains or alternatively by elimination of less fit patients by "testing" their ability to tolerate chemotherapy. Prospective studies will be required to sort out these and other questions. Am. J. Hematol. 91:984-988, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the evaluation index system based on the AHP small and medium-sized enterprise and then use AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, we use Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and give the measurement process. The empirical research, to validate the method is scientific and feasible.

  13. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  14. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction across life cycle stages and tissue types of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutges, Michelle J; Hartzer, Kris; Lord, Jeffrey; Oppert, Brenda

    2010-08-25

    The genome of the genetic model for coleopteran insects, Tribolium castaneum, is now available for downstream applications. To facilitate gene expression studies in T. castaneum, genes were evaluated for suitability as normalizers in comparisons across tissues and/or developmental stages. In less diverse samples, such as comparisons within developmental stages or tissue only, normalizers for mRNA were more stable and consistent. Overall, the genes for ribosomal proteins rps6, rpl13a, rps3, and rps18 were the most stable normalizers for broad scale gene expression analysis in T. castaneum. However, their stability ranking was dependent upon the instrument as well as the analysis program. These data emphasize the need to optimize normalizers used in all real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments specifically for the experimental conditions and thermocycler and to carefully evaluate data generated by computational algorithms.

  15. In vitro evaluation of force degradation of elastomeric chains used in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weissheimer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the in vitro force degradation of four different brands of elastomeric chains: American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco and TP Orthodontics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 80 gray elastomeric chains that were divided into four groups according to their respective manufacturers. Chain stretching was standardized at 21 mm with initial force release ranging from 300 g to 370 g. The samples were kept in artificial saliva at a constant temperature of 37°C and the degradation force was recorded at the following time intervals: initial, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 hours, and 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the force degradation, mainly within the first day, as a force loss of 50-55% was observed during that time in relation to the initial force. The force delivered at 35 days ranged from 122 g to 148 g. CONCLUSION: All groups showed force degradation over time, regardless of their trademarks, a force loss of 59-69% was observed in the first hour compared to baseline. However, because the variation in force degradation depends on the trademark, studies such as the present one are important for guiding the clinical use of these materials.OBJETIVO: analisar, in vitro, a degradação de força, ao longo do tempo, de elastômeros das marcas comerciais American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco e TP Orthodontics. MÉTODOS: a amostra constituiu-se de 80 segmentos de elastômeros em cadeia fechada na cor cinza, divididos em quatro grupos, conforme o fabricante. A distensão foi padronizada em 21mm, com liberação de força inicial variando de 300 a 370g de força. As amostras foram mantidas em saliva artificial em temperatura constante de 37ºC, e a força avaliada nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1h, 3h, 5h, 7h, 9h, 1 dia, 7 dias, 14 dias, 21 dias, 28 dias e 35 dias. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na degradação de força entre os

  16. A disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Victoria; Li, Huizhong; Sant, Himanshu; Ameel, Tim; Gale, Bruce K

    2016-08-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a specific segment of DNA through a thermal cycling protocol. The PCR industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. Some of the fastest PCR devices use continuous flow, but they have all been built of silicon or glass to allow sufficient heat transfer. This article presents a disposable polycarbonate (PC) device that is capable of achieving real-time, continuous flow PCR in a completely disposable polymer device in less than 13 minutes by thermally cycling the sample through an established temperature gradient in a serpentine channel. The desired temperature gradient was determined through simulations and validated by experiments which showed that PCR was achieved. Practical demonstration included amplification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) derived cDNA.

  17. An Approach for Customer Satisfaction: Evaluation, Validation and Modeling By A Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina EL KEBBAJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to develop a practical approach to improve customer satisfaction, which is generally regarded as the pillar of customer loyalty to the company. Today, customer satisfaction is a major challenge. In fact, listening to the customer, anticipating and properly managing his claims are stone keys and fundamental values for the company. From a perspective of the quality of the product, skills, and mostly, the service provided to the customer, it is essential for organizations to differentiate themselves, especially in a more competitive world, in order to ensure a higher level of customer satisfaction. Ignoring or not taking into account customer satisfaction can have harmful consequences on both the economic performances and the organization’s image. For that, it is crucial to develop new methods and have new approaches to the problematic customer dissatisfaction, by improving the services quality provided to the costumer. This work describes a simple and practical approach for modeling customer satisfaction for organizations in order to reduce the level of dissatisfaction using the decisional prediction that allows companies to anticipate and adapt to future changes in their environment to be able to make the best decisions to ensure their sustainability. This approach respects the constraints of the organization and eliminates any action that can lead to loss of customers and degradation of the image of the organization. The problem is mathematically modeled by a Markov chain and practical examples to illustrate the work are given.

  18. Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection.

  19. Evaluating the CO2 Emission of the Milk Supply Chain in Italy: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, Italian dairy farms, which gather, process and sell milk at the national level, have strengthened their leading market position at the detriment of dairy cooperatives, operating within regional borders. Moreover, decreasing milk prices and increasing production costs have recently induced many farmers to open automatic vending machines, dispensing raw milk for direct sale to local consumers. In order to contribute to the environmental assessment of alternative systems, this study estimated CO2 emissions related to the transport from production farms to point of sale, for three brands of fresh milk currently sold in the Umbria region (Italy, starting from the food miles indicator as a simple concept, easily understood by consumers. These brands differ in the origin of milk (national, regional and local and distribution channels (large-scale retail channels for national and regional brands and vending machines for the local one. Thus, we estimated the emissions generated by the transport of the fresh milk consumed by regional households. In agreement with previous studies about CO2 emissions of foreign milk supply chains, the analysis showed that the production system of regional-branded milk, sold by retail channels, is the most efficient in terms of the environmental impact of transport.

  20. Evaluations of Mesogen Orientation in Thin Films of Polyacrylate with Cyanobiphenyl Side Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tasuku; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Saito, Itsuki; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Seki, Takahiro

    2016-04-19

    The orientation behavior of mesogens in a polyacrylate with cyanobiphenyl (CB) side chain in thin films was investigated in detail by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) measurements using both high-energy X-rays of Cu Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) and low-energy synchrotron X-rays (λ = 0.539 nm). By changing the film thickness ranging 7-200 nm, it is concluded that the planar orientation is predominant for thin films with thickness below 10-15 nm. This planar mesogen orientation near the substrate surface coexists with the homeotropically aligned CB mesogens in films thicker than 30 nm. For the thinnest 7 nm film, the planar orientation is unexpectedly lost, which is in consort with a disordering of smectic layer structure. Peculiar orienting characteristics of CB mesogen are suggested, which probably stem from the tendency to form an antiparallel arrangement of mesogens due to the strong dipole moment of the terminal cyano group.

  1. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 72, Revision 1 (FGE.72Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 23 aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA at their 61st meeting. This revision is made due...

  2. Cadre de planification integree de la chaine logistique pour la gestion et l'evaluation de strategies de bioraffinage forestier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Louis Patrick

    Biorefining is now recognized as a promising solution to transform the struggling forestry industry and to generate value-added pathways. The implementation of new products and processes will help companies to diversify revenues, but implies several strategic changes in the business model. Companies will face the dilemma of exiting or not traditional pulp and paper operations, while selecting their biorefinery product and process portfolio. As well, they will have to enter new markets and manage production to minimize the risk of market volatility. Over the past decades, both industry and academia paid a lot of attention to supply-chain management in order to increase the cost effectiveness of overall operations. The application of supply-chain management concepts could therefore greatly help the transforming North American forestry industry to compete globally. The objective of this Ph.D. project was to propose and illustrate an integrated supply-chain planning framework for the management and the evaluation of forest biorefinery strategies. This framework, named margins-based , integrates principles from revenue management, activity-based cost accounting, and manufacturing flexibility in a tactical planning model that maximizes profit of a company. The structure of the mathematical model and its associated cost model aims to represent as closely as possible the activities of a company, from procurement to sales. It enables the modeling of different process configurations leading to manufacturing flexibility. The model can thus be used as a platform for evaluating various operating strategies of a company, at both production and supply-chain levels. A case study of a newsprint mill implementing a parallel biomass fractionation line producing several bioproducts was used to illustrate this margins-based approach. Various strategic and tactical analyses were conducted to show the relevance of the approach as a decision-making tool for management problems related to

  3. Evaluation of the interactions between polymeric chains and surfaces with different structures performed by an atomic force microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oréfice Rodrigo Lambert

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between polymers and inorganic surfaces are present in a series of phenomena involving processes such as coagulation and deffloculation of ceramic powder and adsorption of organic macromolecules on the surface of implants, among others. In this work, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM was modified to allow the evaluation of interactions between polymeric chains and inorganic surfaces (silica with different structures. Polymers (sulfonated polysulfone were grafted onto AFM cantilevers. AFM force-distance curves were obtained for this modified tip against a series of substrates produced by depositing silica films on silicon wafers. The structure of the silica layer was modified by employing heat treatments at different temperatures. The results showed that the interactions between polymer and surfaces are dependent on the structure of the surfaces. Penetration of the polymeric chains can occur through a soft gel layer (substrates treated at low temperature, 110 °C. For surfaces with dense silica layers, the results showed that not only the concentration of hydroxy groups but also their spatial distribution along the surfaces are important in defining the magnitude of interactions between polymers and surfaces. A model involving a molecular recognition process, in which interactions are maximized for inorganic surfaces with structures that can match the chemical architecture of the polymer, was then used to explain the obtained results.

  4. Fast side chain replacement in proteins using a coarse-grained approach for evaluating the effects of mutation during evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahnen, Johan A; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2011-08-01

    For high-throughput structural genomic and evolutionary bioinformatics approaches, there is a clear need for fast methods to evaluate substitutions structurally. Coarse-grained methods are both powerful and fast, and a coarse-grained approach to position the substituted side chains is presented. Through the application of a coarse-grained method, a speed-up on the single- residue replacement, of at least sevenfold is achieved compared with modern all-atom approaches. At the same time, this approach maintains a small median RMSD from the leading all-atom approach (as measured in coarse-grained space), and predicts the conformation of point mutants with similar accuracy and generates biologically realistic side chain angles. This method is also substantially more predictable in its run time, making it useful for high-throughput studies of protein structural evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this method, it has been implemented in a forward simulation of sequences threaded through the SH2 domains, with selective pressures to fold and bind specifically. The relative substitution rates across the protein structure and at the binding interface are reflective of those observed in SH2 domain evolution. The algorithm has been implemented in C++, with the source code and binaries (currently supported for Linux systems) freely available as SARA at http://www.wyomingbioinformatics.org/LiberlesGroup/SARA .

  5. Evaluation of the availability of cold chain tools and an assessment of health workers practice in Dammam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholood M Mugharbel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the availability of cold chain tools and assess the practice of health workers in immunization rooms in health clinics in the Dammam area. Methodology: A cross-sectional approach was used for the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 10 governmental primary health care centers from the total of 20 centers that serve the Dammam area, and five out of 17 private health clinics. The Maternity and Child Health Hospital was included. A field survey was done at all sample sites. Data collection, analysis, and interpretation were done from July to September 2007, using a check list designed for this study according to cold chain criteria set by the Ministry of Health (MOH and World Health Organization (WHO. Result: According to the MOH and WHO criteria, around 91% of governmental health facilities (GHF and 80% of private health care (Private HC rooms were suitable. Less than 20% of the private HC maintained proper vaccine temperatures during storage, compared with all (100% of GHF clinics (p < 0.05. The difference in the appropriate handling and usage of vaccines during immunization sessions was also highly significant between GHF (90-100% and private HC (20% (p < 0.05. The knowledge of refrigeration maintenance by GHF and private HC health workers including keeping the refrigerator from dust, emergency retrieval and storage procedures in case of equipment failure or power outages, keeping the range of recommended temperature between 2°C- 8°C was 100% for GHF and for the Private HC′s ranged from 20%-40% (p < 0.05. Vaccine vials on the refrigerator shelves was appropriate in all (100% of the GHF and in only 40% for the Private HC (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that private health clinics did not comply with standards defined by the MOH or WHO for cold chain tools and needed constant supervision and training as health care professionals. All personnel handling vaccines should understand

  6. Evaluation of air pollution control policies in Mexico City using finite Markov chain observation model

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Hoyos; Pedro Lara; Elba Ortiz; Rafael López; Jesús González

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov observation based model, where the transition matrix is formulated using air quality monitoring data for specific pollutant emissions, with the primary objective to analyze the corresponding stationary distributions and evaluate sceneries for the air quality impact of pollution control policies. The model is non predictive and could be applied to every source of pollutant emissions included in air monitoring data. Two cases of study are presented, ozone and sulfur...

  7. Construction and Evaluation of Cytomegalovirus DNA Quantification System with Real-Time Detection Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hatayama, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Hara, Ayako; Motokura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background For patients with reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a highly sensitive and accurate CMV quantification system is essential to monitor viral load. Methods We constructed a real-time detection PCR (RTD-PCR) system for CMV DNA and evaluated its linearity, lower detection limit, dynamic range and accuracy using two CMV standards. We used 219 clinical samples derived from 101 patients to compare the system with the pp65 antigen test. Results The 95% detection limit was determ...

  8. Evaluation of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of environmental contamination with Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Kundrapu, S; Sunkesula, V C K; Cadnum, J L; Fertelli, D; Donskey, C J

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated environmental surfaces are an important source for transmission of Clostridium difficile. However, there are no efficient and easy methods to assess contamination. The performance of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for detection of environmental toxigenic C. difficile in comparison with anaerobic culture followed by toxin testing of isolates. For 66 sites sampled, PCR had a sensitivity of 17.39%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 69.35%. Increasing the PCR cycle threshold (CT) value to 45 increased sensitivity to 52% without decreasing specificity. The commercial PCR assay is not sufficiently sensitive for environmental monitoring, but improved sensitivity might be possible through CT value modification.

  9. Study of internal performance evaluation based on integrated supply chain%基于集成化供应链的内部绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚利; 王爱军; 吕玉惠

    2015-01-01

    供应商作为供应链中重要的环节,它的内部绩效表现己经成为企业面对的共性和关键问题。有效的供应链管理与绩效评价是供应链管理过程中不可分割的重要组成部分,要有效地管理供应链就必须对供应链项目绩效进行评估。从供应链内部角度构建集成化供应链项目绩效评价指标体系,初步构建绩效评价模型,并运用层次分析法和模糊综合评价法对供应链绩效进行评价。%As an important link in the supply chain,Suppliers’inner performance has become a common and key problem in the face of enterprises. The effective supply chain management and performance evaluation are the impartible important part in the process of supply chain management. This study tries to construct an integrated supply chain performance index system from the internal side of supply chain. A performance evaluation model was built preliminarily. The performance evaluation of in⁃tegrated supply chain was performed with AHP and FCE.

  10. An Improved Empirical Model for Evaluating the Influence of Agricultural Supply Chain on Food Processing Enterprise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    XiaoFei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture supply chain has much economic benefits, it can promote the product circulation, provide cooperation opportunity for both the upstream and downstream enterprises. In order to analyze how the agriculture supply chain effect on the business performance in food processing industry, we make a statistical analysis about the effect of agriculture supply chain on food processing industry by using data from 1990 to 2013. The result shows that: First, Agriculture supply chain development w...

  11. 因子分析在供应链竞争力评价中的应用%Evaluation of the Supply Chain Competitiveness on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彪; 郭广厚

    2012-01-01

    It is an important direction of China's enterprises in the 21st century to speed up the development of the supply chain and improve ca- pabilities of supply chain management. However, the original supply chain competitiveness evaluation system is not suited to the evaluation of the pres- ent supply chain competitiveness, so this paper establishes the evaluation index system of supply chain competitiveness, with the method of factor analy- sis, accomplishing the factor analysis and synthetic evaluation, the method proves to be effective with empirical study.%加快供应链的发展,提高供应链管理的能力,是我国企业进入21世纪以来重要的努力方向。然而原来的供应链竞争力评价体系不适应当今供应链管理下的供应链竞争力评价,基于此本文构建了企业供应链竞争力评价指标体系,并运用因子分析方法,进行因素分析和综合评价,结合实证研究证明该方法的有效性。鉴于此方法的有效性,提出了该方法在军事供应链的应用前景。

  12. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  13. Expression, characterization, and evaluation of a RANK-binding single chain fraction variable: an osteoclast targeting drug delivery strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newa, Madhuri; Lam, Michael; Bhandari, Krishna Hari; Xu, Biwen; Doschak, Michael R

    2014-01-06

    A single chain Fraction variable (scFv) employs antibody-like target recognition specificity. Osteoclasts, responsible for bone resorption, express Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor Kappa B (RANK) receptors. This study aimed to express, characterize, and evaluate scFv against RANK receptors that may serve as a platform to target osteoclasts. Using phage display technology, scFv against RANK receptor was expressed and characterized by DNA sequencing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI TOF), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. The potential for cytotoxicity was evaluated using an MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, and its cross reactivity was evaluated using ELISA. Osteoclast-like cells were generated from RAW 264.7 cells, and the osteoclast targeting ability of scFv was evaluated using immunocytochemistry. ScFv's antiresorptive efficacy was studied using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and resorption assay. Anti-RANK scFv was successfully expressed and characterized. No cross reactivity with other tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) members and no cytotoxic effect on a non-RANK bearing cell line were observed. It showed specificity toward a RANK receptor and an inhibitory effect on osteoclast activity. With the increase in development trends for biologics as therapeutics and growing knowledge on the importance of osteoclast targeted therapy, this study may provide a drug delivery strategy to target osteoclasts, thereby leading to a promising therapy for resorptive bone diseases.

  14. Evaluating the environmental fate of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the Nordic environment using a dynamic multimedia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogseth, Ingjerd S; Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) raise concerns due to their potential for persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport and adverse effects. An understanding of their environmental fate remains limited, partly due to the complexity of the mixture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a mechanistic, integrated, dynamic environmental fate and bioaccumulation multimedia model (CoZMoMAN) can reconcile what is known about environmental emissions and human exposure of SCCPs in the Nordic environment. Realistic SCCP emission scenarios, resolved by formula group, were estimated and used to predict the composition and concentrations of SCCPs in the environment and the human food chain. Emissions at the upper end of the estimated range resulted in predicted total concentrations that were often within a factor of 6 of observations. Similar model performance for a complex group of organic contaminants as for the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls strengthens the confidence in the CoZMoMAN model and implies a relatively good mechanistic understanding of the environmental fate of SCCPs. However, the degree of chlorination predicted for SCCPs in sediments, fish, and humans was higher than observed and poorly established environmental half-lives and biotransformation rate constants contributed to the uncertainties in the predicted composition and ∑SCCP concentrations. Improving prediction of the SCCP composition will also require better constrained estimates of the composition of SCCP emissions. There is, however, also large uncertainty and lack of coherence in the existing observations, and better model-measurement agreement will require improved analytical methods and more strategic sampling. More measurements of SCCP levels and compositions in samples from background regions are particularly important.

  15. Fuzzy Similarity in Multicriteria Decision-Making Problem Applied to Supplier Evaluation and Selection in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Luukka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use fuzzy similarity in fuzzy decision-making approach to deal with the supplier selection problem in supply chain system. According to the concept of fuzzy TOPSIS earlier methods use closeness coefficient which is defined to determine the ranking order of all suppliers by calculating the distances to both fuzzy positive-ideal solution (FPIS and fuzzy negative-ideal solution (FNIS simultaneously. In this paper we propose a new method by doing the ranking using similarity. New proposed method can do ranking with less computations than original fuzzy TOPSIS. We also propose three different cases for selection of FPIS and FNIS and compare closeness coefficient criteria and fuzzy similarity criteria. Numerical example is used to demonstrate the process. Results show that the proposed model is well suited for multiple criteria decision-making for supplier selection. In this paper we also show that the evaluation of the supplier using traditional fuzzy TOPSIS depends highly on FPIS and FNIS, and one needs to select suitable fuzzy ideal solution to get reasonable evaluation.

  16. A cadaverically evaluated dynamic FEM model of closed-chain TKR mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanovaz, Joel L; Ellis, Randy E

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the behavior and mechanics of a total knee replacement (TKR) in an in vivo environment is key to optimizing the functional outcomes of the implant procedure. Computational modeling has shown to be an important tool for investigating biomechanical variables that are difficult to address experimentally. To assist in examining TKR mechanics, a dynamic finite-element model of a TKR is presented. The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate a model that could simulate full knee motion using a physiologically consistent quadriceps action, without prescribed joint kinematics. The model included tibiofemoral (TFJs) and patellofemoral joints (PFJs), six major ligament bundles and was driven by a uni-axial representation of a quadricep muscle. An initial parameter screening analysis was performed to assess the relative importance of 31 different model parameters. This analysis showed that ligament insertion location and initial ligament strain were significant factors affecting simulated joint kinematics and loading, with the contact friction coefficient playing a lesser role and ligament stiffness having little effect. The model was then used to simulate in vitro experiments utilizing a flexed-knee-stance testing rig. General model performance was assessed by comparing simulation results with experimentally measured kinematics and tibial reaction forces collected from two implanted specimens. The simulations were able to reproduce experimental differences observed between the test specimens and were able to accurately predict trends seen in the tibial reaction loads. The simulated kinematics of the TFJ and PFJ were less consistent when compared with experimental data but still reproduced many trends.

  17. Chesapeake Bay fish–osprey (Pandion haliaetus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Erickson, Richard A.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154. This analysis suggested that alternative brominated flame retardants and other compounds (methoxytriclosan) are not appreciably biomagnifying. A multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that major differences in patterns among study sites were driven by PCB congeners 105, 128, 156, 170/190, and 189, and PBDE congeners 99 and 209. An integrative redundancy analysis showed that osprey eggs from Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River and the Elizabeth River had high residues of PCBs and p,p′-DDE, with PBDEs making a substantial contribution to overall halogenated contamination on the Susquehanna and Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers. The redundancy analysis also suggested a potential relation between PBDE residues in osprey eggs and oxidative DNA damage in nestling blood samples. The results also indicate that there is no longer a discernible relation between halogenated contaminants in osprey eggs and their reproductive success in Chesapeake Bay. Osprey populations are thriving in much of the Chesapeake, with productivity rates exceeding those required to sustain a stable population.

  18. Comparison of two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation in lymphoproliferative disorders: correlation between immunoglobulin gene mutation load and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Starza, Irene; Cavalli, Marzia; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Barbero, Daniela; Mantoan, Barbara; Genuardi, Elisa; Urbano, Marina; Mannu, Claudia; Gazzola, Anna; Ciabatti, Elena; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin; Galimberti, Sara; Piccaluga, Pierpaolo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Ladetto, Marco; Monitillo, Luigia

    2014-09-01

    We compared two strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by a variable immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes mutation load. Twenty-five samples from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n = 18) or mantle cell lymphoma (n = 7) patients were analyzed. Based on IGH variable region genes, 22/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 20/25 > 5%. In the IGH joining region genes, 23/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 18/25 > 5%. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on IGH genes using two strategies: method A utilizes two patient-specific primers, whereas method B employs one patient-specific and one germline primer, with different positions on the variable, diversity and joining regions. Twenty-three samples (92%) resulted evaluable using method A, only six (24%) by method B. Method B poor performance was specifically evident among mutated IGH variable/joining region cases, although no specific mutation load above, which the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction failed was found. The molecular strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation should be adapted to the B-cell receptor features of the disease investigated.

  19. 制造业价值链绩效评价指标研究%The Study on Evaluation Index of the Value Chain of the Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关永娟; 罗晓光; 郑小丽

    2014-01-01

    In order to make the development of the value chain of the manufacturing healthily, facilitate the formation of the sustained competitive advantage for every enterprises on the chain and maximize the value of the customers, the paper begins with the concept of the performance evaluation of the value chain of the manufacturing, and finally points out the evaluation index of the value chain of manufacturing from analyzing the six main factors that can affect the performance evaluation of the value chain of the manufacturing.%为了能够使制造业价值链健康发展,以利于各个节点企业形成持续的竞争优势,实现顾客价值最大化,文章从制造业价值链绩效评价的概念出发,通过对制造业价值链绩效评价的六个主要影响因素的分析,得出制造业价值链的评价指标。

  20. Customer-oriented Supply Chain Performance Evaluation%以客户为导向的供应链绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昉; 张涛; 顾锋

    2012-01-01

    The existing supply chain performance evaluation theories as SCOR Model,Balance Score Card exist some limitations in data collection, evaluation information collection and manifesting supply chain characteristics. Based on the current supply chain performance evaluation researches and practical experience, we have designed a customer-oriented supply chain performance evaluation method, which include some evaluation indicators of quality, service, technology and price, and assigned weight of indicators by A HP.%针对现有基于SCOR模型、平衡记分卡等建立的供应链绩效评价理论存在数据收集困难,获取的评价信息重复,无法表现出供应链特征等局限.在现有理论基础上,结合实践经验,创建以客户导向的供应链绩效评价方法,从质量、服务、技术、价格四个维度建立评价体系和评价指标,并提出对指标权重设置的思路.

  1. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  2. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, J A; Goessens, W H; Mouton, J W; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Niesters, H G; Quint, W G; Habbema, L; Stolz, E; Wagenvoort, J H

    1993-01-01

    The Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. Specimens were collecte

  3. Supply Chain Risk Analysis Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method%基于模糊综合评价法的供应链风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鑫; 李晓

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain risk issue has been caused paid attention by many scholars and experts at present,a high efficiency and low degree of risk of supply chain can bring a strong competitive advantage for the enterprise.This article first give supply chain risk for classification,then using the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to supply chain risk evalua-tion,and finally it can be concluded the supply chain risk index.Besides,the supply chain needs to be improved and to be paid at-tention to the ways to further optimize the supply chain.The purpose of the study is to reduce the risk of supply chain.%如今供应链风险问题已经引起了很多学者和专家普遍重视,一条效率较高、风险程度较低的供应链可以为企业带来很强的竞争优势。笔者先对供应链风险进行分类,再运用模糊综合评价法和层次分析法对供应链风险进行评分,最后可以得出此条供应链的风险指数,并对此供应链需要改进和所要注意的方面进行说明,达到进一步优化供应链,降低供应链风险的目的。

  4. Comparative efficacy of conventional diagnostic methods and evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheela Akhtar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative efficacy of Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Milk Ring test (MRT was calculated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in cows (Group A and buffaloes (Group B from Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Using bacterial growth as a gold standard RBPT showed high sensitivity values of 100% in both groups. While its specificity was 96.29% (Group A and 90.62% (Group B. On the other hands MRT showed low sensitivity (80.0% in Group A; 86.6% in Group B while its specificity was 100% in all the animals of both groups. The calculated positive predictive and negative predictive values of both groups were in correspondence with their specificity and sensitivity values respectively. High sensitivity and low specificity of RBPT as compare to high specificity and low sensitivity of MRT in all groups suggested the poor efficacy of both tests used individually as compare to bacterial growth. In the continuation of this study polymerase chain reaction (PCR was evaluated for its diagnostic efficacy of quick Brucella abortus isolation from same samples. PCR conducted on serum samples gave more positive results than on milk samples. Therefore, the combination of both conventional tests alongwith serum PCR can be recommended. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 53-56

  5. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

  6. Evaluation on the Risks of Agricultural Industrial Chain Based on FAHP——A Case of Regions Inhabited by Ethnic Groups in Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through recognizing the risking factors of industrial chain and selecting appropriate evaluation method, the index system on evaluating risking factors including market risk, natural risk, contact risk and efficiency risk in industrial chain is constructed,26 weighting indicators under the four layers are set up. Taking regions inhabited by ethnic groups in Wuling Mountain as an example, the risking factors of agricultural industrial chain in the area are analyzed by adopting the FAHP. The influencing degree of each risking factor on credit risks is analyzed. The results assume that with the market risk, contract risk, natural risk and efficiency risk. The natural risks become the principal risks of agricultural industrial chain and it should be paid much attention to. The low credit risk is a major factor that causes the contract between enterprise and rural households. The flood, pests, diseases and disasters also should be paid high attention to that is regarded as risking factors. The risking factors that come from the efficiency risk layer, for example, the unequal profit distribution among enterprises has little effect on enterprises in industrial chain. The research results provide evidence for stipulating risk prevention measures.

  7. Development impacts of value chain interventions: how to collect practical evidence and draw valid conclusions in impact evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.; Vellema, S.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In development policy and practice, support to or interventions in value chains are considered to be instrumental for achieving outcomes such as poverty alleviation. This paper reviews methodological discussions on how to show the effects and workings of value chain support in a context of donors de

  8. Strategic alliance in technological development and innovation: Performance evaluation of co-creation between companies and their supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otavio Monteiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Brazilian oil and gas market presents a perspective of growth in the next decades. Considering this scenario, the increasing number of participants in this supply chain is foreseen to supply the demand of goods and services, especially in the technological development area. The paper intends to evaluate the collaborative development capacity and respective measurements of performance on these partnerships established between customer and suppliers, through qualitative research with a sample of Brazilian oil and gas market representative. Design/methodology/approach: This paper intends to verify if the co-creation performance is measured after an implementation, specific in a restricted industry. The methodology consists in a bibliographical research to support the study, and it also had a questionnaire sent to Brazilian companies that take part of the oil and natural gas industry supply chain, to analyze if the results of co-creation activities are measured by this group of companies, to verify its attractiveness to develop the co-creation usage or change the type of partnership with the market. Findings and Originality/value: The misunderstanding of co-creation and technical partnership was noticed. The usage of teams working together from two or more organizations cannot be considered as a co-creation, because the relationship and obligations are different between these two ways of workgroup. But the companies of oil and gas industry, when questioned, were able to distinguish it, avoiding risks of incorrect results motivated by wrong interpretation of the paper content. Research limitations/implications: As related in the paper, eight companies were invited to take part on the questionnaire about co-creation, but only 50% answered it. The research should have a better result of this subject if it had been developed with more answers of Brazilian oil and gas industry companies. Originality/value: Even this kind of partnership is

  9. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...

  10. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...

  11. Evaluation of Value Chain Risks Based on BP Artificial Neural Network%基于BP人工神经网络的价值链风险的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秋霞; 邓样明; 欧阳江

    2011-01-01

    通过对价值链管理深人研究,利用BP人工神经网络对价值链风险管理进行评价,采用专家评分法,获得实际的数据,对模型进行仿真和测试,证实价值链风险管理的指标体系的实用性和BP人工神经网络模型的价值.%Through in-depth analysis of value chain management, the paper employs BP artificial neural network to evaluate the risk management of value chains. Expert scoring is used on practical data collected and simulation and testing are conducted to verify the practicality of the index system of value chain risk management and the value of BP artificial neural network.

  12. Application of AHP-FUZZY Comprehensive Evaluation Method on the Evaluation of Green Supply Chain%AHP-FUZZY综合评判方法在绿色供应链评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宝库; 刘霞; 王欢

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of the comprehensive evaluation model to be used in the evaluation of green supply chain indexes through the construction of AHP-FUZZY comprehensive evaluation method,where the indexes of green supply chain include customer,financial affairs,learning and development,business processes,green environmental protection and so on. The comprehensive evaluation index system of green supply chain was constructed on the basis of the concept of green supply chain, the weights of indicators at all levels were determined and then the consistency test was done, the entire green supply chain and various indicators were both evaluated by applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on the weight set and fuzzy judgment matrix. Through the example analysis, the science and applicability of index systems in green supply chain, and the rationality and feasibility of the AHP-FUZZY comprehensive evaluation method in the comprehensive evaluation of the green supply chain were both verified by the case study. The assessment score of the green supply chain is 86.69, which is between good and excellent,this result shows that the operation of the entire supply chain basically meets the expected target, but there is still the rising space. The evaluation results demonstrate that the AHP-FUZZY comprehensive evaluation method can give an objective evaluation to the effects of green supply chain and provide theory support for the best adjustment of the green supply chain,and then effectively guide the evaluation, a-nalysis, adjustment, decision-making of green supply chain.%目的 构建AHP - FUZZY(层次分析-模糊综合评判)模型对绿色供应链的客户、财务、学习与发展、业务流程、绿色环保等指标进行评判,探索综合评判模型在绿色供应链评价中应用的可行性.方法 在利用绿色供应链概念的基础上建立绿色供应链综合评价指标体系,借助层次分析法构

  13. Evaluation on Service Quality of Retail Chain Supermarkets%连锁零售超市服务质量的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 向隅

    2012-01-01

    连锁零售超市的服务质量评价是目前研究的热点,建立科学、合理的服务质量评价体系,可全面客观地揭示用户对连锁零售超市服务质量的评价。结合连锁零售超市管理的实际情况,建立由5个评价要素和25个评价指标组成的连锁零售超市服务质量评价体系,并采用AHM确定各指标权重,运用改进的TOPSIS方法进行评价,从而可为超市管理者提高和改进服务质量提供参考借鉴。%Evaluation on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets is a hot topic at present. Establish- ing a scientific and rational evaluation system of service quality can reveal the comment of customers on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets in a whole and objective way. In terms of the actual situation of retail chain supermarkets, an evaluation system of retail chain supermarket consisting of 5 evaluation elements and 22 evaluation indexes is established with AHM determining the weight of each index and the improved TOPSIS method making assessment, which provides a scientific evaluation method for the management to improve the service quality.

  14. In vitro evaluation of five different herbal extracts as an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilla S Vinothkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL, Azadiracta indica (AI, Aloe barbadensis (AV, Myristica fragrans (MF and Terminalia chebula (TC as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey′s HSD and was statistically significant ( P < 0.05. Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.

  15. Evaluation of a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay STDFinder for the simultaneous detection of 7 sexually transmitted disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Dhont, Nathalie; Verhelst, Rita; Crucitti, Tania; Reijans, Martin; Mulders, Brit; Simons, Guus; Temmerman, Marleen; Claeys, Geert; Padalko, Elizaveta

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), "STDFinder assay", a novel multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for the simultaneous detection of 7 clinically relevant pathogens of STDs, i.e., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). An internal amplification control was included in the mPCR reaction. The limits of detection for the STDFinder assay varied among the 7 target organisms from 1 to 20 copies per MLPA assay. There were no cross-reactions among any of the probes. Two hundred and forty-two vaginal swabs and an additional 80 specimens with known results for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, obtained from infertile women seen at an infertility research clinic at the Kigali Teaching Hospital in Rwanda, were tested by STDFinder assay and the results were confirmed by single real-time PCR using different species-specific targets. Compared to the reference standard, the STDFinder assay showed specificities and sensitivities of 100% and 100%, respectively, for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium; 90.2% and 100%, respectively, for Trichomonas vaginalis; and 96.1% and 100%, respectively, for HSV-2. No specimen was found to be positive for HSV-1 by either the STDFinder assay or the comparator method. Similarly, the sensitivity for Treponema pallidum could not be calculated due to the absence of any Treponema pallidum-positive samples. In conclusion, the STDFinder assays have comparable clinical sensitivity to the conventional mono and duplex real-time PCR assay and are suitable for the routine detection of a broad spectrum of these STDs at relatively low cost due to multiplexing.

  16. 供应链危机管理能力的模糊综合评价研究%Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation on Supply Chain Crisis Management Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈留印; 闫秀霞; 陈涵

    2012-01-01

    On the study of both external and internal environment of the supply chain, a framework model about the crisis influence of the supply chain was constructed. Focused on the internal environment of the supply chain and based on the logistics, information, capital and value stream,an index system which influences the crisis management capability of the supply chain was built. Finally, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used to analyze the crisis management capability of a certain enterprise, and the conclusion can provide references for the enterprises to enforce the crisis management capability of the supply chain.%从供应链外部环境和内部环境两个方面构建了供应链危机影响因素框架模型,并以供应链内部环境分析为核心,从供应链的物流、信息流、资金流和价值流4个维度构建了影响供应链危机管理能力的指标体系.采用模糊综合评判方法对某企业供应链危机管理能力进行了算例研究,研究成果可为企业实施供应链危机管理提供一定的参考.

  17. Evaluating Opportunities for Improved Processes and Flow Rates in Royal Saudi Air Force F-15 Reparable Items Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-15

    suppliers and customers. It is the responsibility of managers to oversee the relationships of their firm with other firms that exist in the same supply...other to deliver products or services for the end consumers ”. It is important to acknowledge that managing a supply chain requires a variety of... relationships between the supply chain members must be strongly developed and maintained. To build a high-performance relationship , the firm’s managers

  18. 供应链风险的系统识别与评价模型研究%Study on Supply Chain Risk System Identification and Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿殿明; 刘佳翔

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically identify and classify supply chain risks, as well as its controllability and harmfnl influence. A supply chain risk evaluation index system is formulated for the identification and classification of supply chain risks, and then through improved set-valued statistical accelerated iteration method, the weight of each index is determined. On the basis of expert risk probability interval estimation, a comprehensive evaluation model for supply chain risk is constructed and an empirical analysis is carried out at the last.%对供应链风险进行了系统识别和分类,分析了供应链风险的可控性和危害性.构建了供应链风险评估指标体系,利用改进的集值统计加速迭代法确定各指标权重,建立了基于专家风险概率区间估计的供应链风险综合评价模型,并进行了实证分析.

  19. 基于模糊评估的供应链知识管理绩效评价研究%The Research on Performance Evaluation of Supply Chain Knowledge Management Based on Fuzzy Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄青良; 卢祖展; 刘长波

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of previous studies, we divide the supply chain knowledge management activities into knowledge creation, knowledge accumulation, inowledge sharing, knowledge utilization and knowledge internalization to construct the supply chain knowledge management performance evaluation system. Setting evaluation index for each management activity, we use AHP and fuzzy evaluation method to evaluate the supply chain knowledge management performance. The paper provides the powerful tool for the supply chain enterprises to evaluate the knowledge management performance and help them manage knowledge effectively.%在前人研究的基础之上,将供应链知识管理活动分为知识创造、知识积累、知识共享、知识利用和知识内化五个方面,构建供应链知识管理绩效的评价体系,并对每一管理活动设置相应的评价指标,运用AHP方法和模糊评估法给出了供应链知识管理绩效评阶的方法,为供应链企业进行有效的知识管理提供有力的工具.

  20. 企业供应链管理绿色度评价研究%Study on Green Evaluation of Enterprise Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤忠; 赵复涛; 吴志斌; 尹永超; 田朝友

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed factors influencing the greenness of the supply chain, established a supply chain evaluation index system and introduced the fuzzy gray comprehensive evaluation method to assess the greenness of enterprise SCM.%针对企业实施供应链管理对环境社会资源可能产生的消极影响,结合绿色供应链管理的理念,分析了影响供应链绿色度的相关因素,建立供应链绿色度评价指标体系,引入灰色模糊综合评价法,对企业供应链管理的绿色度进行评价.

  1. Credit Evaluation of Cooperative Enterprise on Green Supply Chain%绿色供应链中合作企业信用评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永全; 孙宝安

    2015-01-01

    随着经济发展所面临的资源和环境压力越来越大,以可持续发展思想为指导的绿色供应链随之成为供应链发展的一个趋势。在构建绿色供应链过程中,合作企业的选择是非常重要的一个环节,传统供应链在选择合作企业时,主要考察其产品能力和企业运营状况,文中将企业的绿色能力也纳入考察范围内,并采用层次分析法对企业的综合信用进行评价,为绿色供应链上合作企业的选择提供了有效的方法。%With the economic development facing a more and more serious pressure caused by resource and environmental,the green supply chain guided by the idea of sustainable development became a trend of the development of supply chain.And the selection of cooperative enterprises is a very important link in the process of constructing green supply chain,the improper selection of cooperative enterprises may bring serious damage to the entire supply chain.The traditional supply chain only consider products and the operational conditions when choosing cooperative enterprises,this paper will consider green ability of the enterprise as well,and evaluate the credit of the enterprises by AHP,providing an effective method to choice cooperative enterprises for green supply chain.

  2. Moldova - Value Chain Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...

  3. Service Oriented Supply Chain Performance Evaluation%面向服务的供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智崧; 李良春; 宋桂飞; 邓立杰

    2015-01-01

    面向服务的架构 SOA 是一种应用程序体系结构。从国内外供应链管理绩效测评方法研究存在的不足出发,结合供应链绩效管理需求,介绍了 SOA 定义及其特性,构建了面向服务的供应链绩效管理评价体系架构;描述了其业务应用层、服务总线层及基础服务层的基本组成与功能;分析了该评价体系的运行方式。%Service‐oriented Architecture(SOA) is an application architecture .From the lack of research on supply chain management performance evaluation methods existing at home and abroad ,combined with supply chain performance manage‐ment needs ,definition and characteristics of SOA is introduced ,and a service‐oriented supply chain performance management evaluation system architecture is proposed .Than basic composition and function of the business application layer ,the service bus layer and the basic services layer are described the operation mode of the evaluation system is analyzed .

  4. 基于模糊TOPSIS的绿色供应链绩效评价%Green supply chain performance evaluation based on fuzzy TOPSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毕西; 张明珠; 韩正涛

    2014-01-01

    针对绿色供应链管理问题,建立改进的绿色供应链综合绩效评价体系,运用模糊TOPSIS方法构建模糊加权评价矩阵,计算出了各方案与理想解之间的相对贴近度,从而比较不同方案之间的差别,为供应链绩效的评价提供重要决策依据。实证分析验证了该方法的实用性和有效性。%Aiming at the problem of green supply chain management, an improved comprehensive green supply chain performance evaluation system was established, and the fuzzy TOPSIS method was used to build weighted fuzzy evaluation matrix to calculate the relative closeness degree between the programs and the ideal solution , so as to compare the differences between different solutions, and provide important decision basis for the supply chain performance evaluation. Finally, the empirical analysis verified the practicality and effectiveness of the method.

  5. The Performance Evaluation of Green Supply Chain Based on Evidential Reasoning%基于证据理论的绿色供应链绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋巧娜

    2011-01-01

    从业务流程、经济效益、绿色环保和客户服务4个方面分析了评价绿色供应链绩效应考虑的主要因素.建立了绿色供应链绩效评价指标体系,并进一步给出基于证据理论的绿色供应链绩效评价的模型和算法.最后通过实例分析,说明了该方法的有效性和实用性.%The main factors what should be considered when evaluating green supply chain are analyzed in term of business process, economic benefit, environmental protection and customer service in this paper. The index system of performance evaluation for green supply chain is established, further, an arithmetic and model of the performance evaluation in green supply chain assessment based on evidential reasoning also have been developed. Finally, an example shows that the method is effective and practical.

  6. Monoquaternary pyridinium salts with modified side chain-synthesis and evaluation on model of tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilek, Kamil; Kucera, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Opletalova, Veronika; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterase reactivators are crucial antidotes for the treatment of organophosphate intoxication. Eighteen monoquaternary reactivators of acetylcholinesterase with modified side chain were developed in an effort to extend the properties of pralidoxime. The known reactivators (pralidoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime, methoxime) and the prepared compounds were tested in vitro on a model of tabun- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE. Monoquaternary reactivators were not able to exceed the best known compounds for tabun poisoning, but some of them did show reactivation better or comparable with pralidoxime for paraoxon poisoning. However, extensive differences were found by a SAR study for various side chains on the non-oxime part of the reactivator molecule.

  7. 汽车行业供应链协同绩效评价及其应用%Performance Evaluation and Applications of Automotive Industry Supply Chain Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯霞

    2011-01-01

    Referring to automotive industry supply chain collaboration performance including collaboration process performance, collaboration result performance and collaboration support performance, an evaluation index system is set up including 30 indices for automotive industry supply chain collaboration evaluation in combination with the clients service and system adaptability. Then, an automotive industry supply chain with the core of some automotive manufacturer is exemplified to evaluate its collaboration performance of supply chain by applying of fuzzily integrated analysis, thus quantifying the system and analyzing the evaluation results. It is found that the collaborative operation covering process, result and support will improve the performance of the whole supply chain. The analysis proves the feasibility of the evaluation index system and the operability of fuzzily integrated evaluation.%考虑汽车行业供应链协同绩效包含协同过程绩效、协同结果绩效和协同支持绩效,并结合客户服务和系统适应性,选择了30个汽车行业供应链协同评价指标,建立协同绩效评价指标体系.然后,选取以国内某汽车制造厂为核心企业的汽车行业供应链为例,运用模糊综合分析法对其供应链进行协同评价,实现了对该指标体系的量化,并对评价结果进行分析.结果表明,企业在过程、结果和支持等方面协同运作,可以提高供应链整体的协同绩效,从而进一步验证了评价指标体系的可行性和模糊综合评价方法的可操作性.

  8. Falling chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  9. Structural optimization and evaluation of butenolides as potent antifouling agents: modification of the side chain affects the biological activities of compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-09-01

    A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, a series of new butenolide derivatives with various amine side chains was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-larval settlement activities in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Side chain modification of butenolide resulted in butenolides 3c-3d, which possessed desirable physico-chemical properties and demonstrated highly effective non-toxic anti-larval settlement efficacy. A structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that varying the alkyl side chain had a notable effect on anti-larval settlement activity and that seven to eight carbon alkyl side chains with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) substituent on an amine terminal were optimal in terms of bioactivity. Analysis of the physico-chemical profile of butenolide analogues indicated that lipophilicity is a very important physico-chemical parameter contributing to bioactivity. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Evaluation of Amplification Targets for the Specific Detection of Bordetella pertussis Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rubayet Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis infections continue to be a major public health challenge in Canada. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to detect B pertussis are typically based on the multicopy insertion sequence IS481, which offers high sensitivity but lacks species specificity.

  11. 基于BSC的供应链绩效评价因子分析%Factor Analysis of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Based on BSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永俊

    2014-01-01

    借助若干可量化和可操作的指标进行了实例分析与验证,将复杂的供应链系统分解成若干子系统,建立了包括顾客满意度评价、供应链财务评价和供应链绿色度评价等子系统,运用因子分析法对其进行分析并得出结论,对实施供应链绩效控制有一定的指导和借鉴意义。%In this paper, we decomposed a complex supply chain system into several subsystems including the customer satisfaction subsystem, supply chain financial evaluation subsystem and supply chain greenness evaluation subsystem, etc., and at the end applied factor analysis in the process which yielded several useful conclusions.

  12. The Application of Fuzzy Evaluation Model in the Risk Assessment of Food Supply Chain Management%模糊评价模型在食品供应链管理风险中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琪

    2011-01-01

    基于食品供应链风险评价指标体系,建立模糊评价模型,并运用该模型对食品供应链风险进行综合评价,实证分析得出:快餐巨无霸麦当劳在供应链管理中的风险较低。%With implementing supply chain management,the enterprises are also faced with a series of risks brought about by supply chain management.This paper establishes evaluation index system of food supply chain risk and fuzzy evaluation model,carries out comprehensive evaluation of food supply chain risk,and finally analyzes risk of McDonald's supply chain management.

  13. A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle. Looking inside the black box of innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Gretchen [360 Innovation LLC (United States); Mote, Jonathan [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc. (United States); Choi, Thomas [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a framework for evaluation of R&D investments aimed at speeding up the pace of innovation and strengthening domestic manufacturing and supply chains, which make up a portion of the investments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). These investments focus on early phases of the product life cycle, characterized as extending from pre-product, late stage R&D, to initial product introduction and through to early market growth. The investments aim to provide support for additional technology, supply-chain, manufacturing, and early market development to enhance or create markets for clean energy technologies and strengthen the U.S. industry base.

  14. Quantum Group U_q(sl(2 Symmetry and Explicit Evaluation of the One-Point Functions of the Integrable Spin-1 XXZ Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Deguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We show some symmetry relations among the correlation functions of the integrable higher-spin XXX and XXZ spin chains, where we explicitly evaluate the multiple integrals representing the one-point functions in the spin-1 case. We review the multiple-integral representations of correlation functions for the integrable higher-spin XXZ chains derived in a region of the massless regime including the anti-ferromagnetic point. Here we make use of the gauge transformations between the symmetric and asymmetric R-matrices, which correspond to the principal and homogeneous gradings, respectively, and we send the inhomogeneous parameters to the set of complete 2s-strings. We also give a numerical support for the analytical expression of the one-point functions in the spin-1 case.

  15. Unwrapping Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Cambou, A D; Hamm, E; Hanna, J A; Menon, N; Santangelo, C D; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    A loop of chain can move along its own tangents, maintaining a steady shape. An open-ended chain undergoing a nontrivial motion must change its shape. One consequence is that chains pulled around objects will fail to follow the contours of the objects, unwrapping themselves instead. This short note accompanies a fluid dynamics video submission (83068) to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2012.

  16. THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS AND SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE: EVALUATION OF METABOLIC, HORMONAL AND INFLAMMATORY PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In these three years we studied probiotics and postbiotics efficacy and their mechanism/s in preventing or limiting gastrointestinal diseases, such as hepatic steatosis and ulcerative colitis. On the basis of strength anatomical correlation between liver and gut, we wanted to observe if microorganisms present in gut and their postbiotic derivatives, the short chain fatty acids, were able to prevent or cure not only local intestinal disease but also to limit extraintestinal and systemic pathol...

  17. Falling chains

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C W; Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional falling motion of a bungee chain suspended from a rigid support and of a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Their Lagrangians are found to contain no explicit time dependence. As a result, these falling chains are conservative systems. Each of their Lagrange's equations of motion is shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show in particular that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when the transferred link is emitted by the emitting subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling bungee chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. In the simplified one-dimensional treatment, the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the falling bungee chain is found to be converted by the chain tension at the rigid support into the internal kinetic energy of the chain. However, as t...

  18. Better Demand Signal, Better Decisions? Evaluation of Big Data in a Licensed Remanufacturing Supply Chain with Environmental Risk Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Baozhuang; Zou, Zongbao

    2017-03-30

    Big data ability helps obtain more accurate demand signal. However, is better demand signal always beneficial for the supply chain parties? To answer this question, we investigate a remanufacturing supply chain (RSC), where demand uncertainty is significant, and the value to reduce environmental risk is large. Specifically, we focus on a licensed RSC comprising an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and a third-party remanufacturer (3PR). The latter pays a unit license fee to the former, and can be risk averse to the demand of remanufactured products. We show that the OEM and the risk-neutral 3PR always have incentives to improve their big data abilities to increase their profits. However, when the 3PR is risk averse, big data might hurt its profit: the value of big data is positive if its demand signal accuracy is sufficiently low. Interestingly, we find that while information sharing hurts the 3PR, it benefits the OEM as well as the supply chain. Thus, if costly information sharing is allowed, a win-win situation can be achieved. We also find that information sharing generates more valuation when the 3PR is risk averse than that when the 3PR is risk neutral. More importantly, we find that the 3PR's risk attitude and demand signal accuracy can significantly mitigate the negative environmental impact (measured by the amount of the waste): (1) the more risk neutral the 3PR is, the better the environment is; (2) the more accurate demand signal is, the better the environment is.

  19. Evaluation of the truncated perturbed chain-polar statistical associating fluid theory for complex mixture fluid phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was extended rigorously to polar fluids based on the theory of Stell and co-workers [Mol. Phys. 1977, 33, 987]. The new PC-PSAFT was simplified to truncated PC-PSAFT (tPC-PSAFT) so that it can be practical for real polar fluid thermod...... pressures are calculated. Comparisons against PC-SAFT calculations are made. It is shown that tPC-PSAFT is an accurate model for polar fluid mixture phase equilibria....

  20. Quality Evaluation of Wood-based Panels Green Supply Chain%人造板绿色供应链的质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田刚; 付玮琼; 王韧鹏

    2013-01-01

    以绿色供应链管理理论为基础,结合人造板绿色供应链管理系统结构体系,从绿色采购、绿色生产、绿色物流、绿色营销、绿色回收5个方面建立基于人造板质量安全评价体系,运用模糊数学和层次分析法对黑龙江省某大型人造板企业进行了质量安全评价。%We built the evaluation system of quality and safety of wood-based panels from green cultivation, green production, green distribution, green marketing and green recover by the theory of green supply chain management combined with green supply chain management system structure system.The evaluation theory can provide the reference for quality and safety e-valuation of a large-scale wood-based panel enterprise based on the fuzzy mathematics and analytic hierarchy process.

  1. Antidotes to anthrax lethal factor intoxication. Part 3: Evaluation of core structures and further modifications to the C2-side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Crown, Devorah; Thai, April; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; Sankaran, Banumathi; Lehrer, Axel; Wong, Teri; Johns, Lisa; Margosiak, Stephen A; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2012-03-15

    Four core structures capable of providing sub-nanomolar inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor (LF) were evaluated by comparing the potential for toxicity, physicochemical properties, in vitro ADME profiles, and relative efficacy in a rat lethal toxin (LT) model of LF intoxication. Poor efficacy in the rat LT model exhibited by the phenoxyacetic acid series (3) correlated with low rat microsome and plasma stability. Specific molecular interactions contributing to the high affinity of inhibitors with a secondary amine in the C2-side chain were revealed by X-ray crystallography.

  2. Evaluation of revised polymerase chain reaction primers for more inclusive quantification of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kelley A; Bertagnolli, Anthony; Pannu, Manmeet W; Strand, Stuart E; Brown, Sally L; Stahl, David A

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) fill key roles in the nitrogen cycle. Thus, well-vetted methods for characterizing their distribution are essential for framing studies of their significance in natural and managed systems. Quantification of the gene coding for one subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) by polymerase chain reaction is frequently employed to enumerate the two groups. However, variable amplification of sequence variants comprising this conserved genetic marker for ammonia oxidizers potentially compromises within- and between-system comparisons. We compared the performance of newly designed non-degenerate quantitative polymerase chain reaction primer sets to existing primer sets commonly used to quantify the amoA of AOA and AOB using a collection of plasmids and soil DNA samples. The new AOA primer set provided improved quantification of model mixtures of different amoA sequence variants and increased detection of amoA in DNA recovered from soils. Although both primer sets for the AOB provided similar results for many comparisons, the new primers demonstrated increased detection in environmental application. Thus, the new primer sets should provide a useful complement to primers now commonly used to characterize the environmental distribution of AOA and AOB.

  3. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Lean Construction Supply Chain Performance%精益建筑供应链绩效模糊综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秋玲

    2016-01-01

    本文所构建的指标体系具有多目标、多层次的特点,既有定量指标,又有定性指标,而定性指标的定量化是评价的关键,指标中存在多个数据边界不清的情况,因此本文采用模糊综合评价法对精益建筑供应链绩效进行评价,使评价结果更准确和科学。最后通过模拟实例分析证明该评价方法。%The index system constructed in this paper has the characteristics of multi objective and multi levels, and has both quantitative indicators and qualitative indicators, qualitative indicators of quantitative evaluation is the key to the evaluation of the situation. In the index, there are many data boundaries are not clear, therefore, this paper uses the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to evaluate the performance of lean construction supply chain, so that the evaluation results are more accurate and scientific. Finally, the evaluation method is proved by simulation examples.

  4. 建筑企业绿色供应链管理绩效评价研究%Research on Building Enterprise Green Supply Chain Management Performance Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明强

    2014-01-01

    China's construction industry is an important pillar industry of economic development, and is an important sector of material production. With the development of the society and economy, the environment problem is getting more and more attention of people. Public awareness and the improvement of laws and environmental standards have promoted the rapid development of the green supply chain management. According to the content of the green supply chain management and its characteristics, combined with environmental management standards, and based on the requirements of sustainable development, this article presents theoretical discussion on green supply chain management of construction enterprises performance evaluation index system and evaluation method.%中国建筑施工产业是经济发展的重要支柱产业,是一个重要的物质生产部门。随着社会和经济的发展,环境问题越来越受到人们的关注,公众意识、法律和环境标准的改进推动了绿色供应链管理的快速发展。本文根据绿色供应链管理的内容及其特点,结合环境管理标准,体现可持续发展的要求,对建筑企业绿色供应链管理绩效评价指标体系与评价方法做出了理论探讨。

  5. Researches on Risk Evaluation Green Agro-products Closed Supply Chain%绿色农产品封闭供应链风险评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪峰

    2011-01-01

    在现有供应链风险和农产品供应链文献研究的基础上,对绿色农产品封闭供应链中涉及生产、经营和消费等环节的相关节点主体进行实际调研分析,将供应链系统中的主要风险要素归纳为环境风险、系统风险、信息风险、管理风险和质量安全风险5类.运用模糊综合评价方法对绿色农产品封闭供应链风险进行评价,得到绿色农产品封闭供应链风险的模糊综合评价分值,结果表明绿色农产品封闭供应链风险等级属于中等,具有较高的风险,这与当前实际情况基本相符.从各级指标权重也可看出,影响风险的关键一级指标是系统风险、信息风险和质量安全风险,影响风险的关键二级指标是核心企业协调控制能力、信息追溯技术的实现程度、质量安全体系建设水平等.因此,应该着重从这些方面采取防范和控制措施来降低绿色农产品封闭供应链风险.%Based on the research results of the current literatures on supply chain risk and agro-product supply chain,related subjects of the agro product closed supply chain involving production, management and consumption are studied and analyzed and the primary risking factors in the supply chain system are classified into environmental risk, system risk, information risk, management risk and quality risk. Risk of agro-product closed supply chain is evaluated by using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and the values are acquired. The result shows that risk of agro-product closed supply chain is moderate with relatively high risk,which basically accords with the present actual situations. It can be seen from the index weights of various levels that the key first-level indices influencing the risks are system risk,information risk,quality and safety risk and the key second-level are the coordinating and controlling ability of core enterprises,the implement of information traceability and the construc tion of

  6. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Tool for Evaluation of Magnetic Poly(Glycidyl methacrylate)-Based Microspheres in Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtová, Stepánka; Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Kozáková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    DNA amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the evaluation of efficiency of polymer coating of magnetic hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with/without carboxyl groups. The inhibition effect of magnetic microspheres on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) course was evaluated by regression analysis after the addition of different concentrations of tested microspheres to PCR mixtures. Microspheres mostly did not interfere in RT-PCR till the concentration 50 µg/25 µl PCR mixture. No relationship between Fe content (and microsphere diameter) and inhibition effect was found. Microspheres containing carboxyl groups extinguished the fluorescence at lower concentrations (10-20 µg/25 µl PCR mixture) without inhibition of DNA amplification as PCR products were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Negative effect of maghemite on PCR course was partially reduced by coating of magnetic core by silica or polymers. Two inhibition mechanisms of DNA amplification were discussed in this work.

  7. A Literature Review on "the Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Performance"%“供应链管理绩效评价”文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范利芬; 徐印州

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management is crucial to the enterprise, and it has become the important content of competitions between modern enterprises. In supply chain management, in order to effectively improve the overall performance of the supply chain, the enterprise must establish a set of scientific and reasonable performance evaluation of supply chain, including index systems, evaluation methods, evaluation objects and incentive mechanism.%供应链管理对企业来说至关重要,已成为现代企业间竞争的重要内容。在供应链管理中,为有效地提高供应链整体绩效,企业必须根据自身情况建立一套科学合理的供应链绩效评价体系,包括指标体系、评价方法、评价对象和激励机制。

  8. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation.

  9. Biological evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel crosslinked by polyurethane chain for cartilage tissue engineering in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bonakdar, Shahin; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Emami, Shahriar Hojjati; Montazeri, Leila; Azari, Shahram; Rabbani, Mohsen

    2013-10-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel chains were crosslinked by urethane pre-polymer (PPU) in order to fabricate a new substitute for cartilage lesions. The microscopy images showed that the cultured chondrocytes had spherical morphology on PVA-PPU sample after 4 weeks of isolation in vitro. The alcian blue and safranin O staining proved the presence of proteoglycan on the surface of PVA-PPU sample secreted by cultured chondrocytes. This was confirmed by the detection of sulfate ions in the wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) analysis. In addition, the expression of collagen type II and aggrecan were observed in chondrocytes cultured on PVA-PPU by RT-PCR. Moreover, the implantation of the PVA-PPU sample with autologous cultured chondrocytes revealed the formation of neocartilage tissue in a rabbit model during 12 weeks follow up. In conclusion, the results verified that isolated chondrocytes cultured on PVA-PPU retain their original phenotype and this composition can be considered as promising substrate for cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  11. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled.

  12. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macongonde, Ernesto António; Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Scaini, Giselli; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Ferreira, Bruna Klippel; Costa, Naithan Ludian Fernandes; de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Avila Junior, Silvio; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group) or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group). One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  13. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto António Macongonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  14. [F-18]Fluorodihydrorotenone: Synthesis and evaluation of a mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complex I probe for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanBrocklin, H.F.; Enas, J.D.; Hanrahan, S.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) consists of five enzyme complexes (I-V) which participate in the transfer of electrons to oxygen and phosphorylation of ADP (oxidative phosphorylation). ETC dysfunction has been linked to several genetic neurological diseases as well as implicated in Parkinson`s (complex I) and Huntington`s (complex I) disease and normal aging processes. Dihydrorotenone (DHR) is a specific high affinity inhibitor of complex I. In order to develop a PET tracer for complex I, we have labeled DHR with fluorine-18. The tosylate precursor was produced in three steps from commercially available rotenone. Fluorine-18 was introduced by nucleophilic displacement of the tosylate using tetrabutyl-ammonium fluoride. Subsequent oxidation with MnO{sub 2} and HPLC purification gave the desired [{sup 18}F]fluoro-DHR. Initial biodistribution studies were carried out in {approximately}200 g male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tracer was taken up rapidly in the heart, an organ highly enriched with mitochondria, (5.5-6% injected dose (ID)/g at 30 minutes) and in the brain ({approximately}1.5% ID/g at 1 hour).

  15. Evaluating Distribution Process of a Supply Chain in Just-in-Time Environment Using Application of Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Mishra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution process of a supply chain management is very important and strategic. To stay efficient in delivering the finished goods in the hands of end user, the speed and responsiveness of distribution mechanism are most essential. Just in Time (JIT has proved result oriented in the manufacturing systems since 1985. Since then its applicability in several fields are being investigated. Low inventory, small lot size, least lead time and quality product are some desirable features of JIT, which proves beneficiary to the firm. This paper highlights JIT applied distribution process in order to shorten the lead time, inventory holding costs. Application of Graph theory (GTA methodology has been used to investigate the interdependencies of dimensions and its attributes of JIT implemented distribution. Then an empirical value of JIT distribution process (JDP of an organisation has been derived , subsequently coefficient of distribution dissimilarity and similarity have been found for two organisation and based on these values comparison 0f any two organisation can be done. Approach can be used to know the lacks of various organizations based on their feasibility index of transition (FIT value and which is required to develop to transform the organisation applying JIT in distribution process.

  16. 建筑供应链风险评价研究%Research on the Risks Evaluation of Construction Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 张方明

    2012-01-01

    As a new administration mind and method of construction industry, supply chain management can not only improve the core competitiveness of construction enterprises, inerease the profits, but also bring some risks. Thus how to an- alyze and evaluate these risks have been very important problems. This paper firstly summarizes the basie theory of eon- struetion supply chain under engineering-procurement-construction (EPC) mode, and then designs the index system of risks evaluation on the basis of risks analysis, puts forward a risk evaluation model based on support veetor machines theolw and gives an example.%供应链管理作为一种新的建筑管理理念与方法.在提高建筑业企业核心竞争力和增加利润的同时。也会带来一定的风险.如何分析和评价这些风险已成为供应链上核心企业所面临的重要问题。简述了EPC模式下的建筑供应链基本理论.在对EPC建筑供应链进行风险分析的基础上.设计了EPC模式下的建筑供应链风险评价指标体系.构建了基于支持向量机的建筑供应链风险评价模型并进行应用研究。

  17. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools.

  18. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  19. Chain Gang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters. Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  20. 上海闵行模式的药品供应链绩效评价研究%Study on Medicine Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Mode Practiced in Shanghai Minhang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚卫新; 王钰颖

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, from the perspective of the medicine supply chain, we analyzed the characteristics of the Minhang mode of the medicine supply chain, proposed the method of overall performance evaluation that integrated the material flow, capital flow and information flow of the supply chain, and established the corresponding overall performance evaluation model of the medicine supply chain.%尝试从药品供应链的角度来探讨“闵行模式”,分析了闵行区药品供应链的特点,提出了一种基于闵行特色的供应链三流(实物流、资金流、信息流)合一的整体绩效评价方法,建立了具有针对性的药品供应链整体绩效评价模型.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position as potential antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pan-Pan; Gao, Man; Mao, Bei-Bei; Cao, Sheng-Li; Liu, Cui-Huan; Yang, Chao-Rui; Li, Zhong-Feng; Liao, Ji; Zhao, Hongchang; Li, Zheng; Li, Jing; Wang, Hailong; Xu, Xingzhi

    2016-01-27

    A series of quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at the C2-position were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against A549, MCF-7, HeLa, HT29 and HCT-116 cell lines. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited broad spectrum antitproliferative activity against five cell lines, of which 5c was the most potent against HT29 cell line with an IC50 value of 5.53 μM, inducing a G2/M phase arrest in HT29 cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with 5c resulted in BubR1 phosphorylation and an increase of mitotic index in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5c promoted tubulin polymerization in vitro. These results demonstrate that quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives bearing dithiocarbamate side chain at C2-position may be potentially novel antitumor agents targeting tubulin to activate the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  2. Synthesis of Macrocyclic Hexaoxazole (6OTD Dimers, Containing Guanidine and Amine Functionalized Side Chains, and an Evaluation of Their Telomeric G4 Stabilizing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Iida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure-activity relationship studies were carried out on macrocyclic hexaoxazole (6OTD dimers, whose core structure stabilizes telomeric G-quadruplexes (G4. Two new 6OTD dimers having side chain amine and guanidine functional groups were synthesized and evaluated for their stabilizing ability against a telomeric G4 DNA sequence. The results show that the 6OTD dimers interact with the DNA to form 1:1 complexes and stabilize the antiparallel G4 structure of DNA in the presence of potassium cation. The guanidine functionalized dimer displays a potent stabilizing ability of the G4 structure, as determined by using a FRET melting assay (ΔTm=14 °C.

  3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis.

  4. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  5. Evaluation of liver tissue by polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis B virus in patients with negative viremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad Thakeb; Magdy El-Serafy; Soheir Zakaria; Bahaa Monir; Sahar Lashin; Raghda Marzaban; Mostafa El-Awady

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical significance of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA localization in the liver tissue of patients with positive HBsAg and negative viremia.METHODS: HBV virological parameters of 33 HBsAg positive chronic hepatitis patients, including seromarkers and HBV DNA amplification in both sera and liver biopsies, were evaluated.RESULTS: Ten patients had negative viremia and positive HBV DNA in their liver biopsies. Most of them had HBeAg-negative/HBeAb-positive chronic hepatitis.Their liver biochemical and histopathological profiles were different from the viremic patients. Their disease pattern was designated as "hepatitis B in situ".CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B in situ is a consequential entity which can be missed in clinical practice. It is a new clinical pattern of chronic HBV infection that considers HBV in liver biopsy and adds a new indication for antiviral therapy.

  6. Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA-strip technology in microbiological evaluation of periodontitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Sigrun; Straube, Anna; Guentsch, Arndt; Pfister, Wolfgang; Jentsch, Holger

    2011-01-01

    The impact of a semiquantitative commercially available test based on DNA-strip technology (microIDent®, Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) on diagnosis and treatment of severe chronic periodontitis of 25 periodontitis patients was evaluated in comparison with a quantitative in-house real-time PCR. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline as well as at 3, 6, and 12 months later. After extracting DNA, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and several other periodontopathogens were determined by both methods. The results obtained by DNA-strip technology were analyzed semiquantitatively and additionally quantitatively by densitometry. The results for the 4 major periodontopathogenic bacterial species correlated significantly between the 2 methods. Samples detecting a high bacterial load by one method and negative by the other were always found in less than 2% of the total samples. Both technologies showed the impact of treatment on microflora. Especially the semiquantitative DNA-strip technology clearly analyzed the different loads of periodontopathogens after therapy and is useful in microbial diagnostics for patients in dental practices.

  7. Understanding the role of scientific evidence in consumer evaluation of natural health products for osteoarthritis an application of the means end chain approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Teresa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 30% of individuals use natural health products (NHPs for osteoarthritis-related pain. The Deficit Model for the Public Understanding of Science suggests that if individuals are given more information (especially about scientific evidence they will make better health-related decisions. In contrast, the Contextual Model argues that scientific evidence is one of many factors that explain how consumers make health-related decisions. The primary objective was to investigate how the level of scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of NHPs impacts consumer decision-making in the self-selection of NHPs by individuals with osteoarthritis. Methods The means-end chain approach to product evaluation was used to compare laddering interviews with two groups of community-dwelling Canadian seniors who had used NHPs to treat their osteoarthritis. Group 1 (n=13 had used only NHPs (glucosamine and/or chondroitin with “high” scientific evidence of efficacy. Group 2 (n=12 had used NHPs (methylsulfonylmethane (MSM and/or bromelain with little or no scientific evidence supporting efficacy. Content analysis and generation of hierarchical value maps facilitated the identification of similarities and differences between the two groups. Results The dominant decision-making chains for participants in the two scientific evidence categories were similar. Scientific evidence was an important decision-making factor but not as important as the advice from health care providers, friends and family. Most participants learned about scientific evidence via indirect sources from health care providers and the media. Conclusions The Contextual Model of the public understanding of science helps to explain why our participants believed scientific evidence is not the most important factor in their decision to use NHPs to help manage their osteoarthritis.

  8. Building Agro-Energy Supply Chains in the Basilicata Region: Technical and Economic Evaluation of Interchangeability between Fossil and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a model for the implementation of agro-energy chains based on the actual availability of forest biomass and the real demand for energy (heat in the area of the Basilicata region, Italy. The demand for energy has been estimated by drawing on the database of the Ministry of Economic Development or by calculating the Annual Energy Requirement (AER index, while for the estimate of the available forest biomass, reference was made to the public forest lands managed according to forestry management plans. The collected data were cross-checked with a view to detecting the technical and economic feasibility of district heating systems. The technical evaluation has mainly focused on the energetic and plant aspects, while the economic assessment was directed to defining the cost effectiveness criteria [Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, Payback Period] that can measure the profitability of the investment. In the economic evaluation we also included the national public incentives, designed to encourage the production of energy from renewable sources in compliance with the international agreements signed by Italy for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs.

  9. Molecular diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale in cattle: quantitative evaluation of a real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction based on msp5 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele M. Bacanelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is considered the main agent of bovine anaplasmosis. Due the nonspecific clinical signs of the anaplasmosis, the diagnosis of infection depends of laboratory confirmation. In recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have been used to detect A. marginale in cattle. However, the existence of a large number of assays of different sensitivity and cost makes the choice of an appropriate test difficult. In the present study, a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR based on the msp5 target gene was quantitatively assessed and compared to an end point PCR. Both reactions were subjected to sensitivity and specificity evaluation using plasmid DNA and samples from cattle experimentally infected with A. marginale. A comparative field trial of the tests was carried out using samples of cattle from a stable enzootic area for A. marginale. The real-time PCR showed a higher sensitivity than the end point PCR. This reaction (i.e. real-time PCR was able to detect one copy of the msp5 gene in 100 ηg of plasmidial DNA, and more than 80% of its results were positive among experimentally infected animals seven days after infection. In addition, based on in silico analysis, the real-time PCR evaluated in the present study appears to be useful for the detection of A. ovis.

  10. Evaluation of a Regional Retrofit Programme to Upgrade Existing Housing Stock to Reduce Carbon Emissions, Fuel Poverty and Support the Local Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Louise Patterson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever legally binding global climate deal that will be adopted by 195 countries was introduced in Paris in 2015, highlighting that climate change is being recognised as a real and urgent global problem. Legislative interventions need to be accompanied by significant action across all sectors of the built environment through reducing energy demand, providing energy supply from low carbon sources and combining with this with energy storage to enable necessary targets to be met. Retrofitting existing buildings is critical to making these cuts as 80% of buildings currently in existence will still be present in 2050. These retrofits need to be undertaken rapidly using replicable and affordable solutions that benefit both the householder whilst significantly reducing emissions. This paper will present an evaluation of a £9.6 million regional scale retrofit programme funded under the Welsh Governments Arbed 1 Programme which aimed to reduce fuel poverty, reduce carbon emissions and support the energy efficiency and renewable supply chain and encourage recruitment and training in the sector. Results have been obtained from desk top data collection and energy modelling calculations. The evaluation work presents the technical, environmental and economic impacts of the programme and demonstrates lessons learnt to help improve the implementation of the other regional retrofit projects providing evidence of the impacts of a large scale retrofit programme that are necessary for the deep carbon reductions required in the near future.

  11. Research on performance evaluation in logistics service supply chain based on gray analytic hierarchy process%基于灰色AHP的物流服务供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪霖; 王伟鑫

    2011-01-01

    Logistics service supply chain that is a core of the logistics service integration business is a new-type supply chain.It can provide the flexible logistics service and guarantee logistics operation of the product supply chain.As the logistics supply chain is a very complex system,a performance evaluation of logistics service supply chain which based on gray level analysis is proposed.The method takes into account the target classification of the different views of experts.Subjectivi-ty and one-sidedness of the evaluator and difficulty to decide the result are avoided.An integration logistics supply chain of a vehicle factory in Chongqing as an example,the factors of logistics service supply chain performance are evaluated.%物流服务供应链是以物流服务集成商为核心,通过提供柔性化的物流服务,保证产品供应链物流运作的一种新型供应链.由于物流服务供应链是一个十分复杂的系统,在此提出了基于灰色层次分析法的物流服务供应链绩效评价方法,综合考虑不同专家对指标分类的意见,避免评估者评价时的主观性、片面性以及决策者对评估结果难做决断的现象.结合重庆某整车厂整合汽车物流供应链为例,对影响物流服务供应链绩效的因素进行了评价.

  12. Assessment of supply chain risk based on grey multilevel evaluation model%基于灰色多层次评价模型的供应链风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毕西; 陈嘉

    2011-01-01

    针对供应链的特点,设计出供应链风险评价指标体系,综合运用层次分析法和灰色系统理论,建立灰色多层次评价模型对供应链风险进行评估,将评价者的分散信息处理成一个描述不同灰类的权向量,在此基础上,再进行单值化处理,从而得到受评者的综合评价值,为有效地评价和管理供应链风险提供了一种科学合理的依据。%This paper designs an evaluation index system of supply chain risk according to the characteristics of supply chain. Base on the AHP method and grey system theory,a grey multilevel evaluation model is built up toevaluate supply chain risk. By processing the assessor's decentralized information into a weight vector to describe different gray classes, and then changing into a definite figure, resulting in a comprehensive evaluation by the criticvalue. This method has the simple evaluation of high precision, in order to effectively evaluate and manage supply chain risks on a scientific and rational basis.

  13. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  14. Evaluation and optimization of SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a tool for diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Farignoli Romeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The genus Flavivirus includes several pathogenic species that cause severe illness in humans. Therefore, a rapid and accurate molecular method for diagnosis and surveillance of these viruses would be of great importance. Here, we evaluate and optimize a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method for the diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus. METHODS: We evaluated different commercial kits that use the SYBR Green system for real-time RT-PCR with a primer set that amplifies a fragment of the NS5 flavivirus gene. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested using twelve flaviviruses and ribonucleic acid (RNA transcribed from the yellow fever virus. Additionally, this assay was evaluated using the sera of 410 patients from different regions of Brazil with acute febrile illness and a negative diagnosis for the dengue virus. RESULTS: The real-time RT-PCR amplified all flaviviruses tested at a melting temperature of 79.92 to 83.49°C. A detection limit of 100 copies per ml was determined for this assay. Surprisingly, we detected dengue virus in 4.1% (17/410 of samples from patients with febrile illness and a supposedly negative dengue infection diagnosis. The viral load in patients ranged from 2.1×107to 3.4×103copies per ml. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time RT-PCR method may be very useful for preliminary diagnoses in screenings, outbreaks, and other surveillance studies. Moreover, this assay can be easily applied to monitor viral activity and to measure viral load in pathogenesis studies.

  15. 绿色供应链绩效评价指标体系及模型构建%Performance Evaluation Indicator System and Model Construction of the Green Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋; 朱亚楠

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of green supply chain to give the principles and methods of con- struction performance evaluation indicator system of the green supply chain. This article mainly introduced the Triangular Fuzzy--AHP model based on triangular fuzzy function so that fully and scientific evaluation of the green supply chain performance system and it has a certain directive significance.%针对绿色供应链的特征给出构建绿色供应链绩效评价体系的原则及常用方法。介绍基于三角模糊函数的TriangularFuzzy-AHP模型,从而更加全面、更加科学地评价绿色供应链绩效体系,对于绿色供应链绩效评价体系的构建有一定理论意义。

  16. Research on Construction and Application of the Model of Food Supply Chain Risk Evaluation%食品供应链风险评判模型的构建及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董千里; 李春花; 关高峰

    2012-01-01

    According to the phenomenon that emergency frequently happen in China's food industry, used related theory of Analytic Hierarchy Process, Fuzzy Evaluation Method, Membership and System Analysis, established a risk evaluation model, which reflected essential characteristics of food supply chain. Based on the formation mechanism and system analysis for food supply chain risk, formed a food supply chain risk evaluation index system,and constructed the food supply chain risk multi-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, judged risk degree of one class index factors and food supply chain system, with every factor risk degree sequence. And as an example, applied the model to a dairy production enterprise in food supply chain, for the risk of evaluation. The results of the study show that the accurate evaluation of food supply chain risk can determine more reasonable risk level, and help provide enterprise with reliable basis, reduce the happening of food supply chain emergency.%针对中国食品行业突发事件的频发现象,运用层次分析法、模糊评判法、隶属度和系统分析的相关理论,建立一个反映食品供应链本质特征的风险评判模型。基于对食品供应链风险的形成机理和系统分析,形成食品供应链风险评判指标体系,构建食品供应链风险多级模糊综合评判模型,判定一级指标各因素风险度和食品供应链系统风险度,并对各因素风险度排序。以某乳制品生产企业所处的食品供应链为例,对模型进行应用。研究结果表明,食品供应链风险的准确评判,可以确定更加合理的风险等级,有助于为企业提供可靠的风险规避依据,减少食品供应链突发事件的发生。

  17. 钢铁企业绿色供应链管理绩效灰色关联评价%Steel Enterprise Green Supply Chain Management Performance Evaluation by Grey Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀巨海; 郭忠行

    2012-01-01

    基于灰色系统理论和绿色供应链管理理论,从资源、环境、经济和社会评价等4个方面构建钢铁企业绿色供应链管理绩效评价模型,通过计算与理想样本的灰色关联度,对5个钢铁企业绿色供应链管理绩效进行实例分析.结果表明,评价方法得出的结论具有良好的区分度,符合客观实际,为钢铁企业更好地制定绿色供应链管理措施提供了科学的依据.%On the basis oi grey system theory and green supply chain management theory, a multi-lever index performance evaluation system of steel enterprise green supply chain management was set up from resources, environment, economy and social assessment. By calculating the grey correlation degree with ideal samples, the green supply chain management performance of five steel enterprises was evaluated. Results show that the conclusion of the evaluation method had good differentiate, and the evaluation results were in accordance with the objective reality, providing the scientific basis for steel enterprises to implement the formulation of green supply chain management measures.

  18. 电子商务环境下供应链信息风险的模糊评价%A fuzzy evaluation of supply chain information risk under E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟莲; 王蕾

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at supply chain information risk problem, the paper analyzed the source of supply chain information risk under E-commerce from three aspects including information uncertainty, information transferring and commission-deputizing relationship, and a information risk evaluation system was set up.Fuzzy evaluation was carried out by using set-pair analysis to evaluate information risk of supply chain under E-commerce,which can solve supply chain information risk evaluating problem better.%针对电子商务环境下供应链的信息风险评价问题,从信息不确定性、信息传递和委托代理关系3个方面分析供应链信息风险的来源,建立电子商务环境下供应链的信息风险评估指标体系,用集对分析方法对电子商务环境下供应链的信息风险进行模糊评价,较好地解决了供应链的信息风险评价问题.

  19. Evaluation of a commercial in-clinic point-of-care polymerase chain reaction test for Ehrlichia canis DNA in artificially infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waner, Trevor; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-12-01

    A novel in-clinic point-of-care (ICPOC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was evaluated for its ability to detect Ehrlichia canis DNA in artificially infected dogs compared to a real-time PCR assay. Six Beagle dogs negative for E. canis antibodies and PCR negative were artificially infected with an Israeli E. canis strain (611). All dogs developed IgG antibodies 8 days post infection (PI), and clinical and hematological abnormalities on day 10 PI. Only the real-time PCR detected E. canis DNA in the blood of five dogs at days 3 and 5 PI. At day 12 PI during the acute phase of the disease, 1 day after the initiation of doxycycline treatment, the ICPOC PCR assay detected E. canis DNA in all infected dogs, which were also positive by the real-time PCR. Two days later the ICPOC PCR assay was able to detect only 3/6 infected dogs, which were all positive by the real-time PCR. At days 17 and 19 PI, the ICPOC PCR assay did not detect E. canis DNA in the dogs while the real-time PCR detected all dogs as positive on day 17 PI and two dogs on day 19 PI. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the ICPOC PCR assay was 75% for the acute phase of the disease and 30% for the whole study, suggesting that this ICPOC assay has a potential utility for the diagnosis of acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

  20. Evaluation Research on the Distribution Network of Retail Chain Enterprise%霉售连锁企业物流配送网络评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘俊伟

    2012-01-01

    This paper based on the matching degree of the supply and demand analyzes tile logistics cost caused by the matching relation of the time and amount in the distribution networks. It unites the unit of the diferent dimensions, the quantity, the time and the cost as expenses, which built the generalized cost fimetion model to evaluate tile service level of Ihe logistics distribution network for the retail chain enterprise.%基于供需匹配度。分析了连锁零售企业配送网络中由时间、数量的匹配关系引发的物流成本。将不同量纲的时间、数量和费用的单位统一为费用,构建出广义费用函数模型,以此为评价零售连锁企业物流配送网络的评价服务水平提供科学依据。

  1. Evaluation of the paternity probability on an application of minisatellite variant repeat mapping using polymerase chain reaction (MVR-PCR) to paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X L; Tamaki, K; Yamamoto, T; Yoshimoto, T; Mizutani, M; Leong, Y K; Tanaka, M; Nozawa, H; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y

    1999-09-01

    Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a practical case of paternity testing to evaluate the paternity probability. In order to obtain single allele mapping by allele-specific MVR-PCR, three flanking polymorphic sites for each of the MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated and all three individuals were typed as heterozygous for at least one flanking polymorphic site at each locus. Allele-specific MVR-PCR was then performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that from the mother and the other one in the child was identical to that from the alleged father. Mapped allele codes were also compared with those in the database by dot-matrix analysis, and no identical allele was found although some motifs were shared with Japanese alleles. The paternity index and the probability of paternity exclusion in the case at these two MVR loci were calculated using the presumed values of the allele frequencies. These studies seem to illustrate the practical value of MVR mapping of MS31A and MS32 loci in paternity testing.

  2. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Christa K; Zhang, Jianqiang; Strait, Erin; Harmon, Karen; Patnayak, Devi; Otterson, Tracy; Culhane, Marie; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Clement, Travis; Leslie-Steen, Pamela; Hesse, Richard; Anderson, Joe; Skarbek, Kevin; Vincent, Amy; Kitikoon, Pravina; Swenson, Sabrina; Jenkins-Moore, Melinda; McGill, Jodi; Rauh, Rolf; Nelson, William; O'Connell, Catherine; Shah, Rohan; Wang, Chong; Main, Rodger; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 assays based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 assays based on virus isolation (VI). The OF specimens were inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially diluted 10-fold (10(-1) to 10(-8)). Eight participating laboratories received 180 randomized OF samples (10 replicates × 8 dilutions × 2 IAV subtypes plus 20 IAV-negative samples) and performed the rRT-PCR and VI procedure(s) of their choice. Analysis of the results with a mixed-effect logistic-regression model identified dilution and assay as variables significant (P < 0.0001) for IAV detection in OF by rRT-PCR or VI. Virus subtype was not significant for IAV detection by either rRT-PCR (P = 0.457) or VI (P = 0.101). For rRT-PCR the cycle threshold (Ct) values increased consistently with dilution but varied widely. Therefore, it was not possible to predict VI success on the basis of Ct values. The success of VI was inversely related to the dilution of the sample; the assay was generally unsuccessful at lower virus concentrations. Successful swine health monitoring and disease surveillance require assays with consistent performance, but significant differences in reproducibility were observed among the assays evaluated.

  3. An Evaluation of the Implementation of Practice Teaching Program for Prospective Teachers at Ganesha University of Education Based on CIPP-Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Wisna Ariawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of teacher status is very high and this is followed by a requirement of a high competence level that a teacher has to have that the existence of teachers has to gain a serious attention, including also the beginning of prospective teachers preparation. Ganesha University of Education (Undiksha as one of public universities in Indonesia is given authority by the government to train prospective teachers. To produce quality prospective teachers that meet the requirement Undiksha requires all education students who will become prospective teachers to take Practice Teaching Program (PPL Real. However, in its implementation it can be said that it has not been effective yet. Thus there is a need to evaluate the implementation of Practice Teaching Program for prospective teachers at Undiksha. One of the techniques used is the CIPP model that is combined with Forward Chaining Method that is one of inferring strategies of Expert System. From the components of context, input, process, and product, the implementation of Practice Teaching Program (PPL-Real of the education students of Undiksha in 2015 falls into an effective classification.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the routine early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis sputum and throat swab specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Logan, Catriona

    2012-02-01

    A longitudinal study of 2099 sputa and throat swabs received from 183 pediatric cystic fibrosis patients over a 29-month period was used to evaluate the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR resulted in an increased number of specimens identified as P. aeruginosa positive. The sensitivity of culture was 82% (373\\/453) and of PCR was 93% (420\\/453) when considering both positive culture and PCR results as true positives. Of the 80 specimens identified as PCR positive\\/culture negative for P. aeruginosa, the subsequent patient sample in 32.5% (26\\/80) of specimens concerned was identified as P. aeruginosa culture positive, suggesting that PCR has the potential to detect P. aeruginosa earlier than the microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR analysis found no evidence of the Liverpool and Manchester epidemic P. aeruginosa strains in the cohort examined. The findings of this study highlight the importance of specimen collection protocols to ensure that adequate samples are received at the laboratory for testing, thereby minimizing the potential for reporting of false-negative P. aeruginosa culture results.

  5. Development of plasmids for quantitative detection of integrated lentiviral vectors and evaluation of culture time to perform vector titer by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Baiamonte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of provirus copy number per cell (VCN/cell is a fundamental issue in transgenesis as well as in gene therapy studies based on stably integrated vectors. To this end, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is a powerful method but it is sensible to differences in quality or concentration of the two-plasmid preparations used for the construction of the standard curves. In order to minimize technical errors we included genome specific sequences (mouse or human and vector specific sequences in the same plasmid. We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of these bivalent plasmids by qPCR analysis on mouse and human genomic DNA containing a known number of a reporter lentiviral vector and we found that the system is reliable to measure up to 0.1 VCN/cell. Here we have applied this assay to measure vector titer of virus stock preparations and to determine the optimal cell passages at which viral titration effectively reflects the number of integrated vectors.

  6. Identification and Evaluation of the Supply Chain Risk Factors in Sugar Industry%蔗糖业供应链风险因素的识别与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀珍; 董欢欢; 熊炜

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify and evaluate the factors of supply chain risk. This paper also puts forward the influence factors of the sugar industry supply chain risk, with the reference to recognition method of supply chain risk factors abroad from literature based on the characteristics of sugar industry supply chain. Finally, gray relational analysis is a-dopted to evaluate supply chain risk factors of the sugar industry, and then one practical example proves the feasibility of this method.%风险因素的识别和评价是风险研究的重要阶段.借鉴国内外关于供应链风险影响因素的识别方法,根据蔗糖业供应链的特点,提出了影响蔗糖业供应链的风险因素.最后运用灰色关联法建立蔗糖业供应链风险因素评价模型,并通过实例证明此模型的可行性.

  7. Audiometric evaluation of an attempt to optimize the fixation of the transducer of a middle-ear implant to the ossicular chain with bone cement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Typically, an implantable hearing device consists of a transducer that is coupled to the ossicular chain and electronics. The coupling is of major importance. The Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) is such an implantable device; normally, the VSB transducer is fixed to the ossicular chain by means of a speci

  8. Evaluation of scalarization methods and NSGA-II/SPEA2 genetic algorithms for multi-objective optimization of green supply chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Plas (Corne); T. Tervonen (Tommi); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers supply chain design in green logistics. We formulate the choice of an environmentally conscious chain design as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem and approximate the Pareto front using the weighted sum and epsilon constraint scalarization methods as well a

  9. Service Quality Evaluation for Chain Restaurants Usi ng SERVQUAL Model%基于SERVQUAL模型的连锁餐厅服务质量评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱霖; 王岐闻; 翟婧文

    2016-01-01

    Considering domestic consumer demands for service quality of chain restaurants,an evaluation system is established using the SERVQUAL model.The model contains 2 1 indicators belonging to five categories:restaurant environment,service attitude,food quality,safety and re-liability,and scale of the brand.Each indicator undergoes a weighted analysis in an analytic hier-archy process (AHP).The obj ective is to determine dominant factors affecting customer satisfac-tion on the services.An empirical study on a typical multinational chain restaurant,Hooters,is conducted by face-to-face interview and questionnaire.The result suggests that the four dominant factors are freshness of raw materials,safety and reliability of materials,comprehensive and bal-anced nutrition,and hygiene of tableware.%在SERVQUAL模型的基础上,结合国内消费者对连锁餐厅服务质量的要求,从餐厅环境、服务水平、食品质量、安全卫生和品牌规模5个维度出发,设计一套包含21个三级指标的连锁餐厅服务质量评价指标体系。采用层次分析法(AHP)对各指标进行权重分析,旨在找出影响连锁餐厅服务质量的关键因素,并在此基础上以问卷调查的形式,对 Hooters 餐厅进行实证分析。结果表明,影响连锁餐厅服务质量的最为重要的4大因素分别是原料的新鲜程度、食物原料的安全、食物营养全面和餐具安全卫生。

  10. Research on Food Supply Chain Performance Dynamic Evaluation Based on BSC%基于平衡计分卡的食品供应链绩效动态测评研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵盼红; 王利; 孟庆良

    2012-01-01

    在食品供应链和供应链绩效评价文献回顾的基础上,提出了包括安全维度在内的五维动态平衡计分卡模型,首先采用网络层次分析法(ANP)合理地确定各指标的权重,然后结合模糊综合评价对食品供应链各个时期进行绩效评价;在此基础上,利用Markov预测理论动态地预测食品供应链未来的绩效和稳态分布,最后结合算例验证该模型的合理性,从而为食品供应链管理者制定合理的发展策略提供依据.%Based on reviewing the literature of food supply chain and supply chain performance evaluation, a five dimension dynamic Balanced Score Card (BSC) model including safety dimension was proposed. Firstly, the Analytic Network Process ( ANP) was used to weight each index, and then the performance of food supply chain in different period was e-valuated combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and Markov chain was used to forecast the future performance and steady - state distribution of food supply chain. Finally, an example was used to verify the rationality of the model and to provide basis for food supply chain manager to make reasonable development strategy.

  11. SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF AN E-COMMERCE CHAIN (E-CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gilberto Mendes do Reis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper purpose to explore the relationships between supply chain strategies and product performance in retail e-commerce. In this case, we concern that in current, in order to bear up under competition, organizations have to manage their supply chains so that they meet the needs of their final customers. With this concept in mind, the research presented in this study focuses on establishing the right strategy for supply chains according to their product segment. Thus, after a Literature Review, the paper explain a methodology based in different authors studies. Finally the article focuses on a pratical case in e-commerce retail that describes its application in this field. The research shows that it is possible to use a methodology for classifying supply chains using chain strategies and product features. The use of the right strategy for supply chains will improve the competitive advantage of businesses. One limitation is that the methodology study focuses on only two e-commerce segment; future studies may go further in refining the proposed framework for other segments. The aim of this research is to offer businesses a model for evaluating supply chains, allowing them to improve the performance of their products and services by using the right strategy for supply chains. The classification proposal of this paper presents an original model for classification of supply chains based on different studies on the theme.

  12. Construction of Evaluation Index System of Supply Chain for Equipment Maintenance Spare Parts%装备维修备件供应链评价指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 倪明仿

    2014-01-01

    以装备维修备件供应链为研究对象,研究了其组成结构,分析了其运行的本质及过程。参考商业领域供应链评价指标体系,从稳定性、经济性和运行效率3个方面构建了4个层次、12个指标组成的装备维修备件供应链评价指标体系,可为建立装备维修备件供应链定期评价机制、促进装备维修备件供应链的持续发展提供参考。%Taking the supply chain of equipment maintenance spare parts as object of study,the composi-tion structure is proposed,and the nature and working process is analyzed.Reading evaluation index sys-tem of supply chain in commercial field for reference,the evaluation index system of supply chain for e-quipment maintenance spare parts is established,which consists of three aspects such as stability,econo-my and operation efficiency,four layers and twelve indexes.It provides references for establishment of periodical evaluation mechanism and sustained development of supply chain for equipment maintenance spare parts.

  13. 基于平衡计分思想的食品冷链评价指标研究%Evaluation Study Based on the Balanced Scorecard Thought of the Food Cold Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚加彩; 谢如鹤

    2013-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards,increasing demand for frozen food,frozen food supply chain have emerged and rapid development.The article,firstly,introduces the particularity of the food cold chain and the importance of performance evaluation,then combined with a general indicator of the supply chain performance evaluation to summarize food cold chain performance evaluation which based on the the Balanced Scorecard and build the index system.%随着生活水平的提高,人们对冷藏食品的需求日益增加,冷藏食品供应链应运而生并快速发展。文中首先介绍食品冷链的特殊性及绩效评价的重要性,然后结合供应链绩效评价的一般指标归纳总结出基于平衡计分卡的食品冷链绩效评价指标,并构建指标体系。

  14. BUSINESS TENDENCIES IN SERVICES WITHIN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Skowron-Grabowska

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. Client satisfaction and improvement in profitability are two basic goals while organizing supply chain. In the paper author tried to prove that there is a correlation between organization of supply chain and subjective evaluation of economic situation by enterprises. Logistics integration helps enterprises to find their place in the supply chain.

  15. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...... for the success of intermodal chains using the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route. The results obtained validate the utility of the models and they suggest possible changes to the current operation of this SSS service in order to increase the marked potential possibilities for the intermodal chains through Rosyth-Zeebrugge....

  16. 基于平衡记分卡法制造业供应链绩效评价体系研究%Study on performance evaluation system of manufacturing supply chain based on balanced scorecard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋生; 张利梅

    2011-01-01

    Performance evaluation is an important management strategy in manufacturing supply chain,while the traditional way of examination ignored the feedback effects.This paper constructs a performance evaluation index system from the whole perspectives of supply chain and constituents of manufacturing supply chain,based on the improved balance scorecard theory and manufacturing supply chain management practice.Finally,it establishes evaluation pattern by factor analysis and verifies the adaptability of performance evaluation index system by examples of manufacturing supply chain in Jiangsu and Zhejiang area.%绩效考核是我国制造业供应链的一项重要的管理战略,传统的考核方式忽视了评价结果对供应链运行的反馈作用,不再适应现代制造业管理需要。利用改进的平衡记分卡理论,密切联系制造业供应链的绩效管理的实践经验,从整体的供应链与供应链组成成员2个层面建立基于平衡记分卡法的制造业供应链绩效评价指标体系,并利用因子分析法原理构建绩效评价模型。最后通过对苏浙地区的制造业供应链绩效的构建实践,验证了该绩效评价体系的适应性。

  17. 基于模糊综合评价的零售企业供应链风险评价%Study on Risk Assessment of Retailer Enterprise Supply Chain Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛太田; 周丹

    2013-01-01

    For the identification of risk factors to take appropriate measures, the supply chain risk assessment is the necessary step. It includes measuring the potential loss frequency and loss degree. This article is from the procurement, inventory, distribution, sales and customer service 5 risk perspectives to construct the index system of retail supply chain risk evaluation. Use of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to evaluate the enterprise supply chain risk on quantitative. The evaluation process uses the Delphi method to determine the weight of each index, and put forward some improvement suggestions according to the evaluation results.%供应链风险评价是对所识别的风险因素采取适当的措施,包括衡量潜在的损失频率和损失程度。文中从采购、库存、配送、销售和售后5个风险视角构建了零售供应链风险评估指标体系,运用模糊综合评价模型对企业供应链风险进行定量评价,在评价过程中采用德尔菲法来确定各指标的权重,并根据评价结果提出改进建议。

  18. 基于PDCA的供应链视角下物流客户服务绩效评价研究%Performance Evaluation Logistics Customer Service from Supply Chain Perspective Based on PDCA Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪利虹; 刘志学

    2012-01-01

    在系统总结国内外相关文献的基础上,设计了基于PDCA循环的供应链视角下物流客户服务绩效评价流程,并针对每个流程给出了控制重点,旨在通过对绩效评价流程的规范管理,不断提高物流客户服务绩效和供应链整体绩效水平.在绩效评价方案设计环节提出了给予供应链整体绩效提升的物流客户服务绩效评价方法和指标体系,在绩效评价方案实施环节给出了应用模糊层次分析法选择物流服务商的步骤.%Based on classic PDCA cycle control theory, we study process management of logistics customer service performance evaluation from supply chain perspective. On the basis of systematic review of related literature at home and abroad, we propose a process of logistics customer service performance evaluation from supply chain perspective based on PDCA cycle, and in the light of each process control key points are given for the improvement of standard management of performance evaluation process and the performance level of logistics customer service and supply chain. In the performance evaluation scheme design, we put forward logistics customer service performance evaluation method and index system to improve the overall performance of the supply chain. And in the performance evaluation scheme we lay out implementation method of logistics customer services of the chosen procedure based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feride; Aylin; Kantarci; Ali; Reza; Faraji; Aykut; Ozkul; Fikret; Akata

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).·METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney(MDBK) cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus(BHV1) type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane(V-HAM),acyclovir(V-A), and amniotic membrane and acyclovir(V-HAM-A) were applied to these subgroup cultures,respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48 h for cytopathic effect positive(CPE +) with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE(+) samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.·RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures.CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold(Ct) values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group(amniotic membrane group < acyclovir group < membrane and acyclovir group). This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated thatmembrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug.·CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides,we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture.However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  20. Evaluation of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to assess PEDV transmission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura C; Crawford, Kimberly K; Lager, Kelly M; Kellner, Steven G; Brockmeier, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    In April 2013, a Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) epidemic began in the United States. As part of the response, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to detect PEDV were developed by several veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Our study evaluated RT-PCR PEDV assays that detect the N gene (gN) and S gene (gS) for their ability to detect PEDV infection and the transmission potential of pigs experimentally exposed to PEDV. Detection limits and quantification cycle (Cq) values of real-time RT-PCR were assayed for PEDV samples and positive controls for both gN and gS. The limit of detection for the gN assay was 10(-6) (mean Cq: 39.82 ± 0.30) and 10(-5) (mean Cq: 39.39 ± 0.72) for the gS assay with PEDV strain USA/Colorado/2013. Following recommended guidelines, rectal swabs (n = 1,064) were tested; 354 samples were positive by gN assay and 349 samples were positive by gS assay (Cq ≤ 34.99), 710 samples were negative by gN assay and 715 were negative by gS assay (Cq > 34.99) of which 355 and 344 were "undetermined" (i.e., undetected within a threshold of 40 RT-PCR cycles, by gN and gS assays, respectively). The coefficient of variation (intra-assay variation) ranged from 0.00% to 2.65% and interassay variation had an average of 2.75%. PEDV could be detected in rectal swabs from all pigs for ~2 weeks postinfection at which time the prevalence began to decrease until all pigs were RT-PCR negative by 5 weeks postinfection. Our study demonstrated that RT-PCR assays functioned well to detect PEDV and that the gN assay was slightly better.

  1. Paper analytical devices for dynamic evaluation of cell surface N-glycan expression via a bimodal biosensor based on multibranched hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Linlin; Lan, Feifei; Li, Li; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Ren, Na; Liu, Haiyun; Yan, Mei

    2016-12-15

    A novel colorimetric/fluorescence bimodal lab-on-paper cyto-device was fabricated based on concanavalin A (Con A)-integrating multibranched hybridization chain reaction (mHCR). The product of mHCR was modified PtCu nanochains (colorimetric signal label) and graphene quantum dot (fluorescence signal label) for in situ and dynamically evaluating cell surface N-glycan expression. In this strategy, preliminary detection was carried out through colorimetric method, if needed, then the fluorescence method was applied for a precise determination. Au-Ag-paper devices increased the surface areas and active sites for immobilizing larger amount of aptamers, and then specifically and efficiently captured more cancer cells. Moreover, it could effectively reduce the paper background fluorescence. Due to the specific recognition of Con A with mannose and the effective signal amplification of mHCR, the proposed strategy exhibited excellent high sensitivity for the cytosensing of MCF-7 cells ranging from 100 to 1.0×10(7) and 80-5.0×10(7) cellsmL(-1) with the detection limit of 33 and 26 cellsmL(-1) for colorimetric and fluorescence, respectively. More importantly, this strategy was successfully applied to dynamically monitor cell-surface multi-glycans expression on living cells under external stimuli of inhibitors as well as for N-glycan expression inhibitor screening. These results implied that this biosensor has potential in studying complex native glycan-related biological processes and elucidating the N-glycan-related diseases in biological and physiological processes.

  2. Evaluation Analysis on Commercial Banks Selection for Supply Chain%层次分析法在供应链选择商业银行评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明伟; 徐丽

    2014-01-01

    From the overall consideration of the supply chain ,this article analyzes the various factors of influencing supply chain members to select commercial banks from the perspectives of qualitative and quantitative by analytic hierarchy process ,establishing evaluation system impact indicators .The results show that ,from the perspective of the supply chain ,the supply chain of financial products is the main factor ,followed by asset size and security capabilities ,when supply chain selects commercial banks .%文章从供应链的整体考虑,应用层次分析法从定性和定量两个角度分析了影响供应链成员选择商业银行的各种因素,建立了影响指标的评价体系。结果表明,从供应链角度出发,供应链选择商业银行时供应链金融产品是主要影响因素,资产规模和安全能力其次。

  3. Markov chains theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sericola, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Markov chains are a fundamental class of stochastic processes. They are widely used to solve problems in a large number of domains such as operational research, computer science, communication networks and manufacturing systems. The success of Markov chains is mainly due to their simplicity of use, the large number of available theoretical results and the quality of algorithms developed for the numerical evaluation of many metrics of interest.The author presents the theory of both discrete-time and continuous-time homogeneous Markov chains. He carefully examines the explosion phenomenon, the

  4. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  5. Perioperative supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  6. 基于隶属度转换算法的绿色供应链绩效评价%Performance evaluation of the green supply chain based on membership conversion algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庆奎; 赵斐

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the green supply chain was evaluated with the conversion algorithm of membership to improve the shortage of green supply chain and improve performance leve. The author firstly founded a set of green supply chain performance evaluation index system, and mined the data hidden in the membership degree of each index with entropy according to the membership and weight of indicators already known, then introduced the effective value and the comparable value to achieve comparability, and finally finished the evaluation of the green supply chain from the second - grade indexes to the first- grade indexes, and the first- grade indexes to the overall goal. The performance of the green supply chain of an electronic company in Guangzhou was evaluated, and the results showed that the green supply chain performance level of the electronics company achieved the second- grade level “good”, and the contribution of the supply chain management level and the information technology level to the overall performance was low and remained to be improved.%为了改进绿色供应链中的不足,提高绩效水平,采用隶属度转换算法进行评价.在构建绿色供应链绩效评价指标体系的基础上,利用已知的一级指标、二级指标的重要性权重和隶属度向量,通过信息熵对各指标隶属度进行数据挖掘,并引入有效值和可比值实现不同指标的可比性,完成二级指标到一级指标、一级指标到绿色供应链绩效评价总目标的绩效评价.对广州市某电子产品企业的绿色供应链进行评价,结果表明其绩效水平达到第二等级"良",另外通过置信度识别准别发现其供应链管理水平和信息技术水平对整体绩效的贡献率较低,还有待提高.

  7. Evaluation of Green Supply Chain for Pig Industry Based on Hopfield Neural Network%基于霍普菲尔德神经网络的生猪绿色供应链评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何开伦; 邓小翠

    2014-01-01

    生猪产业是我国农业的核心产业,有效的生猪绿色供应链绩效评价,有助于保护农业环境、保障猪肉食品安全、提高农产品质量和供应链整体运作。基于绩效评价原则,从生猪绿色供应链业务流程执行水平、运作绩效水平、节点企业绩效水平、绿色水平4个方面为生猪加工配送企业建立了一个三级评价指标体系,并利用离散霍普菲尔神经网络模型对某企业2007-2011年绿色供应链实施评价,研究表明:基于离散霍普菲尔神经网络的生猪绿色供应链评价是合理而有效的。%Pig industry is the core of Chinese agriculture.Effective evaluation of green supply chain for pig industry can contribute to the protection of agricultural environment,and ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products to raise the level of quality of agricultural products and efficiency of sup-ply chain operation.According to evaluation principle,we choose a three-tiered evaluation indicator sys-tem from four respects including the level of business process execution,supply chain operational per-formance,node enterprises performance,green horizontal to evaluate Green Supply Chain for pig indus-try,as well as the application method of the Discrete Hopfield Neural Network model applied in evalua-tion of 2007-201 1 green supply chain performance for pig industry.The study shows that evaluation of green supply chain for pig industry based on Hopfield Neural Network is reasonable and effective.

  8. S OM神经网络在生猪绿色供应链绩效评价中的应用%Application of SOM Neural Network in Performance Evaluation of Green Supply Chain for Pig Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何开伦; 李伟; 程创业

    2014-01-01

    In complying with the principle of performance evaluation and four dimensions,the paper chooses four dimensions,including the business process execution level of Green Supply Chain for Pig Industry,operational performance level,performance level of node enterprise and green level,to build the performance evaluation of Green Supply Chain for Pig Industry.Then after building a SOM model by the self-organizing map neural network Matlab software,the paper uses this model to perform data clustering analysis for Green Supply Chain for Pig Industry,and obtains the clustering results and characteristics,namely performance evaluation results and performance characteristics.The results show that the method can objectively and accurately evaluate the performance evaluation of Green Sup-ply Chain for Pig Industry.Therefore,a new way is provided for the performance evaluation of Green Supply Chain for Pig Industry,and the paper comes up with the suggestions for the promotion of the green live pig supply chain.%遵循绩效评价指标选取原则,在选择生猪绿色供应链业务流程执行水平、运作绩效水平、节点企业绩效水平和绿色水平4个维度的基础上,构建了生猪绿色供应链绩效评价指标体系。然后利用自组织映射神经网络Matlab软件建立了SOM模型,并使用该模型对生猪绿色供应链绩效评价数据进行聚类分析,得出的聚类结果和特征即为绩效评价结果和绩效特征。实证分析结果表明:该方法可以对生猪绿色供应链绩效进行客观、准确的评价,从而为生猪绿色供应链绩效评价提供了一种新的途径。最后提出了发展生猪绿色供应链的相关建议。

  9. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of alternative processes and technology chains (BEAT). Research for the production of tomorrow. Focus: Simulation and evaluation. Final report for the research project; Bewertung der Energieeffizienz alternativer Prozesse und Technologieketten (BEAT). Forschung fuer die Produktion von morgen. Schwerpunkt: Simulation und Bewertung. Abschlussbericht fuer das Verbundprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Satisfying the needs of people in a globalized world requires a sustainable development. The production of goods is a key role in the development of this sustainable development. The sustainable development of manufacturing companies requires the implementation of new lifecycle assessment methods for manufacturing processes and manufacturing technology chains. This final report under consideration describes the development of a methodology for the evaluation and assessment of technology chains using the production of a gear wheel and an injector.

  10. 基于FANP的火电厂绿色供应链绩效评价%Performance Evaluation of Green Supply Chain in Thermal Power Plant Based on FANP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维军; 卢欣欣

    2016-01-01

    The FANP method can effectively deal with the impact of qualitative indicators and different levels of indicators and feedback relations, based on the characteristics of thermal power plant to build an indicator suit for green supply chain performance evaluation system of thermal power plants. After detailed introduction of the application of FANP method, the green supply chain of one thermal power plant is used as an example to verify the method. The results show that the performance of the green supply chain is excellent. FANP method is applicable to the performance evaluation of green supply chain in thermal power plants.%采用FANP方法能够有效处理定性指标以及不同层级指标的影响和反馈关系,依据火电厂特点构建适合火电厂绿色供应链绩效评价体系的指标。对应用FANP方法进行详细介绍后,以某火电厂绿色供应链为实际案例进行方法验证,结果表明该火电厂绿色供应链绩效水平为优。FANP方法在火电厂绿色供应链绩效评价方面具有适用性。

  11. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  12. Study on Evaluation of Internal Control of Supply Chain Based on BSC-FANP%基于 BSC-FANP 供应链内部控制评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉红; 尤建新; 唐述毅; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the overall effectiveness and promote the sustainable development of the supply chain has always been the focus of supply chain management .To solve this problem ,an evaluation system of internal con-trol of supply chain based on balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process is proposed .First, the balanced scorecard is used to build an efficiency-oriented evaluation index system to improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain , which consists of four indicators and twelve secondary indicators .Then , the evaluation index weight through fuzzy analytic network process is designed .Furthermore, multiplication and addition ( weighted average ) function of fuzzy analytic network process to calculate and synthesize the weight of evaluation indicators and secondary indicators is used .Finally, an example of Shanghai retail supply chain is given , with the balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process mode built in this paper , to analyse and evaluate their supply chain and its node enterprise .The example shows the feasibility and practicability of the model .%提升供应链整体功效、促进供应链持续发展一直以来都是供应链管理关注的重点,针对该问题建立一个基于平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型的供应链内部控制评价体系。首先运用平衡计分卡构建一个由4个维度、12个指标组成的以提高整体效率为导向的评价指标体系;然后通过模糊网络分析法对其进行指标权重的设计,运用模糊网络分析法的乘和加(加权平均)算子进行评价指标/维度的权重计算及合成;最后,以上海某零售业供应链为例,运用建立的平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型对供应链及其节点企业内部控制现状进行分析、评价,证明了该模型的可行性和实用性。

  13. Establishing the Value-based Agile Supply Chain Performance Evaluation System%基于价值模式的敏捷供应链绩效评价体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申光龙; 赵娜

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the concept of supply chain value mode, establishes performance evaluation systems for the various constituting layers of the agile supply chain value from the perspectives of time, flexibility and innovation, and analyzes some of the specific evaluation indices.%在阐述敏捷性供应链含义和特征的基础上引入了供应链的价值模式,从时间、柔性和创新的视角构建了敏捷供应链各个价值组成层面的绩效评价体系,并对具体评价指标加以分析.

  14. Evaluation and Selection of TPL Suppliers Based on Supply Chain Greenness%基于供应链绿色度的第三方物流供应商评价与选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜衡; 陈华巧

    2011-01-01

    In order to deal with the TPL supplier selection problem in establishing the green supply chain, the paper proposes to integrate the degree of greenness of the supply chain into the evaluation process and formulates the TOPS1S evaluation model based on entropy weight Finally an empirical study on Qinhuangdao logistics supplier selection is used to demonstrate the economy and greenness of the method.%针对绿色供应链构建中对第三方物流供应商选型问题,提出了结合GSC绿色度对供应商评价的方法.并构建了基于熵权的TOPSIS评价模型,运用秦皇岛港物流选型进行了实例分析证明了方法的经济性和绿色性.

  15. Research on Evaluation of Environmental Factors of Green Supply Chain Based on Combination Weight%基于组合权重的绿色供应链环境因素评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和征

    2015-01-01

    为了对绿色供应链的环境影响进行科学评价,采用调研和专家咨询的方法,构建绿色供应链环境因素评价指标体系,通过层次分析法计算每个指标的主观权重,通过信息熵计算每个指标的客观权重,采用由最小鉴别信息原理推导出的公式求每个指标的组合权重,构建了绿色供应链环境因素模糊综合评价模型。最后,选择6个企业,采用德尔菲法收集和分析数据,对它们的绿色供应链的环境因素进行评价,评价得分分别为:5.38262、5.18584、6.16226、5.56852、4.38192、6.33266。可见,第5个企业的绿色供应链的环境因素评价得分处于差等偏上水平,其他企业的绿色供应链的环境因素评价得分处于中等偏上水平。评价结果表明,该模型综合考虑了评价指标的主客观权重,能够正确和有效地评价绿色供应链的环境影响。%In order to make scientific evaluation of the environmental impact of green supply chain,the evaluation index system of green supply chain environment factors was established by the method of investigation and expert consultation,the subjective weight of each in-dex was calculated by analytic hierarchy process,the objective weight of each index was calculated by information entropy,the combina-tion weight of each index was calculated by the formula derived from minimum identification information principle,the fuzzy comprehen-sive evaluation model of green supply chain environment factors was constructed. Finally,six enterprises were selected,the data were col-lected and analyzed by the Delphi method,the environmental factors of their green supply chains were evaluated,the evaluation scores were 5. 382 62,5. 185 84,6. 162 26,5. 568 52,4. 381 92,6. 332 66. Therefore,the evaluation score of the environmental factors of the fifth enterprises' green supply chain was poor upper level,while the evaluation scores of the environmental factors of other

  16. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Standard approach to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. End-to-end view. Total Lifecycle. Evaluate the readiness of the supply chain during the supply chain development phase.

  17. 基于SCOR模型的新能源汽车供应链风险识别和评估%Study on Risk Recognition and Evaluation of New Energy Automobile Supply Chain Based on SCOR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 何紫微

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we first analyzed the current development status and characteristics of the new energy automobile supply chain, then defined the supply chain risk, introduced the characteristics of the risks and compared them with those of the traditional automobile supply chain. Next, we introduced in the SCOR model, identified the risks of the supply chain in five stages, next through questionnaire survey, analyzed the 31 risk factors to determine the 19 key risk factors and build the corresponding risk evaluation index system, and at the end, using AHP and fuzzy AHP, evaluated the risks of the supply chain.%首先对新能源汽车供应链的发展现状与特点进行分析,接着对供应链风险进行定义,阐述风险特点,比较其与传统汽车风险的不同。然后引入了SCOR模型,从5个基本阶段对供应链风险进行识别,再采用问卷调查法,对识别得到的31个风险因素进行判断,最终确定了19个风险因素,以构建新能源汽车供应链风险评价指标体系。最后采用层次分析法和模糊层次分析法对供应链风险进行评估。

  18. Evaluation of the SAFRAN-ISBA-RAPID hydrometeorological chain on a mountainous catchment in a semi-arid region. Case of the Rheraya (Marrakech, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, Camille; Gascoin, Simon; Habets, Florence; Saaidi, Amina; Berjamy, Brahim; Marchane, Ahmed; Boulet, Gilles; Hanich, Lahoucine; Jarlan, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    The water content of snow pack is an important resource for many watershed in semi-arid areas where downstream plains are dominated by irrigated agriculture. As part of the ANR Amethyst, this work is to develop, adapt and evaluate a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain for quantifying streamflows at the outlet of a mountainous watershed (Rheraya wadi, Marrakech region, Morocco), a pilot basin instrumented since 2003 as part of SudMed project. Two sets of atmospheric forcing were used: (1) The first was generated by spatializing meteorological data observed on 6 stations (Asni, Aremdt, Tachedert, Oukaimeden, Imskerbour and Neltner) using the semi-physical module Micromet (Liston and Elder, 2006) on the hydrological period September 2003 - August 2012; (2) the second is provided by the SAFRAN re-analysis, implemented by the Metoffice of Morocco (Casablanca, Morocco), during the period August 2004 - July 2008. These two sets were then used as inputs for the ISBA surface model, within the modeling platform SURFEX. Finally, runoff and drainage simulations derived from ISBA were forced into the hydrological model RAPID to predict streamflows. The flows predictions and the snow covered area (SCA) were compared respectively to the observations available for the 2003-2009 period and to the daily MODIS products of SCA. Despite time unsystematic lags and low biases on flow values, the initial results are encouraging due to topographical and hydro-complexity of the studied area. Despite a slight tendency to underestimate the SCA for the "Micromet" run and to over-estimate for the "Safran" run, SCA is well reproduced with a determination coefficient of r²=0.76 and r²=0.79, respectively. Given the complex topography of the basin, a sensitivity analysis to the size of the grid point (from 8 km to 250 m) was conducted. If the different simulated series of SCA are close from a resolution to another, streamflows simulations are, by contrast, highly sensitive to the resolution

  19. Application and Evaluation of a Snowmelt Runoff Model in the Tamor River Basin, Eastern Himalaya Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Data Assimilation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Prajjwal K.; Williams, Christopher A.; Frey, Karen E.; Brown, Molly E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have drawn attention to substantial hydrological changes taking place in mountainous watersheds where hydrology is dominated by cryospheric processes. Modelling is an important tool for understanding these changes but is particularly challenging in mountainous terrain owing to scarcity of ground observations and uncertainty of model parameters across space and time. This study utilizes a Markov Chain Monte Carlo data assimilation approach to examine and evaluate the performance of a conceptual, degree-day snowmelt runoff model applied in the Tamor River basin in the eastern Nepalese Himalaya. The snowmelt runoff model is calibrated using daily streamflow from 2002 to 2006 with fairly high accuracy (average Nash-Sutcliffe metric approx. 0.84, annual volume bias model is most sensitive (e.g. lapse rate and recession coefficient) and maximizes model fit and performance. Model simulated streamflow using an interpolated precipitation data set decreases the fractional contribution from rainfall compared with simulations using observed station precipitation. The average snowmelt contribution to total runoff in the Tamor River basin for the 2002-2006 period is estimated to be 29.7+/-2.9% (which includes 4.2+/-0.9% from snowfall that promptly melts), whereas 70.3+/-2.6% is attributed to contributions from rainfall. On average, the elevation zone in the 4000-5500m range contributes the most to basin runoff, averaging 56.9+/-3.6% of all snowmelt input and 28.9+/-1.1% of all rainfall input to runoff. Model simulated streamflow using an interpolated precipitation data set decreases the fractional contribution from rainfall versus snowmelt compared with simulations using observed station precipitation. Model experiments indicate that the hydrograph itself does not constrain estimates of snowmelt versus rainfall contributions to total outflow but that this derives from the degree-day melting model. Lastly, we demonstrate that the data assimilation approach is

  20. The innovation value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  1. Research on enterprise performance evaluation model in supply chain management%供应链管理下的企业效能评价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑锋; 陈燕; 杨孝禹; 刘树勇

    2012-01-01

    评价供应链管理的好坏,关键在于分析它为企业所带来的实际收益.依据平衡计分卡理论,构建供应链管理下的内在因果关系分析框架,表明学习与成长、供应链流程、顾客满意度和企业财务水平的相互联系,在此分析框架下,利用系统动力学模拟仿真的方法,探讨供应链整体运行效果和企业个体效能的关系,显示供应链协作时间的改进,经过因果链最终使企业利润发生多大程度的变动,这样,可以求解出供应链管理为企业所带来的实际效能,为企业实施供应链管理项目提供指导依据.%For the supply chain management, the key for enterprises is how much income it can produce. Based on the theory of the balanced scorecard, an internal causality analysis framework in supply chain management is established, which shows the relationship within learning and growing, supply chain process, customer satisfaction and enterprise financial level, and in that analysis framework, using the system dynamics simulation method, this paper discusses the contact between the whole supply chain operation efficiency and enterprise individual performance result, which shows the change of enterprise' s profit caused by the improvement of supply chain coordination time through causal chain eventually. In this way, the enterprise's actual efficiency caused by supply chain management is calculated out, which helps to provide guidance for implementation of enterprise' s supply chain management project.

  2. Evaluation of Manual Spelling, Observational and Incidental Learning Using Computer-Based Instruction with a Tablet PC, Large Screen Projection, and a Forward Chaining Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrazzella, Kimberly; Mechling, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The study employed a multiple probe design to investigate the effects of computer-based instruction (CBI) and a forward chaining procedure to teach manual spelling of words to three young adults with moderate intellectual disability in a small group arrangement. The computer-based program included a tablet PC whereby students wrote words directly…

  3. Amphiphilic block copolymers bearing six-membered ortho ester ring in side chains as potential drug carriers: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi; Tao, Yangyang; Tang, Rupei; Wang, Rui; Ji, Weihang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Youliang

    2014-07-01

    A new type of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-acrylicacid 2-methoxy-5-methyl-[1,3]dioxin-5-ylmethyl ester) (PEG-b-PMME), bearing acid-labile six-membered ortho ester rings in side chains was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, and the influence of chain length of the hydrophobic PMME block on micelle properties was investigated. The PEG-b-PMME micelles were stable in aqueous buffer at physiological pH with a low critical micelle concentration. Nile Red as a model drug was encapsulated into the micelles to explore the release profiles. The Nile Red-loaded polymeric micelles showed rapid release of Nile Red in weakly acidic environments (pH 5) but slow release under physiological condition (pH 7.4), due to different hydrolysis rate of ortho ester side chains of PEG-b-PMME. The Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded micelles retained potency in killing lung cancer cells (A549), compared with the free PTX. No obvious toxicity was found in vitro and in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the micelles, which confirms that the PEG-b-PMME micelles with unique acid-labile characteristic have great potential as nano-scaled carriers for drug delivery.

  4. Logistic chain modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to n

  5. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  6. Mathematical description of the position of mining chain links on a driving chain wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolipski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The paper analyzes effects of geometry on interaction between the chain and chain wheels of face conveyors in underground coal mines. Interaction between chain links and wheel toothing is investigated using mathematical models. Three mesh types are comparatively evaluated, so-called normal mesh, nominal mesh and special mesh. Chain position on the chain wheel is shown in 3 schemes. Mathematical formulae used for characterizing mesh types are derived. Effects of the following factors on interaction between a chain link and a chain wheel are analyzed: link quality and differences in quality and dimensions among chain links, friction wear of links and toothing, elastic and plastic chain elongation, friction between links and toothing. A geometric model of the interaction between the chain wheel and haulage chain (in the form of a double polygon) is used. The mathematical model permits the following problems to be analyzed: load distribution among chain links on a chain wheel, load distribution on toothing, load fluctuations, effects of friction wear of chain and toothing. Examples of practical use of the formulae are discussed. (14 refs.)

  7. 基于平衡记分卡的敏捷供应链绩效评价体系研究%Study on Performance Evaluation Index System of Agile Supply Chain Based on Balanced Scorecard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长坤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis in the agile supply chain performance evaluation and theory of balanced scorecard,the paper builts performance evaluation index system of agile supply chain based on balanced scorecard from four dimensions including the finance,customers,business process,innovation and learning,and then puts forward implementation process to achieve the purpose of improving operational perfomance and the overall competitiveness of the agile supply chain.%在对敏捷供应链绩效评价及平衡计分卡理论分析的基础上,运用平衡计分卡构建了针对敏捷供应链的财务、顾客、业务流程、创新与学习四个维度的绩效评价指标体系,然后提出了基本平衡记分卡的敏捷供应链绩效评价的实施流程,以期达到改善敏捷供应链运营绩效、提高敏捷供应链的整体竞争能力的目的。

  8. 基于蛛网模型的供应链合作关系灰局势评价%Grey Situation Evaluation of Supply Chain Cooperative Relationship Based on Cobweb Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利民; 郑平; 纪淑娴

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we established the evaluation index system of supply chain cooperative relationship that considers the supply capacity of the supply chain partners, basis for long-term stable cooperation, and the key factors of potential for sustainable development. Then using the 9D cobweb model, we adopted the grey decision theory to comprehensively evaluate the multiple objectives with different polarities and obtained the comprehensive measuring effect of each supply chain partner. At the end, we used an empirical example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.%从供应链合作伙伴自身的供应能力、长期稳定合作的基础及未来可持续发展潜力的关键因素出发,建立了供应链的合作关系评价指标体系.使用一个九维蛛网模型评价供应链合作伙伴关系,然后利用灰色决策理论解决了多个不同极性目标的综合评价问题,得出每个供应链合作伙伴的综合测度效果.最后通过一个实际案例,证明了该方法是一个行之有效的科学决策方法.

  9. 生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式评价及构建研究%Researching on the Evaluation and Construction of Cold-chain Logistics Mode of Dairy Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2015-01-01

    Logistics mode of cold-chain concerning fresh milk and dairy products is an important content of cold-chain logistics about dairy products, which is the key to determine the security of quality about fresh milk and dairy products, stabilize the price of dairy products, improve cold-chain circulation rate of dairy product and ensure the economic benefit and service quality of the cold-chain logistics about dairy product. This paper constructs the evaluation index system of cold-chain logistics mode about fresh dairy product, uses the method of analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight of each index, introduces the main factors that influence the f cold-chain logistics mode of fresh dairy product. Then , based on the main factors and the visualization of the perspective of supply chain, this paper puts forward the path to build a cold-chain logistics mode of dairy product, namely to construct the visual supply chain mode which should deem the dairy products production enterprise as the core enterprise , the third party or the fourth party cold-chain logistics as the main organization form. This mode can optimize the main factors concerning cold-chain logistics mode of dairy product, which is worthy of study and reference.%生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式是乳制品冷链物流的重要内容,是决定生鲜乳制品质量安全、稳定乳制品价格、提高乳制品冷链流通率和保证乳制品冷链物流经济效益和服务质量的关键。文章应用平衡计分卡原理构建生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式评价指标体系、利用层次分析法计算各评价指标的权重,进而分析得出影响生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式的主要因素。紧接着,围绕影响生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式的主要因素,基于可视化供应链的角度,提出构建乳制品冷链物流模式的路径,即构建以乳制品加工企业为核心企业,以第三方、第四方冷链物流为主要组织形

  10. 中国煤电能源供应链风险关系及风险评价测度研究%Research on Risk Sources Transitive Relation of Coal -Electricity Supply Chain and Risk Evaluation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 刘平阔

    2015-01-01

    煤电能源供应链的风险管理问题是保障中国能源安全的重要基石。本文针对中国煤电能源供应链的绩效和风险管理,研究了煤电能源供应链风险管理的风险评价测度问题。基于供应链部门关系的界定,利用价值驱动树方法对风险源传递关系进行梳理,构建中国煤电能源供应链指标体系(C -ES-CRMIS)。通过社会问卷调查的方式收集样本,进行主成分分析,建立结构方程模型(SEM );为测量指标权重,对风险因子载荷分析、二级因子路径系数进行计算;基于指标相关性的指标权重确定方法(CRIT-IC ),得到煤炭供应链风险评价测度模型(C-ESCRE )。结果表明:现阶段,中国煤电能源供应链的主要风险源为政策风险、意外灾害和市场需求风险。节点企业可根据测度模型,对其供应链风险进行评价分析。最后进行了案例分析,以期为政府宏观调控、供应链协同管理以及企业内部控制提供参考。%Risk management of Coal -Electricity supply chain is an important cornerstone for China's energy security . With respect to the performance and risk management of Coal -Electricity supply chain risk management in China , this article is focused on the issues of Coal-Electricity supply chain risk evaluation . Based on defining the relationships among the supply chain sectors , using Value Driver Tree to sort out the risk sources , Coal-Electricity Supply Chain Risk Management Index System is built . Social questionnaires samples are collected to introduce a principal component analysis , and Structural Equation Modeling is employed . With respect to the weight of index , the factor loading and the path coefficient of risks are discussed at the same time . According to the Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation method , a model of Coal -Electricity supply chain risk evaluation is built . The results show that :currently

  11. 我国锰业绿色供应链绩效评价研究%A Research on Green Supply Chains in Performance Evaluation of Mn Industry of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒忠安

    2016-01-01

    随着我国锰业的不断发展,环境污染问题却日益严重。这说明我国传统的锰业供应链管理已经不能适应发展要求。因此,有必要在我国锰业快速发展的基础上引入绿色供应链管理模式,从而改善我国锰业的发展情况。通过对绿色供应链,绩效评价和我国锰业行业状态的综合分析。以绿色供应链绩效评价为视角,综合阐述我国锰业引入绿色供应链绩效评价机制的必要性与引入方法,以期为我国锰业的发展以及引入绿色供应链绩效评价机制做出理论上的贡献。%With the continuous development of economy,China’s manganese industry meets a period of rapid development.In continuous development of manganese industry, the environmental pollution has become increasingly serious.Ecological destruction is also increasing.It shows that China’s traditional manganese supply chain management has been unable to meet the development requirements.Therefore,it is necessary to introduce the green supply chain management mode on the basis of the rapid development of China’s manganese industry to improve the development of China’s manganese industry.In this paper,author has his analysis of performance evaluation of China’s manganese industry status.This paper describes the necessity and the introduction of the green supply chain performance evaluation mechanism in the view of green supply chain performance evaluation,as makes a theoretical contribution to the development of China’s manganese industry and the introduction of green supply chain performance evaluation mechanism.

  12. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance using the EICC Code of Conduct (EICC Code and performed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA on the 63/106 questionnaire responses collected. We test the results to determine whether differences in product type, geographic area, and supplier size correlate with different levels of environmental performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze questionnaire data on supplier adoption to optimize the implementation of GSCM. The results suggest that characteristic classification of suppliers could be employed to enhance the efficiency of GSCM.

  13. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gaafar, A; El-Hassan, A M

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopi......We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed......%, respectively. The PCR should be considered as a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis; it has the added advantage of identification of the species of Leishmania causing the lesion....

  14. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of short-chain fatty acids in gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal disorders: evaluation of metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, a main end product of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in human intestine, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and overall health status. The effects exerted by butyrate are multiple and involve several distinct mechanisms of action including epigenetic modifications owing to its inhibitory effects on histone deacetylases, inhibition of NF-κB signaling, or direct agonism on the free fatty acid receptors. ...

  15. Avaliação do desenpenho logístico da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes Evaluation of the logistic performance of Brazil's soft drink supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vieira Conceição

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho logístico de quatro elos da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes (fornecedores de embalagem para refrigerantes, indústria de refrigerantes, atacado e supermercado, adotando como metodologia o survey eletrônico. As repostas foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes estatísticos Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, além de uma análise descritiva dos dados e da realização dos testes de hipótese. As empresas avaliaram o desempenho logístico da cadeia, por meio de indicadores da logística interna e externa, e identificaram a percentagem de uso desses indicadores. A taxa média de respostas foi de 40%. A pesquisa mostrou que os elos da cadeia de refrigerantes utilizam mais os indicadores de desempenho, que avaliam a logística interna, do que os que avaliam a logística externa.An evaluation was made of the logistics performance of four links in Brazil's soft drink supply chain (soft drink packaging suppliers, soft drink industry, wholesalers and supermarkets, based on an electronic survey of 54 companies, from which a 40% response rate was obtained. The answers were analyzed based on the supply chain management theory, using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests and a descriptive analysis of the data. The surveyed companies evaluated the logistic performance of the chain based on indicators selected from a literature review, and identified the percentage of use of these indicators. It was found that the links in the soft drink chain preferentially use internal logistics performance indicators more than external logistics indicators.

  16. Comprehensive Evaluation of FMCG Supply Chain Risk- A Case Study of Chinese Dairy Industry Supply Chain%FMCG 供应链风险综合评价研究--以中国乳制品供应链为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继贵; 叶阿忠

    2014-01-01

    As the supply chain management expert Christopher said,the 21 st century is the era of supply chain manage-ment.How to make supply chain risk management efficiently and make the risks under certain level of control will definitely be a challenging task for most of enterprises,especially for those traditional industries like FMCG.The purpose of this arti-cle is to analyze the supply chain risk factors and risk level of FMCG industry by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model.After the analysis we think that FMCG enterprises should strengthen the control of their supply chain channels,opti-mize the business process,improve risk warning mechanism and take some other measures to improve their supply chain system’s Immunity to resist uncertain risks from outside world and inner circumstances.%正如供应链管理专家 Christopher 所言,21世纪是供应链的时代,快速消费品(FMCG)企业如何在这供应链管理的时代对供应链风险进行管控将是一项富有挑战性的任务。从供应链风险管理的基本理论出发,在前人研究的基础之上对 FMCG 供应链的风险进行分析,提出适用于 FMCG 供应链的风险评估指标,并采用模糊综合评价分析法对中国乳制品供应链的风险情况进行综合分析。根据分析的结果,FMCG 供应链应当加强供应链渠道建设、流程管理和风险预警机制等方面的措施以提高供应链系统抵抗风险的“免疫力”。

  17. Supply Chain Risk Evaluation Based on the OWA Operator%基于OWA算子的供应链风险评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文婕

    2011-01-01

    根据现有的研究成果,并结合实例,采用OWA算子的方法,对供应链管理风险进行研究.预测了供应链管理中各风险发生的概率大小和影响大小.得出该方法既适用于整体大风险的计算、比较,也适用于具体的风险因素间的比较;同时考虑到了各风险事件的不同的紧急性,具有灵活性.进而得出该方法适合供应链网络中风险因素相关性相对较低的风险研究.%The paper studies empirically supply chain risk management using the OWA operator and forecasts the probability and influence of the various risks in supply chain management. It concludes that the OWA operator based method is not only applicable to the calculation and comparison of generic risks, but also to that of specific risk factors, that it is also flexible in that it gives due consideration to the different levels of urgency of risk events and that it is particularly suitable for the study of supply chain networks with risk factors of low fevel correlativity.

  18. Study on Performance Evaluation of Tourism Supply Chains Based on AHP and Fuzzy Decision-making%基于层次分析与模糊决策的旅游供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云涛

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the principle for the establishment of the tourism supply chain performance evaluation index system and in reference with the reinforced balanced scorecard system, we established the tourism supply chain evaluation system and then using AHP and multi-level fuzzy evaluation, deducted an empirical case of the comprehensive performance evaluation index system.%基于旅游供应链绩效评价指标的建立原则,在参考增强型平衡计分卡并综合考虑供应链绩效评价研究的基础上,建立了旅游供应链评价体系。采用层次分析法与多级模糊评价相结合的评价方法,对建立的综合绩效评价指标体系进行了实例演算。

  19. A Study with FANP on Green Degree Evaluation Model for Green Supply Chain of Circulatory Agriculture%基于FANP方法的循环农业绿色供应链绿色度评价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑾

    2015-01-01

    农产品供应链管理是保证农产品质量安全的关键. 将"绿色"引入农产品供应链管理中,将传统供应链的评价指标体系与农产品产业特征相结合,重新构建了由6个一级指标和19个二级指标构成的评价指标体系,并采用模糊层次分析法(FANP)构建了绩效评价模型,最后以此模型进行实证分析. 结果表明,企业并不是造成农产品供应链绿色水平偏低的惟一主体;农产品供应链绿色水平的提高,需要企业、政府和中介组织三方的共同努力;政府除了需要通过政策对绿色经济发展进行有效引导之外,还需要在技术和资金方面给予企业一定的支持,而中介组织体系的完善,将有助于政府、企业和市场之间建立紧密的关系.%Agricultural products supply chain management is the key to guarantee the quality and safety of agricultural prod-ucts. The study combined the evaluation index system of the traditional supply chain with industry characteristics of agricul-tural products, brought the green factor into agricultural products supply chain management, and built the evaluation index system which included 6 primary indexes and 19 secondary indexes. The article used FANP method to build the performance evaluation model and made the example analysis in this model. The analysis showed that enterprises were not the only subject to make the green level of agricultural products supply chain lower. Improving the green level of agricultural products supply chain needs joint efforts of enterprises, government and intermediary organizations. The government not only needs to lead the green economy development through policy, but also to support the enterprises in technology and capital. And improving in-termediary organization system is helpful to contribute a close relationship between the government, enterprise and market.

  20. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda......A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  1. Effect Evaluation of Automobile Manufacturing Industry Lean Logistics in Supply Chain Environment%供应链环境下汽车制造业精益物流效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩澂

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, from the aspects of environment, safety, staff, quality, response and cost, we built the automobile manufacturing industry lean logistics effect evaluation index system under the supply chain environment and next, using grey evaluation and AHP, evaluated the effect of the lean logistics of the automobile manufacturing industry.%从环境、安全、人员、质量、响应和成本六个方面构建了相对完整的供应链环境下汽车制造业精益物流效果评价指标体系,并通过灰色评价与层次分析法相结合对汽车制造业精益物流实施效果进行评价,对促进精益物流的发展具有一定的现实意义。

  2. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  3. Fresh fish distribution chains: An analysis of three Danish and three Australian chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Bremner, Allan

    2001-01-01

    . Traceability is a most important issue in the high value product chains in Australia. No information technology methods, were in evidence. In the Danish chains, nearly all traceability was lost after the collector/auction stage and the only evaluation of quality parameters was by inspection.......Information on traceability was gathered for three domestic Danish fish chains typical of the current trading practices in fresh seafood and for three chains exporting products from Australia to Japan. The same standard questionnaires, coupled with personal interviews, were used in all six chains...

  4. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  5. Residual dipolar couplings in short peptidic foldamers: combined analyses of backbone and side-chain conformations and evaluation of structure coordinates of rigid unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus B; Fleischmann, Matthias; D'Elia, Valerio; Reiser, Oliver; Gronwald, Wolfram; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2009-02-13

    A flexible tool for rigid systems. Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) have proven to be valuable NMR structural parameters that provide insights into the backbone conformations of short linear peptidic foldamers, as illustrated here. This study demonstrates that RDCs at natural abundance can provide essential structural information even in the case of short linear peptides with unnatural amino acids. In addition, they allow for the detection of proline side-chain conformations and are used as a quality check for the parameterizations of rigid unnatural amino acids.

  6. 熵权模糊物元法在战时装备供应链风险评估中的应用%Entropy Fuzzy Matter Element Analysis Method of Wartime Equipment Supply Chain Risk Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓尧; 李体方; 梁颖

    2015-01-01

    针对信息化条件下战时装备供应链的特点,以远程打击风险、后方袭扰风险和天气影响风险为风险评估指标,运用基于熵权的模糊物元分析法,对战时装备供应链风险进行评估。通过某装备供应链风险评估算例,验证了熵权模糊物元法在战时装备供应链风险评估中的可行性,证明了该方法对战时装备供应链的选择有很高的借鉴价值。%Specific to the characteristic of the wartime equipment supply chain under the circumstance of information,the long-distance exactitude stroke risk,enemy raid in rear risk and influence of bad weather risk are used as the mean risk criteria. The wartime equipment supply chain risk is evaluated with the method of entropy fuzzy matter element. An example of some equipment supply chain risk is used to verify the correctness and feasibility of the entropy fuzzy matter element analysis method. This paper is proved to have a high practical value.

  7. Evaluation of Agricultural Produce Cold Chain Logistics Performance Based on DEA%基于数据包络分析的农产品冷链物流绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许渭书; 樊相宇

    2015-01-01

    为完善陕西省农产品冷链物流管理,利用数据包络分析法,从农产品冷链物流发展的外部环境、内部流程、总体效益、风险评估四个方面选取投入、产出指标。通过MaxDEA软件对陕西省11个市的农产品冷链物流数据进行了分析,给出了改进建议,为衡量农产品冷链物流综合表现提供了新的评价方法。%In this paper, in order to improve the agricultural produce cold chain logistics management system of Shanxi, we used the data envelopment analysis to study the input and output indexes in the external environment, internal process, general benefit and risk evaluation of the agricultural produce cold chain logistics practice of the province, then using the MaxDEA program, analyzed the agricultural produce cold chain logistics data of the 11 cities in Shanxi, and then gave the corresponding suggestions for improvement.

  8. 典型家电连锁销售企业物流模式的综合评价比较分析%Comparative Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Typical Home Appliance Chain Sales Enterprise Logistics Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the study sample is the typical home appliance chain sales enterprises,and the main research directions is their logistics mode selection. Through the establishment of a comprehensive evaluation model, Magnitude factor such as the cost, service and scale changed into uniform. Then evaluate the comparative effectiveness of operations between the two companies, which use the different logistics mode. And explore the new path, what can select the logistics mode for home appliance chain sales enterprise, through the establishment of a comprehensive quantitative evaluation system.%文中以典型家电连锁销售企业为研究样本,以物流模式选择为主要研究斱向。通过建立综合评价模型,将成本、服务、规模等因子转化为统一的价值量后进行综合分析,较为全面、客观、准确的对两个企业所采用不同物流模式的运营效果进行评价比较。幵探索通过建立量化综合评价体系来进行家电连锁销售企业物流模式选择的新路径。

  9. A Study into Evaluation of Supply Chain Partnership Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number%基于三角模糊数的供应链伙伴关系评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田江; 张芳琴

    2013-01-01

    Taking bidirectional supply chains as its background, this present paper makes an analysis of the cooperation strategies taken by participants on the supply chains under different degrees of cooperation. In this study, a two-dimensional partner evaluation system is established, with experts participating into the evaluation of partner candidates. The triangular fuzzy theory is used to quantify the degree of cooperation among participants, and partner selection and evaluation approaches are thus explored and verified by an example.%  本文以双向供应链为研究背景,分析该类供应链上的参与者在不同合作程度时分别采取的合作策略。建立一套二维的合作伙伴评价体系,由评选专家参与对候选合作伙伴的评价;借助三角模糊理论将参与者间的合作程度进行量化识别,研究在该背景下的合作伙伴的选择与评价的方法,并以一个例子验证该方法。

  10. 基于平衡计分卡的绿色供应链绩效评价研究%Study on Green Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Based on BSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寻小荣

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, from the angle of finance, customer service, internal operation and study/development, we established the performance evaluation index system for the green supply chain, adopted the fuzzy AHP in the evaluation process, and at the end, by applying the model in the empirical case of a certain enterprise, demonstrated the feasibility of the index system as well as the practical strategy for the enterprise to implement the performance evaluation course for its green supply chain.%从财务、客户服务、内部运营、学习和发展四个维度构建绿色供应链绩效评价指标体系,运用模糊层次分析法来进行绩效评价;最后把模型运用到企业中去,证明该指标体系的可行性并得出企业实施绿色供应链绩效评价的策略。

  11. Quivers via anomaly chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.casero@mib.infn.it; Trincherini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    We study quivers in the context of matrix models. We introduce chains of generalized Konishi anomalies to write the quadratic and cubic equations that constrain the resolvents of general affine A-circumflex{sub n-1} and non-affine A{sub n} quiver gauge theories, and give a procedure to calculate all higher-order relations. For these theories we also evaluate, as functions of the resolvents, VEV's of chiral operators with two and four bi-fundamental insertions. As an example of the general procedure we explicitly consider the two simplest quivers A{sub 2} and A-circumflex{sub 1}, obtaining in the first case a cubic algebraic curve, and for the affine theory the same equation as that of U(N) theories with adjoint matter, successfully reproducing the RG cascade result. (author)

  12. Quivers via anomaly chains

    CERN Document Server

    Casero, R; Casero, Roberto; Trincherini, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    We study quivers in the context of matrix models. We introduce chains of generalized Konishi anomalies to write the quadratic and cubic equations that constrain the resolvents of general affine and non-affine quiver gauge theories, and give a procedure to calculate all higher-order relations. For these theories we also evaluate, as functions of the resolvents, VEV's of chiral operators with two and four bifundamental insertions. As an example of the general procedure we explicitly consider the two simplest quivers A2 and A1(affine), obtaining in the first case a cubic algebraic curve, and for the affine theory the same equation as that of U(N) theories with adjoint matter, successfully reproducing the RG cascade result.

  13. Benefit Evaluation of Pledge Based on Supply Chain Financing%基于供应链融资的质物效益评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽

    2011-01-01

    The most important and difficult point in supply chain financing is to value the line of credit and the risk of pledge which is reflect the management benefit of logistic company who bears the largest risk and obtains smallest benefit under the credit extension mode of"1+N".Whereas this article mainly solve the above problems that how to value the benefit of pledge though analyzing the various modes of supply chain finance and the index system of risks.%供应链融资业务的重点和难点之一即是关于质押动产即质物授信额度和风险性的评价,这直接影响了在核心企业与其上下游企业即"1+N"授信模式下,承担风险最大效益最小的物流企业的经营效益。通过对供应链融资模式与风险指标分析提出供应链融资业务中质物效益的评价方法。

  14. The composite supply chain efficiency model: A case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa’s supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.

  15. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  16. Kinetic Chain Rehabilitation: A Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sciascia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequenced physiologic muscle activations in the upper and lower extremity result in an integrated biomechanical task. This sequencing is known as the kinetic chain, and, in upper extremity dominant tasks, the energy development and output follows a proximal to distal sequencing. Impairment of one or more kinetic chain links can create dysfunctional biomechanical output leading to pain and/or injury. When deficits exist in the preceding links, they can negatively affect the shoulder. Rehabilitation of shoulder injuries should involve evaluation for and restoration of all kinetic chain deficits that may hinder kinetic chain function. Rehabilitation programs focused on eliminating kinetic chain deficits, and soreness should follow a proximal to distal rationale where lower extremity impairments are addressed in addition to the upper extremity impairments. A logical progression focusing on flexibility, strength, proprioception, and endurance with kinetic chain influence is recommended.

  17. Kinetic chain rehabilitation: a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Aaron; Cromwell, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Sequenced physiologic muscle activations in the upper and lower extremity result in an integrated biomechanical task. This sequencing is known as the kinetic chain, and, in upper extremity dominant tasks, the energy development and output follows a proximal to distal sequencing. Impairment of one or more kinetic chain links can create dysfunctional biomechanical output leading to pain and/or injury. When deficits exist in the preceding links, they can negatively affect the shoulder. Rehabilitation of shoulder injuries should involve evaluation for and restoration of all kinetic chain deficits that may hinder kinetic chain function. Rehabilitation programs focused on eliminating kinetic chain deficits, and soreness should follow a proximal to distal rationale where lower extremity impairments are addressed in addition to the upper extremity impairments. A logical progression focusing on flexibility, strength, proprioception, and endurance with kinetic chain influence is recommended.

  18. Study on the Third-party Evaluation Chain Model of the Basic Public Health Service%基本公共卫生服务第三方评估链模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景思霞; 陈菲; 陈娱瑜; 王遂; 谭华伟

    2014-01-01

    为科学、独立、公正地评估基本公共卫生服务的效果,在归纳第三方评估的特点和意义的基础上,构建基本公共卫生服务第三方评估链模式。基本公共卫生服务第三方评估链模式的推行需要公信力好、专业化水平高、独立性强的第三方评估机构和政府协同监督四个方面的保障。在基本公共卫生服务领域运用第三方评估链模式,对于提高基本公共卫生服务项目管理水平,提高卫生资源分配的公正性和有效性及专项资金的使用效率有着重要的意义。%In order to evaluate the effect of the basic public health service scientifically , independently and impartial-ly, the third-party evaluation chain model was constructed on the basis of summing up the characteristics and significance of the third-party evaluation.The third-party evaluation chain model of the basic public health service was supported by good credibil -ity, high professional level , strong independence of the third -party appraisal institutions and coordination supervision of govern-ment.The utilization of the third-party evaluation in the field of basic public health service was significant not only in improving the management level of basic public health service , but also in the fairness and effectiveness of health resource allocation and use efficiency of the special fund.

  19. Serum Free Light Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or of one of its component parts – a kappa or lambda light chain, or rarely, a heavy chain. Traditionally, plasma cell ... protein (M-protein) production and to calculate a kappa/lambda free light chain ratio. If the protein electrophoresis test is abnormal, ...

  20. Design of the green supply chain evaluation system of textile products%纺织品绿色供应链评价指标体系的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋洁

    2009-01-01

    @@ "供应链"一词源于英文"Supply Chain".供应链是指生产与流通过程中涉及将产品或服务提供给最终用户活动的上游与下游企业所形成的网链结构.供应链管理(SCM)是运用系统集成的思想和方法,通过整合供应链上的供应商、制造商、经销商、零售商和最终消费者,达到整合资源,优化配置,提高核心竞争力的目的.

  1. Study on Distribution Performance Evaluation System for Chain Supermarket Distribution Centers%连锁超市配送中心的配送绩效评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 张旭凤

    2012-01-01

    以提高连锁超市配送中心的配送绩效为目标,在国内外配送绩效评价研究成果的基础上,结合连锁超市配送活动特点,以定性与定量相结合为原则,从作业流程层、支持层和结果层三个维度建立了相对完整的连锁超市配送绩效指标体系.在研究方法上,综合采用了问卷调查法、模糊综合评价法、层次分析法,并结合实证分析检验了此绩效评价指标体系和采用方法的可行性.%With improving the operational performance of chain supermarket distribution centers as the objective and on the basis of the previous studies on distribution performance evaluation both from China and other countries, the paper establishes a comparatively comprehensive chain supermarket distribution performance index system on the dimensions of process, support and outcome. Methodologically, this study employs questionnaire survey, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and AHP, whose feasibility as well as that of the index system is tested in an empirical analysis.

  2. Study on Matter-element Model in Performance Evaluation of Food Cold Chain Logistics Enterprises%食品冷链物流企业绩效评价物元模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2012-01-01

    根据可拓学的思想方法,从经济指标、作业流程指标和客户服务指标三个层面考虑,设计了食品冷链物流企业绩效评价指标体系,并建立了基于物元的绩效评价模型.通过该模型,可评价食品冷链物流企业的绩效水平,并明确其在整个食品冷链物流行业中所处的绩效等级.实例计算结果表明,该方法能够有效结合定性与定量分析,且模型结构简单规范,为企业绩效的评估提供了一种参考方法.%In this paper, following the principles of extenics and considering the index on the aspects of economics, operation and customer service, we designed the performance evaluation index system of food cold chain logistics enterprises and established the performance evaluation model based on matter-element, which could identify the level of an enterprise in the whole food cold chain logistics industry concerning performance. A subsequent numerical example showed that this method could effectively combine qualitative and quantitative analysis and the model was simple and standard in structure.

  3. Gushing metal chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  4. The Statistical Value Chain - a Benchmarking Checklist for Decision Makers to Evaluate Decision Support Seen from a Statistical Point-Of-View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Henningsen, Geraldine; Wood, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    quantitative methods exist for evaluating uncertainty—for example, Monte Carlo simulation—and such methods work very well when the AN is in full control of the data collection and model-building processes. In many cases, however, the AN is not in control of these processes. In this article we develop a simple...... method that a DM can employ in order to evaluate the process of decision support from a statistical point-of-view. We call this approach the “Statistical Value Chain” (SVC): a consecutive benchmarking checklist with eight steps that can be used to evaluate decision support seen from a statistical point-of-view....

  5. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte; Errington, Jane; LeBlanc, Neil; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Hjulsager, Charlotte; Isaksson, Mats; Stadejek, Tomasz; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-09-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays or commercial kits used in the ring trial could identify all different PRRSV strains with an optimal analytical and diagnostic sensitivity. The genetic variability of the PRRSV strains, which is supposed to hinder the diagnostic of the RT-PCR because of mutations at the primer binding sites, was also confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. In summary, a major problem in PRRSV diagnostics by RT-qPCR is false-negative results. To achieve maximum safety in the molecular diagnosis of PRRSV, the combined usage of different assays or kits is highly recommended.

  7. Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of anisakis simplex parasite as a food-borne allergen source in seafood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Itziar; Pardo, Miguel Angel

    2010-02-10

    Anisakis simplex has been recognized as an important cause of disease in humans and as a food-borne allergen source. Actually, this food-borne parasite was recently identified as an emerging food safety risk. An A. simplex -specific primer-probe system based on a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay has been successfully optimized and validated with seafood samples. In addition, a DNA extraction procedure has been optimized to detect the presence of the nematode in food samples. The assay is a very reliable, specific, and sensitive methodology to detect the presence of traces of this parasite in seafood products, including highly processed samples. As a result, 13 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase II gene were obtained and scrutinized to calculate intra- and interspecific variabilities of 0 and 35-67%, respectively. Finally, an efficiency of 2.07 +/- 0.14 of the assay was calculated, and a limit of detection of 40 ppm parasite in 25 g of sample was also optimized. Actually, the presence of this parasite in several seafood products has been demonstrated, enforcing the necessity of a design for a good manufacturing practice protocol for the processing industry to minimize the presence of this parasite as a food-borne allergen source in seafood products.

  8. Evaluation of three different formats of a neutralizing single chain human antibody against toxin Cn2: neutralization capacity versus thermodynamic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Hernández, Veronica; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Pedraza-Escalona, Martha; Juárez-González, Victor R; Alcántara-Recillas, Israel; Possani, Lourival D; Becerril, Baltazar

    2012-04-30

    The single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) 6009F, obtained by directed evolution, neutralizes the effects of the Cn2 toxin, which is the major toxic component of Centruroides noxius scorpion venom. In this work we compared the neutralization capacity and the thermodynamic stability of scFv 6009F with those of two other derived formats: Fab 6009F and diabody 6009F. Additionally, the affinity constants to Cn2 toxin of the three recombinant antibody fragments were determined by means of BIAcore. We found a correlation between the thermodynamic stability of these antibody fragments with their neutralization capacity. The order of thermodynamic stability determined was Fab≫scFv>diabody. The Fab and scFv were capable of neutralizing the toxic effects of Cn2 and whole venom but the diabody was unable to fully neutralize intoxication. In silico analysis of the diabody format indicates that the reduction of stability and neutralization capacity could be explained by a less cooperative interface between the heavy and the light variable domains.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of n-alkyl chain and polar ligand bonded stationary phases for protein separation in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Guo, Zhimou; Xiao, Yuansheng; Xue, Xingya; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-09-01

    Protein retention is very sensitive to the change of solvent composition in reversed-phase liquid chromatography for so called "on-off" mechanism, leading to difficulty in mobile phase optimization. In this study, a novel 3-chloropropyl trichlorosilane ligand bonded column was prepared for protein separation. The differences in retention characteristics between the 3-chloropropyl trichlorosilane ligand bonded column and n-alkyl chain modified (C2, C4, C8) stationary phases were elucidated by the retention equation l nk=a+cC(B). Retention parameters (a and c) of nine standard proteins with different molecular weights were calculated by using homemade software. Results showed that retention times of nine proteins were similar on four columns, but the 3-chloropropyl trichlorosilane ligand bonded column obtained the lowest retention parameter values of larger proteins. It meant that their retention behavior affected by acetonitrile concentration would be different due to lower |c| values. More specifically, protein elution windows were broader, and retentions were less sensitive to the change of acetonitrile concentration on the 3-chloropropyl trichlorosilane ligand bonded column than that on other columns. Meanwhile, the 3-chloropropyl trichlorosilane ligand bonded column displayed distinctive selectivity for some proteins. Our results indicated that stationary phase with polar ligand provided potential solutions to the "on-off" problem and optimization in protein separation.

  10. In planta and soil quantification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and evaluation of Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea with a newly developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris can be managed by risk assessment and use of resistant cultivars. A reliable method for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in soil and chickpea tissues would contribute much to implementation of those disease management strategies. In this study, we developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) protocol that allows quantifying F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris DNA down to 1 pg in soil, as well as in the plant root and stem. Use of the q-PCR protocol allowed quantifying as low as 45 colony forming units of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris per gram of dry soil from a field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Moreover, the q-PCR protocol clearly differentiated susceptible from resistant chickpea reactions to the pathogen at 15 days after sowing in artificially infested soil, as well as the degree of virulence between two F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Also, the protocol detected early asymptomatic root infections and distinguished significant differences in the level of resistance of 12 chickpea cultivars that grew in that same field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Use of this protocol for fast, reliable, and cost-effective quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in asymptomatic chickpea tissues at early stages of the infection process can be of great value for chickpea breeders and for epidemiological studies in growth chambers, greenhouses and field-scale plots.

  11. Evaluation of FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy techniques for determination of minor odd- and branched-chain saturated and trans unsaturated milk fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Ivan; Baeten, Vincent; Abbas, Ouissam; Vlaeminck, Bruno; De Baets, Bernard; Fievez, Veerle

    2013-04-10

    Determination of nutritionally important trans MUFA, CLA, and OBCFA milk fatty acids (often present in amounts lower than 1.0 g/100 g of total fat) using fast and nondestructive analytical methods would enhance their use as diagnostic tools in dairy herd and human health management. Here, PLS regression using ATR/FTIR spectra indicated potential for determination of trans-11 C18:1 and trans-12 C18:1 (Rcv² ≥ 0.80), and trans-9 C18:1 in very minor concentration (Rcv² > 0.82), as well as anteiso C15:0 (Rcv² = 0.57) and iso C17:0 (Rcv² = 0.61). Furthermore, the main cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer was predicted well despite the high trans MUFA concentration. Differentiation between the CLA and the trans MUFA signals was evident (based on specific cis/trans bands), and branched-chain saturated fatty acid methyl esters revealed specific iso and anteiso ATR/FTIR absorbance bands. None of the minor FA PLS results with FT-NIR showed interesting potential, except satisfactory predictions for trans-9 C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA. Overall, ATR/FTIR resulted in better calibrations and provided more specific information for determination of minor milk fatty acids.

  12. Evaluation of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis versus multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays in the detection of dystrophin gene rearrangements in an Iranian population subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD gene is located in the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21. It spans 2.4 Mb of the human genomic DNA and is composed of 79 exons. Mutations in the Dystrophin gene result in DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy. In this study, the efficiency of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA over multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in an Iranian population was investigated. Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR assays and MLPA analysis were carried out in 74 patients affected with DMD. Results: Multiplex PCR detected deletions in 51% of the patients with DMD. MLPA analysis could determine all the deletions detected by the multiplex PCR. Additionally, MLPA was able to identify one more deletion and duplication in patients without detectable mutations by multiplex PCR. Moreover, MLPA precisely determined the exact size of the deletions. Conclusion: Although MLPA analysis is more sensitive for detection of deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene, multiplex PCR might be used for the initial analysis of the boys affected with DMD in the Iranian population as it was able to detect 95% of the rearrangements in patients with DMD.

  13. Risk Evaluation of Wartime Equipment Supply Chain Based on TOPSIS Method with Fuzzy Ameliorated Entropy Weight%基于模糊修正熵权TOPSIS的战时装备供应链风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天虹; 宋业新; 宋长青

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of wartime equip supply chain, long-distance exactitude stroke, enemy raid in rear and influence of bad weather are used to reflect main risk criteria. Based on TOPSIS method with fuzzy ameliorated entropy weight is erected to evaluate the wartime equip supply chain's risk evaluation. Firstly, entropy weight that originated from original data is put forward, which is ameliorated by the experts' factor, and an evaluation method of technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution is constructed. Finally, the calculation and analysis of an example indicate that this method is easy in calculation, the outcome is reasonable, the subjectivity and randomicity in the commander's decision process are decreased.%针对战时装备供应链的特点,以远程精确打击、敌特后方袭扰和恶劣天气等三个因素为主要风险指标,运用修正的模糊信息熵权对TOPSIS法进行改进,提出了一种新的战时装备供应链风险评估方法.首先利用原始数据产生的模糊信息熵权进行客观赋权,并引入专家因素对权重进行主观修正,利用逼近理想解排序方法进行运算,最后通过实例计算与分析,验证该评估方法简便易行,结论合理,有效降低了指挥员决策的主观随意性.

  14. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  15. Understanding the Chain Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, John Simeon

    2013-01-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously "flow" out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, if h1 is sufficient, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. We show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an anomalous reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. We propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 is proportional to h1.

  16. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  17. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  18. On the lean supply chain environment enterprise logistics supplier evaluation and selection%精益供应链环境下企业物流供应商的评价与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程赐胜; 侯茂顺; 白云卯

    2012-01-01

    在分析精益供应链对物流供应商选择评价指标特点的基础上,建立了精益供应链环境下企业物流供应商的评价指标体系.结合改进的层次分析法和离差决策法,利用主观权重和客观权重对物流供应商进行了综合分析,进而构造了物流供应商的综合评价模型.最后,通过算例验证了所选择的指标体系及综合评价模型的科学性与可行性.%The paper constitutes supplier-evaluation index system for lean supply chain on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of logistics supplier selection evaluation index . It analyzed logistics suppliers with considering the subjective and objective weight, and set up the evaluating model of the logistics-supplier-selection with the combination of improved an- alytic hierarchy process and deviation decision method. Finally, to demonstrat the feasibili- ty and scientific of index system and comprehensive evaluation model, the paper gives a case.

  19. Analysis on Index System of Farmer's Credit Evaluation Based on the BBC and Value Chain Risk%基于BBC与价值链风险分析的农户信用评价指标体系探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏玲; 郭高玲

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the credit status which financial institutions provide loans to farmers who go back home for work. Based on the research of farmer credit evaluation analysis, the paper finds out that the farmer's credit evaluation index system mainly uses the “5C” or “4C” analysis method, which is thought less diversity. Therefore, the paper puts forward a new farmer's credit evaluation index system based on the value chain risk analysis method with balanced score card. With the personal balanced score card, based on value chain risk analysis, it finds the potential factors of farm households to repay the loan, and then constructs the farmer' s credit evaluation index system according to these factors. The new farmer's credit evaluation index system is more comprehensive and reasonable compared to the traditional.%主要针对"农民工返乡创业"这一社会现象,金融机构对其提供资金支持时,对农户信用进行评价为研究目的.通过对现有农户信用评价的研究分析,发现在构建农户信用评价指标体系时,所采用的方法主要以"5C"或"4C"分析法为模型,方法比较单一,所以,提出了基于价值链风险分析与平衡积分卡方法的农户信用评价指标体系.以个人平衡积分卡为框架,通过对农产品价值链风险分析,找出影响农户偿还贷款的潜在因素,根据这些因素来选取评价指标,构建农户信用评价指标体系.新的农户信用评价指标体系与传统的评价体系相比,更为全面、合理.

  20. Evaluation of Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to Determine Escherichia coli Concentrations at Two Lake Erie Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Christopher M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2009-01-01

    During the recreational seasons of 2006 and 2007, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was used to determine Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in samples from two Lake Erie beaches. Results from the qPCR method were compared to those obtained by traditional culturing on modified mTEC agar. Regression analysis showed strong, statistically significant correlations between results from the two methods for both years. Correlation coefficients at Edgewater and Villa Angela Beaches were 0.626 and 0.789 for 2006 and 0.667 and 0.829 for 2007, respectively. Linear regression analyses were done to determine how well E. coli concentrations could have been predicted from qPCR results. These hypothetical predictions were compared to the current practice of determining recreational water quality from E. coli concentrations determined for samples collected on the previous day. The qPCR method resulted in a greater percentage of correct predictions of water-quality exceedances than the current method for both beaches and both years. However, because regression equations differed somewhat between both sites and both years, the study did not result in any single relation reliable enough to use for actual real-time prediction of water-quality exceedances for either beach; therefore, a posterior analysis of data was done. Additional years of data may be needed to develop such a relation. Results from this study support the continued development and testing of a qPCR method for providing rapid and accurate estimates of E. coli concentrations for monitoring recreational water quality.

  1. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Charaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06% were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48% samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs.

  2. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaya, Gaurav; Rakha, N. K.; Maan, Sushila; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Tarun; Jhambh, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06%) were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48%) samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs. PMID:27733810

  3. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction in space-occupying lesions of liver reported as granulomatous inflammation/tuberculosis on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kusum; Gupta, Nalini; Goyal, Kapil; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Aman; Rajwanshi, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tubercular involvement of the liver is uncommon, but is a serious consideration in differential diagnosis of granulomatous conditions, especially in endemic regions like India. Objective: To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) done on archival cytological material in diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in cases reported as granulomatous inflammation/TB in liver lesions. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study including a total of 17 cases of liver space-occupying lesions (SOLs) reported as granulomatous inflammation (n = 12) and TB (n = 5). The smears were retrieved from the archives of the department and were reviewed for the cytomorphologic features. Air-dried smears stained with May–Grünwald–Giemsa (MGG) stain were assessed for the representative material in the form of epithelioid granulomas and giant cells. One/two MGG smears from each case were destained and the material was used for performing PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by amplification of 123 bp fragment of the IS6110 insertion element. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 61 years. There were 12 females and 5 males. The patients presented with solitary/multiple liver SOLs. DNA could be extracted from 10/17 cases from archival MGG smears. PCR positivity was noted in 8/10 cases (including four acid-fast bacilli smear-positive cases), confirming a diagnosis of TB. Conclusion: Cytomorphology alone may not be sufficient for differentiating various granulomatous lesions reported in liver SOLs. DNA can be extracted from the archival cytological MGG-stained smears. PCR should be carried out if Ziehl–Neelsen staining is negative in granulomatous lesions, especially when material has not been submitted for culture. PMID:28217140

  4. Serum major-histocompatibility-complex class Ⅰ-related chain A antibody detection for the evaluation of graft dysfunction in renal allograft recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; LU Fu-ming; QU Lian-xi; HE Jun; YUAN Xiao-niao; GU Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to the well-known antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-induced kidney-graft rejection, polymorphic major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class Ⅰ-related chain A (MICA) antigens can elicit antibodies and have been suggested to play a role in the antibody-mediated allograft rejection (AMR). We carded out a prospective study of MICA antibodies in post-renal transplant patients to determine the association between MICA antibodies, C4d staining, histological features, and graft outcome.Methods We tested 52 patients who had biopsy results due to graft dysfunction. The MICA antibodies in concurrent sera were determined by Luminex. All patients were followed up for one year after renal biopsy. The influence of antibody production on the function of graft was analyzed.Results Antibodies against MICA were positive in 15 out of the 52 patients (28.9%). The presence of MICA antibodies was associated with renal-allograft deterioration. During one-year follow-up, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased (24.0±3.4)% among recipients with anti-MICA antibodies. However, among recipients without anti-MICA antibodies, the eGFR has declined only (8.4+3.0)% (P=0.017). The association between C4d staining,histological features and MICA antibody production was found no significant difference.Conclusion Besides anti-HLA antibodies, the presence of post-transplant MICA antibody is associated with poor graft outcome and increases the risk of graft failure.

  5. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  6. Evaluation of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to assess PEDV transmission in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2013 a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) epidemic began in the United States. As part of the response, real-time RT-PCR assays to detect PEDV were developed by several Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories. This study evaluated RT-PCR PEDV assays that detect the N gene (gN) and S gene (gS...

  7. and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.07Rev4 (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...

  8. Chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of cis- and trans-12,13-cyclopropyl and 12,13-cyclobutyl epothilones and related pyridine side chain analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaou, K C; Namoto, K; Ritzén, A

    2001-01-01

    The design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of cyclopropyl and cyclobutyl epothilone analogues (3-12, Figure 1) are described. The synthetic strategies toward these epothilones involved a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling to form the C15-C16 carbon-carbon bond, an aldol...

  9. “农超对接”供应链稳定性评价%Evaluation on Stability of Supply Chain of the Butt Connection of Farming and Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华

    2011-01-01

    "农超对接"是我国超市发展的第三次革命,它实现了产销对接,降低了渠道成本,是当今世界农产品销售的主导模式。通过建立数量、质量、价格、收益的供应链稳定性指标体系,利用模糊综合评价法测算出供应链稳定性的具体数值,并给出了提高其稳定性的政策建议。%The butt connection of farming and supermarkets is the third revolution of supermarket development in China.It achieves relation between producers and sellers,reduces channel costs,and is the world's dominant mode of agricultural marketing.This paper establishes indicators of the supply chain stability based on quantity,quality,price,and income.Through using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method estimates the specific values of the supply chain stability and gives policy recommendations to improve its stability.

  10. Designing value-creating supply chain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the design of robust value-creating supply chain networks (SCN) and key strategic issues related to the number; location, capacity and mission of supply chain facilities (plants, distribution centers) – as well as the network structure required to provide flexibility and resilience in an uncertain world – this book presents an innovative methodology for SCN reengineering that can be used to significantly improve the bottom line of supply chain dependent businesses. Providing readers with the tools needed to analyze and model value creation activities, Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks examines the risks faced by modern supply chains, and shows how to develop plausible future scenarios to evaluate potential SCN designs. The design methods proposed are based on a visual representation formalism that facilitates the analysis and modeling of SCN design problems, book chapters incorporate several example problems and exercises which can be solved with Excel tools (Analysis tools and So...

  11. Agent based decision support in the supply chain context

    OpenAIRE

    Hilletofth, Per; Lättilä, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the benefits and the barriers of agent based decision support (ABDS) systems in the supply chain context. Design/methodology/approach – Two ABDS systems have been developed and evaluated. The first system concerns a manufacturing supply chain while the second concerns a service supply chain. The systems are based on actual case companies. Findings – This research shows that the benefits of ABDS systems in the supply chain context include t...

  12. Development and evaluation of a mixed long-chain lipopolysaccharide based ELISA for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6 and 12 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl-Hansen, Jan; Barfod, Kristen; Klausen, Joan;

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for simultaneous detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotypes 2, 6 and 12. The assay was designated MIX-ELISA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12 was purified using hot...... phenol-water extraction followed by fractionation by size-exclusion chromatography. A mixture of fractions containing molecules with molecular weight above 50 kDa from all three serotypes was used as antigen. The MIX-ELISA was evaluated with sera from pigs experimentally infected with the serotypes 1, 2......, 5b, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 of Ap biotype 1. In addition to reaction with sera from pigs inoculated with Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12, reaction was observed with sera from pigs inoculated with serotype 8. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of the test on a herd level were evaluated with sera from...

  13. Independent sets in chain cacti

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-chains and meta-chains are the only extremal chain cacti with respect to total number of independent sets (orto-chains minimal and meta-chains maximal).

  14. Utility of a multiplex reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction assay (HemaVision in the evaluation of genetic abnormalities in Korean children with acute leukemia: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; In children with acute leukemia, bone marrow genetic abnormalities (GA have prognostic significance, and may be the basis for minimal residual disease monitoring. Since April 2007, we have used a multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tool (HemaVision to detect of GA. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; In this study, we reviewed the results of HemaVision screening in 270 children with acute leukemia, newly diagnosed at The Catholic University of Korea from April 2007 to December 2011, and compared the results with those of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and G-band karyotyping. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; Among the 270 children (153 males, 117 females, 187 acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 74 acute myeloid leukemia patients were identified. Overall, GA was detected in 230 patients (85.2%. HemaVision, FISH, and G-band karyotyping identified GA in 125 (46.3%, 126 (46.7%, and 215 patients (79.6%, respectively. TEL-AML1 (20.9%, 39/187 and AML1-ETO (27%, 20/74 were the most common GA in ALL and AML, respectively. Overall sensitivity of HemaVision was 98.4%, with false-negative results in 2 instances: 1 each for TEL-AML1 and MLL-AF4 . An aggregate of diseasesspecific FISH showed 100% sensitivity in detection of GA covered by HemaVision for actual probes utilized. G-band karyotype revealed GA other than those covered by HemaVison screening in 133 patients (49.3%. Except for hyperdiplody and hypodiploidy, recurrent GA as defined by the World Health Organizationthat were not screened by HemaVision, were absent in the karyotype. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; HemaVision, supported by an aggregate of FISH tests for important translocations, may allow for accurate diagnosis of GA in Korean children with acute leukemia.

  15. Innovation Performance Evaluation from Innovation Value Chain Perspective%基于创新价值链视角的企业创新绩效评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔静静; 程郁

    2015-01-01

    According to the innovation value chain analysis method, the enterprise innovation process is decomposed to en-terprise innovation model of knowledge acquisition, knowledge transformation model as well as the innovation performance model in this paper. Combined with high technology enterprise data of Zhongguancun Science Park in China, it analyzes the typical regional technology innovation in the influence factors of the formation of enterprise innovation and innovation per-formance. Empirical results show that, internal R&D activities by enterprises are affected by technology introduction, re-search cooperation, export activities and innovation funding acquisition activities, which are all included in external knowl-edge acquisition activities. There is a complementary relationship between the internal R&D and external knowledge acquisi-tion activities, internal R&D is the main factor affecting business innovation output ( product innovation and patents) , the government subsidies and tax incentives also affect innovation output. Innovation output for enhancing business productivity has a significant positive effect.%从创新价值链分析方法出发,将企业创新过程进行分解,重构企业创新知识获取模型、创新知识转化模型以及创新绩效模型,结合我国中关村知春路地区高技术企业数据,分析我国典型技术创新区域中企业创新的产生及创新绩效的影响因素. 实证结果显示:企业内部研发活动受到以企业技术引进、产学研合作、出口活动以及创新资金获取活动为代表的企业外部知识获取活动的影响,内部R&D与外部知识获取活动存在互补关系;企业内部R&D是影响企业创新产出(产品创新及专利)的主要因素,政府的补贴及税收优惠政策也影响企业创新产出;企业创新产出对于企业生产率的提升具有显著的积极作用.

  16. Decisive Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Mayr, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We consider qualitative and quantitative verification problems for infinite-state Markov chains. We call a Markov chain decisive w.r.t. a given set of target states F if it almost certainly eventually reaches either F or a state from which F can no longer be reached. While all finite Markov chains are trivially decisive (for every set F), this also holds for many classes of infinite Markov chains. Infinite Markov chains which contain a finite attractor are decisive w.r.t. every set F. In particular, this holds for probabilistic lossy channel systems (PLCS). Furthermore, all globally coarse Markov chains are decisive. This class includes probabilistic vector addition systems (PVASS) and probabilistic noisy Turing machines (PNTM). We consider both safety and liveness problems for decisive Markov chains, i.e., the probabilities that a given set of states F is eventually reached or reached infinitely often, respectively. 1. We express the qualitative problems in abstract terms for decisive Markov chains, and show...

  17. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  18. REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  19. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...

  20. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  1. 基于AHP和TOPSIS法的供应链合作伙伴的评价与选择%Evaluation and Selection of Supply Chain Partners with AHP and TOPSIS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 宋晓娜; 殷秀清; 董会忠

    2015-01-01

    本文以建立供应链合作伙伴关系为目标,以企业自身能力、服务/产品状况、协作能力三个维度为内容,构建了供应链合作伙伴选择模型及评价指标体系。运用AHP法确定指标体系中的指标权重,结合TOPSIS法对各厂商进行排序,作为评价选择供应链合作伙伴关系的一种方法,并以P企业为例,验证了该方法的可行性。结果表明,提升企业自身能力是维持企业生存与发展的基础保障,对产品/服务起到重要支持作用;准时供货能力是提升企业自身能力的关键;产品/服务的状况受到质量的高低影响程度较大;协作能力主要取决于财务的状况及企业信誉水平。%In this paper, aiming at establishing supply chain partnership, with their own ability, the condition of the service/product, cooperation ability three dimensions for content, build the model of supply chain partner selection and evaluation index system. Using AHP to determine the index weight of the index system, combining with TOPSIS method to sort by the manufacturer, as a method of evaluation to choose the supply chain partnership, and take P enterprise as an example, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified. Results show that the basis of enterprise survival and development is to improve their own comprehensive ability, and it is important to support the product/service. The strengthening of their ability needs to further improve on time delivery, and the status of the product/service is affected by the high and low quality level, and cooperation ability mainly depends on the status of the financial and corporate credibility level.

  2. Evaluation of manufacturers' low-carbon behaviour capacity in closed-loop supply chain%闭环供应链中制造商低碳行为能力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东红; 王伟; 李丽萍; 徐畅

    2012-01-01

      针对制造商低碳行为评价问题,将熵权—TOPSIS模型引入制造商低碳行为评价中,采用熵理论确定评价指标的权重,运用TOPSIS法评选最优的决策方案,对制造商低碳行为指标体系进行科学地评价,为闭环供应链中制造商实施低碳行为提供理论指导和方法支持。%  To solve the problem of manufacturers' low carbon behavior evaluation, Entropy-TOPSIS mod-el was introduced. Entropy theory was based on to determine the weights of evaluation indexes. TOPSIS method was adopted to select the optimal scheme and to scientifically evaluate the manufacturers' low carbon behavior index system. Results provide theory and method for manufacturers to implement low carbon behaviour in closed-loop supply chain.

  3. Supreme: Supply Chain Integration by Reconfigurable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Y.; Kasai, F.; Kamio, Y.

    This paper deals with dynamic supply chain configuration problems for one-of-a-kind production (OKP) environment. We propose an architecture named SUPREME, which supports collaborative planning and scheduling for web-based virtual enterprises. In this architecture, each system is located on the site of the network members as well as on the site of the supply chain coordinator, who performs as an agent configuring and managing the supply chain dynamically. A prototype system of SUPREME is developed and illustrated in order to evaluate effectiveness of the proposed architecture.

  4. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Epictetus E. Patalinghug

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  5. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  6. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  7. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  8. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  9. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  10. Evaluation of the reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Fang-Hua; Tian, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae), is an important cosmopolitan pest. Real time qRT-PCR has been used for target gene expression analysis on M. persicae. Using real time qRT-PCR, the expression levels are normalized on the basis of the reliable reference genes. However, to date, the stability of available reference genes has been insufficient. In this study, we evaluated nine candidate reference genes from M. persicae under diverse experimental conditions. The tested candidate genes were comprehensively ranked based on five alternative methods (RefFinder, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and the comparative ΔCt method). 18s, Actin and ribosomal protein L27 (L27) were recommended as the most stable reference genes for M. persicae, whereas ribosomal protein L27 (L27) was found to be the least stable reference genes for abiotic studies (photoperiod, temperature and insecticide susceptibility). Our finding not only sheds light on establishing an accurate and reliable normalization of real time qRT-PCR data in M. persicae but also lays a solid foundation for further studies of M. persicae involving RNA interference and functional gene research.

  11. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  12. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS) to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Keshav; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Agarwal, Sudha; Khanal, Basudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS) is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB) patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB) cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS. PMID:28027305

  13. 基于BP神经网络的制造企业精益供应链协同风险评价研究%Study on Risk Evaluation for Manufacturers'Lean Supply Chain Collaboration Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红胜; 卢慧清

    2011-01-01

    The paper establishes a risk evaluation index system for lean supply chain collaboration and evaluates the risks exposed to manufacturing enterprises in their lean supply chain collaboration using BP neural network.%建立了精益供应链协同风险评价指标体系,并运用BP神经网络方法进行协同风险评价,为制造企业精益供应链协同风险的评价提供理论指导.

  14. An Evaluation Model of Customer Satisfaction for Fast-food Chain Enterprise%连锁快餐企业的顾客满意度评价模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文杰; 钟金宏; 李兴国

    2012-01-01

    从品牌、产品、服务和环境等方面建立基于证据推理的连锁快餐企业顾客满意度评价模型。为反映不同店面顾客满意度的差异,依据营业额设定店面权重,将各店面的评价结果作为证据集结出总体满意度。抽样调查安徽省某知名连锁快餐企业的七家分店,获取其一周的问卷数据。通过仿真试验,验证了模型的有效性和实用性,对比两种模型的试验结果,并对企业经营提出了一些建议。%An evaluation model of customer satisfaction for fast-food chain enterprise is established based on the Evidential reasoning (ER) in which the factors of brand, product, service and environment are considered. To reflect the customer satisfaction differences of different stores, the stores are given different weights according to the turnover, and the final satisfaction is obtained by integrating the assessment result of each store using ER. By a sample survey for a famous fast-food chain enterprise in Anhui, a week datum of the seven stores is collected. The model's effectiveness and practicality are verified by the simulation, and some suggestions improving the operation are put forward. In addition, the performance of the proposed two models is compared.

  15. Evaluation of Bayesian estimation of a hidden continuous-time Markov chain model with application to threshold violation in water-quality indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviney, Frank A.; Rice, Karen; Brown, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource managers require information concerning  the frequency, duration, and long-term probability of occurrence of water-quality indicator (WQI) violations of defined thresholds. The timing of these threshold crossings often is hidden from the observer, who is restricted to relatively infrequent observations. Here, a model for the hidden process is linked with a model for the observations, and the parameters describing duration, return period, and long-term probability of occurrence are estimated using Bayesian methods. A simulation experiment is performed to evaluate the approach under scenarios based on the equivalent of a total monitoring period of 5-30 years and an observation frequency of 1-50 observations per year. Given constant threshold crossing rate, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer total monitoring period and more-frequent observations. Given fixed monitoring period and observation frequency, accuracy and precision of parameter estimates increased with longer times between threshold crossings. For most cases where the long-term probability of being in violation is greater than 0.10, it was determined that at least 600 observations are needed to achieve precise estimates.  An application of the approach is presented using 22 years of quasi-weekly observations of acid-neutralizing capacity from Deep Run, a stream in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. The time series also was sub-sampled to simulate monthly and semi-monthly sampling protocols. Estimates of the long-term probability of violation were unbiased despite sampling frequency; however, the expected duration and return period were over-estimated using the sub-sampled time series with respect to the full quasi-weekly time series.

  16. Supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hollstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics. Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-inductive findings, it may be hypothesized that logistical systems do have a positive effect on supply chain risk management activities.  Result/conclusion:  Flexibility and capacity, as well as redundancy and standardization, are often viewed as being conflictionary. It shows, however, that in the light of supply chain risk management, those factors may yield a common benefit if proper logistics systems are applied.  

  17. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  18. Light chain nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem Darouich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light chain deposition disease (LCDD is characterized by the tissue deposition of monotypic immunoglobulin light chains of either kappa or lambda isotype. It is the archetypal systemic disease that is most frequently diagnosed on a kidney biopsy, although the deposits may involve several other organs. This brief review focuses on the clinicopathological features of LCDD-associated nephropathy with an emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties related to this elusive condition.

  19. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Base, Ohio DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. The views expressed in this thesis ...chain connections are often hindered by inconsistent vocabularies , terms, ontologies, and semantics utilized by various supply chain members (Ye et...eg.COOPERATION PROCESS)-Don’t address synergies between SC X X X X X X X X Don’t track effectiveness over time-lack of learning by experience Loss of SC

  20. Supply chain quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji; Meysam Arabzadeh; Reza Ghaffari

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational compet...

  1. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  2. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  3. Issues on Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although supply chain is regarded as an integrated pr ocess, actually, researchers and practitioners have primarily investigated the v arious processes of the supply chain individually. The competitive field in most markets requires well-designed integrated supply chain instead of individual o perations. In this paper, some traditional thinking of supply chain is given fir st, then SCM (Supply Chain Management) is introduced, which views the entire sup ply chain as a whole rather than individual process a...

  4. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data.

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain ELISA for Early Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma%FLC-ELISA用于多发性骨髓瘤早期诊断的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳芳; 方红辉; 张杰; 阿伦索罗门; 唐连祥

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the measurement of kappa and lambda immunoglobulin free light chains(FLC) in patient samples using a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for early diagnosis of multiple myeloma.Methods An ELISA method for quantifying kappa and lambda free light chains were used to study serum and urine samples from patients with multiple myeloma, and the results were compared with those obtained using immunofixation electrophoresis and nephelometric immunoassay methods. Results The FLC-ELISA method had great successful rate in identifying the multiple myeloma in all 40 myeloma patients. In contrast,immunofixation electrophoresis and nephelometric immunoassay could only identify 57.5% and 85.5% of the multiple myeloma in all the myeloma patients,respectively. Furthermore, retrospective diagnosis of specimens obtained from patient indicated that the ELISA method could help early diagnosis of the disease by over two years. Conclusion The ELISA method for measuring free light chains is sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Therefore it is a useful tool for early diagnosis of multiple myeloma,monitoring the disease progression and evaluating treatment responses.%目的对酶联免疫吸附法测定免疫球蛋白κ和λ自由轻链(FLC-ELISA)用于多发性骨髓瘤早期诊断进行临床评价.方法应用一种新型酶联免疫吸附法来测定多发性骨髓瘤病人血清及尿液中的免疫球蛋白κ和λ自由轻链并与免疫电泳法和免疫比浊光散射法测定的结果进行比较.结果40例多发性骨髓瘤病人FLC-ELISA总检出率为100%,而免疫固定电泳法和免疫比浊光散射法的总检出率则分别为57.5%和85.5%.同时,病人样品的测试还表明酶联免疫吸附法可以将多发性骨髓瘤的诊断提前两年以上.结论用酶联免疫吸附法来测定免疫球蛋白κ和λ自由轻链,具有较高的灵敏度,精确性和可重复性,适用于临床多发性骨髓瘤病的早期检测,同时对此疾病进程

  6. Design, synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of short-chain C12-sphinganine and its 1,2,3-triazole analogs as potential antimicrobial and anti-biofilm agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijai Kumar Reddy, T; Jyotsna, A; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Ganesh Kumar, C

    2016-08-08

    A conceptual synthetic approach of short-chain C12-sphinganine 1 and a small library of its 1,2,3-triazole analogs 2(a-f) has been accomplished using the commercially available and inexpensive 10-undecenoic acid as a starting material. Miyashita's C-2 selective endo mode azidolysis and Huisgen click reaction was employed for the synthesis of the designed analogs. Based on biological evaluation studies of all the synthesized compounds, it was observed that, (2S,3R)-2-(4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)dodecan-1,3-diol (2b) exhibited promising antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Furthermore, compound 2b was able to inhibit the biofilm formation of Candida albicans MTCC 227, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 2470 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 with IC50 values of 1.9, 2.1 and 2.9 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 2b increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C. albicans MTCC 227.

  7. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  8. Fuzzy Markov chains: uncertain probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We consider finite Markov chains where there are uncertainties in some of the transition probabilities. These uncertainties are modeled by fuzzy numbers. Using a restricted fuzzy matrix multiplication we investigate the properties of regular, and absorbing, fuzzy Markov chains and show that the basic properties of these classical Markov chains generalize to fuzzy Markov chains.

  9. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  10. Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay for detection of equine arteritis virus in equine semen and tissue samples using the POCKIT™ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Nam, Bora; Skillman, Ashley; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-08-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of horses. Most importantly, EAV induces abortion in pregnant mares and can establish persistent infection in up to 10-70% of the infected stallions, which will continue to shed the virus in their semen. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) for the detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples. The newly developed assay had a limit of detection of 10 RNA copies and a 10-fold higher sensitivity than a previously described real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Evaluation of 125 semen samples revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 98.46% and 100.00%, respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 100.00% and 98.33%, respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. Both assays had the same accuracy (99.2%, k=0.98) compared to virus isolation. Corresponding values derived from testing various tissue samples (n=122) collected from aborted fetuses, foals, and EAV carrier stallions are as follows: relative sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.14%, 96.83%, and 92.62% (k=0.85), respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 98.31%, 92.06%, and 95.08% (k=0.90), respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. These results indicate that RT-iiPCR is a sensitive, specific, and a robust test enabling detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples with very considerable accuracy. Even though the RT-qPCR assay showed a sensitivity and specificity equal to virus isolation for semen samples, its diagnostic performance was somewhat limited for tissue samples. Thus, this new RT-iiPCR could be considered as an alternative tool in the implementation of EAV control and prevention strategies.

  11. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  12. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  13. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  14. Modelling the coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertenbach, J.-D.; Varendorff, R. von [Knowledge Based Engineering, Sandton (South Africa)

    1999-03-01

    Managing the supply chain in an integrated coal operation involves many operation and control options often too complex for the human mind to comprehend and react to. By integrating all the knowledge of a supply chain into an expert system, both off-line and on-line real time decisions are possible. Knowledge Based Engineering based in South Africa, has gained valuable experience in modelling such mining operations. The article discusses the methodologies that the company has implemented. KBE uses Gensym`s G2 Real Time Expert System as the foundation of the system and the knowledge base is developed modularly.

  15. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  16. Independent sets in chain cacti

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-ch...

  17. Exciton Transfer Integrals Between Polymer Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Barford, W

    2007-01-01

    The line-dipole approximation for the evaluation of the exciton transfer integral, $J$, between conjugated polymer chains is rigorously justified. Using this approximation, as well as the plane-wave approximation for the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, it is shown analytically that $J \\sim L$ when the chain lengths are smaller than the separation between them, or $J\\sim L^{-1}$ when the chain lengths are larger than their separation, where $L$ is the polymer length. Scaling relations are also obtained numerically for the more realistic standing-wave approximation for the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, where it is found that for chain lengths larger than their separation $J \\sim L^{-1.8}$ or $J \\sim L^{-2}$, for parallel or collinear chains, respectively. These results have important implications for the photo-physics of conjugated polymers and self-assembled molecular systems, as the Davydov splitting in aggregates and the F\\"orster transfer rate for exciton migration decreases with chain lengths l...

  18. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    and reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  19. Standard handbook of chains chains for power transmission and material handling

    CERN Document Server

    Chain Association, American

    2005-01-01

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives

  20. Development Value Chains meet Business Supply Chains : The concept of Global Value Chains unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); S. Vellema (Sietze)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractValue chain promotion is considered a key element of private sector development strategies and pro-poor growth. However, (value) chain concepts are rather complex and unclear. This paper unravels the concept of global value chains and studies the diversity of key value chain-related (sup

  1. Establishment and evaluation of a multi-system chain transitional care programme for postpartum pelvic floor training%产后盆底功能训练的延续护理模式构建及效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍然; 王惠珍; 石兰萍; 张巍颖; 吴震云; 陈学丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build a multi-system chain transitional care programme for postpartum pelvic floor training and test its effect.Methods By a prospective randomized controlled trial,the study group (n=60) received a multi-system chain transitional care programme which consisted of ward nurse,home visiting doctor,post-natal care clinic doctor,pelvic floor doctor and pelvic floor nurse.The control group(n=60) received routine care.The pelvic floor muscle strength,sexual function and patient satisfaction of baseline,on the 42th days,3rd months and 6th months were compared between two groups by short-term follow-up.Results There was no difference in baseline consisting of age,gestational weeks,birth weight and so on between groups.Participants in the study group had significantly better improvement and score in pelvic floor muscle strength,sexual thoughts,sexual arousal,sexual psychopathy and problems affecting sexual function.There was no difference in score of sexual pleasure and ejaculation time between two groups.Conclusions This study was an original effort to establish and evaluate a multi-system chain transitional care program for postpartum pelvic floor training.Results demonstrated that this transitional care was effective in improving pelvic floor function.%目的 构建产后盆底功能训练的延续护理模式并检验其效果.方法 采用前瞻性随机对照实验,延续护理60例接受病房责任护士-家庭访视医生-产后保健门诊医生-盆底诊疗中心医生-盆底诊疗中心护士构成的延续护理服务,对照组60例接受传统护理服务.随访和比较2组的基线情况,42 d、3个月和6个月盆底肌肌力、性功能和患者满意度.结果 2组在年龄、孕周、新生儿体质量等基线情况上比较差异无统计学意义.延续护理组在盆底肌肌力改善、性欲、性唤起、性心理和性行为异常症状上得分,以及患者满意度均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义.2组在性高潮和性

  2. Nodal-chain metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, Quansheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain—a chain of connected loops in momentum space—along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF4), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  3. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  4. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  5. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  6. Evaluation on the virtual CT endotoscope for the diagnosis of ossicular chain lesions accompanied with congenital aural deformity%虚拟CT耳镜对先天性耳畸形听骨链病变的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立新; 涂博; 罗冬

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过虚拟CT耳镜观察,探讨其对先天性耳畸形听骨链病变的诊断价值.方法 对30例(43耳)先天性耳畸形患者,高分辨率CT扫描获取病变部位的原始图像数据,经三维重建后,以虚拟CT耳镜方式观察听骨链病变情况,然后与手术探查结果对比分析.结果 虚拟CT耳镜清楚显示发育不全的听小骨及畸形听骨链状态,其中外耳道闭锁21例(30耳),包括锤骨发育不全18耳,砧骨发育不全13耳,锤砧骨缺如3耳,镫骨畸形13耳,镫骨缺如4耳,锤砧关节畸形融合20耳,砧镫关节畸形融合7耳,砧镫关节软组织连接2耳;9例(13耳)单纯性中耳畸形,其中锤骨头与砧骨体包埋在上鼓室内上壁2耳,锤骨头与上鼓室壁骨性连接3耳,锤骨柄远端与鼓环骨性连接1耳,砧骨长脚发育不全4耳,镫骨异位1耳,镫上结构缺如3耳,其中前庭窗闭锁1耳,镫上结构畸形2耳.31耳行手术治疗,术前虚拟CT耳镜观察与术中探查听骨链异常基本符合.结论 虚拟CT耳镜清楚显示先天性耳畸形听骨链异常结构,为术前明确诊断和确立手术方式提供可靠的影像学依据.%Objective To investigate the value of virtual CT endotoscope for the diagnosis of ossicular chain lesions accompanied with congenital aural deformity. Methods Thirty cases (43 ears) with congenital aural deformity were undergone high resolution CT scanning to collect the original image data from the focus in middle ear, followed by 3-dimensional reconstruction to process these images for evaluating the possibly presented lesions with the ossicular chain. Then, a comparative analysis was made on the virtual CT endotoscopic findings in a correlative consideration with that actually found during the operation on the ossicular chain lesions. Results 30 ears were aural atresia which contained malleus hypoplasia in 18 ears, incus hypoplasia in 13 ears, malleus and incus absence in 3 ears, stapes abnormity in 13 ears, stapes absence in

  7. 基于马尔可夫链模型的输电线路运行状态及其风险评估%Running State and Its Risk Evaluation of Transmission Line Based on Markov Chain Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋乐; 刘俊勇; 魏震波; 龚辉; 雷成; 李成鑫

    2015-01-01

    综合考虑影响输电线路运行状态的内、外两方面因素,提出一种基于马尔可夫链模型的运行状态及其风险的评估方法。首先,利用马尔可夫链外推输电线路运行状态,量化外部条件下的线路初始故障概率,并进一步结合系统潮流水平,计算线路实际运行故障概率。其次,考虑系统运行约束,定义相关故障严重性指标及其基于层次分析权重的综合性指标,对线路故障下的系统“影响”进行量化。最后,利用风险评估思想,将线路故障概率与量化后的“影响”相结合,实现对线路运行风险的评估。仿真结果表明,由于综合考虑了内、外影响因子的作用,并涵盖了多类风险因子的评估指标,所提方法对系统中高风险运行的重要线路有较好的辨识能力,且有效回避了因为部分状态信息缺失造成状态评估实现困难的问题,为输电线路状态检修工作提供了参考。%By considering the internal and external factors influencing power transmission line running state,a running state and its risk evaluation method based on Markov chain model is proposed.First of all,the initial failure probability caused by external factors is quantified using the Markov chain extrapolated transmission line running state.Furthermore,by referring to the system power flow,the actual failure probability of line is calculated.Secondly,the system operation constraints are considered,the indices of fault severity and their weights based on analytic hierarchy process of an integrated index are defined so that the“impact"of fault on the system is quantified by these indices.Finally,the running state is evaluated based on risk assessment thought by combining the probability and the quantified impact.Simulation results show that owing to the overall consideration of both influencing factors and covering more risk factors,the method has a fairly good ability to recognize a

  8. Avaliação in vitro da força liberada por elásticos em cadeia In vitro evaluation of force delivered by elastomeric chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Fonseca Jardim da Motta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar in vitro e comparar a redução de intensidade das forças liberadas por três grupos de elásticos em cadeia, com diferentes configurações, de um mesmo fabricante, medidas em intervalos de tempo preestabelecidos. MÉTODOS: os segmentos de elásticos em cadeia foram alongados e mantidos ativados durante o experimento com o auxílio de um dispositivo desenvolvido especialmente para esse fim e para possibilitar a leitura das forças. A avaliação da degradação da força foi realizada medindo-se a intensidade da força ao longo do tempo, e calculando-se o percentual de força perdida em relação à força inicial, em cada intervalo de tempo e para cada amostra testada. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os dados coletados foram submetidos a análises estatísticas e os resultados demonstraram que, nos momentos seguintes ao inicial, a intensidade da força variou, dentro dos grupos e entre os grupos, nos diferentes momentos. A leitura dos valores das forças remanescentes em cada momento, comparada à referência da força inicial, resultou em valores diferentes, com significância estatística, em todas as comparações efetuadas dentro de cada grupo de elásticos (curto, médio, longo. Após a análise dos resultados das comparações entre os grupos de elásticos em cadeia, conclui-se que, apesar de verificados alguns resultados estatisticamente significativos para a comparação das magnitudes das forças liberadas em cada momento, essas diferenças parecem não ter expressão clínica, demonstrando que, aparentemente, o espaçamento entre os elos não representa uma característica clinicamente significativa na degradação da força ao longo do tempo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare, in vitro, the decrease in the forces delivered in three groups of elastomeric chains, produced by the same manufacturer, according to the distance between links (short, medium, long. METHODS: The segments of elastomeric chains were stretched and

  9. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications.

  10. Low-temperature transport in Heisenberg chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J V; Gros, Claudius

    2002-02-18

    A technique to determine accurately transport properties of integrable and nonintegrable quantum-spin chains at finite temperatures by quantum Monte Carlo is presented. The reduction of the Drude weight by interactions in the integrable gapless regime is evaluated. Evidence for the absence of Drude weight in the gapless regime of a nonintegrable system with longer-ranged interactions is presented. We estimate the effect of the nonintegrability on the transport properties and compare with recent experiments on one-dimensional quantum-spin chains.

  11. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  12. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  13. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  14. Evaluation of low-carbon behavior of distributor among subjects of closed-loop supply chain%闭环供应链主体中销售商低碳行为评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东红; 王伟; 孙彦彬; 王华

    2012-01-01

    As the channel subject of closed-loop supply chain,to implement low-carbon behavior of distributor is not only an inevitable choice of enterprise to realize long-term utilization of resources,and an inevitable demand of enterprise to establish low-carbon image,but also an compulsory path to avoid weaknesse and threat,and create unlimited business opportunity of enterprise.The low-carbon behavior of distributor is evaluated by establishing Structural Equation Model(SEM),and SPSS 13.0 and LISREL 8.80 softwares are applied to process indicator data,which filters key influence factors and improves them accordingly,in order to provide theoratical reference and technical guidance to realize long-term comprehensive benefits of distributor.%作为闭环供应链中的渠道主体,销售商实施低碳行为是企业实现资源长远利用的必然选择,是塑造企业低碳形象的必然要求,也是规避企业劣势与威胁、创造无限商机的必经之路。通过构建SEM对销售商低碳行为进行评价,运用SPSS 13.0和LISREL 8.80软件处理指标数据,筛选出关键的影响因素,并有针对性地加以改进,以期为销售商实现长期综合效益提供理论参考与技术指导。

  15. Evaluation and application of a one-step duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection of influenza A (H7N9) virus from poultry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hongmei; Ma, Yong; Shi, Jianzhong; Zeng, Xianying; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Xiurong; Chen, Hualan

    2015-10-01

    In China, a novel reassortant influenza A (H7N9) virus, which has caused 435 cases of human infection, has recently emerged. Most cases of human infections with the H7N9 virus are known to be associated with a poultry farm and live-poultry markets. In this study, a one-step duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H7N9 virus for effective surveillance and early diagnosis of cases from clinical samples collected from live-poultry markets or poultry farms. The detection limit of this assay was as low as 0.1 EID50 of H7N9 viruses, which is similar to the detection limit of the real-time RT-PCR assay released by the Word Health Organization. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of both inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility were less than 1.55 %, showing good reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed with RNA of other subtypes of influenza virus or other avian respiratory viruses. The assay can effectively detect H7N9 influenza virus RNA from multiple sources, including chickens, pigeons, ducks, humans, and the environment. Furthermore, the RRT-PCR assay was evaluated with more than 700 clinical samples collected from live-poultry markets and 120 experimentally infected chicken samples. Together, these results indicate that the duplex RRT-PCR assay is a specific, sensitive, and efficient diagnostic method for the epidemiological surveillance and diagnosis of H7N9 virus from different sources, particularly poultry samples.

  16. Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Genesee

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Evaluation in TESOL settings is a process of collecting,analysing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmes (Rea-Dickins and Germaine 1993; Genesee and Upshur 1996;O'Malley and Valdez-Pierce 1996).Three simple examples help explicate the varied forms evaluation can take in TESOL settings:

  17. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  18. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  19. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  20. Monitoring Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Firms reliant on supply chains to manufacture their goods risk reputational harm if the working conditions in those factories are revealed to be dangerous, illegal, or otherwise problematic. While firms are increasingly relying on private-sector "social auditors" to assess factory conditions, little had been known about the accuracy of those assessments. We analyzed nearly 17,000 code-of-conduct audits conducted at nearly 6,000 suppliers around the world. We found that audits yield fewer viol...

  1. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role, activ

  2. A Hybrid Support Vector Machines and Two-dimensional Risk Matrix Model for Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Jiang; Junfei Chen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the supply chain managements have been paid more and more attention. The supply chain risk management is an important content for enterprises implementing supply chain management. Therefore, how to measure the risk of supply chain is quite important. In this study, a supply chain risk evaluation model based on support vector machines and two-dimensional risk matrix is proposed. The index system of supply chain risk assessment which includes 14 indices is established. The case...

  3. 基于供应链视角的物流客户服务绩效评价指标体系设计%The Design of Performance Evaluation Index System of Logistics Customer Service Based on Supply Chain Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪利虹

    2013-01-01

    随着制造和服务的全球化,企业更加关注各种因素对其所处供应链的影响。物流客户服务不仅会对其客户企业产生影响,而且会对客户企业所处供应链产生全方位的影响。因此,本文提出从供应链视角研究物流客户服务绩效评价问题,并用德尔菲法和模糊层次分析法构建了从供应链视角评价物流客户服务绩效的指标体系,得出了时间比成本和质量指标影响作用更大的结论。%With the globalization of manufacturing and service, enterprises pay more attention to the effects of various fac-tors in the supply chain. Logistics customer service level will not only affect the enterprise, but also to the customer in over-all the supply chain. Therefore, this paper proposes from perspectives of supply chain logistics customer service performance evaluation. By applying Delphi method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy, we construct the performance evaluation index system of logistics customer service based on supply chain perspective, and conclude that the influence of time index on the perfor-mance evaluation of logistics customer service under supply chain perspective is greater than cost and quality index.

  4. Supply Chain Dynamic Performance Measurement Based on BSC and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now individual contest among enterprises has been turning into collective contest among supply chains. Supply chain management (SCM has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. In recent years, organizational performance measurement and metrics have received much attention from researchers and practitioners. The foundation of proper supply chain performance assessment system is the basis of its effective operation and management. Most of the traditional supply chain performance evaluation is a static evaluation, while the actual supply chain is a dynamic system, therefore need to adapt with ways to carry out the evaluation. In order to meet the needs of the dynamic alliance's overall performance evaluation, this paper extended the traditional four Balanced Scorecard dimension into five. On this basis, established the five Balanced Scorecard dimension of supply chain, and also established a three-layered of quantitative index system according to this model. Measured then each performance indexs value by using the theory of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, meanwhile reduced the number of input of the Support Vector Machine (SVM by using classification method, finally, got performance evaluations result by using the weighted Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM, which provides the basis for rational analysis and decision-making of the supply chain.

  5. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  6. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  7. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented.

  8. Validation of a terrestrial food chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, C C; Blaylock, B P

    1992-01-01

    An increasingly important topic in risk assessment is the estimation of human exposure to environmental pollutants through pathways other than inhalation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently developed a computerized methodology (EPA, 1990) to estimate indirect exposure to toxic pollutants from Municipal Waste Combuster emissions. This methodology estimates health risks from exposure to toxic pollutants from the terrestrial food chain (TFC), soil ingestion, drinking water ingestion, fish ingestion, and dermal absorption via soil and water. Of these, one of the most difficult to estimate is exposure through the food chain. This paper estimates the accuracy of the EPA methodology for estimating food chain contamination. To our knowledge, no data exist on measured concentrations of pollutants in food grown around Municipal Waste Incinerators, and few field-scale studies have been performed on the uptake of pollutants in the food chain. Therefore, to evaluate the EPA methodology, we compare actual measurements of background contaminant levels in food with estimates made using EPA's computerized methodology. Background levels of contaminants in air, water, and soil were used as input to the EPA food chain model to predict background levels of contaminants in food. These predicted values were then compared with the measured background contaminant levels. Comparisons were performed for dioxin, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and lead.

  9. Integrated Simulation Of Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Manikandan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, manufacturers face the challenge of reducing manufacturing cycle time, delivery lead time and inventory reduction. Every organization has its own objectives and its own way of decision making processes. Because of the conflictions among the objectives of each organization and non-integrated decision making processes, there has been a need for a new mechanism, which help to resolve those conflictions and to integrate processes. In the early 1990s, management is a process of integrating and utilizing suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses and retailers, so that goods are produced and delivered at the right quantities and at the right time while minimizing costs as well as satisfying customer requirements. Managing the entire supply chain becomes a key factor for the successful business. Organizations now realize that non-integrated manufacturing processes, nonintegrated distribution processes and poor relationships with suppliers and customers are in adequate for their success. The supply chain areas are affected by the organization’s plan. The organization plan’s impact on the supply chain areas cannot be predicted before its execution. Simulation paves way to evaluate the performance of plans before the execution of the plan. This paper describes the effort of developing a simulation model for the supply chain management in an industry. This article discusses the requirement of supply chain simulation modeling.

  10. On chains of centered valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chibloun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study chains of centered valuations of a domain A and chains of centered valuations of A [X1,…,Xn] corresponding to valuations of A. Finally, we make some applications to chains of valuations centered on the same ideal of A [X1,…,Xn] and extending the same valuation of A.

  11. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  12. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  13. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2016-01-01

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret....... Virksomhedens evne til at udarbejde relevantinformation fremstår derfor som en vigtig parameter, såfremt virksomheden skal forblive konkurrencedygtig i en stadig mere kompleks verden, hvor udviklingen foregår stadig hurtigere. Denne arbejdsboggiverindsigtidemuligheder,der eksisterer ved at anvende Activity...

  14. [Trophic chains in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Tiunov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Trophic links of soil animals are extensively diverse but also flexible. Moreover, feeding activity of large soil saprotrophs often cascades into a range of ecosystem-level consequences via the ecological engineering. Better knowledge on the main sources of energy utilized by soil animals is needed for understanding functional structure of soil animal communities and their participation in the global carbon cycling. Using published and original data, we consider the relative importance of dead organic matter and saprotrophic microorganisms as a basal energy source in the detritus-based food chains, the feeding of endogeic macrofauna on the stabilized soil organic matter, and the role of recent photosynthate in the energy budget of soil communities. Soil food webs are spatially and functionally compartmentalized, though the separation of food chains into bacteria- and fungi-based channels seems to be an over-simplification. The regulation of the litter decomposition rates via top-down trophic interactions across more than one trophic level is only partly supported by experimental data, but mobile litter-dwelling predators play a crucial role in integrating local food webs within and across neighboring ecosystems.

  15. Overview of MPC applications in supply chains: Potential use and benefits in the management of forest-based supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Pinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This work aims to provide an overview of Model Predictive Controllers (MPC applications in supply chains, to describe the forest-based supply chain and to analyse the potential use and benefits of MPC in a case study concerning a biomass supply chain.Area of study: The proposed methods are being applied to a company located in Finland.Material and methods: Supply chains are complex systems where actions and partners’ coordination influence the whole system performance. The increase of competitiveness and need of quick responses to the costumers implies the use of efficient management techniques. The control theory, particularly MPC, has been successfully used as a supply chain management tool. MPC is able to deal with dynamic interactions between the partners and to globally optimize the supply chain performance in the presence of disturbances. However, as far as is authors’ knowledge, there are no applications of this methodology in the forest-based supply chains. This work proposes a control architecture to improve the performance of the forest supply chain. The controller is based on prediction models which are able to simulate the system and deal with disturbances.Main results: The preliminary results enable to evaluate the impacts of disturbances in the supply chain. Thus, it is possible to react beforehand, controlling the schedules and tasks’ allocation, or alert the planning level in order to generate a new plan.Research highlights:   Overview of MPC applications in supply chains; forest-based supply chain description; case study presentation: wood biomass supply chain for energy production; MPC architecture proposal to decrease the operation times.Keywords: biomass; forest; Model Predictive Control; planning; supply chain.

  16. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  17. APPLICATION OF VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT TO LONGAN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichat Sopadang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longan plays an important role as an economic fruit of Thailand because of its volume and size in markets, both domestic and aboard. It was generally known that serious problems were encountered in current longan production and sale, especially the increased production cost. To understand the overall situation clearly, longan’s supply chain was evaluated using the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR model and value chain analysis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 73 supply chain members, covering farmers, middlemen, process operators, transporters and exporters, located in Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Bangkok. Performance of the longan supply chain members were evaluated based on four categories, namely, inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics and supporting activities. It was found that the exporters had the highest score in every aspect of performance criteria whereas the farmers had the lowest score, especially in the outbound logistics part. The findings also showed that the major problem of this supply chain was due to oversupply of longan. It was therefore recommended that the members in the supply chain should have to manage and control the quantity of longan, so that demand and supply are balanced as well as to add value to the longan products by increasing information share between members. Marketing campaign is also important to boost longan demand. By implementing operational best practice to each supply chain member, 25% reduction in waste may be achieved.

  18. Information in the supply chain: measuring supply chain performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bytheway, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Information is one of many factors in the development of supply chain operations. It is a key factor in a number of new initiatives, such as: business process management. partnership development, efficient customer response, tighter integration of supply chain operations and outsourcing of ancillary operations. Improvement of the supply chain takes place at different levels: simple efficiency (the Improvement of existing processes), improved quality of service (the redesign of ...

  19. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  20. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 virus isolation (VI) assays. To conduct the study, OF was inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially 10-fold d...

  1. Dynamics of Polymer Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tzay-Ming

    A major objective of this research is to establish at a more fundamental level some of the qualitative or semi-quantitative treatments in use at the present time, such as the Doi-Edwards tube picture, the switch from non -ideal to ideal behavior, and dynamical aspects of the reptation model. The main topics are: (I) An attempt was made to determine the order of magnitude of the elastic time interval of a viscoelastic polymer melt, defining it as the reciprocal of the average rate at which the total entanglement (clockwise plus anticlockwise) passes through zero due to thermal agitation. We calculated the case of a free chain winding about a straight rod both in friction-independent regime and in high friction regime. (II) By successively coarse -graining and rescaling the monomer-monomer interaction (using a modified Wilson recursion formula) we found that the interaction is driven to a very strong but short-ranged one. This verifies the observation that polymers in dilute solutions tend to curl up and behave like hard spheres. (III) We studied the case of chemical equilibrium of i-mers with their nucleating monomers and on the basis of a Flory-Huggins -type mean field theory find that in the dilute limit the swelling of the i-mers takes on the traditional N ^{3over5} law only for sufficiently small monomer chemical potential. When that potential is large enough, then, assuming a Flory law of chain propagation, the law seems to become N^{1over3 }. This is distinct from the problem of changeover from dilute to semidilute polymer system, which we also studied by imposing total polymer density as a constraint equation. (IV) Another item examined concerns the form of the space curve that a very long polymer must assume in order to minimize its free energy (we found that a family of helices with a definite functional relation between pitch and radius renders the free energy stationary). Because a chain is a one-dimensional object, this does not mean that helical shapes

  2. Fuzzy Matter Element Based Evaluation of Quality Risk in Manufacturing Supply Chain%基于模糊物元的制造业供应链质量风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彩虹; 徐福缘

    2016-01-01

    Under the increasing competitive environment of complex supply chain and diversified customer demand for product quality and customer service,quality risks in supply chain become one key issue of supply chain risks.To help companies effectively identify and manage these risks,the quality risk assessment of quality risks in supply chain was presented on the basis of the fuzzy matter-element (FME)model.The quality risks assessment system was studied and the entropy method for index weight and the Euclid approach degree for risk level were used to construct a composite fuzzy matter element model.At the end,the reasonability of the FME model for supply chain quality risks assessment was verified by the fitting of a neural network simulation.%鉴于供应链质量风险事件的危害性,为了帮助制造企业更有效地开展供应链质量风险管理工作,在供应链质量风险诱因分析及风险评价指标设计基础上,采用模糊物元评价方法对设定的研究对象进行供应链质量风险评价。主要是在构建复合模糊物元模型基础上,运用熵值法确定指标权重,并利用欧氏贴近度衡量风险等级。最后通过神经网络仿真,验证了基于模糊物元的供应链质量风险评价的合理性和可靠性。

  3. Returns management in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The aim of this exploratory empirical research was to evaluate the level of cooperation in the area of reverse logistics between selected retail chains and logistics operators and suppliers; to identify and evaluate the influence the procedures of handling returns have on the relationships with customers, cost reduction, value recovery, inventory reduction and increasing profitability; as well as determining to what extent logistics operators are involved in the procedures of handling returns in the analysed chains. Methods: Based on the literature and the experience of researchers from developed countries a questionnaire was constructed which was subsequently used to conduct empirical research in selected retail chains operating in two provinces in Poland. The questionnaire survey involved the sales personnel of selected retail chains in the clothing industry. Overall, 105 questionnaires were collected and analysed. Results: Various aspects of cooperation with suppliers and logistics operators in respect of handling returns were evaluated. Most indicators of cooperation were evaluated favourably, with the exception of joint access to the database, the use of inventory data available online, and access to information from the warehouse, which received low marks from the respondents. In the case of the studied stores, some of the activities in the area of reverse logistics are outsourced; for example, obtaining products from users, logistics, and the transport of returns are typically done by an outside operator. Inspection, sorting, appraisal, repairs, as well as the sales of refurbished products are usually performed within the studied retail corporations. Conclusions: The research has shown that the retail chains developed very good programmes for handling returns in the supply chain, as evidenced by the presented and highly rated indicators of cooperation, with the exception of information exchange where there is still much

  4. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, Steven [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Cordaro, Joseph [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, USA; Founds, Nanette [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Chambellan, Curtis [National Nuclear Security Administration, Albuquerque, NM, USA

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  5. PHONONS IN POLYACENIC CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. Rafil; M. Tamine; B. Bourahla; R. Tigrine; S. Amoudache; A. Khater

    2006-01-01

    We have theoretically resolved phonon excitations in quasi-two-dimensional organic crystals of polyacenic semiconductor material which may be obtained by the pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. A model for studying the dynamical properties using three polyacene chains is proposed with the aim to present the vibrational properties of this structure. It employs the formalism of solid states in two dimensions which admit phonons. A simulation process of the two-dimensional lattice structure shows that elastic waves may explain the existence of vibrational modes in the frequency range 100-400 cm-1. The presence of acoustic and optical like phonons is discussed in terms of the elastic force constants. A hyperfine resonance structure is obtained. It allows the analysis of the dynamical evolution in thin films of polyacene. It is found that the behavior of the phonon density of states exhibits resonance between modes in the structure.

  6. Chains, bombs, potrzebies and slugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewess, Mike; McDowell, Alex; Maxfield, Stephen; Hunt, A. G.; Hicks, Bruce

    2010-03-01

    I read with pleasure Robert Crease's article on unusual units (February pp17-19). However, the article stated that an acre is 10×10 chains, when it is in fact 10×1 chains. Incidentally, a distance of 10 chains (220 yards) is known as a furlong, a word that suggests the length of a ploughed furrow and that is still used in horse-racing.

  7. Detonation Structure Under Chain Branching Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Bauwens, L.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen chemistry is characterized by a chain branching mechanism that yields three explosion limits. While a detailed kinetic scheme appropriate for hydrogen-oxygen should produce correct results, in many circumstances, a simpler yet reasonably realistic model will be warranted. In particular, it is easier to develop a clear understanding of the reaction zone structure using a simpler model, that includes only the key mechanisms. To that effect, we consider a four-step chain branching scheme that exhibits an explosion behavior with three limits, which behaves at least qualitatively like hydrogen chemistry. We focus in particular on the structure of the initiation and chain branching zones, using a combination between numerical simulation and analysis. Numerical simulations using this chemical model show distinctive keystone figures in the flow field, close to observations in hydrogen-oxygen detonation experiments. The structure of the chain branching zone is resolved using a perturbation analysis, which clarifies the differences between explosion and no-explosion regions and allows for an evaluation of the induction length in the steady wave. The analysis assumes both high activation energy and a slow initiation. Three cases are identified, respectively, with pressure and temperature located within the explosion region, close to the explosion limit and within the no-explosion region. The induction length is shorter and the reaction rate is faster by several orders of magnitude in the explosion region.

  8. Segmentation and Recognition of Handwritten Numeric Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Ouchtati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic reading of numeric chains has been attempted in several application areas such as bank cheque processing, postal code recognition and form processing. Such applications have been very popular in handwriting recognition research, due to the possibility to reduce considerably the manual effort involved in these tasks. In this study we propose an off line system for the recognition of the handwritten numeric chains. Firstly, study was based mainly on the evaluation of neural network performances, trained with the gradient back propagation algorithm. Used parameters to form the input vector of the neural network are extracted on the binary images of the digits by several methods: distribution sequence, Barr features and centred moments of different projections and profiles. Secondly, study was extented for the reading of the handwritten numeric chains constituted of a variable number of digits. Vertical projection was used to segment the numeric chain at isolated digits and every digit (or segment was presented separately to the entry of the system achieved in the first part (recognition system of the isolated handwritten digits. The performances of the proposed system for the used database attain a recognition rate equal to 91.3%.

  9. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  10. DOS cones along atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  11. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung...... von Nicht-Kernprozessen auf vorgelagerte Stufen der Supply Chain oder auf Supply-Chain-Dienstleister sowie die Internationalisierung der Beschaffung. Dieser Paradigmenwechsel hat traditionelles Denken in den Schranken des Systems „Unternehmen“ abgelöst und zum Supply- Chain-Denken geführt, das vor......- und nachgelagerte Stufen des Systems „End-to-End-Supply-Chain“ einbezieht, etwa auch die Lieferanten von Lieferanten....

  12. Social Media and Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Markova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain management a reference with the main concepts of social media: social profiles, social applications, brand outposts and communities, and the social ecosystem.

  13. Integrating the healthcare supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, C D

    1998-01-01

    Today's integrated delivery systems (IDSs) require efficient supply chain processes to speed products to users at the lowest possible cost. Most excess costs within the supply chain are a result of inefficient and redundant processes involved in the transport and delivery of supplies from suppliers to healthcare providers. By integrating and assuming control of these supply chain processes, improving supply chain management practices, and organizing and implementing a disciplined redesign plan, IDSs can achieve substantial savings and better focus their organizations on their core patient care mission.

  14. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. T

  15. 一种供应链风险综合评价方法——变权可拓物元法%Study on a Kind of Comprehensive Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Risk - Extensive Matter Element with Variable Weight Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟昌宝

    2012-01-01

    Extension theory and variable weight theory are integrated to build a kind of comprehensive evaluation method for supply chain risk - extensive matter element method with variable weight. Such method is further utilized to demonstrate the risk level of supply chain in KangYuan Company, the results of which show that this approach could overcome the defects of constant weight and conform to the real situation.%将可拓理论与变权理论相结合,建立一种供应链风险水平评价方法——变权可拓物元法;并应用该方法对康缘供应链的风险水平进行实证,评价结果不仅表明该方法能克服常权综合的弊端,而且也与现实情况相符.

  16. Bitter decoration and magneto-optical observations of vortex chains in high temperature superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Tamegai; H Aoki; M Matsui; M Tokunaga

    2006-01-01

    In tilted magnetic fields, vortices in anisotropic superconductors form one-dimensional arrangements, called vortex chains. We have visualized vortex chains by Bitter decoration and magneto-optical technique. The fundamental energy scale for the attractive interaction between pancake and Josephson vortices is evaluated by observing vortex chains under various conditions. We also explore how the vortex chains evolve when the large in-plane field is applied or when the anisotropy parameter of the system is changed.

  17. The Reliability Research of the Supply Chain Management Based on the Fuzzy Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The complex and varied relationships between supply a nd demand among different enterprises calls for an effective way to evaluate and maintain reliability in supply chain management. Individually, enterprises purs ue maximum benefit strategy while cooperating with others. This behavior may res ult in the weakening of needed reliability in supply chain or, in more serious c ases, sever the supply chain. Although reliability of supply chain is the bases to ensuring long-term benefit, a systematic way of h...

  18. Comparison of serum free light chain and urine electrophoresis for the detection of the light chain component of monoclonal immunoglobulins in light chain and intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoie, Thomas; Attal, Michel; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Avet-Loiseau, Herve

    2016-03-01

    Response criteria for multiple myeloma are based upon changes in monoclonal protein levels quantified using serum and/or urine protein electrophoresis. The latter lacks sensitivity at low monoclonal protein levels and since 2001, the serum free light chain test has been available and its clinical utility proven, yet guidelines have not recommended it as a replacement for urine assessment. Herein we evaluated responses using serum free light chain measurements and serum and urine electrophoresis after 2 and 4 cycles of therapy and after stem cell transplantation in 25 light chain and 157 intact immunoglobulin myeloma patients enrolled in the IFM 2007-02 MM trial. All 25 light chain patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain and urine methods at presentation. By contrast 98 out of 157 intact immunoglobulin patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain compared to 55 out of 157 by urine electrophoresis. In all patients there was substantial agreement between predicate (serum/urine protein electrophoresis) and test (serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light chain) methods for response assessment (Weighted Kappa=0.83). Urine immunofixation became negative in 47% light chain and 43% intact immunoglobulin patients after 2 cycles of therapy. At this time the serum free light chain ratio normalised in only 11% and 27% patients, respectively. In summary we found good agreement between methods for response assessment, but the serum free light chain test provided greater sensitivity than urine electrophoresis for monitoring. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing both methods for response assignment based on the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines. (Clinical Trials Register.eu identifier: 2007-005204-40).

  19. Evaluation and validity of a polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frame typing method to dissect the molecular epidemiology for Acinetobacter baumannii in an epidemiologic study of a hospital outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is regarded as one of the most important pathogens in hospital outbreaks. To obtain an efficient and simple epidemiologic method of surveillance during outbreaks, we assessed the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction-based open reading frames typing (POT) method and compared it with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The POT method was found to have sufficient discriminatory power to identify the strains and would be widely applicable to epidemiologic surveillance during hospital outbreaks.

  20. 精益供应链的供应商评价选择及优化研究%Supplier Selection and Evaluation of Lean Supply Chain and Optimization Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘绮莹; 罗沛璋

    2014-01-01

    本文主要是对管理工程、系统工程以及人工智能等领域的最新研究成果进行的分析探讨,然后根据在精益供应链管理环境中的表现,对当前国内外供应链管理研究领域的前沿课题进行全面的系统的探究性研究。其中,本文的研究成果主要是实现精益供应链管理所特有的理论价值和重要意义。%This paper is mainly to discuss the latest research achievements on the field of project management, system engineering and artificial intelligence, and then carries on comprehensive and systematic research on the leading edge topics in the field of supply chain management at home and abroad based on the performance in lean supply chain management environment. The research results of this paper are mainly to realize the theoretical value and significance of lean supply chain management.

  1. Simulation in Supply Chains: An Arena basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bekker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The quest for global competitiveness brought about new business approaches, of which the supply chain has become an important entity during the last few years. With even more complex decision structures, demand variation and the need for evaluating alternatives within this frame, simulation and simulation-optimization have been identified as key decision-making tools. This paper briefly reviews the basic characteristics of supply chains, and illustrates that existing software may be integrated towards a supply chain simulator.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die strewe na globale mededingendheid vereis nuwe benaderings deur ondernemings, terwyl die toevoerketting 'n belangrike entiteit gedurende die afgelope paar jaar geword het. Toenemende kompleksiteit in besluitneming, variasie in vraag en die behoefte om alternatiewe binne hierdie komplekse raamwerk te evalueer, het tot gevolg dat simulasie en simulasie-optimering as sleutel-besluitneming gereedskap beskou word. Hierdie artikel gee 'n kort oorsig oor die basiese eienskappe van toevoerkettings, en dit word getoon dat bestaandeprogrammatuur integreer kan word om 'n toevoerketting-simuleerderte ontwikkel.

  2. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  3. Spectral Analysis of Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of a statistical analysis of Markov chains connected with the spectral density. We present the expressions for the function of spectral density. These expressions may be used to estimate the parameter of the Markov chain.

  4. LEAN SUPPLY CHAIN DESIGN PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a set of principles, which can guide the design of lean supply chains. The author divides design principles into 3 main categories. The first two sets describe internal production processes while the 3-rd set relates to the entire supply chain.

  5. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  6. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...

  7. Verifying the Hanging Chain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karls, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

  8. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  9. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as......The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  10. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    ). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies......The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction...... between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section...

  11. The Service-Profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance.......This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...

  12. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  13. Greening Supply Chains: Impact on Cost and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mallidis, Ioannis; Dekker, Rommert; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe consideration of environmental issues has emerged as a topic of critical importance for today’s globalized supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to develop a strategic-tactical decision-support methodology to assist managers in evaluating the impact of environmental issues, related to transportation emissions, on the transport geography of a region. Specifically we provide a tool that addresses: (i) supply chain network design, including port of entry and transportation ...

  14. A Hybrid Support Vector Machines and Two-dimensional Risk Matrix Model for Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the supply chain managements have been paid more and more attention. The supply chain risk management is an important content for enterprises implementing supply chain management. Therefore, how to measure the risk of supply chain is quite important. In this study, a supply chain risk evaluation model based on support vector machines and two-dimensional risk matrix is proposed. The index system of supply chain risk assessment which includes 14 indices is established. The case study shows that the proposed model is reasonable, effective and it can provide an important reference for supply chain risk management.

  15. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dam, Gitte; Les, Iñigo;

    2015-01-01

    -chain amino acids (BCAA) versus control interventions has evaluated if BCAA may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of BCAA versus any control intervention for people with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials through...

  16. Reevaluation of the Premier Clostridium difficile toxin A and B immunoassay with comparison to glutamate dehydrogenase common antigen testing evaluating Bartels cytotoxin and Prodesse ProGastro Cd polymerase chain reaction as confirmatory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doing, Kirk M; Hintz, Marilyn S; Keefe, Calvin; Horne, Sarah; LeVasseur, Shelby; Kulikowski, Martha L

    2010-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are currently the most common tests used in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins; however, significant problems with their performance have recently been described. We prospectively reevaluated the Meridian Premier C. difficile toxin A/B assay with direct comparison to a 2-step algorithm that screened for C. difficile common antigen and compared cytotoxin and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory procedures. The Premier assay lacked sufficient sensitivity, missing 25% of true-positive samples. PCR was the most sensitive method and the only procedure that allowed same day testing and reporting.

  17. Elastic Behavior of Polymer Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Lu; Tao Chen; Hao-jun Liang

    2008-01-01

    The elastic behavior of the polymer chain was investigated in a three-dimensional off-lattice model. We sample more than 109 conformations of each kind of polymer chain by using a Monte Carlo algorithm, then analyze them with the non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity, and end with a statistical study. Through observing the effect of the chain flexibility and the stretching ratio on the mean-square end-to-end distance,the average energy, the average Helmholtz free energy, the elastic force, the contribution of energy to the elastic force, and the entropy contribution to elastic force of the polymer chain, we find that a rigid polymer chain is much easier to stretch than a flexible polymer chain. Also, a rigid polymer chain will become difficult to stretch only at a quite high stretching ratio because of the effect of the entropy contribution.These results of our simulation calculation may explain some of the macroscopic phenomena of polymer and biomacromolecular elasticity.

  18. Traceability in food supply chain:: Towards the synchronised supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Helena; Skjöldebrand, Christina; Olsson, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Today, food products are distributed all over the world. This has led to advantages in terms of availability but disadvantages in terms of more complex food supply chains. Global food competition is intense and therefore actors have started to adapt their mindsets toward a more holistic view and a supply chain perspective. In addition, food scares during recent years have turned focus towards food safety and traceability in a “farm-to-fork” perspective. The aim of this study is to explore...

  19. Markov Chains and Markov Processes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain, which was named after Andrew Markov is a mathematical system that transfers a state to another state. Many real world systems contain uncertainty. This study helps us to understand the basic idea of a Markov chain and how is been useful in our daily lives. For some times there had been suspense on distinct predictions and future existences. Also in different games there had been different expectations or results involved. That is the reason why we need Markov chains to predict o...

  20. New sensors and processing chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yaakoubi, Nourdin

    2014-01-01

    A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.

  1. Excitation of bond-alternating spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains by tunnelling electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauyacq, J-P; Lorente, N

    2014-10-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) are evaluated for spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains showing different phases of their spin ordering. The spin ordering is controlled by the value of the two different Heisenberg couplings on the two sides of each of the chain's atoms (bond-alternating chains). The perfect anti-ferromagnetic phase, i.e. a unique exchange coupling, marks a topological quantum phase transition (TQPT) of the bond-alternating chain. Our calculations show that the TQPT is recognizable in the excited states of the chain and hence that IETS is in principle capable of discriminating the phases. We show that perfectly symmetric chains, such as closed rings mimicking infinite chains, yield the same spectra on both sides of the TQPT and IETS cannot reveal the nature of the spin phase. However, for finite size open chains, both sides of the TQPT are associated with different IETS spectra, especially on the edge atoms, thus outlining the transition.

  2. Detecting Service Chains and Feature Interactions in Sensor-Driven Home Network Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Inada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor-driven services often cause chain reactions, since one service may generate an environmental impact that automatically triggers another service. We first propose a framework that can formalize and detect such service chains based on ECA (event, condition, action rules. Although the service chain can be a major source of feature interactions, not all service chains lead to harmful interactions. Therefore, we then propose a method that identifies feature interactions within the service chains. Specifically, we characterize the degree of deviation of every service chain by evaluating the gap between expected and actual service states. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method successfully detects 11 service chains and 6 feature interactions within 7 practical sensor-driven services.

  3. A holistic analysis of pharmaceutical manufacturing and distribution: Are conventional supply chain techniques appropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Christopher J.; Roberts, Kevin J; Wang, Xue Z.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the post-discovery supply chain to determine whether it can be evaluated by conventional analytical methods and improved by the application of supply chain techniques. It considers the impact of factors, including changes in legislation and drug delivery methods

  4. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  5. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory...

  6. Bibliometric Application of Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Miranda Lee; McCreery, Laurie

    1986-01-01

    A rudimentary description of Markov Chains is presented in order to introduce its use to describe and to predict authors' movements among subareas of the discipline of ethnomusicology. Other possible applications are suggested. (Author)

  7. Gravity Waves from Chain Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashoorioon, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Chain inflation proceeds through a series of first order phase transitions, which can release considerable gravitational waves (GW). We demonstrate that bubble collisions can leave an observable signature for future high-frequency probes of GWs, such as advanced LIGO, LISA and BBO. A "smoking gun" for chain inflation would be wiggles in the spectrum (and consequently in the tensor spectral index) due to the multiple phase transitions. The spectrum could also be distinguished from a single first order phase transition by a small difference in the amplitude at low frequency. A second origin of GWs in chain inflation are tensor modes from quantum fluctuations; these GW can dominate and be observed on large scales. The consistency relation between scalar and tensor modes is different for chain inflation than for standard rolling models and is testable by Cosmic Microwave Background experiments. If inflation happened through a series of rapid tunnelings in the string landscape, future high frequency probes of GW c...

  8. Markov Chains and Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Views as important the relating of abstract ideas of modern mathematics now being taught in the schools to situations encountered in the sciences. Describes use of matrices and Markov chains to study first-order processes. (Author/DF)

  9. Partner Selection Optimization Model of Agricultural Enterprises in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feipeng Guo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With more and more importance of correctly selecting partners in supply chain of agricultural enterprises, a large number of partner evaluation techniques are widely used in the field of agricultural science research. This study established a partner selection model to optimize the issue of agricultural supply chain partner selection. Firstly, it constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system after analyzing the real characteristics of agricultural supply chain. Secondly, a heuristic method for attributes reduction based on rough set theory and principal component analysis was proposed which can reduce multiple attributes into some principal components, yet retaining effective evaluation information. Finally, it used improved BP neural network which has self-learning function to select partners. The empirical analysis on an agricultural enterprise shows that this model is effective and feasible for practical partner selection.

  10. The chain re-action

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 18 March, beam commissioning started in the first ‘link’ of the accelerator chain – LINAC 2. This marks the start of what will be the longest period of beam operations in CERN’s history, with the accelerator complex remaining operational throughout the winter to supply the LHC. The Bulletin finds out what is being done to make sure the whole chain is ready for this historic run.

  11. Stochastic seismic tomography by interacting Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Alexis; Gesret, Alexandrine; Romary, Thomas; Noble, Mark; Maisons, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods are widely used for non-linear Bayesian inversion where no analytical expression for the forward relation between data and model parameters is available. Contrary to the linear(ized) approaches, they naturally allow to evaluate the uncertainties on the model found. Nevertheless their use is problematic in high-dimensional model spaces especially when the computational cost of the forward problem is significant and/or the a posteriori distribution is multimodal. In this case, the chain can stay stuck in one of the modes and hence not provide an exhaustive sampling of the distribution of interest. We present here a still relatively unknown algorithm that allows interaction between several Markov chains at different temperatures. These interactions (based on importance resampling) ensure a robust sampling of any posterior distribution and thus provide a way to efficiently tackle complex fully non-linear inverse problems. The algorithm is easy to implement and is well adapted to run on parallel supercomputers. In this paper, the algorithm is first introduced and applied to a synthetic multimodal distribution in order to demonstrate its robustness and efficiency compared to a simulated annealing method. It is then applied in the framework of first arrival traveltime seismic tomography on real data recorded in the context of hydraulic fracturing. To carry out this study a wavelet-based adaptive model parametrization has been used. This allows to integrate the a priori information provided by sonic logs and to reduce optimally the dimension of the problem.

  12. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX).

  13. Stochastic seismic tomography by interacting Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Alexis; Gesret, Alexandrine; Romary, Thomas; Noble, Mark; Maisons, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods are widely used for non-linear Bayesian inversion where no analytical expression for the forward relation between data and model parameters is available. Contrary to the linear(ized) approaches they naturally allow to evaluate the uncertainties on the model found. Nevertheless their use is problematic in high dimensional model spaces especially when the computational cost of the forward problem is significant and/or the a posteriori distribution is multimodal. In this case the chain can stay stuck in one of the modes and hence not provide an exhaustive sampling of the distribution of interest. We present here a still relatively unknown algorithm that allows interaction between several Markov chains at different temperatures. These interactions (based on Importance Resampling) ensure a robust sampling of any posterior distribution and thus provide a way to efficiently tackle complex fully non linear inverse problems. The algorithm is easy to implement and is well adapted to run on parallel supercomputers. In this paper the algorithm is first introduced and applied to a synthetic multimodal distribution in order to demonstrate its robustness and efficiency compared to a Simulated Annealing method. It is then applied in the framework of first arrival traveltime seismic tomography on real data recorded in the context of hydraulic fracturing. To carry out this study a wavelet based adaptive model parametrization has been used. This allows to integrate the a priori information provided by sonic logs and to reduce optimally the dimension of the problem.

  14. "Bullwhip Effect" in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Ščukanec

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The system which connects all the elements between theproducer and the consumer is called the supply chain. This definitionof the supply chain shows its complexity, dynamics anduncertainty. Successful operation of supply chains requires thebest possible coordination of its elements, which obviously indicatesthe utmost importance of the information flow alongthem. The operation of supply chains on the whole has to bemore successful than the operation of their individual elements.It should be noted that such a complex process may give rise toa series of problems, unwanted events, as well as substantial reductionin profits and the level of service. One of such unwantedphenomena which may occur in the supply chain is the"bullwhip effect". This is a possible increase in the diversity oforders which occurs when we move along the elements of thesupply chain (from the customers' orders to the producers' orders.The work analyses the processes within the supply chainsand the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. The main causes ofthe bullwhip effect that we encounter daily in the supply chainshave been clearly defined. The paper also presents the mainnegative consequences of such a disturbance within the supplychains, and provides possible solutions for avoiding the bullwhipeffect.

  15. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  16. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  17. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  18. Ion-Chain Dynamics in Polymer Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Carlos, L D

    1996-01-01

    Representing polyether-salt systems by chains of interacting coordination shells, defined by the cation and by its nearest ligands, we derive the interaction potential between closest shells -- the inter-shells potential -- in terms of two-electron polarization effects. Values are presented for monovalent-based crystalline poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, electrolytes. For the eutectic composition $\\text{PEO}_{12} \\text{EuBr}_3$, the inter-shells energy is evaluated also by relating the empirical value of the nearest-ligands local-field potential with the variation of the $\\text{Eu}^{3+}$ concentration. Both methods give the same results.

  19. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  20. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  1. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  2. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  3. The Influence of Supply Chain Integration on the Intrapreneurship in Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FatemehAshrafganjouei,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available These days, SMEs pay a lot of attention to concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM in order to achieve competitiveness. The logic behind such act is integrating the activities of value creation within any kind of organizational context. Such integrity would collaborate with managers to accomplish the competitive edge that they are aiming to achieve. The goal of current research is to identify scopes of a unique construct which is known as Entrepreneurial Supply Chain Management competency. Therefore, the notions of SCM and entrepreneurship are being aligned together for evaluating the organizational performance. The outcomes demonstrate that SCM in fact is a critical issue that can alter the organizational performance, thus, through consideration of SCM, we should focus on supply chain integration and its impacts on intrapreneurship and innovation of an organization. In order to be successful in such competitive context, SMEs need to provide novel competences which are not imitable and to increase their application in supply chain and also to improve their total performance.

  4. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  5. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated, aldehydes, an ester of a hemiacetal and an orthoester of formic acid, from chemical groups 1, 2 and 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  6. Tunneling magnetoresistance of silicon chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2016-05-01

    The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of a silicon chain sandwiched between nickel electrodes was examined by using first-principles density functional theory. The relative orientation of the magnetization in a parallel-alignment (PA) configuration of two nickel electrodes enhanced the current with a bias less than 0.4 V compared with that in an antiparallel-alignment configuration. Consequently, the silicon chain-nickel electrodes yielded good TMR characteristics. In addition, there was polarized spin current in the PA configuration. The spin polarization of sulfur atoms functioning as a linking bridge between the chain and nickel electrode played an important role in the magnetic effects of the electric current. Moreover, the hybridization of the sulfur 3p orbital and σ-conjugated silicon 3p orbital contributed to increasing the total current.

  7. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  8. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph

    to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified personnel, companies are facing a significant undersupply of talent (Cottrill, 2010). Moreover, organizations appear......While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies...... to lack understanding of supply chain personnel and how to support their recruitment, succession planning, and training and development (John, 2015). Surprisingly, at the same time, scientific research on that topic is relatively scarce. In response, the overarching purpose of this paper...

  9. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... correspond to disposed products with high residual value, whereas functional products correspond to disposed products with low residual value. Furthermore, the PRV and the speed at which returned products lose their value are considered in order to determine the configuration of the reverse supply chain...

  10. Research on Launching Ability Evaluation Model for Tactical Missile Based on Markov Chain%马氏链的战术导弹发射能力评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新波; 汪民乐; 徐加强

    2012-01-01

    Research on the change of states of launch unit of tactical missile and launch position in the field with Markov chain. On the base,the launch ability of tactical missile under battle field is studied and the dynamic estimating model of launch ability of tactical missile is established. Through simulation test, the credibility and availability of this model are tested.%采用马氏链状态转移的方法,对战术导弹发射单元与发射阵地在作战过程中的状态变化进行了研究.在此基础上,对战术导弹在战争条件下的发射能力进行研究,建立评估战术导弹发射能力的动态模型.通过仿真试验,验证了模型的可靠性和有效性.

  11. Specific single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibodies to angiotensin II AT(2) receptor: evaluation of the angiotensin II receptor expression in normal and tumor-bearing mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masaaki; Yan, Heping; Zegarra-Moro, Ofelia; Edl, Jennifer; Oursler, Stephanie; Chard-Bergstrom, Cindy; Andrews, Gordon; Kanehira, Tsutomu; Takekoshi, Susumu; Mernaugh, Ray

    2008-08-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)) regulates carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis, we have newly developed anti-AT(2) single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibodies using a rodent phage-displayed recombinant antibody library with various peptide fragments of the receptor protein, and investigated the expression of the AT(2) receptor protein. The specificity of the antibodies was verified using AT(2) over-expressing COS-7 cells and AT(2) naturally expressing PC12W cells. In control wild type mouse lung, a stronger immunoreactivity was observed in bronchial epithelial cells. A moderate immunoreactivity was detected in pulmonary vascular walls and vascular endothelial cells. In the lungs possessing tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK)-induced tumors, significantly increased AT(2) and AT(1 )immunostaining was observed in adenomatous lesions. These data suggest that the increase in both receptors' expression in the alveolar epithelial cells may be accompanied with the onset of NNK-induced tumorigenesis and hence play important roles in lung tumorigenesis.

  12. Study on Modeling and Simulation of Reliability Diagnosis of Supply Chain Based on Common Cause Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To diagnose key factors which cause the failure of supply chain, on the base of taking 3-tier supply chain centering on manufacturer as the object, the diagnostic model of reliability of supply chain with common cause failure was established. Then considering unreliability and key importance as quantitative index, the diagnostic algorism of key factors of reliability of supply chain with common cause failure was studied by the method of Monte Carlo Simulation. The algorism can be used to evaluate the reliability of f supply chain and determine key factors which cause the failure of supply chain, which supplies a new method for diagnosing reliability of supply chain based on common cause failure. Finally, an example was presented to prove the feasibility and validity of the model and method.

  13. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r

  14. Quantum crystals and spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert [KdV Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Orlando, Domenico [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Rue Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Reffert, Susanne [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: sreffert@gmail.com

    2009-04-21

    In this article, we discuss the quantum version of the melting crystal corner in one, two, and three dimensions, generalizing the treatment for the quantum dimer model. Using a mapping to spin chains we find that the two-dimensional case (growth of random partitions) is integrable and leads directly to the Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg XXZ ferromagnet. The three-dimensional case of the melting crystal corner is described in terms of a system of coupled XXZ spin chains. We give a conjecture for its mass gap and analyze the system numerically.

  15. Quantum crystals and spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2009-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the quantum version of the melting crystal corner in one, two, and three dimensions, generalizing the treatment for the quantum dimer model. Using a mapping to spin chains we find that the two-dimensional case (growth of random partitions) is integrable and leads directly to the Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg XXZ ferromagnet. The three-dimensional case of the melting crystal corner is described in terms of a system of coupled XXZ spin chains. We give a conjecture for its mass gap and analyze the system numerically.

  16. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  17. Reseach of Supply Chain Modeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The supply chain modeling technology is research. Firstly, the concept of supply chain and supply chain management is introduced. Secondly, enterprise-modeling methods, such as CIM-OSA, GIM-GRAI, PERA and ARIS, are analyzed and compared. The supply chain modeling technology is studied. Then the ARIS-based supply chain modeling method is proposed and the supply chain operation reference model is set up. Finally, the applications of ARIS-based supply chain modeling method in Shanghai Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. (STGC) is described in detail.

  18. Supply chain management and optimization in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Pirim, Harun; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces general supply chain terminology particularly for novice readers, state of the art supply chain management and optimization issues and problems in manufacturing. The book provides insights for making supply chain decisions, planning and scheduling through supply chain network. It introduces optimization problems, i.e. transportation of raw materials, products and location, inventory of plants, warehouses and retailers, faced throughout the supply chain network.

  19. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  20. Social Value Propagation for Supply Chain Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Supply Chain Formation is the process of determining the participants in a supply chain, who will exchange what with whom, and the terms of the exchanges. Decentralized supply chain formation appears as a highly intricate task because agents only possess local information, have limited knowledge about the capabilities of other agents, and prefer to preserve privacy. State-of-the-art decentralized supply chain formation approaches can either: (i) #12;find supply chains of high value at the ...