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Sample records for chain evaluations tandar

  1. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm2 approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  2. Proton external beam in the TANDAR Accelerator; Haz externo de protones en el acelerador TANDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, R.; Schuff, J.A.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Saint-Martin, G.; Oppezzo, O.; Bernaola, O.A.; Molinari, B.L.; Duran, H.A.; Policastro, L.; Palmieri, M.; Ibanez, J.; Stoliar, P.; Mazal, A.; Caraballo, M.E.; Burlon, A.; Cardona, M.A.; Vazquez, M.E.; Salfity, M.F.; Ozafran, M.J.; Naab, F.; Levinton, G.; Davidson, M.; Buhler, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, C.P. 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-12-31

    An external proton beam has been obtained in the TANDAR accelerator with radiological and biomedical purposes. The protons have excellent physical properties for their use in radiotherapy allowing a very good accuracy in the dose spatial distribution inside the tissue so in the side direction as in depth owing to the presence of Bragg curve. The advantage of the accuracy in the dose localization with proton therapy is good documented (M. Wagner, Med. Phys. 9, 749 (1982); M. Goitein and F. Chen, Med. Phys. 10, 831 (1983); M.R. Raju, Rad. Res. 145, 391 (1996)). It was obtained external proton beams with energies between 15-25 MeV, currents between 2-10 p A and a uniform transversal sections of 40 mm{sup 2} approximately. It was realized dosimetric evaluations with CR39 and Makrofol foliation. The irradiations over biological material contained experiences In vivo with laboratory animals, cellular and bacterial crops. It was fixed the optimal conditions of position and immobilization of the Wistar rats breeding for the In vivo studies. It was chosen dilutions and sowing techniques adequate for the exposition at the cellular and bacterial crops beam. (Author)

  3. Modeling for Green Supply Chain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM has become a practical approach to develop environmental performance. Under strict regulations and stakeholder pressures, enterprises need to enhance and improve GSCM practices, which are influenced by both traditional and green factors. This study developed a causal evaluation model to guide selection of qualified suppliers by prioritizing various criteria and mapping causal relationships to find effective criteria to improve green supply chain. The aim of the case study was to model and examine the influential and important main GSCM practices, namely, green logistics, organizational performance, green organizational activities, environmental protection, and green supplier evaluation. In the case study, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique is applied to test the developed model. The result of the case study shows only “green supplier evaluation” and “green organizational activities” criteria of the model are in the cause group and the other criteria are in the effect group.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, FTS

    2002-01-01

    Supply chain management has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage in different industries. For years, researchers have investigated the various processes within supply chain. There has been an increasing attention placed on performance, design and analysis of supply chain. However, the supply chain is a complex model so it is difficult to analyze the performance of a supply chain philosophically. To evaluate the control mechanism for a supply chain, simulation is o...

  5. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah U. Olugu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In today’s manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain management. To explore the extent of research in supply chain performance measurement and establish the gap in knowledge in supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation. Approach: Literatures in the area of supply chain performance measurement had been extensively reviewed. Both traditional and fuzzy logic approaches to supply chain performance measurement were scrutinized. Further scrutiny was carried out to establish potential research areas in the application of fuzzy logic operations in supply chain performance measurement. Results: The supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy logic operation was identified as a new direction in measuring the uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding supply chain performance measurement. Direction for further studies in the application of fuzzy logic operation in supply chain management and its performance measurement were also identified. Conclusion: Result of this study implied that there is still a gap in knowledge in the area of supply chain performance measurement. This new direction of studies involved extending the existing supply chains to incorporate product recovery after the useful life.

  6. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Trends and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ezutah U. Olugu; Kuan Y. Wong

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In todays manufacturing world, globalization policies and rejuvenation have created a more intensive competition amongst manufacturers. On the other hand, manufacturers have turned to the option of adopting innovative technologies, process re-engineering and strategies such as efficient supply chain management to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Effective supply chain performance measurement has been identified as a key issue towards efficient supply chain manag...

  7. EVALUATING LOGISTICAL CHAIN IN SLOVENIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Zavrsnik

    2013-01-01

    The current market situation, followed by fast growing globalization‘s effects has been constantly searching for new approaches in modeling and managing transport -logistics chains. These are approaches where all determinants for efficient and effect ive management of ever complex supply chains have been properly set and exploited. This paper focuses on logistics performance of industrial firms in the Slovenian market. Our research explored the current attitudes of managers in the logistic in...

  8. Performance evaluation on aquatic product cold-chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The requirements for high quality and diversification aquatic products are increasing with the improvement of Chinese living standard. However, the distribution between place of production and place of consumption are uneven, which results in large cold-chain logistics demand for aquatic products. At present, the low-level development of cold chain logistics has a bad impact on the circulation of aquatic products in China. So it is very urgent to develop cold-chain logistics in China. Design/methodology/approach: In order to do this, we apply performance evaluation, a well-known management tool, to study Chinese aquatic product cold-chain logistics. In this paper we first propose SISP(Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model(Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation. Then an ANP-Fuzzy method is proposed to evaluate the operational performance of Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. Furthermore, a system dynamic model is built to simulate the impact of temperature on the profits in aquatic products cold-chain sales section. Findings: We find out within a reasonable temperature range, lower temperature brings higher profit level. Also, performance improvement methods are proposed and the simulation of performance evaluation system is developed. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the level of aquatic product cold-chain logistics in China. Originality/value: The paper proposes the SISP (Subjects, Indexes, Standards, and Phases of performance evaluation model and ACSSN model (Aquatic product, Customer, Supply Chain, Society, and Node enterprises of supply chain for aquatic products cold-chain logistics performance evaluation.

  9. Evaluating Reverse Supply Chain Efficiency: Manufacturer's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Wong, K. Y.;

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to illustrate the use of fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA) in analyzing reverse supply chain (RSC) performance from the manufacturer's perspective. By using an alternative alpha-cut approach, the fuzzy DEA model was converted into a crisp linear programming problem, thereby alt...

  10. A Novel Evaluation Indicator System and Evaluation Method for Supply Chain Performance of Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xiyao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain performance evaluation is a research hotspot and lies in the core status in supply chain management. The study presents a new evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm for supply chain performance. First, the balanced score card is used to construct an evaluation indicator system for supply chain performance evaluation through analyzing the basic principle and connotation characteristics of supply chain management; Second analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation algorithms are combined to satisfy the dynamic, subjective and transitional characteristics of evaluation indicators and improve evaluation accuracy. Thirdly the evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm are used in supply chain performance evaluation of fresh food products and the experimental results shows that the presented evaluation indicator system and evaluation algorithm has satisfied validity and feasibility.

  11. Performance measurement for supply chain management and evaluation criteria determination for reverse supply chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongar, N. Elif

    2004-12-01

    Today, since customers are able to obtain similar-quality products for similar prices, the lead time has become the only preference criterion for most of the consumers. Therefore, it is crucial that the lead time, i.e., the time spent from the raw material phase till the manufactured good reaches the customer, is minimized. This issue can be investigated under the title of Supply Chain Management (SCM). An efficiently managed supply chain can lead to reduced response time for customers. To achieve this, continuous observation of supply chain efficiency, i.e., a constant performance evaluation of the current SCM is required. Widely used conventional performance measurement methods lack the ability to evaluate a SCM since the supply chain is a dynamic system that requires a more thorough and flexible performance measurement technique. Balanced Scorecard (BS) is an efficient tool for measuring the performance of dynamic systems and has a proven capability of providing the decision makers with the appropriate feedback data. In addition to SCM, a relatively new management field, namely reverse supply chain management (RSCM), also necessitates an appropriate evaluation approach. RSCM differs from SCM in many aspects, i.e., the criteria used for evaluation, the high level of uncertainty involved etc., not allowing the usage of identical evaluation techniques used for SCM. This study proposes a generic Balanced Scorecard to measure the performance of supply chain management while defining the appropriate performance measures for SCM. A scorecard prototype, ESCAPE, is presented to demonstrate the evaluation process.

  12. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanqiong Gou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering supply chain. Findings: With the analysis of the characteristics of catering supply chain, we construct the performance evaluation model in order to guarantee the food safety, logistics efficiency, price stability and so on. Practical implications: In order to evolve an efficient and effective service supply chain, it can not only used to own enterprise improvement, but also can be used for selecting different customers, to choose a different model of development. Originality/value: This paper has a new definition of service-oriented catering supply chain. And it offers a model to evaluate the performance of this catering supply chain.

  13. Strategic orientation in evaluation of supply chain activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad sofiyabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of supply chain management could impact the entire functional and practical aspects of industry and services positively and change the manager’s attitude toward the implementation of supply chain management systems from a cost-oriented attitude to an enabling attitude towards better activities with other chain members. Yet still many organizations do not have the required vision within the identification of strategic appropriate measure in implementation, evaluation and usage of proper benchmarks to attain an integrated chain. Constantly supply chain management activity can be introduced as a tied up with strategic level of organization. Hence, it is a necessary with an overall strategic approach to identify the criteria, which enable us to include the whole process level of chain, financial matter of chain activities, visible and invisible properties, human activity and turn all these activities into an integrated approach to resolve supply chain difficulties. In this paper, we present an integrated balanced score card combined with DEMATEL technique to prioritize different alternatives for supply chain implementation.

  14. AN EVALUATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Viana Borges

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thecharacteristics and challenges of the integrated market, along with the risinginternational cooperation and vertical disintegration, have led to the notionthat firms are linked in a global supply chain. This study is focused onconcepts and models organized for the development of a theoretical essay inGlobal Supply Chain Management to evaluate characteristics and opportunities inthis field. It was used references that cover the global market factorsinvolving economic, cultural, political and demographic issues that representopportunities and barriers for going global.  It was indentified that the challenge relatedto the international operations is to develop a global strategy considering theinfluence of political and economic factors in the trade, culturalcharacteristics, supply chain costs, infrastructure, technology, market andcompetitive rules. From the elements raised from theory for the configurationof a global supply chain approach, this study also identified gaps andquestions for future research agenda in the area.

  15. Application of Grey-TOPSIS approach to evaluate value chain performance of tea processing chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Nyaoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an effective method to measure value chain performance and rank them based on qualitative criteria and to determine the ranking order of the various forms of performance under study. This approach integrates the advantage of grey systems theory and TOPSIS to evaluate and rank value chain performance. Grey-TOPSIS approach has been applied to measure and rank the value chain performance of various firms. The results indicate that the proposed model is useful to facilitate multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM problem under the environment of uncertainty and vagueness. The model also provides an appropriate ranking order based on the available alternatives. The Grey-TOPSIS approach that will be useful to the managers to use for solving the similar type of decision-making problems in their firms in the future has been discussed. Even though, the problem of choosing a suitable performance option is often addressed in practice and research, very few studies are available in the literature of Grey-TOPSIS decision models. Also, Grey-TOPSIS model application in the tea processing firms is non-existence hence this study is the very first to apply this model in evaluating value chain performance in the tea processing firms.

  16. Evaluating Investments For Services: A Value Chain Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcyz Roztocki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework based on value chain analysis to evaluate investments for services. The rationale for this approach is that to properly evaluate the benefits of any services investments, the value and cost interactions resulting from different business processes or activities need to be considered. To achieve reliable cost estimations, the framework employs a costing system, which integrates activity-based costing with the economic value added performance measure. The proposed framework is illustrated using a hypothetical case of an information technology investment in a car repair shop.

  17. Methodology for Performance Evaluation of Reverse Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Arun Vasantha Geethan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around the world are employing reverse supply chain practices to overcome the regulations and generate profit making opportunities. As a result of the rapid progress in technology theproduct lifecycles are shrinking faster than ever. In the face of global competition, heightened environmental regulations and a wealth of additional profits and improved corporate image opportunities, performing the reverse supply chain operations at a world class level is becoming quintessential. These factors in addition to the inherent complexity of reverse supply chains due to the uncertainties associated with the quantity, quality, and timing of returns make returns management all the more complicated. This research spotlights on this particular problem from a consumer electronics industry perspective, as it poses the greatest challenges in handling returns due to the presence of high clock speed products and greater return volume and variability. In this research, Performance Evaluation Analytic for Reverse Logistics Methodology is developed to facilitate decision making from the perspective of an enterprise engaged in reverse logistics. It explores the various reverse logisticsfunctions and product lifecycle stages. It also develops some key business strategies and performance metrics that can be employed to be successful in returns handling. Deployment of this methodology intheir organizations provides them with a real world assessment of what strategies, reverse logistics functions, product lifecycle stages, or key performance indicators impact the Reverse LogisticsPerformance Value, thereby allowing them to continuously improve their returns management capabilities.

  18. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chains

    The overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and

  19. Supply Chain Performance Evaluation: Evaluating Rolls-Royce Supply Chain Performance in the Civil Aerospace Business Operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Agbi, Raymond.O.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient supply chain performance has become a potentially valuable way of securing competitive advantage and improving organizational performance since competition is no longer between organizations, but among supply chains (Li et al, 2005). This study examines supply chain practices and performance in organization using Rolls-Royce Plc as a case study. The report also examines the contribution of supply chain management practices to organizational performance. A five-dimension framework o...

  20. Effective food supply chains; generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Vorst, van der, H.

    2000-01-01

    Logistical co-ordination in FMCG supply chainsThe overall objectives of the research described in this thesis were to obtain insight into the applicability of the concept Supply Chain Management (SCM) in food supply chains (SCs) from a logistical point of view, and to find an efficient and effective method to analyse and redesign the SC to improve SC performance.BackgroundThe background and rationale of this thesis are discussed in Chapter 1. Interest in SCM has been spurred by recent socio-e...

  1. Lean Supply Chain Planning: A Performance Evaluation through Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RossiniMatteo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies look more and more for improving their efficiency to excel in the market. At the same time, the competition has moved from firm level to whole supply chain level. Supply chain are very complex systems and lacks of coordination among their members leads to inefficiency. Supply chain planning task is to improve coordination among supply chain members. Which is the best planning solution to improve efficiency is an open issue. On the other hand, Lean approach is becoming more and more popular among managers. Lean approach is recognize as efficiency engine for production systems, but effects of Lean implementation out of single firm boundaries is not clear. This paper aims at providing a theoretical and practical starting point for Lean implementation in supply chain planning issue. To reach it, a DES simulation model of a three-echelon and multi-product supply chain has been set. Lean management is a very broad topic and this paper focuses on two principles of “pull” and “create the flow”. Kanban system and setup-time and batch-size reductions are implemented in the lean-configured supply chain to apply “pull” and “create the flow” respectively. Lean principles implementations have been analyzed and compared with other supply chain planning policies: EOQ and information sharing (Visibility. Supported by the simulation study, this paper points Lean supply chain planning is a competitive planning policies to increase efficiency.

  2. Three echelon supply chain design with supplier evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Kanika; Jha, P. C.; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan;

    2014-01-01

    An effective supply chain management (SCM) facilitates companies to react to changing demand by swiftly communicating their needs to the supplier. Optimizing a supply chain (SC) performance is a key factor for success in long term SC relationships. Substantial information such as price, delivery...

  3. Evaluating Reverse Supply Chain Efficiency: Manufacturer’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasvi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to illustrate the use of fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA in analyzing reverse supply chain (RSC performance from the manufacturer’s perspective. By using an alternative α-cut approach, the fuzzy DEA model was converted into a crisp linear programming problem, thereby altering the problem to an interval programming one. The model is able to obtain precise and robust efficiency values. An investigation was also made between the obtained efficiency scores and certain relevant background information of the companies. The study revealed that while ISO 14001 certification usually ensures an environmentally friendly supply chain network, companies which have implemented RSC techniques since a longer duration do not necessarily have a more efficient supply chain in general.

  4. Environmental supplier evaluation - major factor in greening the supply chain : A case study of Kinnarps

    OpenAIRE

    Ilovan, Ion; Sochirca, Ala

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns challenge the current business world by questioning the way companies operate and impact the environment and by raising the awareness over the need of radical changes. The process of greening the supply chain involves greening all chain components and it contests the obsolete idea of simple reverse logistics. Suppliers’ evaluation constitutes one of the primary steps in setting the platform for greening the supply chain. Kinnarps AB is a Swedish leading company which ow...

  5. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  6. Research on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation of Fresh Agriculture Products Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankun Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agricultural products is one of the key techniques and a research hotspot in supply chain management and in fields related. The paper designs a new evaluation indicator system and presents a new model for evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agriculture product companies. First, based on analyzing the specific characteristics of the supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture products, the paper designs a new evaluation indicator system including external and internal performance. Second, some improvements, such as adjusting dynamic strategy and the value of momentum factor, are taken to speed up calculation convergence and simplify the structure and to improve evaluating accuracy of the original BP evaluation model. Finally the model is realized with the data from certain supply chains of three fresh agriculture product companies and the experimental results show that the algorithm can improve calculation efficiency and evaluation accuracy when used for supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture product companies practically.

  7. Researches on Risk Evaluation of Green Agro-product Closed Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Closed supply chain is a superior form of management model of chain supply and an effective means of improving the modernization of agro-product circulation. Based on the research results of the current literatures on supply chain risk and agro-product supply chain, related subjects of the agro-product closed supply chain involving production, management and consumption are studied and analyzed and the primary risking factors in the supply chain system are classified as environmental risk, system risk, information risk, management risk and quality risk. Risk of agro-product closed supply chain is evaluated by using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and the values are acquired. The result shows that risk of agro-product closed supply chain is moderate with relatively high risk, which basically accords with the present actual situations. It can be seen from the index weights of various levels that the key first-level indices influencing the risks are system risk, information risk, quality and safety risk and the key second-level are the coordinating and controlling ability of core enterprises, the implementation of information traceability and the construction of quality safety system. Therefore, risk of agro-product closed supply chain should be reduced by taking prevention and controlling measures mainly from these aspects.

  8. A key performance measures for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Shashi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a set of measures, evaluate their importance and effect in cold supply chain performance. This investigation reviewed previous research works on all the stages of the farm product supply chain. Based on farm product supply chain, 4 measures with 31 metrics were identified and developed to measure the cold supply chain performance. A survey was organized to establish the importance and the effect of identified measures. The 5 point Likert scale questionnaire was distributed among SC academics and practitioners. The observed finding infers that the measurement instrument was substantiating for evaluating cold supply chain performance in farm industry. The new developed metrics will help firms improve the visibility of supply among partners and in better decision making. The investigation was enfolded up through the plan of direction intended for future study.

  9. Research on Evaluation on Agility of Agile Supply Chain Network Based on Complex Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Ru Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to add the network structure factors of agile supply chain network into agility evaluation. The paper firstly presents three concepts including node strength centrality, betweenness centrality, and network centrality. They are used to calculate the weight of node enterprises in the agile supply chain network. And then, a series of agility indicators are designed to evaluate agility of agile supply chain network. AHP is used to calculate the weight of the indicators. Next, these indicators are used to get initial agility evaluation matrix by means of Delphi method, Data Mining, and so forth. Then FCE is used to calculate the membership degree on agility of node enterprises by combining the evaluation matrix with the weight of indicators. Last, the evaluation result of comprehensive agility of agile supply chain network is calculated on the basis of considering the weight of node enterprises. This method can reflect the effect which the network structure of supply chain network makes on the agility of the supply chain network. It is a complement to the current evaluation methods of agility.

  10. Tool-based Evaluation of the PANACEA Production Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksic, Vera; Schwartz, Christoph; Thurmair, Gregor; Prokopidis, Prokopis; Papavassiliou, Vassilis; Toral, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    After the end of the third evaluation cycle, the PANACEA project launched a final work package, dealing with the evaluation of the PANACEA results in industrial contexts. One focus was the usability of the tools in larger practical setups. A given domain (health & safety) and a given language direction (Italian to German) were investigated, and all tools involved from crawling to bilingual lexicon generation were applied. The main evaluation criterion was usability in industrial contexts; ...

  11. Developing Supply Chain Management System Evaluation Attributes Based on the Supply Chain Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chun-Chin; Chen, Liang-Tu

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we proposed a framework to select an adequate SCM system based on the decision-analysis process. By the proposed procedures, the company can identify the elements of SCM project selection problem and formulate the fundamental objectives hierarchy and means objectives network, which are aligned with the goals and strategies of the company. The pertinent attributes for evaluating a variety of SCM systems and vendors can be derived according to these objectives structures. Some ...

  12. Chosen aspects of evaluation of productive processes on the example of productive chains of gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roszak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to present an original approach to evaluation of the real productive chains, including its utilization as a benchmarking method.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper an analysis of value in the productive chains with account of activities based costs was used. The evaluation of the effectivity was made by econometric coefficients.Findings: The paper presents obtained particular results of the analysis of value in the productive chains indicating effectivity of their solutions’ realization.Research limitations/implications: Limitations of the study are associated with particularity of defining of costs of particular operations.Practical implications: Presented method of evaluation of the productive chains gives possibility to assess effectivity of the realized activities.Originality/value: This method is based on the methodology by L.D.Miles and M.E.Porter.

  13. Developing measures for the evaluation of information flow efficiency in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna A. Badenhorst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Member organisations in a supply chain are dependent on each other to provide material, services and information to perform optimally in the supply chain. Efficient, unrestricted information flow is needed in supply chains to function properly. Information flow is thus an element of supply chain management that needs to be managed. Yet, no indication could be found in supply chain management literature of the measurement of information flow efficiency. Hence, the aim of this article is to explore the measurement of information flow efficiency in supply chain management (SCM and exploratively develop possible measures (indicators and associated metrics to measure the efficiency of information flow.In this research the theory of information and related concepts, the basic notions of information systems and the models of business performance measurement were explored. Based on information flow theory and information flow characteristics a research instrument was developed. It was used in a survey to seek inputs from supply chain managers as to the usefulness of characteristics as indicators and metrics for the measurement of information flow efficiency in a supply chain. The main contribution of the study is the development of a conceptual framework of indicators and metrics that may be used to evaluate the efficiency of information flows in supply chains. The results of this study can be used as a basis for further studies to validate the instrument for measuring information flow efficiency and to develop scales to actually measure information flow efficiency.

  14. An Evaluation of Response Prompts for Teaching Behavior Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, Jessica L.; Bourret, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders can have difficulty acquiring new skills, and teaching procedures found to be efficient with 1 individual may not be efficient with others. However, relatively little research has evaluated methods to identify efficient, individualized response-prompt and prompt-fading procedures.…

  15. Evaluation and Design of Supply Chain Operations using DEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Chen (Chien-Ming)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPerformance evaluation has been one of the most critical components in management. As production systems nowadays consist of a growing number of integrated and interacting processes, the interrelationship and dynamic among processes have create a major challenge in measuring system and p

  16. Inter-rater reliability of the evaluation of muscular chains associated with posture alterations in scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortin Carole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Global postural re-education (GPR evaluation, posture alterations are associated with anterior or posterior muscular chain impairments. Our goal was to assess the reliability of the GPR muscular chain evaluation. Methods Design: Inter-rater reliability study. Fifty physical therapists (PTs and two experts trained in GPR assessed the standing posture from photographs of five youths with idiopathic scoliosis using a posture analysis grid with 23 posture indices (PI. The PTs and experts indicated the muscular chain associated with posture alterations. The PTs were also divided into three groups according to their experience in GPR. Experts’ results (after consensus were used to verify agreement between PTs and experts for muscular chain and posture assessments. We used Kappa coefficients (K and the percentage of agreement (%A to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-class coefficients (ICC for determining agreement between PTs and experts. Results For the muscular chain evaluation, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A: 56 to 82; K: 0.42 to 0.76 and perfect for 19 PI for the experts. For posture assessment, reliability was moderate to substantial for 12 PI for the PTs (%A > 60%; K: 0.42 to 0.75 and moderate to perfect for 18 PI for the experts (%A: 80 to 100; K: 0.55 to 1.00. The agreement between PTs and experts was good for most muscular chain evaluations (18 PI; ICC: 0.82 to 0.99 and PI (19 PI; ICC: 0.78 to 1.00. Conclusions The GPR muscular chain evaluation has good reliability for most posture indices. GPR evaluation should help guide physical therapists in targeting affected muscles for treatment of abnormal posture patterns.

  17. The Retail Value Chain: Linking Employee Perceptions to Employee Performance, Customer Evaluations, and Store Performance

    OpenAIRE

    James G. Maxham, III; Richard G. Netemeyer; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    2008-01-01

    The authors test a value chain model entailing a progression of influence from retail employee job perceptions -> retail employee job performances -> customer evaluations -> customer spending and comparable store sales growth. The authors test the model using three matched samples of 1,615 retail employees, 57,656 customers, and 306 stores of a single retail chain. The authors find that three retail employee job perceptions (conscientiousness, perceived organizational justice, and organizatio...

  18. Evaluation of different imaging chains in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Terho, E.O.; Wiljasalo, M.; Wiljasalo, S.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Central Hospital (Finland))

    1984-11-01

    Six imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography have been evaluated: four film-screen combinations in the conventional grid technique and two combinations in the air gap technique. Five parameters characterising the quality of a chest radiograph were evaluated by three radiologists and one chest physician by using a nominal grading scale from -2 to +2 compared with the standard technique. The quality parameters judged were: the visibility of peripheral lung vessels, lung parenchyme, the pulmonary hilum, and lung structure behind the heart shadow, as well as the visibility of miscellaneous findings of clinical interest. The air gap technique was shown to be superior to the ordinary grid technique. The diagnostic quality of chest radiography does not necessarily deteriorate with the screen speed. However, statistically significant differences were noticed, even between techniques which had equal speed and physical resolution.

  19. Evaluation of postponement in the soluble coffee supply chain: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Potter, Andrew; Naim, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper, through a case study, evaluates postponement as an option to improve supply chain performances in a soluble coffee manufacturer. The main focus of the paper is on the development of a numerical data-driven methodology for quantifying the benefits of postponement obtained from the tota...

  20. Evaluating Opportunities to Improve Material and Energy Impacts in Commodity Supply Chains.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, Rebecca J.; Carpenter, Alberta

    2016-06-28

    When evaluated at the process level, next-generation technologies may be more energy and emissions intensive than current technology. However, many advanced technologies have the potential to reduce material and energy consumption in upstream or downstream processing stages. In order to fully understand the benefits and consequences of technology deployment, next-generation technologies should be evaluated in context, as part of a supply chain. This work presents the Material Flows through Industry (MFI) scenario modeling tool. The MFI tool is a cradle-to-gate linear network model of the U.S. industrial sector that can model a wide range of manufacturing scenarios, including changes in production technology, increases in industrial energy efficiency, and substitution between functionally equivalent materials. The MFI tool was developed to perform supply chain scale analyses in order to quantify the impacts and benefits of next-generation technologies and materials at that scale. For the analysis presented in this paper, the MFI tool is utilized to explore a case study comparing a steel supply chain to the supply chains of several functionally equivalent materials. Several of the alternatives to the baseline steel supply chain include next-generation production technologies and materials. Results of the case study show that aluminum production scenarios can out-perform the steel supply chain by using either an advanced smelting technology or an increased aluminum recycling rate. The next-generation material supply chains do not perform as well as either aluminum or steel, but may offer additional use phase reductions in energy and emissions that are outside the scope of the MFI tool. Future work will combine results from the MFI tool with a use phase analysis.

  1. Evaluating Supply Chain Management: A Methodology Based on a Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Tadeu Simon; Luiz Carlos Di Serio; Silvio Roberto Ignacio Pires; Guilherme Silveira Martins

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in supply chain management (SCM) by researchers and practitioners, there is still a lack of academic literature concerning topics such as methodologies to guide and support SCM evaluation. Most developed methodologies have been provided by consulting companies and are restricted in their publication and use. This article presents a methodology for evaluating companies’ degree of adherence to a SCM conceptual model. The methodology is based on Cooper, Lambert an...

  2. Risk assessment of supply chain for pharmaceutical excipients with AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maozhong; Du, Yunai; Wang, Qiyue; Sun, Chunmeng; Ling, Xiang; Yu, Boyang; Tu, Jiasheng; Xiong, Yerong

    2016-01-01

    As the essential components in formulations, pharmaceutical excipients directly affect the safety, efficacy, and stability of drugs. Recently, safety incidents of pharmaceutical excipients posing seriously threats to the patients highlight the necessity of controlling the potential risks. Hence, it is indispensable for the industry to establish an effective risk assessment system of supply chain. In this study, an AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematical theory, which quantitatively assessed the risks of supply chain. Taking polysorbate 80 as the example for model analysis, it was concluded that polysorbate 80 for injection use is a high-risk ingredient in the supply chain compared to that for oral use to achieve safety application in clinic, thus measures should be taken to control and minimize those risks. PMID:26288999

  3. Evaluating the economic impacts of pipeline useage on the Texas oil & gas supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jashandeep

    The objective of this dissertation is to find the minimum supply chain cost for the Texas oil and gas industry, when pipeline is used as the major mode of transporting oil. The problem is solved, by introducing a mixed -- integer linear programming model which will help in taking the necessary decisions based on the cost estimates for various scenarios. In order to meet the objective, specific objectives were put down to evaluate their impacts. First was to evaluate the economic impact of mode of transport and the infrastructure second was to evaluate the economic impact of refinery flow. Finally this dissertation aims at the mixed -- integer programming model to demonstrate the economic impacts of pipeline usage on the supply chain.

  4. Evaluation of even- and odd-chain medium-chain triglycerides as energy sources for neonatal piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were evaluated as a supplemental energy source for the newborn piglet. In three experiments, piglets were force-fed 12 mi of MCT, varying in fatty acid (FA) composition. Blood fatty acid and ketone body concentrations peaked 1-2 h after force feeding then returned to baseline by 4 h, illustrating rapid digestion, absorption and oxidation. Peak 3-OH-butyrate concentrations never exceeded 80 {mu}M which is dramatically lower than observed in rats (>2 mM). Improved clinical energy status was also documented by elevated blood glucose concentration and lower nitrogen excretion than observed in fasted controls. Piglets showed an improvement in ability to utilize MCT between 6 and 18 h of age based on a two fold increase in blood concentration of FA and 3-OH-butyrate but no further change between 18 and 48 h. Peak plasma FA concentration decreased progressively as triglyceride-FA chain length increased from C7 (2.1 mM) to C10 (0.4 mM). In two subsequent experiments, hepatocyte metabolism of FA was studied. Hepatocytes oxidized (1-{sup 14}C)- C7 or C9 (1 mM) greater than 40% faster and consumed oxygen 7% faster than cells given C8 or C10. L-carnitine (1 mM) was without effect. Theoretical calculations from FA flux accounted for 95-140% of observed O{sub 2} consumption, indicating the FA were the major fuel source for the cells. Hepatocytes from 2 d pigs oxidized FA 48% faster than cells from 6 h pigs, but this was likely due to an increased metabolic rate observed in the older animals. No differences were detected in ability of small (700-950 g) pigs to oxidize FA relative to large (1,050-1,800 g) littermates. In a final in vivo experiment, pigs were continuously infused with 10 {mu}Ci of (1-{sup 14}C)-C7,C8, C9 or C10 via a catheter passed through the umbilical artery to the heart at a rate of 20, 50 or 100 mole FA/min for 5 h.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and comparative evaluation of phenoxy ring containing long chain gemini imidazolium and pyridinium amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadani, Avinash; Kataria, Hardeep; Singh, Sukhprit

    2011-09-01

    Two series of phenoxy ring containing long chain imidazolium and pyridinium based gemini amphiphiles have been synthesized from renewable cardanol oil having different spacers (i. e. -S-(CH(2))(n)-S-, where n is 2, 3, 4 & 6). Critical micelle concentration (cmc) of these new gemini amphiphiles has been determined by conductivity method. Further, these new cationic amphiphiles have been evaluated for their DNA binding capability by agarose gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide exclusion experiments and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of these new amphiphiles have been evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Comparative studies of these phenoxy ring containing long chain gemini imidazolium amphiphiles and their pyridinium analogues depicted low cmc values of the later but greater DNA interaction capability and low cytotoxicity of the former series of amphiphiles. PMID:21676409

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the ligase chain reaction for specific detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    OpenAIRE

    Birkenmeyer, L; Armstrong, A S

    1992-01-01

    Rapid identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens is essential for effective control. Traditional culture requires a minimum of 24 h, and for some specimens harboring gonococci, the gonococci fail to grow or are misidentified. The recently described ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a highly specific and sensitive DNA amplification technique which was evaluated as an alternative to routine culture. Three LCR probe sets were used. Two of the probe sets were directed against the ...

  7. EVALUATION OF RFID APPLICATION IN APPAREL RETAIL IN SUPPLIER AND CUSTOMER CHAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, P. C. C.; Meyer, N. R. M.; Machado, M. D. dos S; Romano, R. R

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the application of RFID in retail apparel stock. The use of RFID in Brazil has been limited to large enterprises and supply operations, not in the retail supply chain link. Therefore, this article brings interesting findings about RFID and its application in retail. The case study was used such as qualitative research approach and semi-structured interview. For this method, a roadmap of open and closed questions was used. Data were analyzed by checkin...

  8. Results Chains: a Tool for Conservation Action Design, Management, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Margoluis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day, the challenges to achieving conservation grow. Threats to species, habitats, and ecosystems multiply and intensify. The conservation community has invested decades of resources and hard work to reduce or eliminate these threats. However, it struggles to demonstrate that its efforts are having an impact. In recent years, conservation project managers, teams, and organizations have found themselves under increasing pressure to demonstrate measurable impacts that can be attributed to their actions. To do so, they need to answer three important questions: (1 Are we achieving our desired impact?; (2 Have we selected the best interventions to achieve our desired impact?; and (3 Are we executing our interventions in the best possible manner? We describe results chains, an important tool for helping teams clearly specify their theory of change behind the actions they are implementing. Results chains help teams make their assumptions behind an action explicit and positions the team to develop relevant objectives and indicators to monitor and evaluate whether their actions are having the intended impact. We describe this tool and how it is designed to tackle the three main questions above. We also discuss the purposes for which results chains have been used and the implications of their use. By using results chains, the conservation community can learn, adapt, and improve at a faster pace and, consequently, better address the ongoing threats to species, habitats, and ecosystems.

  9. Evaluating the modus operandi of construction supply chains using organisation control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind Jagtap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are omnipresent. However, the modus operandi of the construction supply chainis not clearly established in the literature. This might be attributable to the character of construction projects and the structure of the construction industry. Formal and informal control mechanisms are well established in retail and manufacturing supply chains which is evident in improved product performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the construction supply chain especially at identifying the interplay of control mechanisms and their relationship with project performance. In the case of large and complex construction projects, the client-contractor relationship requires input control, behaviour control and output control for successful project delivery. In the light of organisation control theory and the existing literature on construction supply chains, this study evaluates the modus operandi of the client-contractor relationship based on three control mechanisms: input control (project risk and reward power, and intra-project communication, behaviour control (opportunism and output control (project performance using a structural equation model. A survey data of 258 construction professionals working on construction projects in India was collected. The study findings reveal that input control, in terms of project risk and reward power, and intraproject communication, largely influence behaviour control in terms of opportunism. However, behaviour controls do not directly affect output control in terms of project performance; rather, a direct effect of the input control mechanism of output control is particularly evident.

  10. A methodology for the evaluation of the collective dose from radioactivity in terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of the collective dose from radioactivity in the terrestrial food chains. It involves the use of an agricultural grid for Great Britain from which the geographical distribution of each of the main cereal, vegetable, fruit and animal products around any given point can be evaluated. A description is given of the procedure by which the grid was assembled. The use of the grid is demonstrated in an example in which the collective doses associated with the milk pathway to man following the routine discharge to air of iodine-131 are compared for two coastal sites in markedly different agricultural regions. (author)

  11. Evaluation of IgG anti-toxoplasma avidity and polymerase chain reaction in the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elizabeth; Rivera, Raul; Cardona, Nestor; Sanchez, Victor; Lora, Fabiana; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2013-06-01

    Confirmatory tests for congenital toxoplasmosis were evaluated in 23 infected and 31 uninfected newborns. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was better than real-time polymerase chain reaction, but did not identify additional cases. Avidity tests added 2 new cases that were not identified by other criteria. Overall sensitivity was 82.6%. Avidity assay, but not polymerase chain reaction, increased the sensitivity of confirmatory assays in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  12. Workshop tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Maillard, D. [Energy and Raw Materials, 75 - Paris (France); Pumphrey, D. [Energy Cooperation, US Dept. of Energy (United States); Sverdrup, G.; Valdez, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Schindler, J. [LB-Systemtechnik (LBST), GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany); His, St.; Rozakis, St. [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Sagisaka, M. [LCA Research Centre (Japan); Bjornstad, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Madre, J.L. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite, 94 - Arcueil (France); Hourcade, J.Ch. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement le Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France); Ricci, A.; Criqui, P.; Chateau, B.; Bunger, U.; Jeeninga, H. [EU/DG-R (Italy); Chan, A. [National Research Council (Canada); Gielen, D. [IEA-International Energy Associates Ltd., Fairfax, VA (United States); Tosato, G.C. [Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP), 75 - Paris (France); Akai, M. [Agency of Industrial Science and technology (Japan); Ziesing, H.J. [Deutsches Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung, DIW Berlin (Germany); Leban, R. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The aims of this workshop is to better characterize the future in integrating all the dynamic interaction between the economy, the environment and the society. It offers presentations on the Hydrogen chains evaluation, the micro-economic modelling for evaluation of bio-fuel options, life cycle assessment evolution and potentialities, the consumer valuation of energy technologies attributes, the perspectives for evaluation of changing behavior, the incentive systems and barriers to social acceptability, the internalization of external costs, the endogenous technical change in long-tem energy models, ETSAP/technology dynamics in partial equilibrium energy models, very long-term energy environment modelling, ultra long-term energy technology perspectives, the socio-economic toolbox of the EU hydrogen road-map, the combined approach using technology oriented optimization and evaluation of impacts of individual policy measures and the application of a suite of basic research portfolio management tools. (A.L.B.)

  13. Evaluating Internal and External Factors of Chain Store for Improvement in Iran: A Case Study (Etka Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to extract main indicators for review the internal and external dimensions of Etka chain stores and after the studying the organizational documentation and with using of the customer reviews, was determined the position of Etka chain stores in attractiveness and capabilities matrix. For any organization in any level, it is important to determine its position compared to competitors in terms of attractiveness and capabilities. Considering now that the "Etka chain stores" are the largest supplier of goods and services in Iran and in order to its mission tries to improve the processes of supply, storage, distribution, sales and after sales services company with an economic approach. According to peripheral changes in different dimensions of economic, political, social and also with the emergence fundamental paradigm in business such as service businesses, penetration of IT in business like E-commerce, the answer to this question is important “Where is the position of Etka chain stores in this industry?”. The data collection method is using the questionnaires. Finally the customer reviews have been analyzed.

  14. Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relation Analysis to Evaluate the Supply Chain Performance of the Wafer Testing House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the information age, the process of E-Commerce (EC operates quickly and the present enterprises of Taiwan have to face the Free Cross-Strait Market (FCSM with Mainland China, which will definitely change the model as well as the performance of the supply chain. Hence, this study focuses on the issue of supply chain performance evaluation of the wafer testing house in Taiwan. Approach: This investigation applied the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP to derive the weights of influential indicators for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house and the Grey Relation Analysis (GRA was used to evaluate the performance between the FCSM and EC aspects. Results: The analyzed results had identified the indicator weight of the supply chain performance evaluation in the wafer testing house and the indicator performances between different aspects were compared. The research results indicated that the FCSM aspect had better performance than EC aspect of the supply chain evaluation in the wafer testing house. Conclusion/Recommendations: Based on the analyzed results, the managers can find out the problems and improve the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house. This study not only can be a good basis for improvements of the case company, but also can be the reference for evaluating the supply chain performance of the wafer testing house.

  15. New Algorithm for Evaluating the Green Supply Chain Performance in an Uncertain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective green supply chain (GSC can help an enterprise obtain more benefits and reduce costs. Therefore, developing an effective evaluation method for GSC performance evaluation is becoming increasingly important. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of the current performance evaluations and algorithms for GSC performance evaluations were discussed and evaluated. Based on these findings, an improved five-dimensional balanced scorecard was proposed in which the green performance indicators were revised to facilitate their measurement. A model based on Rough Set theory, the Genetic Algorithm, and the Levenberg Marquardt Back Propagation (LMBP neural network algorithm was proposed. Next, using Matlab, the Rosetta tool, and the practical data of company F, a case study was conducted. The results indicate that the proposed model has a high convergence speed and an accurate prediction ability. The credibility and effectiveness of the proposed model was validated. In comparison with the normal Back Propagation neural network algorithm and the LMBP neural network algorithm, the proposed model has greater credibility and effectiveness. In practice, this method provides a more suitable indicator system and algorithm for enterprises to be able to implement GSC performance evaluations in an uncertain environment. Academically, the proposed method addresses the lack of a theoretical basis for GSC performance evaluation, thus representing a new development in GSC performance evaluation theory.

  16. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  17. On Farm Agronomic and First Environmental Evaluation of Oil Crops for Sustainable Bioenergy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lazzeri

    Full Text Available Energy crops, and in particular oil crops, could be an important occasion for developing new non food production rows for a new multi-functional agriculture in Italy. In this view, the use of local biomass is a fundamental starting point for the development of a virtuous energy chain that should pursue not only agricultural profitability, but also chain sustainability and that is less dependent on the global market, characterized by instability in terms of biomass availability and price. From this perspective, particular attention must be paid to crop choice on the basis of its rusticity and of its adaptability to local growing conditions and to low input cropping systems. In this context, alike woody and herbaceous biomasses, oil crops such as sunflower and rapeseed should be able to support local agricultural bioenergy chain in Italy. In addition, in a local bioenergy chain, the role of the farmers should not be limited just to grain production; but also grain processing should be performed at farm or consortium level in oilseed extraction plants well proportioned to the cropped surface. In this way, by means of a simple power generator, farmer could thus produce its own thermal and electric energy from the oil, maximizing his profit. This objective could also be achieved through the exploitation of the total biomass, including crop residues and defatted seed meals, that may be considered as fundamental additional economic and/or environmental benefits of the chain. This paper reports some results of three-years on-farm experiments on oil crop chain carried out in the framework of “Bioenergie” project, that was focused to enhance farmers awareness of these criteria and to the feasibility at open field scale of low-input cultivation of rapeseed, sunflower and Brassica carinata in seven Italian regions. In several on-farm experiences, these crops produced more than 800 kg ha-1 of oil with good energy properties. Defatted seed meals could be

  18. Evaluating Supply Chain Management: A Methodology Based on a Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tadeu Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in supply chain management (SCM by researchers and practitioners, there is still a lack of academic literature concerning topics such as methodologies to guide and support SCM evaluation. Most developed methodologies have been provided by consulting companies and are restricted in their publication and use. This article presents a methodology for evaluating companies’ degree of adherence to a SCM conceptual model. The methodology is based on Cooper, Lambert and Pagh’s original contribution and involves analysis of eleven referential axes established from key business processes, horizontal structures, and initiatives & practices. We analyze the applicability of the proposed model based on findings from interviews with experts - academics and practitioners - as well as from case studies of three focal firms and their supply chains. In general terms, the methodology can be considered a diagnostic instrument that allows companies to evaluate their maturity regarding SCM practices. From this diagnosis, firms can identify and implement activities to improve degree of adherence to the reference model and achieve SCM benefits. The methodology aims to contribute to SCM theory development. It is an initial, but structured, reference for translating a theoretical approach into practical aspects.

  19. Proposition of a framework to reengineer and evaluate the hospital supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Martinelly, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Thèse en co-tutelle FUCaM de Mons (Belgique) et INSA de Lyon (France) The objective of our research is the development of a modeling framework that permits decision makers to reengineer and evaluate their hospital supply chain. This research was first motivated by a strong collaboration with a Belgian hospital of 900 beds that is currently reengineering its logistical activities. The managers of this hospital intend to build a new logistical platform to group the clinical pharmacy, the ste...

  20. Occupational risk induced by construction of energy-production chains. Methodology and evaluation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire has been conducting studies for several years on the comparison of health and social effects in various electricity production chains; the global results of this research are presented in paper IAEA-SM-254/51, by Fagnani et al., at this Symposium. Attention should be paid to a particular area in risk evaluation: the calculation of effects during the construction stage. The method used, the Leontieff macro-economic analysis, should be examined in detail, for it is a powerful tool whose uses go well beyond risk calculation. Moreover, it is at this stage that the richness and ambiguities of occupational risk measurement appear most clearly. As this is a major factor in the evaluation of risks generated by techniques of electricity production, it is important to show how it is calculated and, especially, how comparative evaluations have been interpreted. Three conventional production technologies are examined (PWR, oil and coal) and two solar-powered (a thermal system extrapolated from the Themis plant built in France and a photovoltaic process). The production scenarios are adapted to the French context, with the location of the installations and the origin of the fuel clearly spelled out. The results of this evaluation are striking: with the exception of coal, which is a labour-intensive industry, a very large portion of occupational risk can be traced to the construction phase (from 67% for the PWR system to 97% for the photovoltaic process). Even in total health risk (occupational and public), construction accounts for a preponderant share. In fact, this risk should be compared to average occupational risk in the economy at large, i.e. that to which workers in electricity production chains would be exposed if they worked elsewhere. This is the meaning of the 'reference level' pointed out in the study. (author)

  1. Evaluation of open and closed kinetic chain exercises in rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Mehmet; Koca, Irfan; Eroglu, Mehmet; Eroglu, Selma; Sarp, Umit; Arik, Hasan Onur; Yetisgin, Alparslan

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] To compare outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction after open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 11 female and 47 male patients who are randomly divided into two groups: which performed a CKC exercise program Group I and Group II which performed an OKC exercise program. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Knee flexion was evaluated using a universal goniometer, and thigh circumference measurements were taken with a tape measure at baseline and at 3 months and 6 months after the treatment. Lysholm scores were used to assess knee function. [Results] There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. Within each group, VAS values and knee flexion were improved after the surgery. These improvements were significantly higher in the CKC group than in the OKC group. There were increases in thigh circumference difference at the 3 and 6 month assessments post-surgery. A greater improvement in the Lysholm score was observed in the CKC group at 6 months. [Conclusion] The CKC exercise program was more effective than OKC in improving the knee functions of patients with ACL reconstruction. PMID:25540486

  2. Evaluation of Supply Chain Efficiency Based on a Novel Network of Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li Fang; Meng, Jun; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Performance evaluation of supply chain (SC) is a vital topic in SC management and inherently complex problems with multilayered internal linkages and activities of multiple entities. Recently, various Network Data Envelopment Analysis (NDEA) models, which opened the “black box” of conventional DEA, were developed and applied to evaluate the complex SC with a multilayer network structure. However, most of them are input or output oriented models which cannot take into consideration the nonproportional changes of inputs and outputs simultaneously. This paper extends the Slack-based measure (SBM) model to a nonradial, nonoriented network model named as U-NSBM with the presence of undesirable outputs in the SC. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model in quantifying the efficiency and ranking the supply chain performance. By comparing with the CCR and U-SBM models, it is shown that the proposed model has higher distinguishing ability and gives feasible solution in the presence of undesirable outputs. Meanwhile, it provides more insights for decision makers about the source of inefficiency as well as the guidance to improve the SC performance.

  3. Testing and Evaluation for Web Usability Based on Extended Markov Chain Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Cheng-ying; LU Yan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    As the increasing popularity and complexity of Web applications and the emergence of their new characteristics, the testing and maintenance of large, complex Web applications are becoming more complex and difficult.Web applications generally contain lots of pages and are used by enormous users.Statistical testing is an effective way of ensuring their quality.Web usage can be accurately described by Markov chain which has been proved to be an ideal model for software statistical testing.The results of unit testing can be utilized in the latter stages, which is an important strategy for bottom-to-top integration testing, and the other improvement of extended Markov chain model (EMM) is to present the error type vector which is treated as a part of page node.This paper also proposes the algorithm for generating test cases of usage paths.Finally, optional usage reliability evaluation methods and an incremental usability regression testing model for testing and evaluation are presented.

  4. Identifying and evaluating E-procurement in supply chain risk by Fuzzy MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Memarzade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-procurement risks has emerged as an important issue for researchers and practitioners because mitigating supply chain risk helps improve firms’ as well as supply chains’ performance. E-marketplaces have been steadily growing and there have been significant interest in e-business research. There are different risks and uncertainties involved with E-marketplaces, which jeopardizes the sector but we have had a large amount of hype and the business still continue to grow. The primary aim of this study is to identify E-procurement risks and evaluate them using a fuzzy AHP framework. We contribute E-procurement risk by identifying 13 critical criteria and determine four important ones including the extent of acceptable information, interrelationship risk, lack of honesty in relationships and product quality and safety for evaluating suppliers’ risk.

  5. Evaluation of the individual hydrogen bonding energies in N-methylacetamide chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The individual hydrogen bonding energies in N-methylacetamide chains were evaluated at the MP2/6-31+G** level including BSSE correction and at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2pd) level including BSSE and van der Waals correction.The calculation results indicate that compared with MP2 results,B3LYP calculations without van der Waals correction underestimate the individual hydrogen bonding energies about 5.4 kJ m ol-1 for both the terminal and central hydrogen bonds,whereas B3LYP calculations with van der Waals correction produce almost the same individual hydrogen bonding energies as MP2 does for those terminal hydrogen bonds,but still underestimate the individual hydrogen bonding energies about 2.5 kJ mol-1 for the hydrogen bonds near the center.Our calculation results show that the individual hydrogen bonding energy becomes more negative (more attractive) as the chain becomes longer and that the hydrogen bonds close to the interior of the chain are stronger than those near the ends.The weakest individual hydrogen bonding energy is about-29.0 kJ m ol-1 found in the dimer,whereas with the growth of the N-methylacetamide chain the individual hydrogen bonding energy was estimated to be as large as-62.5 kJ mol-1 found in the N-methylacetamide decamer,showing that there is a significant hydrogen bond cooperative effect in N-methylacetamide chains.The natural bond orbital analysis indicates that a stronger hydrogen bond corresponds to a larger positive charge for the H atom and a larger negative charge for the O atom in the N-H···O=C bond,corresponds to a stronger second-order stabilization energy between the oxygen lone pair and the N-H antibonding orbital,and corresponds to more charge transfer between the hydrogen bonded donor and acceptor molecules.

  6. Methodical approach to profitability evaluation of logistic chain of enterprise’s trading capital financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Kolodizieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is the development and improvement of methodical approaches to evaluation of productivity of bank servicing taking into account introduction of the logistic approach to bank’s financial management. These researches suppose to solve such task as the creation of the relative index which application would allow to estimate above-mentioned productivity by using in calculations known indicators of bank’s, client’s and financial market’s activity. The results of the analysis. In modern competitive environment of banking system it is accruing the particular importance of the problem of search of new, perspective and effective approaches to banking services management, which are directed to full satisfaction client’s needs and maximizing bank’s profit and allowed to considerably increase the efficiency and productivity of above-mentioned services in the conditions of financial resources deficiency. One of such approaches is logistic approach which allows to reach optimal management of all bank’s streams, first of all financial streams. The important scientific task represents in scientific and methodical researches of application of the specified approach to management of bank activity. Despite of sufficient scientific researches devoted to the above problems, methods of evaluation of the efficiency of banking services connected with financial resources utilization, and which are considers the general productivity of all deal’s participants, aren't fully studied. According to authors it is expedient the logistic chain profitability index’s application to bank’s credit services management for achievement of compromise between bank’s and its client’s interest and optimal decision-making in logistic chain as a whole. As the logistic chain authors present the sequence of the processes which are assuming the transformation of interconnected financial streams by subjects of bank crediting

  7. Protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a 4-distance description of side-chain interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Yuval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation and modelling of residue-residue interactions within and between proteins is a key aspect of computational structure prediction including homology modelling, protein-protein docking, refinement of low-resolution structures, and computational protein design. Results Here we introduce a method for accurate protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a novel 4-distance description of residue-residue interaction geometry. Statistical 4-distance preferences were extracted from high-resolution protein structures and were used as a basis for a knowledge-based potential, called Hunter. We demonstrate that 4-distance description of side chain interactions can be used reliably to discriminate the native structure from a set of decoys. Hunter ranked the native structure as the top one in 217 out of 220 high-resolution decoy sets, in 25 out of 28 "Decoys 'R' Us" decoy sets and in 24 out of 27 high-resolution CASP7/8 decoy sets. The same concept was applied to side chain modelling in protein structures. On a set of very high-resolution protein structures the average RMSD was 1.47 Å for all residues and 0.73 Å for buried residues, which is in the range of attainable accuracy for a model. Finally, we show that Hunter performs as good or better than other top methods in homology modelling based on results from the CASP7 experiment. The supporting web site http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/hunter/ was developed to enable the use of Hunter and for visualization and interactive exploration of 4-distance distributions. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hunter can be used as a tool for evaluation and for accurate modelling of residue-residue interactions in protein structures. The same methodology is applicable to other areas involving high-resolution modelling of biomolecules.

  8. An Evaluation Model of Supply Chain Performances Using 5DBSC and LMBP Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemei Fan; Shujun Zhang; Longzhao Wang; Yinsheng Yang; Kevin Hapeshi

    2013-01-01

    A high efficient Supply Chain (SC) would bring great benefits to an enterprise such as lntegrated resources,reduced logistics costs,improved logistics efficiency and high quality of overall level of services.So it is important to research various methods,performance indicator systems and technology for evaluating,monitoring,predicting and optimizing the performance of a SC.In this paper,the existing performance indicator systems and methods are discussed and evaluated.Various nature-inspired algorithms are reviewed and their applications for SC Performance Evaluation (PE) are discussed.Then,a model is proposed and developed using 5 Dimensional Balanced Scorecard (5DBSC) and LMBP (Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation) neural network for SC PE.A program is written using Matlab tool box to implement the model based on the practical values of the 14 indicators of 5DBSC of a given previous period.This model can be used to evaluate,predict and optimize the performance of a SC.The analysis results of a case study of a company show that the proposed model is valid,reliable and effective.The convergence speed is faster than that in the previous work.

  9. Evaluation of Cost-Effectiveness Criteria in Supply Chain Management: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rostamzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate and prioritize the proposed cost-effectiveness criteria in supply chain management using fuzzy multiple attribute decision-making (MADM approach. Over the past few years, the determination of suitable cost-effectiveness criteria in the supply chain has become a key strategic issue. However, the nature of these kinds of decisions is usually complex and unstructured. Many quantitative and qualitative factors must be considered to determine the suitable criteria. As the human decision-making process usually contains fuzziness and vagueness, a hierarchy of MADM model based on fuzzy-sets theory is used in this research. Using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, the weights of criteria and subcriteria are determined and then the final ranking is determined by technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS. Finally, fuzzy TOPSIS (FTOPSIS is employed to compare the results with classic TOPSIS. This paper concludes that the subcriteria in all the items are in the same rank.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of microalgae oils rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as an alternative for fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Bruneel, Charlotte; Termote-Verhalle, Romina; Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Foubert, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional value of the total lipid extract of different omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids producing photoautotrophic microalgae in one study. It was shown that microalgae oils from Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Pavlova and Thalassiosira contain sufficient omega-3 LC-PUFA to serve as an alternative for fish oil, which was used as the ‘golden standard’. In the microalgae oils an important part of the omega-3 long chain po...

  11. Applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relation Analysis to Evaluate the Supply Chain Performance of the Wafer Testing House

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Chin Chen; Jun-Yuan Kuo; Bang-Ting Luo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In the information age, the process of E-Commerce (EC) operates quickly and the present enterprises of Taiwan have to face the Free Cross-Strait Market (FCSM) with Mainland China, which will definitely change the model as well as the performance of the supply chain. Hence, this study focuses on the issue of supply chain performance evaluation of the wafer testing house in Taiwan. Approach: This investigation applied the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to derive the ...

  12. Genetic evaluation of popcorn families using a Bayesian approach via the independence chain algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodovalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine genetic parameters of popping expansion and grain yield in a trial of 169 halfsib families using a Bayesian approach. The independence chain algorithm with informative priors for the components of residual and family variance (inverse-gamma prior distribution was used. Popping expansion was found to be moderately heritable, with a posterior mode of h2 of 0.34, and 90% Bayesian confidence interval of 0.22 to 0.44. The heritability of grain yield (family level was moderate (h2 = 0.4 with Bayesian confidence interval of 0.28 to 0.49. The target population contains sufficient genetic variability for subsequent breeding cycles, and the Bayesian approach is a useful alternative for scientific inference in the genetic evaluation of popcorn.

  13. An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dalia

    The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers

  14. Electromyographic Evaluation of Closed and Open Kinetic Chain Knee Rehabilitation Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Victoria L.; Gehlsen, Gale M.; Edwards, Jennifer A.

    1993-01-01

    The use of closed kinetic chain knee rehabilitation exercises has been advocated in recent years. The primary reason cited for employing closed kinetic chain exercises is that these exercises result in less anteroposterior (A/P) shear force at the knee joint, when compared with traditionally used open kinetic chain exercises. The purpose of this study was to determine the electromyographical (EMG) activity ratio of quadriceps to hamstrings occurring in the following exercises: unilateral one ...

  15. Evaluation of coordination contracts for a two stage Supply Chain under price dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Labiad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are characterized by many activities and actors that generally pursue conflicting objectives. Coordination between them may be then necessary to align the individual objectives with the global supply chain objective and achieve optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a model that aims to assess the relative performance of three well known Coordination Contracts for a two level Supply Chain under price dependent demand. It is shown that a suitable design of the contracts could secure global system efficiency and improve the profit of all the Supply Chain actors.

  16. Tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge of climate change implies to accelerate the pace of innovation and consequently to lead long-term basic and applied research with a planning horizon of several decades, far beyond the conditions of current market development. In such a context, the availability of efficient decision-aiding tools and methodologies, far more advanced than those presently operated, is a critical stake.The different categories of tools will have to be more complementary by design and the overall decision-aiding processes will have to integrate numerous system analysis approaches in order to take into account more deeply all economical, environmental and societal impacts. The general goal of the workshop was to address this imperative to break new ground in decision-aiding tools and methodologies to help us to prioritize energy R and D options, comparing the needs jointly with the state of art and with the potentiality of breakthroughs, mainly in environmental and social sciences. The expected outcome was to characterize the scope and limits of existing decision-aiding processes, to highlight the perspectives towards more advanced new ones, and, as such, to foster interdisciplinary cooperation by linking more closely social and environmental sciences with energy socio-economic modelling research. The workshop included four parts. The first three addressed specialized sessions, outlining three different categories of tools. The fourth one was dedicated to the perspective of a combined use of these complementary tools in order to have methodologies available for covering the whole field of energy and social sciences issues. After this last session, there was a closing synthesis of the two day's work on the challenges to take up and the ways to go. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: H2A Project/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (G. Sverdrup); E3DataBase/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (J. Schindler); Micro-economic modelling for evaluation of

  17. Tools and methodologies for evaluation of energy chains and for technology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The challenge of climate change implies to accelerate the pace of innovation and consequently to lead long-term basic and applied research with a planning horizon of several decades, far beyond the conditions of current market development. In such a context, the availability of efficient decision-aiding tools and methodologies, far more advanced than those presently operated, is a critical stake.The different categories of tools will have to be more complementary by design and the overall decision-aiding processes will have to integrate numerous system analysis approaches in order to take into account more deeply all economical, environmental and societal impacts. The general goal of the workshop was to address this imperative to break new ground in decision-aiding tools and methodologies to help us to prioritize energy R and D options, comparing the needs jointly with the state of art and with the potentiality of breakthroughs, mainly in environmental and social sciences. The expected outcome was to characterize the scope and limits of existing decision-aiding processes, to highlight the perspectives towards more advanced new ones, and, as such, to foster interdisciplinary cooperation by linking more closely social and environmental sciences with energy socio-economic modelling research. The workshop included four parts. The first three addressed specialized sessions, outlining three different categories of tools. The fourth one was dedicated to the perspective of a combined use of these complementary tools in order to have methodologies available for covering the whole field of energy and social sciences issues. After this last session, there was a closing synthesis of the two day's work on the challenges to take up and the ways to go. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: H2A Project/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (G. Sverdrup); E3DataBase/Evaluation of hydrogen chains (J. Schindler); Micro-economic modelling for evaluation

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE EPA FOOD-CHAIN (KENAGA) NOMOGRAM, AN INSTRUMENT FOR ESTIMATING PESTICIDE RESIDUES ON PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kenaga nomogram is a simple device developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the early 1980s and is currently used to predict the maximum potential pesticide residue levels in the food chain of wildlife before pesticide registration. o evaluate the accura...

  19. Further Evaluations of Functional Communication Training and Chained Schedules of Reinforcement to Treat Multiple Functions of Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Muething, Colin S.; Gainey, Summer; Hoffman, Katherine; Fragale, Christina

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated functional communication training (FCT) combined with a chained schedule of reinforcement procedure for the treatment of challenging behavior exhibited by two individuals diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and autism. Following functional analyses that suggested that challenging behavior served multiple functions for both participants,…

  20. Performance evaluation of corrosion-affected reinforced concrete bridge girders using Markov chains with fuzzy states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B ANOOP; K BALAJI RAO

    2016-08-01

    A methodology for performance evaluation of reinforced concrete bridge girders in corrosive environments is proposed. The methodology uses the concept of performability and considers both serviceability- and ultimate-limit states. The serviceability limit states are defined based on the degree of cracking (characterized by crack width) in the girder due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement, and the ultimate limit states are defined based on the flexural load carrying capacity of the girder (characterized in terms of rating factor using the load and resistance factor rating method). The condition of the bridge girder is specified by the assignment of a condition state from a set of predefined condition states. Generally, the classification of condition states is linguistic, while the condition states are considered to be mutually exclusive and collectivelyexhaustive. In the present study, the condition states of the bridge girder are also represented by fuzzy sets to consider the ambiguities arising due to the linguistic classification of condition states. A non-homogeneous Markov chain (MC) model is used for modeling the condition state evolution of the bridge girder with time. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a severely distressed beam of the Rocky Point Viaduct. The results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with those obtained using conventional MC model. It is noted that the use of MC with fuzzy states leads to conservative decision making for the problem considered in the case study.

  1. EVALUATION OF RFID APPLICATION IN APPAREL RETAIL IN SUPPLIER AND CUSTOMER CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, P. C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the application of RFID in retail apparel stock. The use of RFID in Brazil has been limited to large enterprises and supply operations, not in the retail supply chain link. Therefore, this article brings interesting findings about RFID and its application in retail. The case study was used such as qualitative research approach and semi-structured interview. For this method, a roadmap of open and closed questions was used. Data were analyzed by checking all the points of the questionnaires from the literature review, which were organized with field research to complete the discussion of the case. Both interviewers agreed as to the advantages of RFID: an average return; new opportunities; high contribution to the company; reduction of time taken for inventory. With regard to disadvantages, the first interviewer noted the interference of RFID tag, and the second interviewer disagreed. The research revealed that RFID takes greater accuracy and better inventory management; fewer out-of-stock events; timely replenishment; maintenance costs reduction of inventory; level of high customer service; agility of payment in cashiers; best shopping experience; and better prevention of losses. One of the problems identified was the registration of products on the client.

  2. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane;

    2014-01-01

    System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...

  3. Evaluation of Cold Chain Practices in Urban Health Centers of a Metro City in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Krishnappa, Arvind B Anniappan, Narayana H Voderhobli, Shantha Kumar Krishna, Sudarshana Yathiraj, Pruthvish Sreekantaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Family Health Survey report (NFHS-3 reports revealed that immunization coverage in India among children between 12-23 months was low at 43.5%. In lieu of strengthening Routine Immu-nization (RI, Government of Karnataka undertook state-wide training of Medical officers and Health workers on RI with concurrent efforts of strengthening cold chain system in health centers. With this background, this study was undertaken to assess the cold chain practices in urban health centers of Bangalore city. Methodology: This Cross-sectional study was conducted during Octo-ber-December 2008 in three-zones of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP covering 35 units. Physical verification of the available cold chain equipments was done using predesigned pretested checklist and face to face interview of cold chain handlers was employed. Results: Of 35 centers, 33(94% and 32(91% of them had atleast one functional Ice-lined refrigerator(ILR and one deep freezer(DF respectively. Good storage code practice was practiced in 12 out of 33 ILRs. Functional thermometer was available in 31(91% ILRs of which 23(74% had temperature in the recommend range. With respect to knowledge of cold chain handlers on RI, 86% were trained on RI and their overall knowledge regarding cold chain practices was satisfactory except for knowledge on temperature in DF and on conditioning of ice-packs. Conclusion: Availability of cold chain equipments has improved and Cold storage practice was good/fair in most of the centers. Knowledge of cold chain handlers was low with respect to select cold chain practices.

  4. An exploratory study to evaluate Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotypes and infection outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, Abrar K; Nicolau, David P

    2016-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection ranges from mild to severe prolonged diarrhea with systemic symptoms. Previous studies have assessed the correlation of some disease severity parameters to C. difficile ribotypes. However, certain clinical parameters of interest have not yet been evaluated. Aim We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate the correlation of C. difficile ribotypes to parameters not assessed previously, notably days to diarrhea resolution (in terms of days to formed stools and days to less than three stools per day), length of hospital stay, 30-day recurrence rates, and 30-day readmission rates. Additional severity parameters evaluated include leukocytosis, serum creatinine, fever, and nausea/vomiting. Methods Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates from baseline stool samples of 29 patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the parameters of interest. Results The most common ribotypes were 027 (38%), 014/020 (21%), and 106/174 (21%). Numerically, 027 ribotype patients required more days to less than three stools per day versus 014/020 and 106/174 ribotype patients (P=0.2). The three ribotypes were similar regarding time to formed stools, duration of hospitalization, and 30-day readmission rate (P=0.2, 0.6, and 0.8, respectively). Recurrence within 30 days occurred in two patients with 027 and two patients with 014/020 (P=0.6). Leukocytosis and fever were more prominent with 027 than with 014/020 and 106/174 (P=0.04 for both parameters), although the degree of nausea/vomiting did not differ between the three groups (P=0.3). A serum creatinine level ≥1.5 times the premorbid level was seen in only three patients, each infected with a different ribotype. Conclusion Although these data provide a baseline assessment of outcomes to aid in the design of future studies, the diversity of C. difficile ribotypes within the population must be considered, and additional work with other ribotypes

  5. An exploratory study to evaluate Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotypes and infection outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabit AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrar K Thabit,1,2 David P Nicolau1,3 1Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA Background: Clostridium difficile infection ranges from mild to severe prolonged diarrhea with systemic symptoms. Previous studies have assessed the correlation of some disease severity parameters to C. difficile ribotypes. However, certain clinical parameters of interest have not yet been evaluated.Aim: We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate the correlation of C. difficile ribotypes to parameters not assessed previously, notably days to diarrhea resolution (in terms of days to formed stools and days to less than three stools per day, length of hospital stay, 30-day recurrence rates, and 30-day readmission rates. Additional severity parameters evaluated include leukocytosis, serum creatinine, fever, and nausea/vomiting.Methods: Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates from baseline stool samples of 29 patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the parameters of interest.Results: The most common ribotypes were 027 (38%, 014/020 (21%, and 106/174 (21%. Numerically, 027 ribotype patients required more days to less than three stools per day versus 014/020 and 106/174 ribotype patients (P=0.2. The three ribotypes were similar regarding time to formed stools, duration of hospitalization, and 30-day readmission rate (P=0.2, 0.6, and 0.8, respectively. Recurrence within 30 days occurred in two patients with 027 and two patients with 014/020 (P=0.6. Leukocytosis and fever were more prominent with 027 than with 014/020 and 106/174 (P=0.04 for both parameters, although the degree of nausea/vomiting did not differ between the three groups (P=0.3. A serum creatinine level ≥1.5 times the premorbid level was seen in only three

  6. The applicability of LCA to evaluate the key environmental challenges in food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Anna K.S.; Landquist, Birgit; Esturo, Aintzane;

    2014-01-01

    but will not be sufficient to address all environmental im-pacts generated from the food supply chains. Especially for aquaculture impacts that are not taken into account with LCA are i.e. nutrient and organic matter releases, impacts associated with feed provision, diseases introduction, escapes, and changed usage......System analysis was performed to gain an overview of key environmental challenges and pinpoint hotspots causing environmental impacts in three European food supply chains. An overview was obtained based on a review on LCA studies for beef, dairy, orange juice and aquaculture food supply chains...

  7. An Application Of Analytic Network Process (ANP To Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management Strategies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has made remarkable progress in establishing environmental and social sustainability towards operations management and the supply chain. Sustainable development means “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations” Sustainability covers three aspects: economic, environmental and social responsibility. Green supply chain management (GSCM is about making the entire supply chain more environmental sustainable. With the raising of awareness in environmental protection and sustainable development in enterprises, the green issue has become more and more critical in supply chain management. The green supply chain strategy selection is a multi-criterion problem which includes both qualitative and quantitative criteria. ANP is a multi-attribute, decision-making approach based on the reasoning, knowledge, and experience of the experts in the field. ANP can act as a valuable aid for decision making the best decision when both qualitative and quantitative aspects of decision are considered. ANP provides a general framework to deal with decisions without making assumptions about the independence of higher-level elements from lower level elements and about the independence of the elements within a level. The present work proposes a structured model for evaluating and selecting a Green Supply Chain Strategy by using Analytical Network Process (ANP approach. The model is developed using evidence from empirical study in the industry. The model for selection of green supply chain strategy includes considers both the practicality in traditional SCM selection criteria, and also the green concept related to environmental protection and regulations. The proposed ANP model is used to evaluate the green supply chain strategy in Indian Automotive Company XYZ Ltd. The major advantages of this research are that it can be used for both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The results

  8. Evaluating Value Chain Development Programs: Assessing Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity Effects of Contract Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Provides insights regarding the possible procedures for assessing welfare, efficiency, and equity effects of value chain development (VCD) programs, taking advantage of available analytical tools derived from impact analysis, transaction cost theory, and contract choice approaches and briefly outlin

  9. A new Integration Model to Evaluate Strategic Performance of Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Gholampour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Supply Chain Management (SCM is one of the most important and complex issues for automakers in the world. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the factors that predict strategic performance of supply chain by doing quantitative research at Iran Khodro Company (IKCO in Iran. Based on supply chain theories, strategic performance of supply chain was predicted by Information Technology (IT, Organizational Learning (OL, and Product Innovation (PRI in our research at the first time in an automotive company. Stratified random sampling was used to determine the sample size. Accordingly, 250 questionnaires were distributed among experts and supply chain specialists at IKCO. According to Supplying Automotive Parts Company (SPSC variable as the main dependent variable, Path Analysis (PA technique was used to explore casual relationships among variables using multiple regression analysis in SPSS. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was utilized based on Maximum Likelihood (ML analysis of normality, outliers, composite reliability, and validity to test hypotheses by using AMOS. PA, measurement model, and structural model were analyzed in order to examine the conceptual model. The results from multiple regression, path analysis, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM were same. Thus, all hypotheses were supported by SPSS and SEM analyses. The findings of the study are discussed in detail.

  10. EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY PROGRESS WITH TECHNOLOGY IN A SPANISH HOTEL CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario González-Rodriguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the changes in the total factor productivity index of a Spanish hotel chain in the period from 2007 to 2010 with the purpose of identifying efficiency patterns for the chain in a period of financial crisis. The Data envelopment analysis (DEA Malmquist productivity index was used to estimate productivity change in 38 hotels of the AC chain. Results reveal AC hotels’ efficiency trends and, therefore, their competitiveness in the recession period; they also show the changes experienced in these hotels’ total productivity and its components: technological and efficiency changes. Positive efficiency changes were due to positive technical efficiency rather than technological efficiency. The recession period certainly influenced the performance of AC Hotels, which focused on organizational changes rather than investing in technology.

  11. Identification and evaluation of modularization practices in an automotive supplier: progressivity analysis of transferring activities in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Prieto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The automotive value chain has more and more been making room to a strategy of which activities of product design and production have been transferred to the module suppliers. The transfer of value-added activities occurs from assembler to the module suppliers. The former assume the role of integrators within the supply chain. The supply chain participants have started to strengths their competencies in order to obtain advantages in the economy of scale and scope. In this context, the present work aims at investigating the valued-added transfer between first and second tiers of automotive supply chain in new product development and production. The work was carried out from an evaluation of a supplier with regard to modularization. The theoretical background considers the concepts of integrated and modular architecture as well as the progressiveness of competencies among suppliers. It adopts single cased as the research methodological approach. The literature points out that the process of modularization either in product development or in production offer benefits for both sides: assemblers and suppliers. The results from the investigated supplier shows inherent benefits due to the acquisition of new technologies that enable an increase of technical and management learning in projects of new products. Therefore, it demonstrates that in this modularity environment, the potential of value-added transfer is associated to the level of progressiveness of competencies that are incorporated to deliver module solutions to assemblers; the investigated supplier can be categorized in an “embrionary” stage.

  12. Analysis of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Methods%供应链绩效评价方法探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文军

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of the era of economic globalization and knowledge economy ,the previous competition between enterprises is evolved into competition among supply chains .The requirement How to evaluate the performance of supply chain with a scientific,effective,comprehensive and objective methods is becoming more and more urgent .In this background,this paper proposed for using Actor Analysis Method to evaluate the supply chain ,and has carried on the empirical analysis .%随着经济全球化和知识经济时代的到来,以往企业之间的竞争正在演变为供应链与供应链之间的竞争。如何对供应链绩效进行科学、有效、全面和客观的评价要求变得越来越迫切。在此背景下,提出了用因次分析法对其进行评价,并进行了实证分析。

  13. Evaluating Stationary Distribution of the Binary GA Markov Chain in Special Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mitavskiy, Boris S.; Cannings, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary algorithm stochastic process is well-known to be Markovian. These have been under investigation in much of the theoretical evolutionary computing research. When mutation rate is positive, the Markov chain modeling an evolutionary algorithm is irreducible and, therefore, has a unique stationary distribution, yet, rather little is known about the stationary distribution. On the other hand, knowing the stationary distribution may provide some information abo...

  14. Decision support system for evaluating strategic suppliers in sustainable supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhe; 孙哲

    2013-01-01

    As a crucial factor for forming a competitive supply chain, the supplier selection problem has gained a lot of attentions from both researchers and practitioners. To fulfil the increasingly stringent environmental regulations and meet the NGOs’ and customers’ call for environmental conscious and socially responsible business, companies find it necessary to incorporate environmental and social dimensions in the supplier selection process. This thesis presents a supplier selection-model inco...

  15. A fuzzy multi criteria approach for evaluating green supplier's performance in green supply chain with linguistic preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Lixin; Olfat, Laya; Govindan, Kannan;

    2012-01-01

    multi criteria approach for green suppliers' evaluation. We apply fuzzy set theory to translate the subjective human perceptions into a solid crisp value. These linguistic preferences are combined through fuzzy TOPSIS to generate an overall performance score for each supplier. A numerical example...... protection and the corresponding increase in legislation and regulations, green purchasing has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Traditionally, companies consider criteria such as price, quality and lead time, when evaluating supplier performance and do not give...... enough attention to environmental criteria as a means to evaluate suppliers. Now, many companies have begun to implement green supply chain management (GSCM) and to consider environmental issues and the measurement of their suppliers' environmental performance. This paper examines GSCM to propose a fuzzy...

  16. Genetic evaluation of popcorn families using a Bayesian approach via the independence chain algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rodovalho; Freddy Mora; Osvin Arriagada; Carlos Maldonado; Emmanuel Arnhold; Carlos Alberto Scapim

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine genetic parameters of popping expansion and grain yield in a trial of 169 halfsib families using a Bayesian approach. The independence chain algorithm with informative priors for the components of residual and family variance (inverse-gamma prior distribution) was used. Popping expansion was found to be moderately heritable, with a posterior mode of h2 of 0.34, and 90% Bayesian confidence interval of 0.22 to 0.44. The heritability of gra...

  17. Descriptive and predictive evaluation of high resolution Markov chain precipitation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Madsen, Henrik; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    to reproduce the time series on event level. Extreme events with short (10 min), medium (60 min) and long (12 h) durations were investigated because of their importance in urban hydrology. Both the descriptive likelihood based statistics and the predictive Monte Carlo simulation based statistics are valuable....... The first‐order Markov model seems to capture most of the properties of precipitation, but inclusion of seasonal and diurnal variation improves the model. Including a second‐order Markov Chain component does improve the descriptive capabilities of the model, but is very expensive in its parameter use...

  18. A proposal for a process of selection, bibliometrics and sistemic review of articles on the supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Della Bruna Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management has been widely studied through scientific researches and publications, presenting well grounded concepts in both academic and business areas. Meanwhile, the topic of Performance Evaluation is newer and its concepts are still under consolidation. In this context, the paper aims to propose a process for selection and analysis of a portfolio of scientific articles on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation. To do this, it illustrates a process for searching and selecting articles from scientific databases and analyzes them through Bibliometrics and Systemic Review. As a result, a portfolio of 18 papers aligned to the research subject was obtained and the journals, authors and articles with higher academic relevance were identified. The Systemic Review, in turn, has highlighted the knowledge gaps of the evaluated papers and, from these, developed a research question and objective aiming to answer them. These latter will guide the continuity of this research. Finally, it is expected that the proposed process can be useful for researchers wishing to apply it to their research topics.

  19. Application of SCOR Model in Supply Chain Performance Evaluation%SCOR模型在供应链绩效评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶淑雯

    2014-01-01

    Effective supply chain management can improve the competitiveness of enterprises .As the core of the supply chain management ,supply chain performance evaluation has play a decisive role for the successful operation of the supply chain . This article introduces the SCOR model firstly ,then present the application of SCOR model in performance evaluation of supply chain.%高效的供应链管理能提升企业的竞争力。作为供应链管理的核心组成部分,供应链绩效评价对于供应链的成功运作具有举足轻重的作用。文中首先对SCOR模型进行介绍,进而从实践角度出发,介绍了SCOR模型在供应链绩效评价中的应用。

  20. SCOR模型在供应链绩效评价中的应用%Application of SCOR Model in Supply Chain Performance Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶淑雯

    2014-01-01

    Effective supply chain management can improve the competitiveness of enterprises .As the core of the supply chain management ,supply chain performance evaluation has play a decisive role for the successful operation of the supply chain . This article introduces the SCOR model firstly ,then present the application of SCOR model in performance evaluation of supply chain.%高效的供应链管理能提升企业的竞争力。作为供应链管理的核心组成部分,供应链绩效评价对于供应链的成功运作具有举足轻重的作用。文中首先对SCOR模型进行介绍,进而从实践角度出发,介绍了SCOR模型在供应链绩效评价中的应用。

  1. An Investment Evaluation of a RFID-Enabled Meat Supply Chain: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety and quality of meat they purchase from supermarkets. A study by Mohammed [1] proposed a RFID (Radio Frequency Identification-enabled monitoring system for meat supply chains to improve the traceability of meat products throughout their entire supply chain with the aim of maintaining product safety. This paper extends that work to examine the economic feasibility for the proposed RFID-enabled monitoring system. To this aim, a multi-criteria optimization model was developed. The considered criteria were minimizing the total cost, maximizing consumer satisfaction, maximizing product freshness and maximizing profits. In order to obtain Pareto solutions from the developed model, a new solution approach was developed and its results were compared to two traditional solution approaches. A case study was applied conducive to an examination for the applicability of the developed model and the performance of the proposed solution approaches. Results have proved the feasibility of the proposed RFID-enabled monitoring system in terms of economic costs in addition to the capability of the developed optimization model in obtaining a trade-off among the considered criteria.

  2. Evaluation of food chain transfer of the antibiotic oxytetracycline and human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsaner, Maliwan; Hawker, Darryl W

    2013-10-01

    There has been recent concern regarding the possibility of antibiotics entering the aquatic food chain and impacting human consumers. This work reports experimental results of the bioconcentration of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) by the Asian watermeal plant (Wolffia globosa Hartog & Plas) and bioaccumulation of OTC in watermeal and water by the seven-striped carp (Probarbus jullieni). They show, for the first time, the extent to which OTC is able to transfer from water to plant to fish and enter the food chain. The mean bioconcentration factor (dry weight basis) with watermeal was 1.28 × 10(3) L kg(-1). Separate experiments were undertaken to characterize accumulation of OTC by carp from water and watermeal. These showed the latter pathway to be dominant under the conditions employed. The bioconcentration and biomagnification factors for these processes were 1.75 L kg(-1) and 2 × 10(-4) kg g(-1) respectively. Using an aqueous concentration range of 0.34-3.0 μg L(-1), hazard quotients for human consumption of contaminated fish of 1.3 × 10(-2) to 1.15 × 10(-1) were derived.

  3. Evaluation of the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic column prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamat Turson; Xiao Lei Zhuang; Hui Na Liu; Ping Jiang; Xiang Chao Dong

    2009-01-01

    To make more homogenous organic monolithic structure,reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer(RAFT)process was employed in the synthesis of the clenbuterol imprinted polymer.In the synthesis,the influence of synthetic conditions on the polymer structure and separation efficiency was studied.The result demonstrated that the imprinted columns prepared with RAFT process have higher column efficiency and selectivity than the columns prepared with conventional polymerization in the present study,which may result from the higher surface area,smaller pore size and the narrower globule size distribution in their structures.The result indicated that RAFT polymerization provided better conditions for the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic polymer preparation.

  4. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction across life cycle stages and tissue types of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutges, Michelle J; Hartzer, Kris; Lord, Jeffrey; Oppert, Brenda

    2010-08-25

    The genome of the genetic model for coleopteran insects, Tribolium castaneum, is now available for downstream applications. To facilitate gene expression studies in T. castaneum, genes were evaluated for suitability as normalizers in comparisons across tissues and/or developmental stages. In less diverse samples, such as comparisons within developmental stages or tissue only, normalizers for mRNA were more stable and consistent. Overall, the genes for ribosomal proteins rps6, rpl13a, rps3, and rps18 were the most stable normalizers for broad scale gene expression analysis in T. castaneum. However, their stability ranking was dependent upon the instrument as well as the analysis program. These data emphasize the need to optimize normalizers used in all real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments specifically for the experimental conditions and thermocycler and to carefully evaluate data generated by computational algorithms.

  6. In vitro evaluation of force degradation of elastomeric chains used in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weissheimer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the in vitro force degradation of four different brands of elastomeric chains: American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco and TP Orthodontics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 80 gray elastomeric chains that were divided into four groups according to their respective manufacturers. Chain stretching was standardized at 21 mm with initial force release ranging from 300 g to 370 g. The samples were kept in artificial saliva at a constant temperature of 37°C and the degradation force was recorded at the following time intervals: initial, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 hours, and 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the force degradation, mainly within the first day, as a force loss of 50-55% was observed during that time in relation to the initial force. The force delivered at 35 days ranged from 122 g to 148 g. CONCLUSION: All groups showed force degradation over time, regardless of their trademarks, a force loss of 59-69% was observed in the first hour compared to baseline. However, because the variation in force degradation depends on the trademark, studies such as the present one are important for guiding the clinical use of these materials.OBJETIVO: analisar, in vitro, a degradação de força, ao longo do tempo, de elastômeros das marcas comerciais American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco e TP Orthodontics. MÉTODOS: a amostra constituiu-se de 80 segmentos de elastômeros em cadeia fechada na cor cinza, divididos em quatro grupos, conforme o fabricante. A distensão foi padronizada em 21mm, com liberação de força inicial variando de 300 a 370g de força. As amostras foram mantidas em saliva artificial em temperatura constante de 37ºC, e a força avaliada nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1h, 3h, 5h, 7h, 9h, 1 dia, 7 dias, 14 dias, 21 dias, 28 dias e 35 dias. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na degradação de força entre os

  7. Evaluation of screening for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: trial design using Markov chain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H H; Prevost, T C; Duffy, S W

    1999-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a Markov chain model to estimate parameters pertaining to the natural history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The model is of progression from no disease to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, preclinical screen-detectable tumour and clinical tumour. We derive tentative estimates of the parameters of the model, based on limited published data, to assess the efficacy of serum screening in conjunction with clinical assessment (indirect mirror examination for NPC), for example the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable phase is estimated as 3.1 years. We further apply these parameters to a hypothetical screening trial in the Hong Kong population to assess the efficacy of serum screening with clinical assessment by different combinations of screening regime. Results suggest: (1) there is no substantial difference between 3-yearly and 6-yearly serum screening; and (2) within the same serum screening regime annual and 3-yearly clinical assessment can prevent 33% and 28% of deaths from NPC respectively. Prediction of deaths and surrogate end points can be used to estimate the required sample size and duration for designing a randomized trial of screening for NPC. Based on these findings and power projections, we suggest a design for a randomized trial in a high incidence area such as Hong Kong. PMID:10206310

  8. A disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Victoria; Li, Huizhong; Sant, Himanshu; Ameel, Tim; Gale, Bruce K

    2016-08-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used to amplify a specific segment of DNA through a thermal cycling protocol. The PCR industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. Some of the fastest PCR devices use continuous flow, but they have all been built of silicon or glass to allow sufficient heat transfer. This article presents a disposable polycarbonate (PC) device that is capable of achieving real-time, continuous flow PCR in a completely disposable polymer device in less than 13 minutes by thermally cycling the sample through an established temperature gradient in a serpentine channel. The desired temperature gradient was determined through simulations and validated by experiments which showed that PCR was achieved. Practical demonstration included amplification of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) derived cDNA. PMID:27393216

  9. Evaluations of Mesogen Orientation in Thin Films of Polyacrylate with Cyanobiphenyl Side Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tasuku; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Saito, Itsuki; Yamamoto, Katsuhiro; Seki, Takahiro

    2016-04-19

    The orientation behavior of mesogens in a polyacrylate with cyanobiphenyl (CB) side chain in thin films was investigated in detail by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) measurements using both high-energy X-rays of Cu Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) and low-energy synchrotron X-rays (λ = 0.539 nm). By changing the film thickness ranging 7-200 nm, it is concluded that the planar orientation is predominant for thin films with thickness below 10-15 nm. This planar mesogen orientation near the substrate surface coexists with the homeotropically aligned CB mesogens in films thicker than 30 nm. For the thinnest 7 nm film, the planar orientation is unexpectedly lost, which is in consort with a disordering of smectic layer structure. Peculiar orienting characteristics of CB mesogen are suggested, which probably stem from the tendency to form an antiparallel arrangement of mesogens due to the strong dipole moment of the terminal cyano group. PMID:27031094

  10. Evaluating the CO2 Emission of the Milk Supply Chain in Italy: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, Italian dairy farms, which gather, process and sell milk at the national level, have strengthened their leading market position at the detriment of dairy cooperatives, operating within regional borders. Moreover, decreasing milk prices and increasing production costs have recently induced many farmers to open automatic vending machines, dispensing raw milk for direct sale to local consumers. In order to contribute to the environmental assessment of alternative systems, this study estimated CO2 emissions related to the transport from production farms to point of sale, for three brands of fresh milk currently sold in the Umbria region (Italy, starting from the food miles indicator as a simple concept, easily understood by consumers. These brands differ in the origin of milk (national, regional and local and distribution channels (large-scale retail channels for national and regional brands and vending machines for the local one. Thus, we estimated the emissions generated by the transport of the fresh milk consumed by regional households. In agreement with previous studies about CO2 emissions of foreign milk supply chains, the analysis showed that the production system of regional-branded milk, sold by retail channels, is the most efficient in terms of the environmental impact of transport.

  11. Cadre de planification integree de la chaine logistique pour la gestion et l'evaluation de strategies de bioraffinage forestier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Louis Patrick

    Biorefining is now recognized as a promising solution to transform the struggling forestry industry and to generate value-added pathways. The implementation of new products and processes will help companies to diversify revenues, but implies several strategic changes in the business model. Companies will face the dilemma of exiting or not traditional pulp and paper operations, while selecting their biorefinery product and process portfolio. As well, they will have to enter new markets and manage production to minimize the risk of market volatility. Over the past decades, both industry and academia paid a lot of attention to supply-chain management in order to increase the cost effectiveness of overall operations. The application of supply-chain management concepts could therefore greatly help the transforming North American forestry industry to compete globally. The objective of this Ph.D. project was to propose and illustrate an integrated supply-chain planning framework for the management and the evaluation of forest biorefinery strategies. This framework, named margins-based , integrates principles from revenue management, activity-based cost accounting, and manufacturing flexibility in a tactical planning model that maximizes profit of a company. The structure of the mathematical model and its associated cost model aims to represent as closely as possible the activities of a company, from procurement to sales. It enables the modeling of different process configurations leading to manufacturing flexibility. The model can thus be used as a platform for evaluating various operating strategies of a company, at both production and supply-chain levels. A case study of a newsprint mill implementing a parallel biomass fractionation line producing several bioproducts was used to illustrate this margins-based approach. Various strategic and tactical analyses were conducted to show the relevance of the approach as a decision-making tool for management problems related to

  12. Fast side chain replacement in proteins using a coarse-grained approach for evaluating the effects of mutation during evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahnen, Johan A; Kubelka, Jan; Liberles, David A

    2011-08-01

    For high-throughput structural genomic and evolutionary bioinformatics approaches, there is a clear need for fast methods to evaluate substitutions structurally. Coarse-grained methods are both powerful and fast, and a coarse-grained approach to position the substituted side chains is presented. Through the application of a coarse-grained method, a speed-up on the single- residue replacement, of at least sevenfold is achieved compared with modern all-atom approaches. At the same time, this approach maintains a small median RMSD from the leading all-atom approach (as measured in coarse-grained space), and predicts the conformation of point mutants with similar accuracy and generates biologically realistic side chain angles. This method is also substantially more predictable in its run time, making it useful for high-throughput studies of protein structural evolution. To demonstrate the utility of this method, it has been implemented in a forward simulation of sequences threaded through the SH2 domains, with selective pressures to fold and bind specifically. The relative substitution rates across the protein structure and at the binding interface are reflective of those observed in SH2 domain evolution. The algorithm has been implemented in C++, with the source code and binaries (currently supported for Linux systems) freely available as SARA at http://www.wyomingbioinformatics.org/LiberlesGroup/SARA .

  13. Evaluation of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of environmental contamination with Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Kundrapu, S; Sunkesula, V C K; Cadnum, J L; Fertelli, D; Donskey, C J

    2013-09-01

    Contaminated environmental surfaces are an important source for transmission of Clostridium difficile. However, there are no efficient and easy methods to assess contamination. The performance of a commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for detection of environmental toxigenic C. difficile in comparison with anaerobic culture followed by toxin testing of isolates. For 66 sites sampled, PCR had a sensitivity of 17.39%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative predictive value 69.35%. Increasing the PCR cycle threshold (CT) value to 45 increased sensitivity to 52% without decreasing specificity. The commercial PCR assay is not sufficiently sensitive for environmental monitoring, but improved sensitivity might be possible through CT value modification.

  14. Evaluation of data on the transfer of radionuclides in the food chain post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the accident at Chernobyl large amounts of radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere and distributed all over Europe. Depending on the trajectories of the radioactive clouds and the large variation of rainfall during its passage through, large local and regional differences in deposition were observed, leading to an enhanced contamination of soil and plants. Consequently, the radionuclides entered the foodchain by several pathways. The radiological consequences of radionuclides discharged from nuclear installations usually are evaluated using doses assessment models. In these models the passage from one compartment into another, e.g. the transfer from soil into plants, from plants into milk or meat is defined by transfer factors, which are influenced by various parameters. From the long term point of view only the long-lived nuclides like 134/137Cs are important for long term radiation risk assessment after the Chernobyl accident. In this accident the release of radioactive materials took place over a longer time period and varied in rate and radionuclide composition. Some regions of Europe were contaminated several times. To improve radiation dose prediction the CEC has initiated the Post-Chernobyl radiation protection programme 'Evaluation of Data on the Transfer of Radionuclides in the Foodchain' including five main items to be studied by different laboratories: 1. Impact of chemical speciation on the radionuclide transfer in terrestrial ecosystems after a core disruptive accident, especially in soils and plants. 2. Transfer paths of radionuclides in seminatural and natural ecosystems and their role in contaminating the foodchain. 3. Validation of soil-to-plant parameters. 4. Transfer of radionuclides to animals and animal products. 5. Transfer paths in aquatic systems and their importance for the contamination of the foodchain

  15. Assessing the Impact of Sustainability Improvement Options on the Agri-food Supply Chain Governance Structures: Development of an Evaluation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Rota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a supply chain is driven by the ability of supply chain governance structures to adapt to the chains’ continuously changing technical and organizational characteristics. The present study addresses the adoption of sustainability improvement options in the area of organization and management in the agri-food sector; within this framework the study proposes a tool for assessing the impact of sustainability oriented processes on the supply chain governance structures, in turn influencing the competitiveness of the supply chain. Two different approaches, proposed by (Gereffi et al., 2005 and (Hobbs and Young, 2000 have been linked to provide a theoretical framework for the tool development. The proposed new conceptual framework links the dimensions defining five different governance structures complexity of transaction, ability to codify and capabilities in the supply-base (Gereffi et al., to the product characteristics, regulatory and technology aspects defined by Hobbs and Young as drivers influencing the vertical coordination of supply chains. The method suggested for measuring the relations between improvement options and the chain governance structure is the adoption of experts’ evaluations. This method improves the tool capacity to provide a context-related supply chain governance structure assessment and management.

  16. Fuzzy Similarity in Multicriteria Decision-Making Problem Applied to Supplier Evaluation and Selection in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Luukka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use fuzzy similarity in fuzzy decision-making approach to deal with the supplier selection problem in supply chain system. According to the concept of fuzzy TOPSIS earlier methods use closeness coefficient which is defined to determine the ranking order of all suppliers by calculating the distances to both fuzzy positive-ideal solution (FPIS and fuzzy negative-ideal solution (FNIS simultaneously. In this paper we propose a new method by doing the ranking using similarity. New proposed method can do ranking with less computations than original fuzzy TOPSIS. We also propose three different cases for selection of FPIS and FNIS and compare closeness coefficient criteria and fuzzy similarity criteria. Numerical example is used to demonstrate the process. Results show that the proposed model is well suited for multiple criteria decision-making for supplier selection. In this paper we also show that the evaluation of the supplier using traditional fuzzy TOPSIS depends highly on FPIS and FNIS, and one needs to select suitable fuzzy ideal solution to get reasonable evaluation.

  17. Chesapeake Bay fish–osprey (Pandion haliaetus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Erickson, Richard A.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154. This analysis suggested that alternative brominated flame retardants and other compounds (methoxytriclosan) are not appreciably biomagnifying. A multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that major differences in patterns among study sites were driven by PCB congeners 105, 128, 156, 170/190, and 189, and PBDE congeners 99 and 209. An integrative redundancy analysis showed that osprey eggs from Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River and the Elizabeth River had high residues of PCBs and p,p′-DDE, with PBDEs making a substantial contribution to overall halogenated contamination on the Susquehanna and Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers. The redundancy analysis also suggested a potential relation between PBDE residues in osprey eggs and oxidative DNA damage in nestling blood samples. The results also indicate that there is no longer a discernible relation between halogenated contaminants in osprey eggs and their reproductive success in Chesapeake Bay. Osprey populations are thriving in much of the Chesapeake, with productivity rates exceeding those required to sustain a stable population.

  18. Production of the recombinant single chain anti-B cell lymphoma antibody and evaluation of immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant ScFv lym-1 was produced, using pET vector system for large scale production. ScFv lym-1 gene inserted pET-22b (+) vector, was expressed in E. coli BL-21 strain. ScFv lym-1 antibody extracted from periplasm, was purified with His-Taq column. To evaluated immunoreactivity with Raji cell, ScFv lym-1 was labeled with I-125 and I-125 ScFv lym-1 was purified with desalting column. Raji cell was injected into the C57BR/cdJ SCID mice. Gamma camera imaging were taken time point at 1, 8, 24 and 48 hr with 8 mm pinhole collimator. An active scFv lym-1 could be produced in E. coli with soluble from using pET vector system. Immunoreactivity and affinity constant of lgG lym-1 were 54% and 1.83 x 109 M-1, respectively, and those of scFv lym-1 were 53.7% and 1.46 x 109 M-1, respectively. Biodistribution of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance in blood, spleen, kidney and than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. Gamma camera image of I-125 scFv lym-1 antibody showed faster clearance and tumor targeting liver than I-125 lgG lym-1 antibody. In vitro properties of scFv lym-1 were similar to those of lgG lym-1. ScFv lym-1 showed faster blood clearance than lgG lym-1. These results suggest that scFv lym-1 antibody can be useful for tumor imaging agent

  19. Identification and evaluation of modularization practices in an automotive supplier: progressivity analysis of transferring activities in the supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Prieto; Paulo A. Cauchick Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The automotive value chain has more and more been making room to a strategy of which activities of product design and production have been transferred to the module suppliers. The transfer of value-added activities occurs from assembler to the module suppliers. The former assume the role of integrators within the supply chain. The supply chain participants have started to strengths their competencies in order to obtain advantages in the economy of scale and scope. In this context, the present...

  20. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  1. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); L. Habbema; E. Stolz (Ernst); J.H. Wagenvoort

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital spec

  2. Supply Chain Risk Analysis Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method%基于模糊综合评价法的供应链风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鑫; 李晓

    2016-01-01

    Supply chain risk issue has been caused paid attention by many scholars and experts at present,a high efficiency and low degree of risk of supply chain can bring a strong competitive advantage for the enterprise.This article first give supply chain risk for classification,then using the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to supply chain risk evalua-tion,and finally it can be concluded the supply chain risk index.Besides,the supply chain needs to be improved and to be paid at-tention to the ways to further optimize the supply chain.The purpose of the study is to reduce the risk of supply chain.%如今供应链风险问题已经引起了很多学者和专家普遍重视,一条效率较高、风险程度较低的供应链可以为企业带来很强的竞争优势。笔者先对供应链风险进行分类,再运用模糊综合评价法和层次分析法对供应链风险进行评分,最后可以得出此条供应链的风险指数,并对此供应链需要改进和所要注意的方面进行说明,达到进一步优化供应链,降低供应链风险的目的。

  3. Comparative efficacy of conventional diagnostic methods and evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheela Akhtar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative efficacy of Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Milk Ring test (MRT was calculated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in cows (Group A and buffaloes (Group B from Lahore and Okara districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Using bacterial growth as a gold standard RBPT showed high sensitivity values of 100% in both groups. While its specificity was 96.29% (Group A and 90.62% (Group B. On the other hands MRT showed low sensitivity (80.0% in Group A; 86.6% in Group B while its specificity was 100% in all the animals of both groups. The calculated positive predictive and negative predictive values of both groups were in correspondence with their specificity and sensitivity values respectively. High sensitivity and low specificity of RBPT as compare to high specificity and low sensitivity of MRT in all groups suggested the poor efficacy of both tests used individually as compare to bacterial growth. In the continuation of this study polymerase chain reaction (PCR was evaluated for its diagnostic efficacy of quick Brucella abortus isolation from same samples. PCR conducted on serum samples gave more positive results than on milk samples. Therefore, the combination of both conventional tests alongwith serum PCR can be recommended. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 53-56

  4. Polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two low endemicity areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Costa de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.

  5. Evaluation on the Risks of Agricultural Industrial Chain Based on FAHP——A Case of Regions Inhabited by Ethnic Groups in Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through recognizing the risking factors of industrial chain and selecting appropriate evaluation method, the index system on evaluating risking factors including market risk, natural risk, contact risk and efficiency risk in industrial chain is constructed,26 weighting indicators under the four layers are set up. Taking regions inhabited by ethnic groups in Wuling Mountain as an example, the risking factors of agricultural industrial chain in the area are analyzed by adopting the FAHP. The influencing degree of each risking factor on credit risks is analyzed. The results assume that with the market risk, contract risk, natural risk and efficiency risk. The natural risks become the principal risks of agricultural industrial chain and it should be paid much attention to. The low credit risk is a major factor that causes the contract between enterprise and rural households. The flood, pests, diseases and disasters also should be paid high attention to that is regarded as risking factors. The risking factors that come from the efficiency risk layer, for example, the unequal profit distribution among enterprises has little effect on enterprises in industrial chain. The research results provide evidence for stipulating risk prevention measures.

  6. Development impacts of value chain interventions: how to collect practical evidence and draw valid conclusions in impact evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.; Vellema, S.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In development policy and practice, support to or interventions in value chains are considered to be instrumental for achieving outcomes such as poverty alleviation. This paper reviews methodological discussions on how to show the effects and workings of value chain support in a context of donors de

  7. An Evaluation of Microbial Profile in Halitosis with Tongue Coating Using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)- A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj R., Dinesh; Bhushan, Kala S.; K.L., Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medline search using key words halitosis, tongue coating, polymerase chain reaction, microbial profile did not reveal any study. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms using Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in chronic periodontitis patients.

  8. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend;

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  9. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend;

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  10. Strategic alliance in technological development and innovation: Performance evaluation of co-creation between companies and their supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otavio Monteiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Brazilian oil and gas market presents a perspective of growth in the next decades. Considering this scenario, the increasing number of participants in this supply chain is foreseen to supply the demand of goods and services, especially in the technological development area. The paper intends to evaluate the collaborative development capacity and respective measurements of performance on these partnerships established between customer and suppliers, through qualitative research with a sample of Brazilian oil and gas market representative. Design/methodology/approach: This paper intends to verify if the co-creation performance is measured after an implementation, specific in a restricted industry. The methodology consists in a bibliographical research to support the study, and it also had a questionnaire sent to Brazilian companies that take part of the oil and natural gas industry supply chain, to analyze if the results of co-creation activities are measured by this group of companies, to verify its attractiveness to develop the co-creation usage or change the type of partnership with the market. Findings and Originality/value: The misunderstanding of co-creation and technical partnership was noticed. The usage of teams working together from two or more organizations cannot be considered as a co-creation, because the relationship and obligations are different between these two ways of workgroup. But the companies of oil and gas industry, when questioned, were able to distinguish it, avoiding risks of incorrect results motivated by wrong interpretation of the paper content. Research limitations/implications: As related in the paper, eight companies were invited to take part on the questionnaire about co-creation, but only 50% answered it. The research should have a better result of this subject if it had been developed with more answers of Brazilian oil and gas industry companies. Originality/value: Even this kind of partnership is

  11. The Dependence of Strength in Plastics upon Polymer Chain Length and Chain Orientation: An Experiment Emphasizing the Statistical Handling and Evaluation of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. Donald

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment (using plastic bags) designed to give students practical understanding on using statistics to evaluate data and how statistical treatment of experimental results can enhance their value in solving scientific problems. Students also gain insight into the orientation and structure of polymers by examining the plastic bags.…

  12. Evaluation of Value Chain Risks Based on BP Artificial Neural Network%基于BP人工神经网络的价值链风险的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秋霞; 邓样明; 欧阳江

    2011-01-01

    通过对价值链管理深人研究,利用BP人工神经网络对价值链风险管理进行评价,采用专家评分法,获得实际的数据,对模型进行仿真和测试,证实价值链风险管理的指标体系的实用性和BP人工神经网络模型的价值.%Through in-depth analysis of value chain management, the paper employs BP artificial neural network to evaluate the risk management of value chains. Expert scoring is used on practical data collected and simulation and testing are conducted to verify the practicality of the index system of value chain risk management and the value of BP artificial neural network.

  13. Evaluation on Service Quality of Retail Chain Supermarkets%连锁零售超市服务质量的评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 向隅

    2012-01-01

    连锁零售超市的服务质量评价是目前研究的热点,建立科学、合理的服务质量评价体系,可全面客观地揭示用户对连锁零售超市服务质量的评价。结合连锁零售超市管理的实际情况,建立由5个评价要素和25个评价指标组成的连锁零售超市服务质量评价体系,并采用AHM确定各指标权重,运用改进的TOPSIS方法进行评价,从而可为超市管理者提高和改进服务质量提供参考借鉴。%Evaluation on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets is a hot topic at present. Establish- ing a scientific and rational evaluation system of service quality can reveal the comment of customers on the service quality of retail chain supermarkets in a whole and objective way. In terms of the actual situation of retail chain supermarkets, an evaluation system of retail chain supermarket consisting of 5 evaluation elements and 22 evaluation indexes is established with AHM determining the weight of each index and the improved TOPSIS method making assessment, which provides a scientific evaluation method for the management to improve the service quality.

  14. In vitro evaluation of five different herbal extracts as an antimicrobial endodontic irrigant using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilla S Vinothkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used irrigant but it has disadvantage like high cytotoxicity. So there is a need to find an alternative to 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite against microorganism Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Literature has shown that these 5 extracts namely Terminalia chebula, Myristica frangrans, Aloe barbadensis, Curcuma longa and Azadaricta indica has good properties which can be used as a potential endodontic irrigant. Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of various herbal extracts namely Curcuma longa (CL, Azadiracta indica (AI, Aloe barbadensis (AV, Myristica fragrans (MF and Terminalia chebula (TC as endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four teeth were extracted and suspended with Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. A preliminary study was first performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts. The irrigating groups were divided into five herbal groups and 2 control groups. After irrigating the teeth the remaining microbial load was determined using qPCR. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using Oneway Anova/Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Tukey′s HSD and was statistically significant ( P < 0.05. Results: It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared with other extracts. Conclusions: Neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans compared to 5.25% sodium hypochlorite.

  15. The design and evaluation of a phantom for the audit of the treatment chain for prostate radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose: A phantom has been designed and built for a multi-institutional technique audit of the planning and delivery for radiotherapy to the prostate. The phantom was designed to test both the geometric and dosimetric accuracy of each aspect of the process. Materials and Methods: The phantom consists of two curved water filled perspex tanks either side of a central block of solid water equivalent material. There are two options for the central section; a target defining block and a dose measurement block. The target defining block uses air holes to define a 3-D target volume for imaging via a CT scanner or a simulator. These holes can subsequently be filled with steel pins to allow megavoltage imaging. The dose measurement block allows thimble chamber measurements to be made at pre-selected points in a 5x5mm array. Five dose measurement points, typical for a prostate planning target volume (PTV) were selected. Initial evaluation of the phantom was performed by auditing the prostate radiotherapy planning and treatment chain at one institution. Results: Agreement between the phantom and planned geometry confirmed that the stages of image acquisition, transfer and manipulation were accurately performed. Agreement within 0.5% was found between phantom and water tank measurements for dose calibration at a reference point. The measured dose delivered was within 2% of the dose calculated by the planning computer for all of the selected measurement points. The target volume marked by the steel pins was visible using electronic portal imaging. Conclusions: The phantom is a useful tool for the technique audit of prostate radiotherapy

  16. 供应链风险的系统识别与评价模型研究%Study on Supply Chain Risk System Identification and Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿殿明; 刘佳翔

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically identify and classify supply chain risks, as well as its controllability and harmfnl influence. A supply chain risk evaluation index system is formulated for the identification and classification of supply chain risks, and then through improved set-valued statistical accelerated iteration method, the weight of each index is determined. On the basis of expert risk probability interval estimation, a comprehensive evaluation model for supply chain risk is constructed and an empirical analysis is carried out at the last.%对供应链风险进行了系统识别和分类,分析了供应链风险的可控性和危害性.构建了供应链风险评估指标体系,利用改进的集值统计加速迭代法确定各指标权重,建立了基于专家风险概率区间估计的供应链风险综合评价模型,并进行了实证分析.

  17. The Complexity of Food Systems: Defining Relevant Attributes and Indicators for the Evaluation of Food Supply Chains in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Gamboa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging literature on food systems provides multiple perspectives and world views. Various stakeholders define food and food systems in non-equivalent ways. The perception of the performance of food systems is determined by these specific perspectives, and a wide variety of policies responding to different aims are proposed and implemented accordingly. This paper sets out to demonstrate that the pre-analytical adoption of different narratives about the food system leads to non-equivalent assessments of the performance of food supply chains. In order to do so, we (i identify a set of relevant narratives on food supply chains in Spanish and Catalan contexts; (ii identify the pertinent attributes needed to describe and represent food supply chains within the different perspectives or narratives; and (iii carry out an integrated assessment of three organic tomato supply chains from the different perspectives. In doing so, the paper proposes an analysis of narratives to enable the analyst to characterize the performance of food supply chains from different perspectives and to identify the expected trade-offs of integrated assessment, associating them with the legitimate-but-contrasting views found among the social actors involved.

  18. Credit Evaluation of Cooperative Enterprise on Green Supply Chain%绿色供应链中合作企业信用评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永全; 孙宝安

    2015-01-01

    随着经济发展所面临的资源和环境压力越来越大,以可持续发展思想为指导的绿色供应链随之成为供应链发展的一个趋势。在构建绿色供应链过程中,合作企业的选择是非常重要的一个环节,传统供应链在选择合作企业时,主要考察其产品能力和企业运营状况,文中将企业的绿色能力也纳入考察范围内,并采用层次分析法对企业的综合信用进行评价,为绿色供应链上合作企业的选择提供了有效的方法。%With the economic development facing a more and more serious pressure caused by resource and environmental,the green supply chain guided by the idea of sustainable development became a trend of the development of supply chain.And the selection of cooperative enterprises is a very important link in the process of constructing green supply chain,the improper selection of cooperative enterprises may bring serious damage to the entire supply chain.The traditional supply chain only consider products and the operational conditions when choosing cooperative enterprises,this paper will consider green ability of the enterprise as well,and evaluate the credit of the enterprises by AHP,providing an effective method to choice cooperative enterprises for green supply chain.

  19. [The development of a test-system for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of DNA content in criminalistic objects by the real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenkov, M I; Plakhina, N V; Alekseev, Ia I; Varlamov, D A

    2011-01-01

    An original test-system for the preliminary quantitative and qualitative evaluation of isolated DNA is proposed by the polymerase chain reaction in real time (PCR-RT) based on the TaqMan technology. This test-system permits to simultaneously measure the amount of DNA in the sample, identify the genetic gender, and detect PCR inhibitors. The method has been approbated in the practical work of forensic medical experts. PMID:21735715

  20. Service Oriented Supply Chain Performance Evaluation%面向服务的供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智崧; 李良春; 宋桂飞; 邓立杰

    2015-01-01

    面向服务的架构 SOA 是一种应用程序体系结构。从国内外供应链管理绩效测评方法研究存在的不足出发,结合供应链绩效管理需求,介绍了 SOA 定义及其特性,构建了面向服务的供应链绩效管理评价体系架构;描述了其业务应用层、服务总线层及基础服务层的基本组成与功能;分析了该评价体系的运行方式。%Service‐oriented Architecture(SOA) is an application architecture .From the lack of research on supply chain management performance evaluation methods existing at home and abroad ,combined with supply chain performance manage‐ment needs ,definition and characteristics of SOA is introduced ,and a service‐oriented supply chain performance management evaluation system architecture is proposed .Than basic composition and function of the business application layer ,the service bus layer and the basic services layer are described the operation mode of the evaluation system is analyzed .

  1. Falling chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-06-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when a link leaves a subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling folded chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. Other aspects of the falling folded chain are briefly discussed.

  2. 汽车行业供应链协同绩效评价及其应用%Performance Evaluation and Applications of Automotive Industry Supply Chain Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯霞

    2011-01-01

    Referring to automotive industry supply chain collaboration performance including collaboration process performance, collaboration result performance and collaboration support performance, an evaluation index system is set up including 30 indices for automotive industry supply chain collaboration evaluation in combination with the clients service and system adaptability. Then, an automotive industry supply chain with the core of some automotive manufacturer is exemplified to evaluate its collaboration performance of supply chain by applying of fuzzily integrated analysis, thus quantifying the system and analyzing the evaluation results. It is found that the collaborative operation covering process, result and support will improve the performance of the whole supply chain. The analysis proves the feasibility of the evaluation index system and the operability of fuzzily integrated evaluation.%考虑汽车行业供应链协同绩效包含协同过程绩效、协同结果绩效和协同支持绩效,并结合客户服务和系统适应性,选择了30个汽车行业供应链协同评价指标,建立协同绩效评价指标体系.然后,选取以国内某汽车制造厂为核心企业的汽车行业供应链为例,运用模糊综合分析法对其供应链进行协同评价,实现了对该指标体系的量化,并对评价结果进行分析.结果表明,企业在过程、结果和支持等方面协同运作,可以提高供应链整体的协同绩效,从而进一步验证了评价指标体系的可行性和模糊综合评价方法的可操作性.

  3. Research on low carbon supply chain performance evaluation based on AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method%基于 AHP 模糊综合评价对低碳供应链绩效评价的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 孙秀梅

    2016-01-01

    低碳供应链已经成为国民经济发展的重要组成部分和主要趋势,借助平衡计分卡的思想提出供应链绩效评价的指标,并运用层次分析法构建低碳供应链绩效评价的指标体系。在此基础上,利用模糊综合评价方法构建绩效评价模型,结合低碳家电供应链对其进行验证。%Low carbon supply chain has become an important component of the national economic development and the main trend .With the balanced scorecard ideas ,this paper puts forward the supply chain performance evaluation indicators ,and builds a supply chain performance evaluation system based on AHP .On this basis ,we setablish the performance evaluation model using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method ,and then verifies it by combining the low carbon electrical ap‐pliances supply chain .

  4. Structural optimization and evaluation of butenolides as potent antifouling agents: modification of the side chain affects the biological activities of compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-09-01

    A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, a series of new butenolide derivatives with various amine side chains was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-larval settlement activities in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Side chain modification of butenolide resulted in butenolides 3c-3d, which possessed desirable physico-chemical properties and demonstrated highly effective non-toxic anti-larval settlement efficacy. A structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that varying the alkyl side chain had a notable effect on anti-larval settlement activity and that seven to eight carbon alkyl side chains with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) substituent on an amine terminal were optimal in terms of bioactivity. Analysis of the physico-chemical profile of butenolide analogues indicated that lipophilicity is a very important physico-chemical parameter contributing to bioactivity. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Evaluation of the truncated perturbed chain-polar statistical associating fluid theory for complex mixture fluid phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was extended rigorously to polar fluids based on the theory of Stell and co-workers [Mol. Phys. 1977, 33, 987]. The new PC-PSAFT was simplified to truncated PC-PSAFT (tPC-PSAFT) so that it can be practical for real polar fluid...

  6. Evaluation of Amplification Targets for the Specific Detection of Bordetella pertussis Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rubayet Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis infections continue to be a major public health challenge in Canada. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to detect B pertussis are typically based on the multicopy insertion sequence IS481, which offers high sensitivity but lacks species specificity.

  7. Evaluation of the serum free light chain (sFLC) analysis in prediction of response in symptomatic multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann Hansen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Per T; Nielsen, Lars C;

    2014-01-01

    measurements of involved free light chains (iFLC) in prediction of high-quality responses. Measuring iFLC has a potential advantage due to a short half-life compared to the half-life of the M-protein. METHODS: In 36 multiple myeloma (MM) patients, we measured serial changes in iFLC and M-protein after start...

  8. Evaluation of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of influenza and respiratory syncytial viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Zampiero, Alberto; Bianchini, Sonia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal swabs from 424 children were used to compare the performances of the new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) RIDA®GENE Flu & RSV kit and monospecific RT-PCR assays in detecting respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses. The easy-to-use kit was highly sensitive and specific and is recommended for routine practice. PMID:26458277

  9. Unwrapping Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Cambou, A D; Hamm, E; Hanna, J A; Menon, N; Santangelo, C D; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    A loop of chain can move along its own tangents, maintaining a steady shape. An open-ended chain undergoing a nontrivial motion must change its shape. One consequence is that chains pulled around objects will fail to follow the contours of the objects, unwrapping themselves instead. This short note accompanies a fluid dynamics video submission (83068) to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2012.

  10. Falling chains

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C W; Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional falling motion of a bungee chain suspended from a rigid support and of a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Their Lagrangians are found to contain no explicit time dependence. As a result, these falling chains are conservative systems. Each of their Lagrange's equations of motion is shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show in particular that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is incorrect because it neglects the energy gained when the transferred link is emitted by the emitting subchain. The maximum chain tension measured by Calkin and March for the falling bungee chain is given a simple if rough interpretation. In the simplified one-dimensional treatment, the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the falling bungee chain is found to be converted by the chain tension at the rigid support into the internal kinetic energy of the chain. However, as t...

  11. The Application of Fuzzy Evaluation Model in the Risk Assessment of Food Supply Chain Management%模糊评价模型在食品供应链管理风险中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琪

    2011-01-01

    基于食品供应链风险评价指标体系,建立模糊评价模型,并运用该模型对食品供应链风险进行综合评价,实证分析得出:快餐巨无霸麦当劳在供应链管理中的风险较低。%With implementing supply chain management,the enterprises are also faced with a series of risks brought about by supply chain management.This paper establishes evaluation index system of food supply chain risk and fuzzy evaluation model,carries out comprehensive evaluation of food supply chain risk,and finally analyzes risk of McDonald's supply chain management.

  12. Supply Chain Risk Evaluation Based on Matter-element Analysis%基于物元分析法的供应链风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关艳萍

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the supply chain risk indexes, we proposed the supply chain risk evaluation system based on matter-element analysis, and at the end, through a practical case, verified the merits of the system.%供在重新构建供应链风险指标的基础上,提出了基于物元分析法的供应链风险评价体系,最后通过实例验证,证明了该方法具有步骤清晰、容易量化、计算简便等优点。

  13. Quantum Group U_q(sl(2 Symmetry and Explicit Evaluation of the One-Point Functions of the Integrable Spin-1 XXZ Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Deguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We show some symmetry relations among the correlation functions of the integrable higher-spin XXX and XXZ spin chains, where we explicitly evaluate the multiple integrals representing the one-point functions in the spin-1 case. We review the multiple-integral representations of correlation functions for the integrable higher-spin XXZ chains derived in a region of the massless regime including the anti-ferromagnetic point. Here we make use of the gauge transformations between the symmetric and asymmetric R-matrices, which correspond to the principal and homogeneous gradings, respectively, and we send the inhomogeneous parameters to the set of complete 2s-strings. We also give a numerical support for the analytical expression of the one-point functions in the spin-1 case.

  14. THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS AND SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE: EVALUATION OF METABOLIC, HORMONAL AND INFLAMMATORY PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Simeoli, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    In these three years we studied probiotics and postbiotics efficacy and their mechanism/s in preventing or limiting gastrointestinal diseases, such as hepatic steatosis and ulcerative colitis. On the basis of strength anatomical correlation between liver and gut, we wanted to observe if microorganisms present in gut and their postbiotic derivatives, the short chain fatty acids, were able to prevent or cure not only local intestinal disease but also to limit extraintestinal and systemic pathol...

  15. An Evaluation of Firm and Contract Characteristics Valued by Supply Chain Partners in Specialty Crop Marketing Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Barrowclough, Michael; Boys, Kathryn A.; Carpio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Marketing methods play a vital role in the efficiency of any supply-chain relationship. The relationship between buyers and sellers in the agricultural sector is dynamic and complex. While livestock and grain markets in the U.S. are generally well studied, the price setting process, buyer-seller relationships, and factors which influence the type, duration, and timing of business relationships in the market for specialty crops (SC) are less well understood. This is particularly true in the ca...

  16. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis DNA on serum samples from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Eugenia Charbel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the DNA of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in human serum samples of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM was defined by microscopic observation of the fungus on direct exam or histopathology, culture, and serological positivity. DNA from serum of 33 patients with PCM was extracted and submitted to nested-PCR using primers from the gp 43 gene. Only one sample was positive on nested-PCR. We conclude that the prevalence of fungemia in patients with different clinical forms of PCM is low, limiting the use of serum DNA detection as an alternative diagnostic tool.

  17. Evaluation of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT). 1. Vapor-liquid equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Economou, Ioannis;

    2008-01-01

    A standard database for the validation of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) models was used to evaluate prediction and correlation accuracy of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). Pure-component parameters...... for the models were taken from literature or estimated in this work. Generalized pure-component parameters were fitted to pure-component vapor-pressure and liquid-density data. For the majority of the mixtures examined, satisfactory results were obtained. For a number of mixtures, different modeling approaches...

  18. Evaluation of branched chain fatty acid, BMIPP (. beta. -methyl-. omega. -(p-iodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid) for the myocardial imaging. Basic experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yasuaki; Morishita, Takeshi; Yamazaki, Junichi and others

    1988-11-01

    Iodine-123 labeled branched chain fatty acid BMIPP (/sup ..beta../-methyl-..omega..-(p-iodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid) was evaluated for the myocardial imaging experimentally. /sup 123/I-BMIPP was accumulated in the heart at 2 - 4 minutes after injection and retention in the heart was remarkable at 30 minutes. In the acute canine infarction model, infarcted area was recognized as a defect. Furthermore, in comparison between /sup 123/I-BMIPP and /sup 201/Tl-Cl, discrepancy between these images was recognized in the ischemic and infarcted area. BMIPP is of use in not only cardiomyopathy and hypertension, but ischemic heart desease.

  19. Evaluation of revised polymerase chain reaction primers for more inclusive quantification of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kelley A; Bertagnolli, Anthony; Pannu, Manmeet W; Strand, Stuart E; Brown, Sally L; Stahl, David A

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) fill key roles in the nitrogen cycle. Thus, well-vetted methods for characterizing their distribution are essential for framing studies of their significance in natural and managed systems. Quantification of the gene coding for one subunit of the ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) by polymerase chain reaction is frequently employed to enumerate the two groups. However, variable amplification of sequence variants comprising this conserved genetic marker for ammonia oxidizers potentially compromises within- and between-system comparisons. We compared the performance of newly designed non-degenerate quantitative polymerase chain reaction primer sets to existing primer sets commonly used to quantify the amoA of AOA and AOB using a collection of plasmids and soil DNA samples. The new AOA primer set provided improved quantification of model mixtures of different amoA sequence variants and increased detection of amoA in DNA recovered from soils. Although both primer sets for the AOB provided similar results for many comparisons, the new primers demonstrated increased detection in environmental application. Thus, the new primer sets should provide a useful complement to primers now commonly used to characterize the environmental distribution of AOA and AOB.

  20. Static and dynamic systems in Rickettsia slovaca life cycle evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalská, E; Sparagano, O; Boldis, V

    2010-04-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize the growth of Rickettsia slovaca, a tick-borne pathogen transmitted by Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus ticks, in static (L929 and Vero cells) and dynamic (D. marginatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks) cultivation systems. The highest points of bacterial multiplication and the time-spans between the inoculum and the maximum of rickettsial copies were increased in consecutive order from eukaryotic cells, I. ricinus to D. marginatus systems. In dynamic system, multiplication maximum of R. slovaca was achieved 9 days earlier in I. ricinus; however, the number of rickettsial DNA copies was approximately 3.6 x 10(6) more in D. marginatus. PMID:20537110

  1. Researches on Risk Evaluation Green Agro-products Closed Supply Chain%绿色农产品封闭供应链风险评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪峰

    2011-01-01

    在现有供应链风险和农产品供应链文献研究的基础上,对绿色农产品封闭供应链中涉及生产、经营和消费等环节的相关节点主体进行实际调研分析,将供应链系统中的主要风险要素归纳为环境风险、系统风险、信息风险、管理风险和质量安全风险5类.运用模糊综合评价方法对绿色农产品封闭供应链风险进行评价,得到绿色农产品封闭供应链风险的模糊综合评价分值,结果表明绿色农产品封闭供应链风险等级属于中等,具有较高的风险,这与当前实际情况基本相符.从各级指标权重也可看出,影响风险的关键一级指标是系统风险、信息风险和质量安全风险,影响风险的关键二级指标是核心企业协调控制能力、信息追溯技术的实现程度、质量安全体系建设水平等.因此,应该着重从这些方面采取防范和控制措施来降低绿色农产品封闭供应链风险.%Based on the research results of the current literatures on supply chain risk and agro-product supply chain,related subjects of the agro product closed supply chain involving production, management and consumption are studied and analyzed and the primary risking factors in the supply chain system are classified into environmental risk, system risk, information risk, management risk and quality risk. Risk of agro-product closed supply chain is evaluated by using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and the values are acquired. The result shows that risk of agro-product closed supply chain is moderate with relatively high risk,which basically accords with the present actual situations. It can be seen from the index weights of various levels that the key first-level indices influencing the risks are system risk,information risk,quality and safety risk and the key second-level are the coordinating and controlling ability of core enterprises,the implement of information traceability and the construc tion of

  2. Evaluation of serum markers in the LRF CLL4 trial: β2-microglobulin but not serum free light chains, is an independent marker of overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Guy; Thomas, Peter; Marden, Nicola; Alexander, Denis; Davis, Zadie; Hussey, David; Parry, Helen; Harding, Stephen; Catovsky, Daniel; Begley, Joe; Oscier, David

    2016-10-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by heterogeneous clinical behavior and there is a need for improved biomarkers. The current study evaluated the prognostic significance of serum free light chains (sFLC, kappa, and lambda) and other serum markers (bar, serum thymidine kinase (sTK), soluble CD23, and LDH) together with established biomarkers in 289 patients enrolled into the LRF CLL4 trial. In a multivariable analysis of serum markers alone, higher big and kappa light chains were statistically significant in predicting disease progression and higher blg, and sTK in predicting mortality. In multivariable analysis for overall survival the following were independently significant: β2M levels, immunoglobulin gene (IGHV) mutational status (>98% homology), age, 17p13 deletions (>10%), and CD38 expression. β2M is the only serum marker that retained clear independent value as a biomarker in the LRF CLL4 trial and remains powerfully prognostic requiring evaluation in any future method of risk stratifying patients. PMID:26732125

  3. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Tool for Evaluation of Magnetic Poly(Glycidyl methacrylate)-Based Microspheres in Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtová, Stepánka; Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Kozáková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    DNA amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the evaluation of efficiency of polymer coating of magnetic hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with/without carboxyl groups. The inhibition effect of magnetic microspheres on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) course was evaluated by regression analysis after the addition of different concentrations of tested microspheres to PCR mixtures. Microspheres mostly did not interfere in RT-PCR till the concentration 50 µg/25 µl PCR mixture. No relationship between Fe content (and microsphere diameter) and inhibition effect was found. Microspheres containing carboxyl groups extinguished the fluorescence at lower concentrations (10-20 µg/25 µl PCR mixture) without inhibition of DNA amplification as PCR products were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Negative effect of maghemite on PCR course was partially reduced by coating of magnetic core by silica or polymers. Two inhibition mechanisms of DNA amplification were discussed in this work.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of myosin heavy beta chains in human serum for the evaluation of the size of myocardial infarction: correlation with myocardial Tl-201 SPECT and cardiac angioscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between serum levels of myosin heavy beta chains assessed by an IRMA technique and other radionuclide and enzymatic parameters in the evaluation of the size of myocardial infarction, we studied 22 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Blood samples taken daily between 1st to 13th day of evolution allow the determination of peak and integral of myosine release that showed a good correlation (p<0.01) with myocardial underperfusion score in T1-201 SPECT, left ventricular ejection fractions at 1st day and at the pre-discharge study, just as CPK peak. This new assay is an interesting mean to evaluate the size of myocardial infarction

  5. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation.

  6. Evaluation of Technological Changes’ Impact on Scarcity of Minerals by a Value Chain Approach: Introducing a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamseddin Vahabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a policy and deciding on long-term investment in the mining industry by a government orprivate sector actors depends strongly on the ability to predict the scarcity of mineral reserves. Changein scarcity of mineral reserves is a function of several technological and non-technological factors.Among them, change in technology is the most significant factor affecting scarcity. This paper aims toinvestigate the relationship between mineral scarcity changes and technological changes. In this study,the effective factors on mineral scarcity were initially considered, and the main and most commonlyproposed approaches in the field of scarcity were briefly analysed. The problems associated with theseapproaches in explaining the relationship between scarcity and changes in technology are thendiscussed. These approaches are mainly limited to the past available data, whose direction is thedevelopment “from scarcity to technological changes”; therefore, they are inefficient in predictingscarcity due to technological changes. To overcome such limitations, a chain technology method wasintroduced with an approach moving “from technological changes to scarcity”. In this approach,scarcity is firstly explained based on the objective technological changes, and secondly it is related tosome technologies affecting scarcity, such as mineral exploration, exploitation, mineral processing,metal production, consumer goods and recycling of scrap metals. The results obtained from this papercan be effectively used to make decisions regarding investment in the mineral industry.

  7. Evaluating Distribution Process of a Supply Chain in Just-in-Time Environment Using Application of Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Mishra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution process of a supply chain management is very important and strategic. To stay efficient in delivering the finished goods in the hands of end user, the speed and responsiveness of distribution mechanism are most essential. Just in Time (JIT has proved result oriented in the manufacturing systems since 1985. Since then its applicability in several fields are being investigated. Low inventory, small lot size, least lead time and quality product are some desirable features of JIT, which proves beneficiary to the firm. This paper highlights JIT applied distribution process in order to shorten the lead time, inventory holding costs. Application of Graph theory (GTA methodology has been used to investigate the interdependencies of dimensions and its attributes of JIT implemented distribution. Then an empirical value of JIT distribution process (JDP of an organisation has been derived , subsequently coefficient of distribution dissimilarity and similarity have been found for two organisation and based on these values comparison 0f any two organisation can be done. Approach can be used to know the lacks of various organizations based on their feasibility index of transition (FIT value and which is required to develop to transform the organisation applying JIT in distribution process.

  8. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto António Macongonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  9. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macongonde, Ernesto António; Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Scaini, Giselli; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Ferreira, Bruna Klippel; Costa, Naithan Ludian Fernandes; de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Avila Junior, Silvio; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group) or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group). One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  10. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  11. 连锁经营企业网络安全评估模型研究%Research on Network Security Evaluation Model of Chain Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡京玫

    2012-01-01

    针对连锁经营企业网络独特性和当前主要网络安全评估模型局限性,提出一种基于安全相似域的网络风险评估模型.根据连锁经营企业内部网络拓扑结构特点,将评估网络环境中的要素按照安全风险值划分为安全相似域,通过安全相似域的关联性计算,量化评估网络的安全风险值.通过对网络安全评估模型验证结果表明,本文评估模型不仅具有较高的风险评估精度,而且减少计算量,具有一定的实用性.%Because the chain enterprise network is unique and the current main network security assessment model limitations,the paper proposed a chain business enterprise network security assessment model based on the networks similar domains.According to the chain enterprise internal network topological structure characteristics,the environment of the network is divided into similar security domain according to the security risk values,similar domain association is calculated,and network security risk values are quantitative evaluation.The network security assessment model is tested by experiments,the results show that,the proposed model not only has improved the risk assessment precision,but also reduces the amount of computation,it has a certain practicality.

  12. 建筑供应链风险评价研究%Research on the Risks Evaluation of Construction Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 张方明

    2012-01-01

    As a new administration mind and method of construction industry, supply chain management can not only improve the core competitiveness of construction enterprises, inerease the profits, but also bring some risks. Thus how to an- alyze and evaluate these risks have been very important problems. This paper firstly summarizes the basie theory of eon- struetion supply chain under engineering-procurement-construction (EPC) mode, and then designs the index system of risks evaluation on the basis of risks analysis, puts forward a risk evaluation model based on support veetor machines theolw and gives an example.%供应链管理作为一种新的建筑管理理念与方法.在提高建筑业企业核心竞争力和增加利润的同时。也会带来一定的风险.如何分析和评价这些风险已成为供应链上核心企业所面临的重要问题。简述了EPC模式下的建筑供应链基本理论.在对EPC建筑供应链进行风险分析的基础上.设计了EPC模式下的建筑供应链风险评价指标体系.构建了基于支持向量机的建筑供应链风险评价模型并进行应用研究。

  13. Chain Gang

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    6 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of clustered and battered craters. These were formed by secondary impact. That is, somewhere to the south (beyond the bottom of this image), a large impact crater formed. When this occurred, material ejected from the crater was thrown tens to hundreds of kilometers away. This material then impacted the martian surface, forming clusters and chains of smaller craters. Location near: 15.8oN, 35.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Spring

  14. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    been undertaken through an investigative approach applying a web-scan framework which included the analysis of web sites and publicly published documents such as annual reports and corporate social responsibility reports. Findings – The authors identified 34 environmental sustainability initiatives......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...

  15. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools.

  16. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools. PMID:26880774

  17. Chain Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-er

    2004-01-01

    By means of the idea of measurements on the crossed space-time nonlocal observables, we extend the mechanism for the two-way quantum teleportation to the chain teleportation among N spatially separated spin-1/2 systems. Since in the process only the local interactions are used, the microcausality is automatically satisfied.

  18. Synthesis of Macrocyclic Hexaoxazole (6OTD Dimers, Containing Guanidine and Amine Functionalized Side Chains, and an Evaluation of Their Telomeric G4 Stabilizing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Iida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure-activity relationship studies were carried out on macrocyclic hexaoxazole (6OTD dimers, whose core structure stabilizes telomeric G-quadruplexes (G4. Two new 6OTD dimers having side chain amine and guanidine functional groups were synthesized and evaluated for their stabilizing ability against a telomeric G4 DNA sequence. The results show that the 6OTD dimers interact with the DNA to form 1:1 complexes and stabilize the antiparallel G4 structure of DNA in the presence of potassium cation. The guanidine functionalized dimer displays a potent stabilizing ability of the G4 structure, as determined by using a FRET melting assay (ΔTm=14 °C.

  19. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis.

  20. Metodología para la Evaluación del Rendimiento de la Cadena Logística Methodology for Evaluation of Performance of the Logistics Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una metodología, denominada MESIADLog que permite construir un sistema de evaluación del rendimiento de la cadena logística integral, considerando diferentes aspectos no resueltos completamente por las metodologías existente. La metodología se ha aplicado a empresas españolas y brasileñas para validarla, constatando el potencial existente para el desarrollo de investigaciones en este campo y generar casos de uso que faciliten su difusión. Se muestran ejemplos prácticos de su aplicación en una empresa española del sector cerámico. Se concluye que la metodología propuesta permite a las empresas la elaboración de su propio sistema de evaluación de la cadena logística, desde un punto de vista integradoThis paper describes a methodology, called MESIADLog, which allows for the construction of an integrated system for the evaluation of supply chain performance that takes into account certain aspects that do not wholly fit into other existing methodologies. This methodology was applied to Spanish and Brazilian firms for its validation, determining the potential that exists for conducting research in this field and generating cases which can aid in its dissemination. In this paper practical examples of its application to a Spanish ceramics company are described. It is concluded that the proposed methodology permits companies to develop their own evaluation system for the logistic chain from an integrated perspective

  1. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  2. Evaluation of liver tissue by polymerase chain reaction for hepatitis B virus in patients with negative viremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouad Thakeb; Magdy El-Serafy; Soheir Zakaria; Bahaa Monir; Sahar Lashin; Raghda Marzaban; Mostafa El-Awady

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical significance of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA localization in the liver tissue of patients with positive HBsAg and negative viremia.METHODS: HBV virological parameters of 33 HBsAg positive chronic hepatitis patients, including seromarkers and HBV DNA amplification in both sera and liver biopsies, were evaluated.RESULTS: Ten patients had negative viremia and positive HBV DNA in their liver biopsies. Most of them had HBeAg-negative/HBeAb-positive chronic hepatitis.Their liver biochemical and histopathological profiles were different from the viremic patients. Their disease pattern was designated as "hepatitis B in situ".CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B in situ is a consequential entity which can be missed in clinical practice. It is a new clinical pattern of chronic HBV infection that considers HBV in liver biopsy and adds a new indication for antiviral therapy.

  3. Evaluating the Thermal Pollution Caused by Wastewaters Discharged from a Chain of Coal-Fired Power Plants along a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and safe operation of a coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water sources and wastewater discharge are challenges for power station operation. In this study, an evaluation on the basis of a wastewater thermal pollution vector is reported for the environmental impact of residual water generated and discharged in the Jiu River during the operation of thermoelectric units of the Rovinari, Turceni and Craiova coal-fired power plants in Romania. Wastewater thermal pollutant vector Plane Projection is applied for assessing the water temperature evolution in the water flow lane created downstream of each power plant wastewater outlet channel. Simulation on the basis of an Electricity of France model, and testing validation of the results for thermoelectric units of 330 MW of these power plants are presented.

  4. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of bovine Trypanosomosis and epidemiological surveillance in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sporadic outbreaks of bovine Trypanosomiasis have been reported in Bolivia since 1996 when T.vivax and T.evansi were identified for the first time by parasitological means. However, comprehensive epidemiological information concerning T.vivax and T.evansi in the country is lacking. Current parasitological and serological diagnostic methods for Trypanosomiasis have important limitations either in their sensitivity or specificity, which can result in unreliable data when applied in epidemiological studies. PCR assays are a recently developed procedure that might help to overcome the constraints of parasitological and serological assays. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies in Bolivia. PCR assays for diagnosis of Trypanosome infection in cattle were evaluated for their ability to detect Trypanosome DNA in blood spots samples collected from cattle in four different provinces from the Bolivian lowlands and the results compared with those obtained with standard parasitological (Micro Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique (HCT) and stained smears) and serological methods (Card Agglutination Test for T.evansi (CATT), and Antibody ELISAs for T.vivax and T. congolense). Kappa agreement analysis showed a significant agreement between PCR assays and results from parasitological methods but there was no agreement when PCR was compared with serological assays. Some samples from T.vivax smear positive animals were negative by PCR, therefore modifications to the PCR assay conditions were undertaken to try to improve agreement between PCR and parasitological assays. Changes in the template DNA concentration or the use of an alternative primer sets resulted in improvements in the PCR detection rate, but not all the parasitologically positive samples were detected by PCR. Results from PCR assays for T.vivax and T.evansi were combined with results from parasitological and serological assays to provide

  5. Understanding the role of scientific evidence in consumer evaluation of natural health products for osteoarthritis an application of the means end chain approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Teresa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 30% of individuals use natural health products (NHPs for osteoarthritis-related pain. The Deficit Model for the Public Understanding of Science suggests that if individuals are given more information (especially about scientific evidence they will make better health-related decisions. In contrast, the Contextual Model argues that scientific evidence is one of many factors that explain how consumers make health-related decisions. The primary objective was to investigate how the level of scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of NHPs impacts consumer decision-making in the self-selection of NHPs by individuals with osteoarthritis. Methods The means-end chain approach to product evaluation was used to compare laddering interviews with two groups of community-dwelling Canadian seniors who had used NHPs to treat their osteoarthritis. Group 1 (n=13 had used only NHPs (glucosamine and/or chondroitin with “high” scientific evidence of efficacy. Group 2 (n=12 had used NHPs (methylsulfonylmethane (MSM and/or bromelain with little or no scientific evidence supporting efficacy. Content analysis and generation of hierarchical value maps facilitated the identification of similarities and differences between the two groups. Results The dominant decision-making chains for participants in the two scientific evidence categories were similar. Scientific evidence was an important decision-making factor but not as important as the advice from health care providers, friends and family. Most participants learned about scientific evidence via indirect sources from health care providers and the media. Conclusions The Contextual Model of the public understanding of science helps to explain why our participants believed scientific evidence is not the most important factor in their decision to use NHPs to help manage their osteoarthritis.

  6. Building Agro-Energy Supply Chains in the Basilicata Region: Technical and Economic Evaluation of Interchangeability between Fossil and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a model for the implementation of agro-energy chains based on the actual availability of forest biomass and the real demand for energy (heat in the area of the Basilicata region, Italy. The demand for energy has been estimated by drawing on the database of the Ministry of Economic Development or by calculating the Annual Energy Requirement (AER index, while for the estimate of the available forest biomass, reference was made to the public forest lands managed according to forestry management plans. The collected data were cross-checked with a view to detecting the technical and economic feasibility of district heating systems. The technical evaluation has mainly focused on the energetic and plant aspects, while the economic assessment was directed to defining the cost effectiveness criteria [Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, Payback Period] that can measure the profitability of the investment. In the economic evaluation we also included the national public incentives, designed to encourage the production of energy from renewable sources in compliance with the international agreements signed by Italy for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs.

  7. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  8. Evaluation and optimization of SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a tool for diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Farignoli Romeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The genus Flavivirus includes several pathogenic species that cause severe illness in humans. Therefore, a rapid and accurate molecular method for diagnosis and surveillance of these viruses would be of great importance. Here, we evaluate and optimize a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method for the diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus. METHODS: We evaluated different commercial kits that use the SYBR Green system for real-time RT-PCR with a primer set that amplifies a fragment of the NS5 flavivirus gene. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested using twelve flaviviruses and ribonucleic acid (RNA transcribed from the yellow fever virus. Additionally, this assay was evaluated using the sera of 410 patients from different regions of Brazil with acute febrile illness and a negative diagnosis for the dengue virus. RESULTS: The real-time RT-PCR amplified all flaviviruses tested at a melting temperature of 79.92 to 83.49°C. A detection limit of 100 copies per ml was determined for this assay. Surprisingly, we detected dengue virus in 4.1% (17/410 of samples from patients with febrile illness and a supposedly negative dengue infection diagnosis. The viral load in patients ranged from 2.1×107to 3.4×103copies per ml. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time RT-PCR method may be very useful for preliminary diagnoses in screenings, outbreaks, and other surveillance studies. Moreover, this assay can be easily applied to monitor viral activity and to measure viral load in pathogenesis studies.

  9. Research on Construction and Application of the Model of Food Supply Chain Risk Evaluation%食品供应链风险评判模型的构建及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董千里; 李春花; 关高峰

    2012-01-01

    According to the phenomenon that emergency frequently happen in China's food industry, used related theory of Analytic Hierarchy Process, Fuzzy Evaluation Method, Membership and System Analysis, established a risk evaluation model, which reflected essential characteristics of food supply chain. Based on the formation mechanism and system analysis for food supply chain risk, formed a food supply chain risk evaluation index system,and constructed the food supply chain risk multi-grade fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, judged risk degree of one class index factors and food supply chain system, with every factor risk degree sequence. And as an example, applied the model to a dairy production enterprise in food supply chain, for the risk of evaluation. The results of the study show that the accurate evaluation of food supply chain risk can determine more reasonable risk level, and help provide enterprise with reliable basis, reduce the happening of food supply chain emergency.%针对中国食品行业突发事件的频发现象,运用层次分析法、模糊评判法、隶属度和系统分析的相关理论,建立一个反映食品供应链本质特征的风险评判模型。基于对食品供应链风险的形成机理和系统分析,形成食品供应链风险评判指标体系,构建食品供应链风险多级模糊综合评判模型,判定一级指标各因素风险度和食品供应链系统风险度,并对各因素风险度排序。以某乳制品生产企业所处的食品供应链为例,对模型进行应用。研究结果表明,食品供应链风险的准确评判,可以确定更加合理的风险等级,有助于为企业提供可靠的风险规避依据,减少食品供应链突发事件的发生。

  10. 电子商务环境下供应链信息风险的模糊评价%A fuzzy evaluation of supply chain information risk under E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟莲; 王蕾

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at supply chain information risk problem, the paper analyzed the source of supply chain information risk under E-commerce from three aspects including information uncertainty, information transferring and commission-deputizing relationship, and a information risk evaluation system was set up.Fuzzy evaluation was carried out by using set-pair analysis to evaluate information risk of supply chain under E-commerce,which can solve supply chain information risk evaluating problem better.%针对电子商务环境下供应链的信息风险评价问题,从信息不确定性、信息传递和委托代理关系3个方面分析供应链信息风险的来源,建立电子商务环境下供应链的信息风险评估指标体系,用集对分析方法对电子商务环境下供应链的信息风险进行模糊评价,较好地解决了供应链的信息风险评价问题.

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the routine early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis sputum and throat swab specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Logan, Catriona

    2012-02-01

    A longitudinal study of 2099 sputa and throat swabs received from 183 pediatric cystic fibrosis patients over a 29-month period was used to evaluate the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR resulted in an increased number of specimens identified as P. aeruginosa positive. The sensitivity of culture was 82% (373\\/453) and of PCR was 93% (420\\/453) when considering both positive culture and PCR results as true positives. Of the 80 specimens identified as PCR positive\\/culture negative for P. aeruginosa, the subsequent patient sample in 32.5% (26\\/80) of specimens concerned was identified as P. aeruginosa culture positive, suggesting that PCR has the potential to detect P. aeruginosa earlier than the microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR analysis found no evidence of the Liverpool and Manchester epidemic P. aeruginosa strains in the cohort examined. The findings of this study highlight the importance of specimen collection protocols to ensure that adequate samples are received at the laboratory for testing, thereby minimizing the potential for reporting of false-negative P. aeruginosa culture results.

  12. Evaluation of the paternity probability on an application of minisatellite variant repeat mapping using polymerase chain reaction (MVR-PCR) to paternity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X L; Tamaki, K; Yamamoto, T; Yoshimoto, T; Mizutani, M; Leong, Y K; Tanaka, M; Nozawa, H; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y

    1999-09-01

    Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a practical case of paternity testing to evaluate the paternity probability. In order to obtain single allele mapping by allele-specific MVR-PCR, three flanking polymorphic sites for each of the MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated and all three individuals were typed as heterozygous for at least one flanking polymorphic site at each locus. Allele-specific MVR-PCR was then performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that from the mother and the other one in the child was identical to that from the alleged father. Mapped allele codes were also compared with those in the database by dot-matrix analysis, and no identical allele was found although some motifs were shared with Japanese alleles. The paternity index and the probability of paternity exclusion in the case at these two MVR loci were calculated using the presumed values of the allele frequencies. These studies seem to illustrate the practical value of MVR mapping of MS31A and MS32 loci in paternity testing.

  13. An Evaluation of the Implementation of Practice Teaching Program for Prospective Teachers at Ganesha University of Education Based on CIPP-Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Wisna Ariawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of teacher status is very high and this is followed by a requirement of a high competence level that a teacher has to have that the existence of teachers has to gain a serious attention, including also the beginning of prospective teachers preparation. Ganesha University of Education (Undiksha as one of public universities in Indonesia is given authority by the government to train prospective teachers. To produce quality prospective teachers that meet the requirement Undiksha requires all education students who will become prospective teachers to take Practice Teaching Program (PPL Real. However, in its implementation it can be said that it has not been effective yet. Thus there is a need to evaluate the implementation of Practice Teaching Program for prospective teachers at Undiksha. One of the techniques used is the CIPP model that is combined with Forward Chaining Method that is one of inferring strategies of Expert System. From the components of context, input, process, and product, the implementation of Practice Teaching Program (PPL-Real of the education students of Undiksha in 2015 falls into an effective classification.

  14. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Christa K; Zhang, Jianqiang; Strait, Erin; Harmon, Karen; Patnayak, Devi; Otterson, Tracy; Culhane, Marie; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Clement, Travis; Leslie-Steen, Pamela; Hesse, Richard; Anderson, Joe; Skarbek, Kevin; Vincent, Amy; Kitikoon, Pravina; Swenson, Sabrina; Jenkins-Moore, Melinda; McGill, Jodi; Rauh, Rolf; Nelson, William; O'Connell, Catherine; Shah, Rohan; Wang, Chong; Main, Rodger; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 assays based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 assays based on virus isolation (VI). The OF specimens were inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially diluted 10-fold (10(-1) to 10(-8)). Eight participating laboratories received 180 randomized OF samples (10 replicates × 8 dilutions × 2 IAV subtypes plus 20 IAV-negative samples) and performed the rRT-PCR and VI procedure(s) of their choice. Analysis of the results with a mixed-effect logistic-regression model identified dilution and assay as variables significant (P PCR or VI. Virus subtype was not significant for IAV detection by either rRT-PCR (P = 0.457) or VI (P = 0.101). For rRT-PCR the cycle threshold (Ct) values increased consistently with dilution but varied widely. Therefore, it was not possible to predict VI success on the basis of Ct values. The success of VI was inversely related to the dilution of the sample; the assay was generally unsuccessful at lower virus concentrations. Successful swine health monitoring and disease surveillance require assays with consistent performance, but significant differences in reproducibility were observed among the assays evaluated.

  15. Development of plasmids for quantitative detection of integrated lentiviral vectors and evaluation of culture time to perform vector titer by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Baiamonte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of provirus copy number per cell (VCN/cell is a fundamental issue in transgenesis as well as in gene therapy studies based on stably integrated vectors. To this end, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is a powerful method but it is sensible to differences in quality or concentration of the two-plasmid preparations used for the construction of the standard curves. In order to minimize technical errors we included genome specific sequences (mouse or human and vector specific sequences in the same plasmid. We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of these bivalent plasmids by qPCR analysis on mouse and human genomic DNA containing a known number of a reporter lentiviral vector and we found that the system is reliable to measure up to 0.1 VCN/cell. Here we have applied this assay to measure vector titer of virus stock preparations and to determine the optimal cell passages at which viral titration effectively reflects the number of integrated vectors.

  16. Evaluation of the role of ascitic fluid polymerase chain reaction targeting IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the diagnosis of tuberculous intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We evaluated if ascitic fluid sample could be used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis intestinal obstruction (TBIO by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay and analyzed the clinical and laboratory findings in 33 patients with confirmed intestinal tuberculosis (TB compared to 54 patients with other pathologies of intestinal obstruction. Methods: We tested ascitic fluid sample by Ziehl-Neelson staining; Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J culture method was used for the culture and PCR was performed for targeting the IS6110 sequence. Results: We found that 87.9% (29/33 of cases with intestinal TB and 0% (0/54 with other causes who had positive results with the nested PCR assay. PCR, in principle, is a highly sensitive technique that detects DNA from a single to a few microorganisms with the overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV of 87.87%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB staining alone has positivity of only 24% and histology alone has positivity of 88%. Conclusion: PCR has a potentially important role in improving the diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Identification and Evaluation of the Supply Chain Risk Factors in Sugar Industry%蔗糖业供应链风险因素的识别与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀珍; 董欢欢; 熊炜

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify and evaluate the factors of supply chain risk. This paper also puts forward the influence factors of the sugar industry supply chain risk, with the reference to recognition method of supply chain risk factors abroad from literature based on the characteristics of sugar industry supply chain. Finally, gray relational analysis is a-dopted to evaluate supply chain risk factors of the sugar industry, and then one practical example proves the feasibility of this method.%风险因素的识别和评价是风险研究的重要阶段.借鉴国内外关于供应链风险影响因素的识别方法,根据蔗糖业供应链的特点,提出了影响蔗糖业供应链的风险因素.最后运用灰色关联法建立蔗糖业供应链风险因素评价模型,并通过实例证明此模型的可行性.

  18. Evaluation of scalarization methods and NSGA-II/SPEA2 genetic algorithms for multi-objective optimization of green supply chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Plas (Corne); T. Tervonen (Tommi); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers supply chain design in green logistics. We formulate the choice of an environmentally conscious chain design as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem and approximate the Pareto front using the weighted sum and epsilon constraint scalarization methods as well a

  19. Application and Evaluation of a Snowmelt Runoff Model in the Tamor River Basin, Eastern Himalaya Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Data Assimilation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Prajjwal K.; Williams, Christopher A.; Frey, Karen E.; Brown, Molly E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have drawn attention to substantial hydrological changes taking place in mountainous watersheds where hydrology is dominated by cryospheric processes. Modelling is an important tool for understanding these changes but is particularly challenging in mountainous terrain owing to scarcity of ground observations and uncertainty of model parameters across space and time. This study utilizes a Markov Chain Monte Carlo data assimilation approach to examine and evaluate the performance of a conceptual, degree-day snowmelt runoff model applied in the Tamor River basin in the eastern Nepalese Himalaya. The snowmelt runoff model is calibrated using daily streamflow from 2002 to 2006 with fairly high accuracy (average Nash-Sutcliffe metric approx. 0.84, annual volume bias <3%). The Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach constrains the parameters to which the model is most sensitive (e.g. lapse rate and recession coefficient) and maximizes model fit and performance. Model simulated streamflow using an interpolated precipitation data set decreases the fractional contribution from rainfall compared with simulations using observed station precipitation. The average snowmelt contribution to total runoff in the Tamor River basin for the 2002-2006 period is estimated to be 29.7+/-2.9% (which includes 4.2+/-0.9% from snowfall that promptly melts), whereas 70.3+/-2.6% is attributed to contributions from rainfall. On average, the elevation zone in the 4000-5500m range contributes the most to basin runoff, averaging 56.9+/-3.6% of all snowmelt input and 28.9+/-1.1% of all rainfall input to runoff. Model simulated streamflow using an interpolated precipitation data set decreases the fractional contribution from rainfall versus snowmelt compared with simulations using observed station precipitation. Model experiments indicate that the hydrograph itself does not constrain estimates of snowmelt versus rainfall contributions to total outflow but that this derives from the degree

  20. SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF AN E-COMMERCE CHAIN (E-CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gilberto Mendes do Reis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper purpose to explore the relationships between supply chain strategies and product performance in retail e-commerce. In this case, we concern that in current, in order to bear up under competition, organizations have to manage their supply chains so that they meet the needs of their final customers. With this concept in mind, the research presented in this study focuses on establishing the right strategy for supply chains according to their product segment. Thus, after a Literature Review, the paper explain a methodology based in different authors studies. Finally the article focuses on a pratical case in e-commerce retail that describes its application in this field. The research shows that it is possible to use a methodology for classifying supply chains using chain strategies and product features. The use of the right strategy for supply chains will improve the competitive advantage of businesses. One limitation is that the methodology study focuses on only two e-commerce segment; future studies may go further in refining the proposed framework for other segments. The aim of this research is to offer businesses a model for evaluating supply chains, allowing them to improve the performance of their products and services by using the right strategy for supply chains. The classification proposal of this paper presents an original model for classification of supply chains based on different studies on the theme.

  1. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA projections for inefficient supply chains. Meanwhile this approach aims at providing an easy, efficient and more practical approach based on the performance evaluation for the multi-member supply chain. And ultimately, this model is illustrated by an numerical example of Chinese commercial bank, and case study application to provide of machine-making supply chain.

  2. Benchmarking carbon emissions performance in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaye, Adolf; Genovese, Andrea; Barrett, John W.; Koh, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to develop a benchmarking framework to address issues such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geographical differences and non-standardized data, ensuring that the entire supply chain environmental impact (in terms of carbon) and resource use for all tiers, including domestic and import flows, are evaluated. Benchmarking has become an important issue in supply chain management practice. However, challenges such as supply chain complexity and visibility, geogra...

  3. BUSINESS TENDENCIES IN SERVICES WITHIN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Skowron-Grabowska

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. Client satisfaction and improvement in profitability are two basic goals while organizing supply chain. In the paper author tried to prove that there is a correlation between organization of supply chain and subjective evaluation of economic situation by enterprises. Logistics integration helps enterprises to find their place in the supply chain.

  4. 基于平衡计分思想的食品冷链评价指标研究%Evaluation Study Based on the Balanced Scorecard Thought of the Food Cold Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚加彩; 谢如鹤

    2013-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards,increasing demand for frozen food,frozen food supply chain have emerged and rapid development.The article,firstly,introduces the particularity of the food cold chain and the importance of performance evaluation,then combined with a general indicator of the supply chain performance evaluation to summarize food cold chain performance evaluation which based on the the Balanced Scorecard and build the index system.%随着生活水平的提高,人们对冷藏食品的需求日益增加,冷藏食品供应链应运而生并快速发展。文中首先介绍食品冷链的特殊性及绩效评价的重要性,然后结合供应链绩效评价的一般指标归纳总结出基于平衡计分卡的食品冷链绩效评价指标,并构建指标体系。

  5. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  6. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...... for the success of intermodal chains using the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route. The results obtained validate the utility of the models and they suggest possible changes to the current operation of this SSS service in order to increase the marked potential possibilities for the intermodal chains through Rosyth-Zeebrugge....

  7. 基于模糊综合评价的零售企业供应链风险评价%Study on Risk Assessment of Retailer Enterprise Supply Chain Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛太田; 周丹

    2013-01-01

    For the identification of risk factors to take appropriate measures, the supply chain risk assessment is the necessary step. It includes measuring the potential loss frequency and loss degree. This article is from the procurement, inventory, distribution, sales and customer service 5 risk perspectives to construct the index system of retail supply chain risk evaluation. Use of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to evaluate the enterprise supply chain risk on quantitative. The evaluation process uses the Delphi method to determine the weight of each index, and put forward some improvement suggestions according to the evaluation results.%供应链风险评价是对所识别的风险因素采取适当的措施,包括衡量潜在的损失频率和损失程度。文中从采购、库存、配送、销售和售后5个风险视角构建了零售供应链风险评估指标体系,运用模糊综合评价模型对企业供应链风险进行定量评价,在评价过程中采用德尔菲法来确定各指标的权重,并根据评价结果提出改进建议。

  8. Markov chains theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sericola, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Markov chains are a fundamental class of stochastic processes. They are widely used to solve problems in a large number of domains such as operational research, computer science, communication networks and manufacturing systems. The success of Markov chains is mainly due to their simplicity of use, the large number of available theoretical results and the quality of algorithms developed for the numerical evaluation of many metrics of interest.The author presents the theory of both discrete-time and continuous-time homogeneous Markov chains. He carefully examines the explosion phenomenon, the

  9. Perioperative supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  10. 基于PDCA的供应链视角下物流客户服务绩效评价研究%Performance Evaluation Logistics Customer Service from Supply Chain Perspective Based on PDCA Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪利虹; 刘志学

    2012-01-01

    在系统总结国内外相关文献的基础上,设计了基于PDCA循环的供应链视角下物流客户服务绩效评价流程,并针对每个流程给出了控制重点,旨在通过对绩效评价流程的规范管理,不断提高物流客户服务绩效和供应链整体绩效水平.在绩效评价方案设计环节提出了给予供应链整体绩效提升的物流客户服务绩效评价方法和指标体系,在绩效评价方案实施环节给出了应用模糊层次分析法选择物流服务商的步骤.%Based on classic PDCA cycle control theory, we study process management of logistics customer service performance evaluation from supply chain perspective. On the basis of systematic review of related literature at home and abroad, we propose a process of logistics customer service performance evaluation from supply chain perspective based on PDCA cycle, and in the light of each process control key points are given for the improvement of standard management of performance evaluation process and the performance level of logistics customer service and supply chain. In the performance evaluation scheme design, we put forward logistics customer service performance evaluation method and index system to improve the overall performance of the supply chain. And in the performance evaluation scheme we lay out implementation method of logistics customer services of the chosen procedure based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

  11. Evaluation of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to assess PEDV transmission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura C; Crawford, Kimberly K; Lager, Kelly M; Kellner, Steven G; Brockmeier, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    In April 2013, a Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) epidemic began in the United States. As part of the response, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to detect PEDV were developed by several veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Our study evaluated RT-PCR PEDV assays that detect the N gene (gN) and S gene (gS) for their ability to detect PEDV infection and the transmission potential of pigs experimentally exposed to PEDV. Detection limits and quantification cycle (Cq) values of real-time RT-PCR were assayed for PEDV samples and positive controls for both gN and gS. The limit of detection for the gN assay was 10(-6) (mean Cq: 39.82 ± 0.30) and 10(-5) (mean Cq: 39.39 ± 0.72) for the gS assay with PEDV strain USA/Colorado/2013. Following recommended guidelines, rectal swabs (n = 1,064) were tested; 354 samples were positive by gN assay and 349 samples were positive by gS assay (Cq ≤ 34.99), 710 samples were negative by gN assay and 715 were negative by gS assay (Cq > 34.99) of which 355 and 344 were "undetermined" (i.e., undetected within a threshold of 40 RT-PCR cycles, by gN and gS assays, respectively). The coefficient of variation (intra-assay variation) ranged from 0.00% to 2.65% and interassay variation had an average of 2.75%. PEDV could be detected in rectal swabs from all pigs for ~2 weeks postinfection at which time the prevalence began to decrease until all pigs were RT-PCR negative by 5 weeks postinfection. Our study demonstrated that RT-PCR assays functioned well to detect PEDV and that the gN assay was slightly better.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of acyclovir and/or human amniotic membrane on herpes virus culture and quantitative virus inactivity by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feride; Aylin; Kantarci; Ali; Reza; Faraji; Aykut; Ozkul; Fikret; Akata

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the permeability of amniotic membrane in herpes virus cell culture to acyclovir with real time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).·METHODS: Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney(MDBK) cell culture and Bovine Herpes Virus(BHV1) type 1 were used in the study. Cell cultures were grouped into two on the basis of herpes virus inoculation. Each group was sub-grouped into three. Amniotic membrane(V-HAM),acyclovir(V-A), and amniotic membrane and acyclovir(V-HAM-A) were applied to these subgroup cultures,respectively. After the application of the membrane and the drug, the cultures were evaluated at 24 and 48 h for cytopathic effect positive(CPE +) with a tissue culture microscope. In the CPE(+) samples, the DNA was extracted for viral DNA analysis by RT-PCR.·RESULTS: In control cultures without herpes virus CPE was not detected. Besides, amniotic membrane and acyclovir did not have cytotoxic effect on cell cultures.CPE were detected in Bovine Herpesvirus type-1inoculated cell cultures after amniotic membrane and/or acyclovir application. DNA analysis with RT-PCR indicated that Cycle threshold(Ct) values were lower in the BHV1 and membrane applied group(amniotic membrane group < acyclovir group < membrane and acyclovir group). This showed that membrane did not have antiviral effect. The membrane and acyclovir cell culture groups with high Ct values indicated thatmembrane was permeable and had a low barrier effect to drug.·CONCLUSION: In our in-vitro study, we found that amniotic membrane, which can be used in the treatment of corneal diseases, did not have antiviral effect. Besides,we detected that amniotic membrane was permeable to acyclovir in BHV-1 inoculated MDBK cell culture.However, more studies are necessary to investigate the quantitative effects of amniotic membrane and acyclovir.

  13. Evaluation of strategies to control Fab light chain dimer during mammalian expression and purification: A universal one-step process for purification of correctly assembled Fab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Jennifer; Keen, Jenny; Nayyar, Kalpana; Birkett, Neil; Bond, Nicholas; Bannister, David; Tigue, Natalie; Higazi, Daniel; Kemp, Benjamin; Vaughan, Tristan; Kippen, Alistair; Buchanan, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fabs are an important class of antibody fragment as both research reagents and therapeutic agents. There are a plethora of methods described for their recombinant expression and purification. However, these do not address the issue of excessive light chain production that forms light chain dimers nor do they describe a universal purification strategy. Light chain dimer impurities and the absence of a universal Fab purification strategy present persistent challenges for biotechnology applications using Fabs, particularly around the need for bespoke purification strategies. This study describes methods to address light chain dimer formation during Fab expression and identifies a novel CH 1 affinity resin as a simple and efficient one-step purification for correctly assembled Fab.

  14. Evaluation Analysis on Commercial Banks Selection for Supply Chain%层次分析法在供应链选择商业银行评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明伟; 徐丽

    2014-01-01

    From the overall consideration of the supply chain ,this article analyzes the various factors of influencing supply chain members to select commercial banks from the perspectives of qualitative and quantitative by analytic hierarchy process ,establishing evaluation system impact indicators .The results show that ,from the perspective of the supply chain ,the supply chain of financial products is the main factor ,followed by asset size and security capabilities ,when supply chain selects commercial banks .%文章从供应链的整体考虑,应用层次分析法从定性和定量两个角度分析了影响供应链成员选择商业银行的各种因素,建立了影响指标的评价体系。结果表明,从供应链角度出发,供应链选择商业银行时供应链金融产品是主要影响因素,资产规模和安全能力其次。

  15. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ching Liu; Yue-Hwa Yu; Iddo K. Wernick; Ching-Yuan Chang

    2015-01-01

    Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC) Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance...

  16. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of alternative processes and technology chains (BEAT). Research for the production of tomorrow. Focus: Simulation and evaluation. Final report for the research project; Bewertung der Energieeffizienz alternativer Prozesse und Technologieketten (BEAT). Forschung fuer die Produktion von morgen. Schwerpunkt: Simulation und Bewertung. Abschlussbericht fuer das Verbundprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Satisfying the needs of people in a globalized world requires a sustainable development. The production of goods is a key role in the development of this sustainable development. The sustainable development of manufacturing companies requires the implementation of new lifecycle assessment methods for manufacturing processes and manufacturing technology chains. This final report under consideration describes the development of a methodology for the evaluation and assessment of technology chains using the production of a gear wheel and an injector.

  17. Study on Evaluation of Internal Control of Supply Chain Based on BSC-FANP%基于 BSC-FANP 供应链内部控制评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉红; 尤建新; 唐述毅; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the overall effectiveness and promote the sustainable development of the supply chain has always been the focus of supply chain management .To solve this problem ,an evaluation system of internal con-trol of supply chain based on balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process is proposed .First, the balanced scorecard is used to build an efficiency-oriented evaluation index system to improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain , which consists of four indicators and twelve secondary indicators .Then , the evaluation index weight through fuzzy analytic network process is designed .Furthermore, multiplication and addition ( weighted average ) function of fuzzy analytic network process to calculate and synthesize the weight of evaluation indicators and secondary indicators is used .Finally, an example of Shanghai retail supply chain is given , with the balanced scorecard-fuzzy analytic network process mode built in this paper , to analyse and evaluate their supply chain and its node enterprise .The example shows the feasibility and practicability of the model .%提升供应链整体功效、促进供应链持续发展一直以来都是供应链管理关注的重点,针对该问题建立一个基于平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型的供应链内部控制评价体系。首先运用平衡计分卡构建一个由4个维度、12个指标组成的以提高整体效率为导向的评价指标体系;然后通过模糊网络分析法对其进行指标权重的设计,运用模糊网络分析法的乘和加(加权平均)算子进行评价指标/维度的权重计算及合成;最后,以上海某零售业供应链为例,运用建立的平衡计分卡-模糊网络分析模型对供应链及其节点企业内部控制现状进行分析、评价,证明了该模型的可行性和实用性。

  18. The innovation value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  19. Evaluation of the SAFRAN-ISBA-RAPID hydrometeorological chain on a mountainous catchment in a semi-arid region. Case of the Rheraya (Marrakech, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, Camille; Gascoin, Simon; Habets, Florence; Saaidi, Amina; Berjamy, Brahim; Marchane, Ahmed; Boulet, Gilles; Hanich, Lahoucine; Jarlan, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    The water content of snow pack is an important resource for many watershed in semi-arid areas where downstream plains are dominated by irrigated agriculture. As part of the ANR Amethyst, this work is to develop, adapt and evaluate a hydro-meteorological forecasting chain for quantifying streamflows at the outlet of a mountainous watershed (Rheraya wadi, Marrakech region, Morocco), a pilot basin instrumented since 2003 as part of SudMed project. Two sets of atmospheric forcing were used: (1) The first was generated by spatializing meteorological data observed on 6 stations (Asni, Aremdt, Tachedert, Oukaimeden, Imskerbour and Neltner) using the semi-physical module Micromet (Liston and Elder, 2006) on the hydrological period September 2003 - August 2012; (2) the second is provided by the SAFRAN re-analysis, implemented by the Metoffice of Morocco (Casablanca, Morocco), during the period August 2004 - July 2008. These two sets were then used as inputs for the ISBA surface model, within the modeling platform SURFEX. Finally, runoff and drainage simulations derived from ISBA were forced into the hydrological model RAPID to predict streamflows. The flows predictions and the snow covered area (SCA) were compared respectively to the observations available for the 2003-2009 period and to the daily MODIS products of SCA. Despite time unsystematic lags and low biases on flow values, the initial results are encouraging due to topographical and hydro-complexity of the studied area. Despite a slight tendency to underestimate the SCA for the "Micromet" run and to over-estimate for the "Safran" run, SCA is well reproduced with a determination coefficient of r²=0.76 and r²=0.79, respectively. Given the complex topography of the basin, a sensitivity analysis to the size of the grid point (from 8 km to 250 m) was conducted. If the different simulated series of SCA are close from a resolution to another, streamflows simulations are, by contrast, highly sensitive to the resolution

  20. 基于SCOR模型的新能源汽车供应链风险识别和评估%Study on Risk Recognition and Evaluation of New Energy Automobile Supply Chain Based on SCOR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 何紫微

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we first analyzed the current development status and characteristics of the new energy automobile supply chain, then defined the supply chain risk, introduced the characteristics of the risks and compared them with those of the traditional automobile supply chain. Next, we introduced in the SCOR model, identified the risks of the supply chain in five stages, next through questionnaire survey, analyzed the 31 risk factors to determine the 19 key risk factors and build the corresponding risk evaluation index system, and at the end, using AHP and fuzzy AHP, evaluated the risks of the supply chain.%首先对新能源汽车供应链的发展现状与特点进行分析,接着对供应链风险进行定义,阐述风险特点,比较其与传统汽车风险的不同。然后引入了SCOR模型,从5个基本阶段对供应链风险进行识别,再采用问卷调查法,对识别得到的31个风险因素进行判断,最终确定了19个风险因素,以构建新能源汽车供应链风险评价指标体系。最后采用层次分析法和模糊层次分析法对供应链风险进行评估。

  1. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Standard approach to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. End-to-end view. Total Lifecycle. Evaluate the readiness of the supply chain during the supply chain development phase.

  2. Research on enterprise performance evaluation model in supply chain management%供应链管理下的企业效能评价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑锋; 陈燕; 杨孝禹; 刘树勇

    2012-01-01

    评价供应链管理的好坏,关键在于分析它为企业所带来的实际收益.依据平衡计分卡理论,构建供应链管理下的内在因果关系分析框架,表明学习与成长、供应链流程、顾客满意度和企业财务水平的相互联系,在此分析框架下,利用系统动力学模拟仿真的方法,探讨供应链整体运行效果和企业个体效能的关系,显示供应链协作时间的改进,经过因果链最终使企业利润发生多大程度的变动,这样,可以求解出供应链管理为企业所带来的实际效能,为企业实施供应链管理项目提供指导依据.%For the supply chain management, the key for enterprises is how much income it can produce. Based on the theory of the balanced scorecard, an internal causality analysis framework in supply chain management is established, which shows the relationship within learning and growing, supply chain process, customer satisfaction and enterprise financial level, and in that analysis framework, using the system dynamics simulation method, this paper discusses the contact between the whole supply chain operation efficiency and enterprise individual performance result, which shows the change of enterprise' s profit caused by the improvement of supply chain coordination time through causal chain eventually. In this way, the enterprise's actual efficiency caused by supply chain management is calculated out, which helps to provide guidance for implementation of enterprise' s supply chain management project.

  3. Research on Supple Chain Evaluation System Model Design Based on Cloud Computing%基于云计算的供应链评价系统模型设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑学伟

    2014-01-01

    针对云计算环境下系统评价过程具有动态性以及评价指标模糊性的问题,本文提出基于马尔可夫链的动态评价模型。通过构建的评价指标体系,采用主客观相结合的综合权重法计算指标权值,利用模糊综合分析法对不同历史时间段的节点进行评价,引入马尔可夫链理论,建立概率转移矩阵,得到状态稳定向量,结合权值得到节点企业发展趋势以及综合评估值并证明该评价方法的合理性和可行性。%The supply chain system selection and evaluation process is dynamic and the evaluation indexes are fuzzy under the cloud computing environment.To address the problems above,a dynamic fuzzy evaluation model based on Markov chain is proposed.Based on the constructed evaluation index system,the model adopts a subjective and objective comprehensive weight calculating method to calculate the index weight.Then using the fuzzy comprehensive analysis method to evaluate node in different historical periods,and obtain the steady state vector by introducing Markov Chain theory.Next,it gains the development trend of node enterprises and their comprehensive evaluation value by combining the weight value calculated above.

  4. 鲜食葡萄供应链综合绩效评价指标体系研究%Study on Comprehensive Performance Evaluation Index System of Table Grapes Supply Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉军; 郑小平; 穆维松; 田东

    2014-01-01

    在对国内外相关文献进行总结的基础上,分析了鲜食葡萄供应链各环节的业务流程及绩效构成的特点,从产品质量指标、经济效益指标、供应链流程指标和顾客指标等四个方面构建了鲜食葡萄供应链绩效的综合评价指标体系。%In this paper, on the basis of a review of the relevant Chinese and foreign literatures, we analyzed the business process of the various links of the table grapes supply chains and the compositional characteristics of the performance of the supply chains and on the four aspects which were product quality, economic benefit, supply chain process and customer, built the comprehensive evaluation index system of the performance of the table grapes supply chains.

  5. Amphiphilic block copolymers bearing six-membered ortho ester ring in side chains as potential drug carriers: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi; Tao, Yangyang; Tang, Rupei; Wang, Rui; Ji, Weihang; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Youliang

    2014-07-01

    A new type of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-acrylicacid 2-methoxy-5-methyl-[1,3]dioxin-5-ylmethyl ester) (PEG-b-PMME), bearing acid-labile six-membered ortho ester rings in side chains was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, and the influence of chain length of the hydrophobic PMME block on micelle properties was investigated. The PEG-b-PMME micelles were stable in aqueous buffer at physiological pH with a low critical micelle concentration. Nile Red as a model drug was encapsulated into the micelles to explore the release profiles. The Nile Red-loaded polymeric micelles showed rapid release of Nile Red in weakly acidic environments (pH 5) but slow release under physiological condition (pH 7.4), due to different hydrolysis rate of ortho ester side chains of PEG-b-PMME. The Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded micelles retained potency in killing lung cancer cells (A549), compared with the free PTX. No obvious toxicity was found in vitro and in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the micelles, which confirms that the PEG-b-PMME micelles with unique acid-labile characteristic have great potential as nano-scaled carriers for drug delivery.

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...

  7. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  8. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  9. Green Building Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Based on Improved BSC Method%基于改进型BSC法绿色建筑供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟伟; 张云宁; 欧阳红祥

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the performance evaluation of green supply chain,this paper analyzed the characteristics of the supply chain of green building,and built performance evaluation index system based on the improved balanced scorecard model. Using SPSS13.0 software, indicators dimensions are reduced by principal component analysis. Combining with genetic algorithm, the paper adopted uncertain AHP method to establish an objective optimization model to calculate the final results of the evaluation. Then, the model was applied into a specific case,and more accurate and objective evaluation results were obtained. This paper provides a useful perspective for the green supply chain performance evaluation and continuous improvement in construction enterprises.%为了提高绿色建筑供应链绩效评价的科学合理性和可操作性,分析了绿色建筑供应链的概念及特点,基于改进型BSC模式构建绩效评价指标体。提出了通过SPSS软件对指标体系主成分分析以降低指标维度,基于不确定层次分析法建立目标优化模型,结合遗传算法对绿色建筑供应链进行综合评价。并将建立的模型和算法应用到算例中,得出更加准确、客观的评价结果。为建筑业企业进行绿色供应链绩效评价和持续改进提供了有益的视角,具有重要的理论指导意义和现实应用价值。

  10. Mathematical description of the position of mining chain links on a driving chain wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolipski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The paper analyzes effects of geometry on interaction between the chain and chain wheels of face conveyors in underground coal mines. Interaction between chain links and wheel toothing is investigated using mathematical models. Three mesh types are comparatively evaluated, so-called normal mesh, nominal mesh and special mesh. Chain position on the chain wheel is shown in 3 schemes. Mathematical formulae used for characterizing mesh types are derived. Effects of the following factors on interaction between a chain link and a chain wheel are analyzed: link quality and differences in quality and dimensions among chain links, friction wear of links and toothing, elastic and plastic chain elongation, friction between links and toothing. A geometric model of the interaction between the chain wheel and haulage chain (in the form of a double polygon) is used. The mathematical model permits the following problems to be analyzed: load distribution among chain links on a chain wheel, load distribution on toothing, load fluctuations, effects of friction wear of chain and toothing. Examples of practical use of the formulae are discussed. (14 refs.)

  11. 生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式评价及构建研究%Researching on the Evaluation and Construction of Cold-chain Logistics Mode of Dairy Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军

    2015-01-01

    Logistics mode of cold-chain concerning fresh milk and dairy products is an important content of cold-chain logistics about dairy products, which is the key to determine the security of quality about fresh milk and dairy products, stabilize the price of dairy products, improve cold-chain circulation rate of dairy product and ensure the economic benefit and service quality of the cold-chain logistics about dairy product. This paper constructs the evaluation index system of cold-chain logistics mode about fresh dairy product, uses the method of analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight of each index, introduces the main factors that influence the f cold-chain logistics mode of fresh dairy product. Then , based on the main factors and the visualization of the perspective of supply chain, this paper puts forward the path to build a cold-chain logistics mode of dairy product, namely to construct the visual supply chain mode which should deem the dairy products production enterprise as the core enterprise , the third party or the fourth party cold-chain logistics as the main organization form. This mode can optimize the main factors concerning cold-chain logistics mode of dairy product, which is worthy of study and reference.%生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式是乳制品冷链物流的重要内容,是决定生鲜乳制品质量安全、稳定乳制品价格、提高乳制品冷链流通率和保证乳制品冷链物流经济效益和服务质量的关键。文章应用平衡计分卡原理构建生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式评价指标体系、利用层次分析法计算各评价指标的权重,进而分析得出影响生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式的主要因素。紧接着,围绕影响生鲜乳制品冷链物流模式的主要因素,基于可视化供应链的角度,提出构建乳制品冷链物流模式的路径,即构建以乳制品加工企业为核心企业,以第三方、第四方冷链物流为主要组织形

  12. 中国煤电能源供应链风险关系及风险评价测度研究%Research on Risk Sources Transitive Relation of Coal -Electricity Supply Chain and Risk Evaluation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 刘平阔

    2015-01-01

    煤电能源供应链的风险管理问题是保障中国能源安全的重要基石。本文针对中国煤电能源供应链的绩效和风险管理,研究了煤电能源供应链风险管理的风险评价测度问题。基于供应链部门关系的界定,利用价值驱动树方法对风险源传递关系进行梳理,构建中国煤电能源供应链指标体系(C -ES-CRMIS)。通过社会问卷调查的方式收集样本,进行主成分分析,建立结构方程模型(SEM );为测量指标权重,对风险因子载荷分析、二级因子路径系数进行计算;基于指标相关性的指标权重确定方法(CRIT-IC ),得到煤炭供应链风险评价测度模型(C-ESCRE )。结果表明:现阶段,中国煤电能源供应链的主要风险源为政策风险、意外灾害和市场需求风险。节点企业可根据测度模型,对其供应链风险进行评价分析。最后进行了案例分析,以期为政府宏观调控、供应链协同管理以及企业内部控制提供参考。%Risk management of Coal -Electricity supply chain is an important cornerstone for China's energy security . With respect to the performance and risk management of Coal -Electricity supply chain risk management in China , this article is focused on the issues of Coal-Electricity supply chain risk evaluation . Based on defining the relationships among the supply chain sectors , using Value Driver Tree to sort out the risk sources , Coal-Electricity Supply Chain Risk Management Index System is built . Social questionnaires samples are collected to introduce a principal component analysis , and Structural Equation Modeling is employed . With respect to the weight of index , the factor loading and the path coefficient of risks are discussed at the same time . According to the Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation method , a model of Coal -Electricity supply chain risk evaluation is built . The results show that :currently

  13. 基于平衡记分卡的敏捷供应链绩效评价体系研究%Study on Performance Evaluation Index System of Agile Supply Chain Based on Balanced Scorecard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长坤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis in the agile supply chain performance evaluation and theory of balanced scorecard,the paper builts performance evaluation index system of agile supply chain based on balanced scorecard from four dimensions including the finance,customers,business process,innovation and learning,and then puts forward implementation process to achieve the purpose of improving operational perfomance and the overall competitiveness of the agile supply chain.%在对敏捷供应链绩效评价及平衡计分卡理论分析的基础上,运用平衡计分卡构建了针对敏捷供应链的财务、顾客、业务流程、创新与学习四个维度的绩效评价指标体系,然后提出了基本平衡记分卡的敏捷供应链绩效评价的实施流程,以期达到改善敏捷供应链运营绩效、提高敏捷供应链的整体竞争能力的目的。

  14. 基于贝叶斯网络的供应链风险模糊综合评判%Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Supply Chain Risks Based on Bayesian Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴天魁; 王波; 顾基发; 周晓辉

    2014-01-01

    The existing common methods of analyzing risks cannot evaluate the supply chain risks for sure,because the risks leading to the failure of supply chain are fuzzy and complex.This article puts forward a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of supply chain risks based on Bayesian networks.Taking the supply chain risks of an enterprise as an example,we calculated the logarithmic probability P of risky affairs through linear deduction of Bayesian networks and then worked out the main risky af-fairs and their ranks by the way of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.This research provides a reference for evaluating supply chain risks and other parallel ones,which makes it convenient for enterprises to take provisions to lower risks and reduce los-ses.%由于导致供应链失效的风险因素具有模糊性、复杂性,增加了供应链风险分析难度,一般的风险分析方法不能很好地评判供应链风险。文章提出了基于贝叶斯网络的供应链风险模糊综合评判方法,以某企业供应链风险为例,通过构建供应链失效风险的贝叶斯网络对风险事件发生概率进行线性推理,再采用模糊综合评判方法求出供应链风险中主要风险事件及总风险事件的风险等级,为该企业及早调控供应链提供依据。本评判方法可为企业供应链风险及其他类似风险的预防和控制提供参考依据。

  15. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gaafar, A; El-Hassan, A M;

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopi......We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed......%, respectively. The PCR should be considered as a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis; it has the added advantage of identification of the species of Leishmania causing the lesion....

  16. Using the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct to Evaluate Green Supply Chain Management: An Empirical Study of Taiwan’s Computer Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronics companies throughout Asia recognize the benefits of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM for gaining competitive advantage. A large majority of electronics companies in Taiwan have recently adopted the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (EICC Code of Conduct for defining and managing their social and environmental responsibilities throughout their supply chains. We surveyed 106 Tier 1 suppliers to the Taiwanese computer industry to determine their environmental performance using the EICC Code of Conduct (EICC Code and performed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA on the 63/106 questionnaire responses collected. We test the results to determine whether differences in product type, geographic area, and supplier size correlate with different levels of environmental performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze questionnaire data on supplier adoption to optimize the implementation of GSCM. The results suggest that characteristic classification of suppliers could be employed to enhance the efficiency of GSCM.

  17. Implementation and Evaluation of a Tutor-Supported Computer-Based Practical Biochemistry Course "Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)" in Preclinical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kröncke, KD; Becher, T

    2008-01-01

    Background: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an example of a technology that for many medical students is not easy to understand. We investigated whether a tutor-supported e-learning teaching unit is suitable to teach undergraduate medical students the PCR. Methods: We developed a computer-based practical course (attendance is compulsory) that uses an open source-based system as a learning platform. The students learned to search in scientific medical databases to find PCR-releva...

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of FMCG Supply Chain Risk- A Case Study of Chinese Dairy Industry Supply Chain%FMCG 供应链风险综合评价研究--以中国乳制品供应链为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继贵; 叶阿忠

    2014-01-01

    As the supply chain management expert Christopher said,the 21 st century is the era of supply chain manage-ment.How to make supply chain risk management efficiently and make the risks under certain level of control will definitely be a challenging task for most of enterprises,especially for those traditional industries like FMCG.The purpose of this arti-cle is to analyze the supply chain risk factors and risk level of FMCG industry by using the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model.After the analysis we think that FMCG enterprises should strengthen the control of their supply chain channels,opti-mize the business process,improve risk warning mechanism and take some other measures to improve their supply chain system’s Immunity to resist uncertain risks from outside world and inner circumstances.%正如供应链管理专家 Christopher 所言,21世纪是供应链的时代,快速消费品(FMCG)企业如何在这供应链管理的时代对供应链风险进行管控将是一项富有挑战性的任务。从供应链风险管理的基本理论出发,在前人研究的基础之上对 FMCG 供应链的风险进行分析,提出适用于 FMCG 供应链的风险评估指标,并采用模糊综合评价分析法对中国乳制品供应链的风险情况进行综合分析。根据分析的结果,FMCG 供应链应当加强供应链渠道建设、流程管理和风险预警机制等方面的措施以提高供应链系统抵抗风险的“免疫力”。

  19. Supply Chain Risk Evaluation Based on the OWA Operator%基于OWA算子的供应链风险评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文婕

    2011-01-01

    根据现有的研究成果,并结合实例,采用OWA算子的方法,对供应链管理风险进行研究.预测了供应链管理中各风险发生的概率大小和影响大小.得出该方法既适用于整体大风险的计算、比较,也适用于具体的风险因素间的比较;同时考虑到了各风险事件的不同的紧急性,具有灵活性.进而得出该方法适合供应链网络中风险因素相关性相对较低的风险研究.%The paper studies empirically supply chain risk management using the OWA operator and forecasts the probability and influence of the various risks in supply chain management. It concludes that the OWA operator based method is not only applicable to the calculation and comparison of generic risks, but also to that of specific risk factors, that it is also flexible in that it gives due consideration to the different levels of urgency of risk events and that it is particularly suitable for the study of supply chain networks with risk factors of low fevel correlativity.

  20. Avaliação do desenpenho logístico da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes Evaluation of the logistic performance of Brazil's soft drink supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vieira Conceição

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho logístico de quatro elos da cadeia brasileira de suprimentos de refrigerantes (fornecedores de embalagem para refrigerantes, indústria de refrigerantes, atacado e supermercado, adotando como metodologia o survey eletrônico. As repostas foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes estatísticos Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, além de uma análise descritiva dos dados e da realização dos testes de hipótese. As empresas avaliaram o desempenho logístico da cadeia, por meio de indicadores da logística interna e externa, e identificaram a percentagem de uso desses indicadores. A taxa média de respostas foi de 40%. A pesquisa mostrou que os elos da cadeia de refrigerantes utilizam mais os indicadores de desempenho, que avaliam a logística interna, do que os que avaliam a logística externa.An evaluation was made of the logistics performance of four links in Brazil's soft drink supply chain (soft drink packaging suppliers, soft drink industry, wholesalers and supermarkets, based on an electronic survey of 54 companies, from which a 40% response rate was obtained. The answers were analyzed based on the supply chain management theory, using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests and a descriptive analysis of the data. The surveyed companies evaluated the logistic performance of the chain based on indicators selected from a literature review, and identified the percentage of use of these indicators. It was found that the links in the soft drink chain preferentially use internal logistics performance indicators more than external logistics indicators.

  1. Using management information in broiler supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch broiler supply chain involves several interdependent firms such as breeding and feed companies, rearing farms, breeder farms, broiler hatcheries and broiler farms. To stay competitive and sustain continuity, evaluation of production at each level of the chain is crucial. Good quality data

  2. Fresh fish distribution chains: An analysis of three Danish and three Australian chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Bremner, Allan

    2001-01-01

    . Traceability is a most important issue in the high value product chains in Australia. No information technology methods, were in evidence. In the Danish chains, nearly all traceability was lost after the collector/auction stage and the only evaluation of quality parameters was by inspection.......Information on traceability was gathered for three domestic Danish fish chains typical of the current trading practices in fresh seafood and for three chains exporting products from Australia to Japan. The same standard questionnaires, coupled with personal interviews, were used in all six chains...

  3. Effect Evaluation of Automobile Manufacturing Industry Lean Logistics in Supply Chain Environment%供应链环境下汽车制造业精益物流效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩澂

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, from the aspects of environment, safety, staff, quality, response and cost, we built the automobile manufacturing industry lean logistics effect evaluation index system under the supply chain environment and next, using grey evaluation and AHP, evaluated the effect of the lean logistics of the automobile manufacturing industry.%从环境、安全、人员、质量、响应和成本六个方面构建了相对完整的供应链环境下汽车制造业精益物流效果评价指标体系,并通过灰色评价与层次分析法相结合对汽车制造业精益物流实施效果进行评价,对促进精益物流的发展具有一定的现实意义。

  4. Evaluation by Markov chain models of a non-randomised breast cancer screening programme in women aged under 50 years in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.H; Thurfjell, E.; Duffy, S W; Tabar, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To apply Markov chain models that have previously been used on data in randomised trials of breast cancer screening to data from an uncontrolled service screening programme; to compare results with those from a randomised trial. DESIGN: A service screening programme in Uppsala county, Sweden, inviting 25,660 women aged 39-49 to mammographic screening every 20 months, and the Swedish Two-County Trial inviting 19,844 women aged 40-49 to two yearly screening, compared with...

  5. 熵权模糊物元法在战时装备供应链风险评估中的应用%Entropy Fuzzy Matter Element Analysis Method of Wartime Equipment Supply Chain Risk Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓尧; 李体方; 梁颖

    2015-01-01

    针对信息化条件下战时装备供应链的特点,以远程打击风险、后方袭扰风险和天气影响风险为风险评估指标,运用基于熵权的模糊物元分析法,对战时装备供应链风险进行评估。通过某装备供应链风险评估算例,验证了熵权模糊物元法在战时装备供应链风险评估中的可行性,证明了该方法对战时装备供应链的选择有很高的借鉴价值。%Specific to the characteristic of the wartime equipment supply chain under the circumstance of information,the long-distance exactitude stroke risk,enemy raid in rear risk and influence of bad weather risk are used as the mean risk criteria. The wartime equipment supply chain risk is evaluated with the method of entropy fuzzy matter element. An example of some equipment supply chain risk is used to verify the correctness and feasibility of the entropy fuzzy matter element analysis method. This paper is proved to have a high practical value.

  6. Evaluation of Agricultural Produce Cold Chain Logistics Performance Based on DEA%基于数据包络分析的农产品冷链物流绩效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许渭书; 樊相宇

    2015-01-01

    为完善陕西省农产品冷链物流管理,利用数据包络分析法,从农产品冷链物流发展的外部环境、内部流程、总体效益、风险评估四个方面选取投入、产出指标。通过MaxDEA软件对陕西省11个市的农产品冷链物流数据进行了分析,给出了改进建议,为衡量农产品冷链物流综合表现提供了新的评价方法。%In this paper, in order to improve the agricultural produce cold chain logistics management system of Shanxi, we used the data envelopment analysis to study the input and output indexes in the external environment, internal process, general benefit and risk evaluation of the agricultural produce cold chain logistics practice of the province, then using the MaxDEA program, analyzed the agricultural produce cold chain logistics data of the 11 cities in Shanxi, and then gave the corresponding suggestions for improvement.

  7. 典型家电连锁销售企业物流模式的综合评价比较分析%Comparative Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Typical Home Appliance Chain Sales Enterprise Logistics Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the study sample is the typical home appliance chain sales enterprises,and the main research directions is their logistics mode selection. Through the establishment of a comprehensive evaluation model, Magnitude factor such as the cost, service and scale changed into uniform. Then evaluate the comparative effectiveness of operations between the two companies, which use the different logistics mode. And explore the new path, what can select the logistics mode for home appliance chain sales enterprise, through the establishment of a comprehensive quantitative evaluation system.%文中以典型家电连锁销售企业为研究样本,以物流模式选择为主要研究斱向。通过建立综合评价模型,将成本、服务、规模等因子转化为统一的价值量后进行综合分析,较为全面、客观、准确的对两个企业所采用不同物流模式的运营效果进行评价比较。幵探索通过建立量化综合评价体系来进行家电连锁销售企业物流模式选择的新路径。

  8. Benefit Evaluation of Pledge Based on Supply Chain Financing%基于供应链融资的质物效益评价方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽

    2011-01-01

    The most important and difficult point in supply chain financing is to value the line of credit and the risk of pledge which is reflect the management benefit of logistic company who bears the largest risk and obtains smallest benefit under the credit extension mode of"1+N".Whereas this article mainly solve the above problems that how to value the benefit of pledge though analyzing the various modes of supply chain finance and the index system of risks.%供应链融资业务的重点和难点之一即是关于质押动产即质物授信额度和风险性的评价,这直接影响了在核心企业与其上下游企业即"1+N"授信模式下,承担风险最大效益最小的物流企业的经营效益。通过对供应链融资模式与风险指标分析提出供应链融资业务中质物效益的评价方法。

  9. The composite supply chain efficiency model: A case study of the Sishen-Saldanha supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As South Africa strives to be a major force in global markets, it is essential that South African supply chains achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. One approach to achieving this is to ensure that South African supply chains maximise their levels of efficiency. Consequently, the efficiency levels of South Africa’s supply chains must be evaluated. The objective of this article is to propose a model that can assist South African industries in becoming internationally competitive by providing them with a tool for evaluating their levels of efficiency both as individual firms and as a component in an overall supply chain. The Composite Supply Chain Efficiency Model (CSCEM was developed to measure supply chain efficiency across supply chains using variables identified as problem areas experienced by South African supply chains. The CSCEM is tested in this article using the Sishen-Saldanda iron ore supply chain as a case study. The results indicate that all three links or nodes along the Sishen-Saldanha iron ore supply chain performed well. The average efficiency of the rail leg was 97.34%, while the average efficiency of the mine and the port were 97% and 95.44%, respectively. The results also show that the CSCEM can be used by South African firms to measure their levels of supply chain efficiency. This article concludes with the benefits of the CSCEM.

  10. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  11. Band dispersions of the π-bonded-chain reconstruction of Si(111)3x1-Li: A critical evaluation of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface-state band-structure of the three-domain Si(111)3x1-Li reconstruction has been determined using angle-resolved photoemission. Experimental band dispersions are compared to theoretical calculations for the extended Pandey model and the Seiwatz model. Even though the extended Pandey model is favored on the basis of scanning tunneling microscopy and total-energy considerations, the calculated surface states are inconsistent with experiment. The calculated states for the Seiwatz model are consistent with the experimental dispersion along the main symmetry direction (bar Γ bar A) but serious discrepancies exist in other parts of the Brillouin zone. The disparity between the density-functional-theory calculations and experiment indicate that exchange and correlation in π-bonded Si chains may need to be analyzed beyond the mean-field band-structure approach. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technology for their feasibility and desirability. Embedding AD in biomass chains addresses current constraints towards increased use of biomass for energy production considering land competition and envir...

  13. Discrete Quantum Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Faigle, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    A framework for finite-dimensional quantum Markov chains on Hilbert spaces is introduced. Quantum Markov chains generalize both classical Markov chains with possibly hidden states and existing models of quantum walks on finite graphs. Quantum Markov chains are based on Markov operations that may be applied to quantum systems and include quantum measurements, for example. It is proved that quantum Markov chains are asymptotically stationary and hence possess ergodic and entropic properties. With a quantum Markov chain one may associate a quantum Markov process, which is a stochastic process in the classical sense. Generalized Markov chains allow a representation with respect to a generalized Markov source model with definite (but possibly hidden) states relative to which observables give rise to classical stochastic processes. It is demonstrated that this model allows for observables to violate Bell's inequality.

  14. Study on Distribution Performance Evaluation System for Chain Supermarket Distribution Centers%连锁超市配送中心的配送绩效评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹; 张旭凤

    2012-01-01

    以提高连锁超市配送中心的配送绩效为目标,在国内外配送绩效评价研究成果的基础上,结合连锁超市配送活动特点,以定性与定量相结合为原则,从作业流程层、支持层和结果层三个维度建立了相对完整的连锁超市配送绩效指标体系.在研究方法上,综合采用了问卷调查法、模糊综合评价法、层次分析法,并结合实证分析检验了此绩效评价指标体系和采用方法的可行性.%With improving the operational performance of chain supermarket distribution centers as the objective and on the basis of the previous studies on distribution performance evaluation both from China and other countries, the paper establishes a comparatively comprehensive chain supermarket distribution performance index system on the dimensions of process, support and outcome. Methodologically, this study employs questionnaire survey, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and AHP, whose feasibility as well as that of the index system is tested in an empirical analysis.

  15. Study on Matter-element Model in Performance Evaluation of Food Cold Chain Logistics Enterprises%食品冷链物流企业绩效评价物元模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2012-01-01

    根据可拓学的思想方法,从经济指标、作业流程指标和客户服务指标三个层面考虑,设计了食品冷链物流企业绩效评价指标体系,并建立了基于物元的绩效评价模型.通过该模型,可评价食品冷链物流企业的绩效水平,并明确其在整个食品冷链物流行业中所处的绩效等级.实例计算结果表明,该方法能够有效结合定性与定量分析,且模型结构简单规范,为企业绩效的评估提供了一种参考方法.%In this paper, following the principles of extenics and considering the index on the aspects of economics, operation and customer service, we designed the performance evaluation index system of food cold chain logistics enterprises and established the performance evaluation model based on matter-element, which could identify the level of an enterprise in the whole food cold chain logistics industry concerning performance. A subsequent numerical example showed that this method could effectively combine qualitative and quantitative analysis and the model was simple and standard in structure.

  16. Improving supply chain collaborations and performance of inefficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sanei; S. Mamizadeh-Chatghayeh

    2010-01-01

    Modern manufacturing enterprises are required to collaborate by their business partners through their business process operations such as design, manufacture, distribution, and aftersales services. And furthermore performance evaluation is of great importance for effective supply chain man agement. Therefore, DEA can help companies to remove some of the in efficiencies in operational processes in order to become more effective. The current paper develops one approach for determining the DEA p...

  17. 基于供应链金融的中小企业信用风险评价模型研究%A Study on Credit Risks Evaluation Model of SMEs based on Supply Chain Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏立明; 边亚男; 宗恒恒

    2013-01-01

    SMEs′credit risk evaluation from the perspective of supply chain finance was only evaluated at the isolated time points, thus the index data may generate great variation for some reasons .Therefore, this may lead to the wrong e-valuation results and serious credit risk .In order to solve this problem , this paper establishes SMEs′credit risk evalua-tion from the perspective of supply chain finance based on time dimension by taking enterprise A as an example .Accord-ing to the evaluation index characteristics , this model uses the PSO ( particle swarm optimization ) and fuzzy comprehen-sive evaluation method to evaluate the credit risk at all time points , then compares all time points′evaluation result and analyses the change trend of SMEs′credit rating , to provide an effective way for reducing risk of bank lending .%在以往供应链金融视角下,中小企业信用风险评价多在孤立时间点上进行,这样会造成指标数据因某些原因而可能发生较大幅度变化,进而导致评价结果的错误,使银行在放贷过程中存在较大风险。本文以A企业为例,构建了基于时间维的供应链金融视角下中小企业信用风险评价模型。根据评价指标特点,该模型在各个时间点上选用微粒群算法和模糊综合评价方法对其进行信用风险评价,将各个时间点上的评价结果进行比较,分析企业的信用等级变化趋势,以期为银行放贷风险的降低提供有效途径。

  18. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA.

  19. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  20. In planta and soil quantification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and evaluation of Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea with a newly developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris can be managed by risk assessment and use of resistant cultivars. A reliable method for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in soil and chickpea tissues would contribute much to implementation of those disease management strategies. In this study, we developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) protocol that allows quantifying F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris DNA down to 1 pg in soil, as well as in the plant root and stem. Use of the q-PCR protocol allowed quantifying as low as 45 colony forming units of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris per gram of dry soil from a field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Moreover, the q-PCR protocol clearly differentiated susceptible from resistant chickpea reactions to the pathogen at 15 days after sowing in artificially infested soil, as well as the degree of virulence between two F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Also, the protocol detected early asymptomatic root infections and distinguished significant differences in the level of resistance of 12 chickpea cultivars that grew in that same field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Use of this protocol for fast, reliable, and cost-effective quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in asymptomatic chickpea tissues at early stages of the infection process can be of great value for chickpea breeders and for epidemiological studies in growth chambers, greenhouses and field-scale plots.

  1. Economic evaluation of 21-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay in lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshibayashi, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

    2008-11-01

    The 21-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay with a patented algorithm is validated as a good predictor of prognosis and potential benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer, while its high cost raises concern about how to finance it. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing prevalent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline/St Gallen recommendation-guided treatment with the assay-guided treatment is carried out with budget impact estimation in the context of Japan's health care system. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are estimated as 2,997,495 yen/QALY (26,065 US$/QALY) in the comparison between NCCN guided-treatment vs. the assay-guided treatment, and as 1,239,055 yen/QALY (10,774 US$/QALY) in the comparison between St Gallen guided-treatment vs. the assay-guided treatment. Budget impact is estimated as yen2,638 million (US$23 million) to yen3,225 million (US$28 million) per year. The routine use of the assay is indicated as cost-effective. And the budget impact could be judged as within fundable level. PMID:18075786

  2. Evaluation of nested polymerase chain reaction for the early detection of Leptospira spp. DNA in serum samples from patients with leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; Romero, Eliete Caló

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) in human serum samples of patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis. The cases of leptospirosis were defined by the microagglutination test (MAT). The samples were collected in 2010. Of 1042 serum samples collected from 521 patients, 28 (5.4%) were considered positive cases of leptospirosis, and 493 (94.6%) were negative. Twenty-three confirmed cases had no MAT-detectable antibodies in the acute sample (mean of 5.6 days after onset). Nested PCR was positive in 22/23 (95.7%) patients during the acute phase of the disease, with negative results by MAT. Nested PCR was negative in all convalescent serum samples with positive results by MAT. All negative cases of leptospirosis were negative by nested PCR. The nested PCR is an alternative diagnostic tool for early detection of leptospires in sera during the first 7 days of the disease. PMID:24445157

  3. Evaluation of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis versus multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays in the detection of dystrophin gene rearrangements in an Iranian population subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD gene is located in the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp21. It spans 2.4 Mb of the human genomic DNA and is composed of 79 exons. Mutations in the Dystrophin gene result in DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy. In this study, the efficiency of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA over multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in an Iranian population was investigated. Materials and Methods: Multiplex PCR assays and MLPA analysis were carried out in 74 patients affected with DMD. Results: Multiplex PCR detected deletions in 51% of the patients with DMD. MLPA analysis could determine all the deletions detected by the multiplex PCR. Additionally, MLPA was able to identify one more deletion and duplication in patients without detectable mutations by multiplex PCR. Moreover, MLPA precisely determined the exact size of the deletions. Conclusion: Although MLPA analysis is more sensitive for detection of deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene, multiplex PCR might be used for the initial analysis of the boys affected with DMD in the Iranian population as it was able to detect 95% of the rearrangements in patients with DMD.

  4. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  5. Understanding the Chain Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, John Simeon

    2013-01-01

    If a chain is initially at rest in a beaker at a height h1 above the ground, and the end of the chain is pulled over the rim of the beaker and down towards the ground and then released, the chain will spontaneously "flow" out of the beaker under gravity. Furthermore, if h1 is sufficient, the beads do not simply drag over the edge of the beaker but form a fountain reaching a height h2 above it. We show that the formation of a fountain requires that the beads come into motion not only by being pulled upwards by the part of the chain immediately above the pile, but also by being pushed upwards by an anomalous reaction force from the pile of stationary chain. We propose possible origins for this force, argue that its magnitude will be proportional to the square of the chain velocity, and predict and verify experimentally that h2 is proportional to h1.

  6. Risk Evaluation of Wartime Equipment Supply Chain Based on TOPSIS Method with Fuzzy Ameliorated Entropy Weight%基于模糊修正熵权TOPSIS的战时装备供应链风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天虹; 宋业新; 宋长青

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of wartime equip supply chain, long-distance exactitude stroke, enemy raid in rear and influence of bad weather are used to reflect main risk criteria. Based on TOPSIS method with fuzzy ameliorated entropy weight is erected to evaluate the wartime equip supply chain's risk evaluation. Firstly, entropy weight that originated from original data is put forward, which is ameliorated by the experts' factor, and an evaluation method of technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution is constructed. Finally, the calculation and analysis of an example indicate that this method is easy in calculation, the outcome is reasonable, the subjectivity and randomicity in the commander's decision process are decreased.%针对战时装备供应链的特点,以远程精确打击、敌特后方袭扰和恶劣天气等三个因素为主要风险指标,运用修正的模糊信息熵权对TOPSIS法进行改进,提出了一种新的战时装备供应链风险评估方法.首先利用原始数据产生的模糊信息熵权进行客观赋权,并引入专家因素对权重进行主观修正,利用逼近理想解排序方法进行运算,最后通过实例计算与分析,验证该评估方法简便易行,结论合理,有效降低了指挥员决策的主观随意性.

  7. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  8. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  9. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this chaper, we have reviewed and surveyed the literature on supply chain collaboration. As mentioned above, the game theory models that include cooperative behaviour among retailers seem to be a natural framework to model cooperation (collaboration) in supply chains that consist of a supplier and a finite number of retailers. Various researchers in this area have already adopted several cooperative models dealing with supply chain coordination, and it is expected to see many more in the n...

  10. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  11. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  12. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  13. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 72, Revision 1 (FGE.72Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further......” based on the MSDI approach. Besides the safety assessment of these flavouring substances, the specifications for the materials of commerce have also been considered and for all 23 substances, the information is adequate...

  14. Serum major-histocompatibility-complex class Ⅰ-related chain A antibody detection for the evaluation of graft dysfunction in renal allograft recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; LU Fu-ming; QU Lian-xi; HE Jun; YUAN Xiao-niao; GU Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to the well-known antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-induced kidney-graft rejection, polymorphic major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class Ⅰ-related chain A (MICA) antigens can elicit antibodies and have been suggested to play a role in the antibody-mediated allograft rejection (AMR). We carded out a prospective study of MICA antibodies in post-renal transplant patients to determine the association between MICA antibodies, C4d staining, histological features, and graft outcome.Methods We tested 52 patients who had biopsy results due to graft dysfunction. The MICA antibodies in concurrent sera were determined by Luminex. All patients were followed up for one year after renal biopsy. The influence of antibody production on the function of graft was analyzed.Results Antibodies against MICA were positive in 15 out of the 52 patients (28.9%). The presence of MICA antibodies was associated with renal-allograft deterioration. During one-year follow-up, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased (24.0±3.4)% among recipients with anti-MICA antibodies. However, among recipients without anti-MICA antibodies, the eGFR has declined only (8.4+3.0)% (P=0.017). The association between C4d staining,histological features and MICA antibody production was found no significant difference.Conclusion Besides anti-HLA antibodies, the presence of post-transplant MICA antibody is associated with poor graft outcome and increases the risk of graft failure.

  15. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Charaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06% were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48% samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs.

  16. Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay with microscopy for detection of asymptomatic carrier state of theileriosis in a herd of crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaya, Gaurav; Rakha, N. K.; Maan, Sushila; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Tarun; Jhambh, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06%) were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48%) samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs. PMID:27733810

  17. Evaluation of Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to Determine Escherichia coli Concentrations at Two Lake Erie Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Christopher M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2009-01-01

    During the recreational seasons of 2006 and 2007, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was used to determine Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in samples from two Lake Erie beaches. Results from the qPCR method were compared to those obtained by traditional culturing on modified mTEC agar. Regression analysis showed strong, statistically significant correlations between results from the two methods for both years. Correlation coefficients at Edgewater and Villa Angela Beaches were 0.626 and 0.789 for 2006 and 0.667 and 0.829 for 2007, respectively. Linear regression analyses were done to determine how well E. coli concentrations could have been predicted from qPCR results. These hypothetical predictions were compared to the current practice of determining recreational water quality from E. coli concentrations determined for samples collected on the previous day. The qPCR method resulted in a greater percentage of correct predictions of water-quality exceedances than the current method for both beaches and both years. However, because regression equations differed somewhat between both sites and both years, the study did not result in any single relation reliable enough to use for actual real-time prediction of water-quality exceedances for either beach; therefore, a posterior analysis of data was done. Additional years of data may be needed to develop such a relation. Results from this study support the continued development and testing of a qPCR method for providing rapid and accurate estimates of E. coli concentrations for monitoring recreational water quality.

  18. Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of an (18)F-labeled single-chain antibody fragment for PET imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Wuest, Melinda; Way, Jenilee D; Bouvet, Vincent R; Wang, Monica; Wuest, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CA125 antibodies have been used in immunoassays to quantify levels of shed antigen in the serum of patients who are under surveillance for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no molecular imaging probe in the clinic for the assessment of CA125 expression in vivo. The present study describes the development of an (18)F-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for PET imaging of CA125 in preclinical EOC models. Anti-CA125 scFv was derived from MAb-B43.13 by recombinant expression of the fragment in E.coli. Fragment scFv-B43.13 was purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterized for antigen binding via immuno-staining and flow cytometry. Prosthetic group N-succinimidyl 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) was used for radiolabeling of scFv-B43.13. Preclinical ovarian cancer models were developed based on ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 (CA125-positive) and SKOV3 (CA125-negative) in NIH-III mice. The radiopharmacological profile of (18)F-labeled scFv-B43.13 ([(18)F]FBz-scFv-B43.13) was studied with PET. [(18)F]FBz-scFv-B43.13 was prepared in radiochemical yields of 3.7 ± 1.8% (n = 5) at an effective specific activity of 3.88 ± 0.76 GBq/µmol (n = 5). The radiotracer demonstrated selective uptake in CA125-positive OVCAR3 cells and virtually no uptake in CA125-negative SKOV3 cells. Standardized uptake values (SUV) of radioactivity uptake in OVCAR3 tumors was 0.5 (n = 3) and 0.3 (n = 2) in SKOV3 tumors after 60 min post injection (p.i.). PMID:27508105

  19. Synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of an 18F-labeled single-chain antibody fragment for PET imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Wuest, Melinda; Way, Jenilee D; Bouvet, Vincent R; Wang, Monica; Wuest, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Anti-CA125 antibodies have been used in immunoassays to quantify levels of shed antigen in the serum of patients who are under surveillance for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no molecular imaging probe in the clinic for the assessment of CA125 expression in vivo. The present study describes the development of an 18F-labeled single-chain variable fragment (scFv) for PET imaging of CA125 in preclinical EOC models. Anti-CA125 scFv was derived from MAb-B43.13 by recombinant expression of the fragment in E.coli. Fragment scFv-B43.13 was purified via immobilized metal affinity chromatography and characterized for antigen binding via immuno-staining and flow cytometry. Prosthetic group N-succinimidyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]SFB) was used for radiolabeling of scFv-B43.13. Preclinical ovarian cancer models were developed based on ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 (CA125-positive) and SKOV3 (CA125-negative) in NIH-III mice. The radiopharmacological profile of 18F-labeled scFv-B43.13 ([18F]FBz-scFv-B43.13) was studied with PET. [18F]FBz-scFv-B43.13 was prepared in radiochemical yields of 3.7 ± 1.8% (n = 5) at an effective specific activity of 3.88 ± 0.76 GBq/µmol (n = 5). The radiotracer demonstrated selective uptake in CA125-positive OVCAR3 cells and virtually no uptake in CA125-negative SKOV3 cells. Standardized uptake values (SUV) of radioactivity uptake in OVCAR3 tumors was 0.5 (n = 3) and 0.3 (n = 2) in SKOV3 tumors after 60 min post injection (p.i.). PMID:27508105

  20. Analysis on Index System of Farmer's Credit Evaluation Based on the BBC and Value Chain Risk%基于BBC与价值链风险分析的农户信用评价指标体系探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏玲; 郭高玲

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the credit status which financial institutions provide loans to farmers who go back home for work. Based on the research of farmer credit evaluation analysis, the paper finds out that the farmer's credit evaluation index system mainly uses the “5C” or “4C” analysis method, which is thought less diversity. Therefore, the paper puts forward a new farmer's credit evaluation index system based on the value chain risk analysis method with balanced score card. With the personal balanced score card, based on value chain risk analysis, it finds the potential factors of farm households to repay the loan, and then constructs the farmer' s credit evaluation index system according to these factors. The new farmer's credit evaluation index system is more comprehensive and reasonable compared to the traditional.%主要针对"农民工返乡创业"这一社会现象,金融机构对其提供资金支持时,对农户信用进行评价为研究目的.通过对现有农户信用评价的研究分析,发现在构建农户信用评价指标体系时,所采用的方法主要以"5C"或"4C"分析法为模型,方法比较单一,所以,提出了基于价值链风险分析与平衡积分卡方法的农户信用评价指标体系.以个人平衡积分卡为框架,通过对农产品价值链风险分析,找出影响农户偿还贷款的潜在因素,根据这些因素来选取评价指标,构建农户信用评价指标体系.新的农户信用评价指标体系与传统的评价体系相比,更为全面、合理.

  1. The Statistical Value Chain - a Benchmarking Checklist for Decision Makers to Evaluate Decision Support Seen from a Statistical Point-Of-View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Henningsen, Geraldine; Wood, Christian D.;

    2013-01-01

    quantitative methods exist for evaluating uncertainty—for example, Monte Carlo simulation—and such methods work very well when the AN is in full control of the data collection and model-building processes. In many cases, however, the AN is not in control of these processes. In this article we develop a simple...

  2. Evaluation of two real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to assess PEDV transmission in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2013 a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) epidemic began in the United States. As part of the response, real-time RT-PCR assays to detect PEDV were developed by several Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories. This study evaluated RT-PCR PEDV assays that detect the N gene (gN) and S gene (gS...

  3. Chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of cis- and trans-12,13-cyclopropyl and 12,13-cyclobutyl epothilones and related pyridine side chain analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaou, K C; Namoto, K; Ritzén, A;

    2001-01-01

    The design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of cyclopropyl and cyclobutyl epothilone analogues (3-12, Figure 1) are described. The synthetic strategies toward these epothilones involved a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling to form the C15-C16 carbon-carbon bond, an aldol...

  4. Decision Support Systems in Supply Chain Management : A Cse Study of the Supply Chain At MAFC (Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad)

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhammed, Abdussamat

    2010-01-01

    This research project identified issues related to cold supply chain and implemented a case study research at a consolidated food supply chain company named Malaysian Agrifood Corporation Berhad, which produces fresh fruits and vegetebales. It endeavored to evaluate the practical application of Decision Support System (DSS) in managing the supply chain. Afterwards, based on the results this research provides possible recommendations on application.

  5. “农超对接”供应链稳定性评价%Evaluation on Stability of Supply Chain of the Butt Connection of Farming and Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫华

    2011-01-01

    "农超对接"是我国超市发展的第三次革命,它实现了产销对接,降低了渠道成本,是当今世界农产品销售的主导模式。通过建立数量、质量、价格、收益的供应链稳定性指标体系,利用模糊综合评价法测算出供应链稳定性的具体数值,并给出了提高其稳定性的政策建议。%The butt connection of farming and supermarkets is the third revolution of supermarket development in China.It achieves relation between producers and sellers,reduces channel costs,and is the world's dominant mode of agricultural marketing.This paper establishes indicators of the supply chain stability based on quantity,quality,price,and income.Through using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method estimates the specific values of the supply chain stability and gives policy recommendations to improve its stability.

  6. Sales Rebate Contracts in Fashion Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore in this paper the performance of sales rebate contracts in fashion supply chains. We conduct both analytical and numerical analyses via a mean-variance framework with reference to real empirical data. To be specific, we evaluate the expected profits and variance of profits (risk of the fashion supply chains, fashion retailers, and manufacturers under (1 the currently implemented sales rebate practices, (2 the case without sales rebate, and (3 the theoretical coordination situation (if target sales rebate is adopted. In addition, we analyze how sales effort affects the performances of the supply chain and its agents. Our analysis indicates that the rebate contracts may hurt the retailer and the manufacturer of a fashion supply chain when it is inappropriately set. Moreover, a properly designed sales rebate contract not only can coordinate the supply chain (with retail sales effort but can also improve expected profits and lower the levels of risk for both the manufacturer and the retailer.

  7. Designing value-creating supply chain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the design of robust value-creating supply chain networks (SCN) and key strategic issues related to the number; location, capacity and mission of supply chain facilities (plants, distribution centers) – as well as the network structure required to provide flexibility and resilience in an uncertain world – this book presents an innovative methodology for SCN reengineering that can be used to significantly improve the bottom line of supply chain dependent businesses. Providing readers with the tools needed to analyze and model value creation activities, Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks examines the risks faced by modern supply chains, and shows how to develop plausible future scenarios to evaluate potential SCN designs. The design methods proposed are based on a visual representation formalism that facilitates the analysis and modeling of SCN design problems, book chapters incorporate several example problems and exercises which can be solved with Excel tools (Analysis tools and So...

  8. Development and evaluation of a mixed long-chain lipopolysaccharide based ELISA for serological surveillance of infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 6 and 12 in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl-Hansen, Jan; Barfod, Kristen; Klausen, Joan;

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for simultaneous detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) serotypes 2, 6 and 12. The assay was designated MIX-ELISA. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12 was purified using hot...... phenol-water extraction followed by fractionation by size-exclusion chromatography. A mixture of fractions containing molecules with molecular weight above 50 kDa from all three serotypes was used as antigen. The MIX-ELISA was evaluated with sera from pigs experimentally infected with the serotypes 1, 2......, 5b, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 of Ap biotype 1. In addition to reaction with sera from pigs inoculated with Ap serotypes 2, 6 and 12, reaction was observed with sera from pigs inoculated with serotype 8. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of the test on a herd level were evaluated with sera from...

  9. Innovation Performance Evaluation from Innovation Value Chain Perspective%基于创新价值链视角的企业创新绩效评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔静静; 程郁

    2015-01-01

    According to the innovation value chain analysis method, the enterprise innovation process is decomposed to en-terprise innovation model of knowledge acquisition, knowledge transformation model as well as the innovation performance model in this paper. Combined with high technology enterprise data of Zhongguancun Science Park in China, it analyzes the typical regional technology innovation in the influence factors of the formation of enterprise innovation and innovation per-formance. Empirical results show that, internal R&D activities by enterprises are affected by technology introduction, re-search cooperation, export activities and innovation funding acquisition activities, which are all included in external knowl-edge acquisition activities. There is a complementary relationship between the internal R&D and external knowledge acquisi-tion activities, internal R&D is the main factor affecting business innovation output ( product innovation and patents) , the government subsidies and tax incentives also affect innovation output. Innovation output for enhancing business productivity has a significant positive effect.%从创新价值链分析方法出发,将企业创新过程进行分解,重构企业创新知识获取模型、创新知识转化模型以及创新绩效模型,结合我国中关村知春路地区高技术企业数据,分析我国典型技术创新区域中企业创新的产生及创新绩效的影响因素. 实证结果显示:企业内部研发活动受到以企业技术引进、产学研合作、出口活动以及创新资金获取活动为代表的企业外部知识获取活动的影响,内部R&D与外部知识获取活动存在互补关系;企业内部R&D是影响企业创新产出(产品创新及专利)的主要因素,政府的补贴及税收优惠政策也影响企业创新产出;企业创新产出对于企业生产率的提升具有显著的积极作用.

  10. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...

  11. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  12. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  13. Anaerobic digestion in sustainable biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the potential contribution of anaerobic digestion (AD) to the sustainability of biomass chains. Results provide insights in the technological potential to recover energy and valuable by-products from energy crops and residues, and evaluate biomass cascades involving AD technolo

  14. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  15. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  16. Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnany, Emile G.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Two lead articles set the theme for this issue devoted to evaluation as Emile G. McAnany examines the usefulness of evaluation and Robert C. Hornik addresses four widely accepted myths about evaluation. Additional articles include a report of a field evaluation done by the Accion Cultural Popular (ACPO); a study of the impact of that evaluation by…

  17. Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2012-07-11

    Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated.

  18. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  19. Supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hollstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics. Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-inductive findings, it may be hypothesized that logistical systems do have a positive effect on supply chain risk management activities.  Result/conclusion:  Flexibility and capacity, as well as redundancy and standardization, are often viewed as being conflictionary. It shows, however, that in the light of supply chain risk management, those factors may yield a common benefit if proper logistics systems are applied.  

  20. 基于BP神经网络的制造企业精益供应链协同风险评价研究%Study on Risk Evaluation for Manufacturers'Lean Supply Chain Collaboration Based on BP Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红胜; 卢慧清

    2011-01-01

    The paper establishes a risk evaluation index system for lean supply chain collaboration and evaluates the risks exposed to manufacturing enterprises in their lean supply chain collaboration using BP neural network.%建立了精益供应链协同风险评价指标体系,并运用BP神经网络方法进行协同风险评价,为制造企业精益供应链协同风险的评价提供理论指导.

  1. Supply chain reliability modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-01-01

    Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the ...

  2. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Rodrigue Ghomsi 1982

    2015-01-01

    Companies are now progressively looking beyond themselves to come up with ways to improve revenue and profit margins. This has resulted in a heightened focus on the efficiency of the supply chains. Inefficient supply chains are being perceived as cavities that can deprive the firm from its cash flows when inventory is not required and sales revenue when product is not available at the point of sales. This has stimulated development of business models that intend to leverage and enhance the su...

  3. Variance bounding Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.

  4. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  5. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aidonis, D.; Folinas, D.; Triantafillou, D.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). During the 2-Days Conference m...

  6. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  7. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  8. Issues on Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although supply chain is regarded as an integrated pr ocess, actually, researchers and practitioners have primarily investigated the v arious processes of the supply chain individually. The competitive field in most markets requires well-designed integrated supply chain instead of individual o perations. In this paper, some traditional thinking of supply chain is given fir st, then SCM (Supply Chain Management) is introduced, which views the entire sup ply chain as a whole rather than individual process a...

  9. A 2-chain can interlock with a k-chain

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Julie; Langerman, Stefan; O'Rourke, Joseph; Snoeyink, Jack; Zhong, Jianyuan K.

    2004-01-01

    One of the open problems posed in [3] is: what is the minimal number k such that an open, flexible k-chain can interlock with a flexible 2-chain? In this paper, we establish the assumption behind this problem, that there is indeed some k that achieves interlocking. We prove that a flexible 2-chain can interlock with a flexible, open 16-chain.

  10. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  11. A 2-chain can interlock with an open 10-chain

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Bin; O'Rourke, Joseph; Zhong, Jianyuan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is an open problem, posed in \\cite{SoCG}, to determine the minimal $k$ such that an open flexible $k$-chain can interlock with a flexible 2-chain. It was first established in \\cite{GLOSZ} that there is an open 16-chain in a trapezoid frame that achieves interlocking. This was subsequently improved in \\cite{GLOZ} to establish interlocking between a 2-chain and an open 11-chain. Here we improve that result once more, establishing interlocking between a 2-chain and a 10-chain. We present argu...

  12. 基于证据推理的快餐店顾客满意度评价方法%An Evidence Reasoning-Based Evaluation Method of Customer Satisfaction Degree of Fast-Food Chain Store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟; 钟金宏; 李兴国

    2012-01-01

    结合快餐店的特点,选取对快餐店顾客满意度有重要影响的评价指标,运用专家打分的方法确定各评价指标的权重,从产品、服务和环境三个方面建立快餐店顾客满意度的评价指标体系.针对实际评价过程中信息不完全和问卷选项不标准等问题,设计了一种基于证据推理的快餐店顾客满意度评价方法.通过安徽省某公司的8家连锁快餐店的实例分析,验证了所提评价方法的有效性和实用性,并依据评价结果给出了提高顾客满意度的合理化建议,对快餐行业的经营活动具有一定的指导作用.%Based on the characteristic of the fast-food store,selected the evaluation index that greatly influenced the customer satisfaction degree, and used the method of expert- scoring to determine the weight of each index ,the evaluation index system of customer satisfaction degree of the fast-food stole is constructed from three parts of the product, service and environments. In the view of the incomplete information in the evaluation process and the option of questionnaire is non-standard, an evaluation method of customer satisfaction degree of the fast-food store based on evidence reasoning is designed. By the case analysis of eight fasr-food chain stares of a company in Anhui Province, the proposed approach is validated. According to the evaluation results, put forward some reasonable suggestions to improve customer satisfaction degree of the fast-food store,which are conducive to business activities of fast-food industry.

  13. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  14. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  15. Building the resilient supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Martin; Peck, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In today’s uncertain and turbulent markets, supply chain vulnerability has become an issue of significance for many companies. As supply chains become more complex as a result of global sourcing and the continued trend to ‘leaning-down’, supply chain risk increases. The challenge to business today is to manage and mitigate that risk through creating more resilient supply chains.

  16. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity...... - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  17. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  18. Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay for detection of equine arteritis virus in equine semen and tissue samples using the POCKIT™ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Nam, Bora; Skillman, Ashley; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-08-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of horses. Most importantly, EAV induces abortion in pregnant mares and can establish persistent infection in up to 10-70% of the infected stallions, which will continue to shed the virus in their semen. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) for the detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples. The newly developed assay had a limit of detection of 10 RNA copies and a 10-fold higher sensitivity than a previously described real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Evaluation of 125 semen samples revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 98.46% and 100.00%, respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 100.00% and 98.33%, respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. Both assays had the same accuracy (99.2%, k=0.98) compared to virus isolation. Corresponding values derived from testing various tissue samples (n=122) collected from aborted fetuses, foals, and EAV carrier stallions are as follows: relative sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.14%, 96.83%, and 92.62% (k=0.85), respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 98.31%, 92.06%, and 95.08% (k=0.90), respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. These results indicate that RT-iiPCR is a sensitive, specific, and a robust test enabling detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples with very considerable accuracy. Even though the RT-qPCR assay showed a sensitivity and specificity equal to virus isolation for semen samples, its diagnostic performance was somewhat limited for tissue samples. Thus, this new RT-iiPCR could be considered as an alternative tool in the implementation of EAV control and prevention strategies. PMID:27036504

  19. Exciton Transfer Integrals Between Polymer Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Barford, W

    2007-01-01

    The line-dipole approximation for the evaluation of the exciton transfer integral, $J$, between conjugated polymer chains is rigorously justified. Using this approximation, as well as the plane-wave approximation for the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, it is shown analytically that $J \\sim L$ when the chain lengths are smaller than the separation between them, or $J\\sim L^{-1}$ when the chain lengths are larger than their separation, where $L$ is the polymer length. Scaling relations are also obtained numerically for the more realistic standing-wave approximation for the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, where it is found that for chain lengths larger than their separation $J \\sim L^{-1.8}$ or $J \\sim L^{-2}$, for parallel or collinear chains, respectively. These results have important implications for the photo-physics of conjugated polymers and self-assembled molecular systems, as the Davydov splitting in aggregates and the F\\"orster transfer rate for exciton migration decreases with chain lengths l...

  20. Development Value Chains meet Business Supply Chains : The concept of Global Value Chains unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); S. Vellema (Sietze)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractValue chain promotion is considered a key element of private sector development strategies and pro-poor growth. However, (value) chain concepts are rather complex and unclear. This paper unravels the concept of global value chains and studies the diversity of key value chain-related (sup

  1. Economy, market and chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focu

  2. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin;

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  3. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  4. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies o...

  5. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how to i...

  6. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  7. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  8. Standard handbook of chains chains for power transmission and material handling

    CERN Document Server

    Chain Association, American

    2005-01-01

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives

  9. Establishment and evaluation of a multi-system chain transitional care programme for postpartum pelvic floor training%产后盆底功能训练的延续护理模式构建及效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍然; 王惠珍; 石兰萍; 张巍颖; 吴震云; 陈学丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build a multi-system chain transitional care programme for postpartum pelvic floor training and test its effect.Methods By a prospective randomized controlled trial,the study group (n=60) received a multi-system chain transitional care programme which consisted of ward nurse,home visiting doctor,post-natal care clinic doctor,pelvic floor doctor and pelvic floor nurse.The control group(n=60) received routine care.The pelvic floor muscle strength,sexual function and patient satisfaction of baseline,on the 42th days,3rd months and 6th months were compared between two groups by short-term follow-up.Results There was no difference in baseline consisting of age,gestational weeks,birth weight and so on between groups.Participants in the study group had significantly better improvement and score in pelvic floor muscle strength,sexual thoughts,sexual arousal,sexual psychopathy and problems affecting sexual function.There was no difference in score of sexual pleasure and ejaculation time between two groups.Conclusions This study was an original effort to establish and evaluate a multi-system chain transitional care program for postpartum pelvic floor training.Results demonstrated that this transitional care was effective in improving pelvic floor function.%目的 构建产后盆底功能训练的延续护理模式并检验其效果.方法 采用前瞻性随机对照实验,延续护理60例接受病房责任护士-家庭访视医生-产后保健门诊医生-盆底诊疗中心医生-盆底诊疗中心护士构成的延续护理服务,对照组60例接受传统护理服务.随访和比较2组的基线情况,42 d、3个月和6个月盆底肌肌力、性功能和患者满意度.结果 2组在年龄、孕周、新生儿体质量等基线情况上比较差异无统计学意义.延续护理组在盆底肌肌力改善、性欲、性唤起、性心理和性行为异常症状上得分,以及患者满意度均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义.2组在性高潮和性

  10. Finnish food chain impacts on climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Kurppa, Sirpa; Virtanen, Yrjö

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of the food chain’s environmental impacts was conducted using an environmentalaccounting model developed specifically for the Finnish food chain. The model is based on production and environmental impact data from year 2005. The model considers both Finnish production and Finnish imports in addition to their transport. The targets of the evaluation were the environmental impacts, in 2005, stemming from production. Environmental impacts of the end-use phase were not assessed....

  11. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  12. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  13. Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandenburg, M.; Govindan, Kannan; Sarkis, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, the consideration of environmental factors and social aspects, in supply chain management (SCM) has become a highly relevant topic for researchers and practitioners. The application of operations research methods and related models, i.e. formal modeling, for closed-loop SCM...... and reverse logistics has been effectively reviewed in previously published research. This situation is in contrast to the understanding and review of mathematical models that focus on environmental or social factors in forward supply chains (SC), which has seen less investigation. To evaluate developments...

  14. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  15. Supply chain optimization for pediatric perioperative departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janice L; Doyle, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Economic challenges compel pediatric perioperative departments to reduce nonlabor supply costs while maintaining the quality of patient care. Optimization of the supply chain introduces a framework for decision making that drives fiscally responsible decisions. The cost-effective supply chain is driven by implementing a value analysis process for product selection, being mindful of product sourcing decisions to reduce supply expense, creating logistical efficiency that will eliminate redundant processes, and managing inventory to ensure product availability. The value analysis approach is an analytical methodology for product selection that involves product evaluation and recommendation based on consideration of clinical benefit, overall financial impact, and revenue implications. PMID:21884843

  16. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  17. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen-...... for combating HER2+ breast cancer. © 2013 by Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.......Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen......-binding fragments in cancer targeting and therapy. VHHs express low immunogenicity, are highly robust and easy to manufacture and have the ability to recognize hidden or uncommon epitopes. We highlight the utility of VHH in design of new molecular, multifunctional particulate and immune cell-based systems...

  18. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  19. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles...... applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  20. Demand chain management-integrating marketing and supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Jüttner, Uta; Christopher, Martin; Baker, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper endorses demand chain management as a new business model aimed at creating value in today's marketplace, and combining the strengths of marketing and supply chain competencies. Demand chain design is based on a thorough market understanding and has to be managed in such a way as to effectively meet differing customer needs. Based on a literature review as well as the findings from a co-development workshop and focus group discussions with marketing and supply chain professionals, a...

  1. Evaluation of low-carbon behavior of distributor among subjects of closed-loop supply chain%闭环供应链主体中销售商低碳行为评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东红; 王伟; 孙彦彬; 王华

    2012-01-01

    As the channel subject of closed-loop supply chain,to implement low-carbon behavior of distributor is not only an inevitable choice of enterprise to realize long-term utilization of resources,and an inevitable demand of enterprise to establish low-carbon image,but also an compulsory path to avoid weaknesse and threat,and create unlimited business opportunity of enterprise.The low-carbon behavior of distributor is evaluated by establishing Structural Equation Model(SEM),and SPSS 13.0 and LISREL 8.80 softwares are applied to process indicator data,which filters key influence factors and improves them accordingly,in order to provide theoratical reference and technical guidance to realize long-term comprehensive benefits of distributor.%作为闭环供应链中的渠道主体,销售商实施低碳行为是企业实现资源长远利用的必然选择,是塑造企业低碳形象的必然要求,也是规避企业劣势与威胁、创造无限商机的必经之路。通过构建SEM对销售商低碳行为进行评价,运用SPSS 13.0和LISREL 8.80软件处理指标数据,筛选出关键的影响因素,并有针对性地加以改进,以期为销售商实现长期综合效益提供理论参考与技术指导。

  2. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  3. Input chains and industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    A key aspect of industrialization is the adoption of increasing-returns-to-scale, industrial, technologies. Two other, well-documented aspects are that industrial technologies are adopted throughout intermediate-input chains and that they use intermediate inputs intensively relative to the technologies they replace. These features of industrial technologies combined imply that countries with access to similar technologies may have very different levels of industrial...

  4. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  5. Inclusive Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula; Safadi, Raed; Taglioni, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This report's focus is making global value chains (GVCs) more inclusive. To achieve inclusiveness is by overcoming participation constraints for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and facilitation access for Low Income Developing Countries (LIDCs). The underlying assumption is that most firms in LIDCs are SMEs. Even larger firms in LIDCs are likely to face similar challenges to SMEs, including a less supportive domestic operating environment and weaker institutions that lead to higher fixed ...

  6. Polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2015-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation...

  7. Tax efficient supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borralho, Joana Patrícia Costeira

    2014-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration. This case started with the following question: How supply chains and tax policy interact? This question was the starting point for this study and was developed under the areas of Logistics and International Tax Policy. In order to support this study, the adopted methodology was the selection of a Multinational company – LPR Portugal – which has the transportation and distribution in the European Union as a scope of service and...

  8. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role, activ

  9. Solution of depletion chain equations using nonsingular Bateman coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact solution of the depletion chain equations for arbitrary values of depletion constants is obtained. New nonsingular coefficients are introduced, and recurrence formulas that provide an efficient and accurate method of calculation are derived. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating depletion chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain, such as the s-process chain in studies of nucleosynthesis by neutron capture. The method can also be used to check the validity of approximate solutions

  10. Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fred Genesee

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Evaluation in TESOL settings is a process of collecting,analysing and interpreting information about teaching and learning in order to make informed decisions that enhance student achievement and the success of educational programmes (Rea-Dickins and Germaine 1993; Genesee and Upshur 1996;O'Malley and Valdez-Pierce 1996).Three simple examples help explicate the varied forms evaluation can take in TESOL settings:

  11. A Hybrid Support Vector Machines and Two-dimensional Risk Matrix Model for Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Jiang; Junfei Chen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the supply chain managements have been paid more and more attention. The supply chain risk management is an important content for enterprises implementing supply chain management. Therefore, how to measure the risk of supply chain is quite important. In this study, a supply chain risk evaluation model based on support vector machines and two-dimensional risk matrix is proposed. The index system of supply chain risk assessment which includes 14 indices is established. The case...

  12. Predicting the chemical stability of monatomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng-Zhe; Chen, Xi

    2013-02-01

    A simple model for evaluating the thermal atomic transfer rates in nanosystems (Lin Z.-Z. et al., EPL, 94 (2011) 40002) was developed to predict the chemical reaction rates of nanosystems with small gas molecules. The accuracy of the model was verified by MD simulations for molecular adsorption and desorption on a monatomic chain. By the prediction, a monatomic carbon chain should survive for 1.2 × 102 years in the ambient of 1 atm O2 at room temperature, and it is very invulnerable to N2, H2O, NO2, CO and CO2, while a monatomic gold chain quickly ruptures in vacuum. It is worth noting that since the model can be easily applied via common ab initio calculations, it could be widely used in the prediction of chemical stability of nanosystems.

  13. 基于供应链视角的物流客户服务绩效评价指标体系设计%The Design of Performance Evaluation Index System of Logistics Customer Service Based on Supply Chain Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪利虹

    2013-01-01

    随着制造和服务的全球化,企业更加关注各种因素对其所处供应链的影响。物流客户服务不仅会对其客户企业产生影响,而且会对客户企业所处供应链产生全方位的影响。因此,本文提出从供应链视角研究物流客户服务绩效评价问题,并用德尔菲法和模糊层次分析法构建了从供应链视角评价物流客户服务绩效的指标体系,得出了时间比成本和质量指标影响作用更大的结论。%With the globalization of manufacturing and service, enterprises pay more attention to the effects of various fac-tors in the supply chain. Logistics customer service level will not only affect the enterprise, but also to the customer in over-all the supply chain. Therefore, this paper proposes from perspectives of supply chain logistics customer service performance evaluation. By applying Delphi method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy, we construct the performance evaluation index system of logistics customer service based on supply chain perspective, and conclude that the influence of time index on the perfor-mance evaluation of logistics customer service under supply chain perspective is greater than cost and quality index.

  14. Adjustable Chain Trees for Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  15. Supply chain dynamics in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Banomyong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management in Asia is a relatively novel topic but a key challenge for all Asian based manufacturers and traders when trying to integrate into the "global market". The purpose of the paper is to describe key supply chain issues faced in Asia. These issues are related to supply chain security that forces Asian firms to comply with numerous requirements as well as the importance of a properly managed supply chain in enhancing firms' competitiveness. The critical role played by Asia...

  16. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. PMID:23611335

  17. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented.

  18. Supply Chain Dynamic Performance Measurement Based on BSC and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now individual contest among enterprises has been turning into collective contest among supply chains. Supply chain management (SCM has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. In recent years, organizational performance measurement and metrics have received much attention from researchers and practitioners. The foundation of proper supply chain performance assessment system is the basis of its effective operation and management. Most of the traditional supply chain performance evaluation is a static evaluation, while the actual supply chain is a dynamic system, therefore need to adapt with ways to carry out the evaluation. In order to meet the needs of the dynamic alliance's overall performance evaluation, this paper extended the traditional four Balanced Scorecard dimension into five. On this basis, established the five Balanced Scorecard dimension of supply chain, and also established a three-layered of quantitative index system according to this model. Measured then each performance indexs value by using the theory of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process, meanwhile reduced the number of input of the Support Vector Machine (SVM by using classification method, finally, got performance evaluations result by using the weighted Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM, which provides the basis for rational analysis and decision-making of the supply chain.

  19. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of a new burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. The JENDL FP Decay Data File 2011 and Fission Yields Data File 2011 were used as the data sources. The nuclides in the new chain are determined by restrictions of the half-life and cumulative yield of fission products or from a given list. Then, decay modes, branching ratios and fission yields are recalculated taking into account intermediate reactions. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Further development and applications are being planned with the burnup chain code. (author)

  20. Risk Management in Logystics Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Butrin, Andrey; Vikulov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to risk management of supply chain. The authors considered indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers.

  1. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  2. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model can be used to develop an Academic Chain Operation Reference Model.

  3. On chains of centered valuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Chibloun

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study chains of centered valuations of a domain A and chains of centered valuations of A [X1,…,Xn] corresponding to valuations of A. Finally, we make some applications to chains of valuations centered on the same ideal of A [X1,…,Xn] and extending the same valuation of A.

  4. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  5. Musical Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  6. Longwall AFC chain tension measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, P.; Guan, Z.; Pienaar, B.

    2009-10-01

    CRC Mining has developed a chain tension meter to measure the AFC chain tension during the operation. The device was certified Ex ia IP55 by SIMTARS for use in hazardous areas. In June 2007 this device was successfully trialled in an Australian longwall face. The trial was run monitoring AFC chain tensions over a few shifts. The dynamic behaviour and unequal sharing of load between the chains were recorded and found to be significant. During this trial the robustness of the tension meter electronics and protection housing was demonstrated, the measurement of AFC chain tensions on a working face can be achieved reliably. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  7. 我国汽车制造业供应链风险评价实证研究--基于熵权可拓决策模型的分析%Empirical research on supply chain risks evaluation in Chinese automobile manufacturing industry:analysis based on entropy extension decision model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷勋平

    2015-01-01

    为应对和防范汽车制造业供应链风险,基于我国汽车制造业供应链典型结构,考虑供应链内生风险,从需求风险、供应风险和物流风险等7个方面,构建汽车制造业供应链风险评价指标体系。结合熵权理论和可拓思想,建立基于熵权可拓决策模型的汽车制造业供应链风险评价模型;确定供应链风险的经典域、节域和评价对象;给出供应链风险评价步骤;并就A省JHQC、QRQC、XMQC共3家汽车制造企业供应链风险数据进行实证研究。研究结果表明:3家企业供应链风险等级分别为I(低风险状态)、I(低风险状态)和II(较低风险状态),总体状况良好,但XMQC汽车制造企业供应链风险有恶化的趋势。且评价结果与实际基本一致,也表明指标选取和模型构建是有效的。%To prevent and respond supply chain risks in automobile manufacturing industry, a supply chain risks evalua-tion index system about automobile manufacturing industry is built from demand risks, supply risks, logistics risks and so on seven aspects based on supply chain typical structure in Chinese automobile manufacturing industry. The entropy weight theory is applied to combine with extension thought to establish an automobile manufacturing industry supply chain risks evaluation model based on entropy extension decision model. The classical and limited fields about supply chain risks and evaluation objects are identified. The steps and processes about supply chain risks evaluation are presented. Combined with supply chain risks data of JHQC、QRQC and XMQC three automobile manufacturing enterprises in A province, an empirical research is implemented. The results show that three enterprises’supply chain risk levels are in I (lower risk level), I(lower risk level)and II(low level)respectively. Overall speaking, the present situation is good, but XMQC automobile manufacturing enterprise’s supply chain

  8. Overview of MPC applications in supply chains: Potential use and benefits in the management of forest-based supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Pinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This work aims to provide an overview of Model Predictive Controllers (MPC applications in supply chains, to describe the forest-based supply chain and to analyse the potential use and benefits of MPC in a case study concerning a biomass supply chain.Area of study: The proposed methods are being applied to a company located in Finland.Material and methods: Supply chains are complex systems where actions and partners’ coordination influence the whole system performance. The increase of competitiveness and need of quick responses to the costumers implies the use of efficient management techniques. The control theory, particularly MPC, has been successfully used as a supply chain management tool. MPC is able to deal with dynamic interactions between the partners and to globally optimize the supply chain performance in the presence of disturbances. However, as far as is authors’ knowledge, there are no applications of this methodology in the forest-based supply chains. This work proposes a control architecture to improve the performance of the forest supply chain. The controller is based on prediction models which are able to simulate the system and deal with disturbances.Main results: The preliminary results enable to evaluate the impacts of disturbances in the supply chain. Thus, it is possible to react beforehand, controlling the schedules and tasks’ allocation, or alert the planning level in order to generate a new plan.Research highlights:   Overview of MPC applications in supply chains; forest-based supply chain description; case study presentation: wood biomass supply chain for energy production; MPC architecture proposal to decrease the operation times.Keywords: biomass; forest; Model Predictive Control; planning; supply chain.

  9. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  10. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  11. APPLICATION OF VALUE CHAIN MANAGEMENT TO LONGAN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichat Sopadang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longan plays an important role as an economic fruit of Thailand because of its volume and size in markets, both domestic and aboard. It was generally known that serious problems were encountered in current longan production and sale, especially the increased production cost. To understand the overall situation clearly, longan’s supply chain was evaluated using the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR model and value chain analysis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 73 supply chain members, covering farmers, middlemen, process operators, transporters and exporters, located in Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Bangkok. Performance of the longan supply chain members were evaluated based on four categories, namely, inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics and supporting activities. It was found that the exporters had the highest score in every aspect of performance criteria whereas the farmers had the lowest score, especially in the outbound logistics part. The findings also showed that the major problem of this supply chain was due to oversupply of longan. It was therefore recommended that the members in the supply chain should have to manage and control the quantity of longan, so that demand and supply are balanced as well as to add value to the longan products by increasing information share between members. Marketing campaign is also important to boost longan demand. By implementing operational best practice to each supply chain member, 25% reduction in waste may be achieved.

  12. Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

  13. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Inès Nacef; Skander Kedous; Zied Attia; Slim Touati; Said Gritli

    2012-01-01

    Nerve tumors arising from the sympathetic chain are uncommon slow-growing tumors and represent a diagnosis challenge. Their malignant degeneration is rare. Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult as investigations are not usually helpful. We report the case of a 23-year old woman who presented with an asymptomatic solitary left cervical swelling. She was evaluated with sonography and computed tomography. Complete surgical excision of the lesion was carried out and histologic exami...

  14. Ring test evaluation of the detection of influenza A virus in swine oral fluids by real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and virus isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 real-time, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 virus isolation (VI) assays. To conduct the study, OF was inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially 10-fold d...

  15. Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence. PCR is now a common and often indispensable technique used in medical and biological research labs for a variety of applications. There are three major steps involved in the PCR technique: denaturation, annealing and extension. PCR is useful in the investigation and diagnosis of a growing number of diseases. PCR is also used in forensics laboratories. PCR can identify genes that have been implicated in the development of cancer. The present paper is an attempt to review basics of PCR in relation to its methods, application and use.

  16. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  17. PHONONS IN POLYACENIC CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. Rafil; M. Tamine; B. Bourahla; R. Tigrine; S. Amoudache; A. Khater

    2006-01-01

    We have theoretically resolved phonon excitations in quasi-two-dimensional organic crystals of polyacenic semiconductor material which may be obtained by the pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. A model for studying the dynamical properties using three polyacene chains is proposed with the aim to present the vibrational properties of this structure. It employs the formalism of solid states in two dimensions which admit phonons. A simulation process of the two-dimensional lattice structure shows that elastic waves may explain the existence of vibrational modes in the frequency range 100-400 cm-1. The presence of acoustic and optical like phonons is discussed in terms of the elastic force constants. A hyperfine resonance structure is obtained. It allows the analysis of the dynamical evolution in thin films of polyacene. It is found that the behavior of the phonon density of states exhibits resonance between modes in the structure.

  18. Returns management in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The aim of this exploratory empirical research was to evaluate the level of cooperation in the area of reverse logistics between selected retail chains and logistics operators and suppliers; to identify and evaluate the influence the procedures of handling returns have on the relationships with customers, cost reduction, value recovery, inventory reduction and increasing profitability; as well as determining to what extent logistics operators are involved in the procedures of handling returns in the analysed chains. Methods: Based on the literature and the experience of researchers from developed countries a questionnaire was constructed which was subsequently used to conduct empirical research in selected retail chains operating in two provinces in Poland. The questionnaire survey involved the sales personnel of selected retail chains in the clothing industry. Overall, 105 questionnaires were collected and analysed. Results: Various aspects of cooperation with suppliers and logistics operators in respect of handling returns were evaluated. Most indicators of cooperation were evaluated favourably, with the exception of joint access to the database, the use of inventory data available online, and access to information from the warehouse, which received low marks from the respondents. In the case of the studied stores, some of the activities in the area of reverse logistics are outsourced; for example, obtaining products from users, logistics, and the transport of returns are typically done by an outside operator. Inspection, sorting, appraisal, repairs, as well as the sales of refurbished products are usually performed within the studied retail corporations. Conclusions: The research has shown that the retail chains developed very good programmes for handling returns in the supply chain, as evidenced by the presented and highly rated indicators of cooperation, with the exception of information exchange where there is still much

  19. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i......The purpose of this thesis is to increase the understanding of interplays between products and supply chains. In academia, there seem to be an acknowledgement that the nature of a given product has a major influence on the performance of the supply chain associated with it – for one.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...

  20. Influence of hotel chains on the development of accommodation facilities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Burenkova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, hotel chains have become an indispensable part of the hotel industry. Hotels which are managed by hotel chains may be found almost everywhere in the world. The main aims of this theses are to evaluate the current situation of accommodation facilities in Russia and to analyse the influence of the hotel chains on the development of accommodation facilities in the Russian market.

  1. Supply chain collaboration under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Saad; Eckert, Claudia; Earl, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In fluctuating economic conditions such as global recession, supply chains operate under changing conditions of uncertainty. The impact of this uncertainty and associated risk might be mitigated by collaboration. This paper proposes a model of supply chain collaboration based on information exchange and decision coordination at both the strategic and tactical levels. However, a collaborative supply chain can be exposed to associated risks such as the failure of individual actors. Governance r...

  2. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  3. Social Media and Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Markova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain management a reference with the main concepts of social media: social profiles, social applications, brand outposts and communities, and the social ecosystem.

  4. Social Media and Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Markova; Tatjana Petkovska-Mirčevska

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0, also referred to as social media, is the use of the World Wide Web to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. Social media is driving the rethinking of many of the principles of economics. The use of social media within supply chains is lagging behind their usage for other operational functions, however supply chain management is evolving into supply chain management 2.0.The purpose of this article is to provide researches of the supply chain manageme...

  5. 长株潭两型社会背景下区域生态供应链环境绩效评价研究%Changzhutan two type society under the background of regional ecological environment of supply chain performance evaluation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉梅

    2014-01-01

    The article on the two type society and regional ecology based on the research of supply chain management, in view of the current "two type society", comply with the trend of low carbon of the regional ecological environment of supply chain performance evaluation system are analyzed and the content of the research, and design in two type society under the background of regional ecological environment of supply chain performance evaluation system and the content of the build process.%文章在对两型社会与区域生态供应链管理的研究基础上,针对当前“两型社会”下,顺应低碳趋势的区域生态供应链环境绩效评价体系的内容进行了分析与研究,并设计出在两型社会背景下区域生态供应链环境绩效评价体系的内容和构建程序。

  6. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. T

  7. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Nacef

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nerve tumors arising from the sympathetic chain are uncommon slow-growing tumors and represent a diagnosis challenge. Their malignant degeneration is rare. Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult as investigations are not usually helpful. We report the case of a 23-year old woman who presented with an asymptomatic solitary left cervical swelling. She was evaluated with sonography and computed tomography. Complete surgical excision of the lesion was carried out and histologic examination revealed a schwannoma. Post-operatively, the patient showed clinical findings of Horner’s syndrome. Pathologic and radiological evaluation, differential diagnosis of this neoplasm and its management are discussed.

  8. Bitter decoration and magneto-optical observations of vortex chains in high temperature superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Tamegai; H Aoki; M Matsui; M Tokunaga

    2006-01-01

    In tilted magnetic fields, vortices in anisotropic superconductors form one-dimensional arrangements, called vortex chains. We have visualized vortex chains by Bitter decoration and magneto-optical technique. The fundamental energy scale for the attractive interaction between pancake and Josephson vortices is evaluated by observing vortex chains under various conditions. We also explore how the vortex chains evolve when the large in-plane field is applied or when the anisotropy parameter of the system is changed.

  9. The Reliability Research of the Supply Chain Management Based on the Fuzzy Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The complex and varied relationships between supply a nd demand among different enterprises calls for an effective way to evaluate and maintain reliability in supply chain management. Individually, enterprises purs ue maximum benefit strategy while cooperating with others. This behavior may res ult in the weakening of needed reliability in supply chain or, in more serious c ases, sever the supply chain. Although reliability of supply chain is the bases to ensuring long-term benefit, a systematic way of h...

  10. Assessing Performance Of Supply Chain Risk Management Programmes – A Tentative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Eva; Knudsen, Daniel; Norrman, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide initial directions about how risk management programmes could be assessed in a supply chain setting and to discuss how such a measurement system could be designed. Measures are needed both for the management to evaluate the success of actions taken in supply chain risk management, as well as for the (supply chain) risk manager to communicate the value of his work. A number of indicators could show whether the supply chain risk management wor...

  11. Implementierung und Evaluierung eines tutoriell betreuten elektronischen Biochemie-Praktikumsversuchs "Polymerase-Kettenreaktion (PCR)" im vorklinischen Studienabschnitt [Implementation and Evaluation of a Tutor-Supported Computer-Based Practical Biochemistry Course "Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)" in Preclinical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kröncke, Klaus-Dietrich; Becher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    [english] Background: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an example of a technology that for many medical students is not easy to understand. We investigated whether a tutor-supported e-learning teaching unit is suitable to teach undergraduate medical students the PCR. Methods: We developed a computer-based practical course (attendance is compulsory) that uses an open source-based system as a learning platform. The students learned to search in scientific medical databases to find PCR-r...

  12. A Comparative Evaluation of Mono-, Di- and Triglyceride of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Lipid/Surfactant/Water Phase Diagram, Solubility Determination and Dispersion Testing for Application in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hetal N. Prajapati; Dalrymple, Damon M.; Abu T. M. Serajuddin

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To compare physiochemical properties of mono-, di- and triglycerides of medium chain fatty acids for development of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms of poorly water-soluble drugs using phase diagrams, drug solubility, and drug dispersion experiments. Methods Phase diagrams were prepared using a monoglyceride (glycerol monocaprylocaprate: Capmul MCM® EP), a diglyceride (glycerol dicaprylate) and two triglycerides (glycerol tricaprylate: Captex 8000®; caprylic/capric triglyceri...

  13. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  14. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  15. Realities of Supply Chain Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampstra, R.P.; Ashayeri, J.; Gattorna, J.

    2006-01-01

    Successful supply chain collaboration (SCC) practices are rather exceptional, yet collaboration is believed to be the single most pressing need in supply chain management.In this paper we discuss the realities of SCC, present prerequisites for the collaboration process, indicate where the process st

  16. Simulation in Supply Chains: An Arena basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bekker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The quest for global competitiveness brought about new business approaches, of which the supply chain has become an important entity during the last few years. With even more complex decision structures, demand variation and the need for evaluating alternatives within this frame, simulation and simulation-optimization have been identified as key decision-making tools. This paper briefly reviews the basic characteristics of supply chains, and illustrates that existing software may be integrated towards a supply chain simulator.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die strewe na globale mededingendheid vereis nuwe benaderings deur ondernemings, terwyl die toevoerketting 'n belangrike entiteit gedurende die afgelope paar jaar geword het. Toenemende kompleksiteit in besluitneming, variasie in vraag en die behoefte om alternatiewe binne hierdie komplekse raamwerk te evalueer, het tot gevolg dat simulasie en simulasie-optimering as sleutel-besluitneming gereedskap beskou word. Hierdie artikel gee 'n kort oorsig oor die basiese eienskappe van toevoerkettings, en dit word getoon dat bestaandeprogrammatuur integreer kan word om 'n toevoerketting-simuleerderte ontwikkel.

  17. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem;

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  18. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  19. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    ). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies......The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction...... between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section...

  20. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan;

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  1. Potential energy surface of alanine polypeptide chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2006-01-01

    The multidimensional potential energy surfaces of the peptide chains consisting of three and six alanine (Ala) residues have been studied with respect to the degrees of freedom related to the twist of these molecules relative to the peptide backbone (these degrees of freedom are responsible...... for the folding of such peptide molecules and proteins). The potential energy surfaces have been calculated ab initio within the framework of the density functional theory taking into account all electrons in the system. The probabilities of transitions between various stable conformations of polypeptide...... molecules are evaluated. The results are compared to the data obtained by molecular dynamics simulations and to the available experimental data. The influence of the secondary structure of the polypeptide chain on its conformational properties with respect to rotations has been studied. It is shown that...

  2. MANAGEMENT OF PHARMACY CHAIN ON THE BASIS OF OUTSOURCING

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Dzhuparova

    2015-01-01

    The article studies the problems of development of methods of the outsourcing reasoning of a certain business process of pharmacy chains considering the risk on the basis of the system analysis, expert survey, theory of probability, mathematical statistics. Business processes of the pharmacy chain for outsourcing have been indicated. We have offered an “index of outsourcing reasonability” for qualitative evaluation of business processes implementation.

  3. Detection of Francisella tularensis in blood by polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Long, G W; Oprandy, J J; Narayanan, R. B.; Fortier, A H; Porter, K R; Nacy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for Francisella tularensis which we evaluated by using spiked blood samples and experimentally infected mice. The assay detected both type A and type B F. tularensis at levels equivalent to one CFU/microliter of spiked blood. Results from polymerase chain reaction-based assay of limiting dilutions of blood from mice infected with the live vaccine strain agreed closely with results from blood culture.

  4. Greening Supply Chains: Impact on Cost and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Mallidis, Ioannis; Dekker, Rommert; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe consideration of environmental issues has emerged as a topic of critical importance for today’s globalized supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to develop a strategic-tactical decision-support methodology to assist managers in evaluating the impact of environmental issues, related to transportation emissions, on the transport geography of a region. Specifically we provide a tool that addresses: (i) supply chain network design, including port of entry and transportation ...

  5. Elastic Behavior of Polymer Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Lu; Tao Chen; Hao-jun Liang

    2008-01-01

    The elastic behavior of the polymer chain was investigated in a three-dimensional off-lattice model. We sample more than 109 conformations of each kind of polymer chain by using a Monte Carlo algorithm, then analyze them with the non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity, and end with a statistical study. Through observing the effect of the chain flexibility and the stretching ratio on the mean-square end-to-end distance,the average energy, the average Helmholtz free energy, the elastic force, the contribution of energy to the elastic force, and the entropy contribution to elastic force of the polymer chain, we find that a rigid polymer chain is much easier to stretch than a flexible polymer chain. Also, a rigid polymer chain will become difficult to stretch only at a quite high stretching ratio because of the effect of the entropy contribution.These results of our simulation calculation may explain some of the macroscopic phenomena of polymer and biomacromolecular elasticity.

  6. New sensors and processing chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yaakoubi, Nourdin

    2014-01-01

    A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.

  7. Chains of Mean Field Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, S. Hamed; Macris, Nicolas; Urbanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of Curie-Weiss (CW) spin systems, possibly with a random field, each of which is placed along the positions of a one-dimensional chain. The CW systems are coupled together by a Kac-type interaction in the longitudinal direction of the chain and by an infinite range interaction in the direction transverse to the chain. Our motivations for studying this model come from recent findings in the theory of error correcting codes based on spatially coupled graphs. We find tha...

  8. Towards a global CO2 calculation standard for supply chains: suggestions for methodological improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Davydenko, Igor; Ehrler, Verena Charlotte; de Ree, Diederik; Lewis, Alan; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving the efficiency and sustainability of supply chains is a shared aim of the transport industry, its customers, governments as well as industry organisations. To optimize supply chains and for the identification of best practice, standards for their analysis are needed in order to achieve comparable evaluations. This need for an evaluation standard also applies to CO2 emission calculations. This research focuses on the transportation within supply chains and possible approaches towards...

  9. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  10. Gravity Waves from Chain Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashoorioon, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Chain inflation proceeds through a series of first order phase transitions, which can release considerable gravitational waves (GW). We demonstrate that bubble collisions can leave an observable signature for future high-frequency probes of GWs, such as advanced LIGO, LISA and BBO. A "smoking gun" for chain inflation would be wiggles in the spectrum (and consequently in the tensor spectral index) due to the multiple phase transitions. The spectrum could also be distinguished from a single first order phase transition by a small difference in the amplitude at low frequency. A second origin of GWs in chain inflation are tensor modes from quantum fluctuations; these GW can dominate and be observed on large scales. The consistency relation between scalar and tensor modes is different for chain inflation than for standard rolling models and is testable by Cosmic Microwave Background experiments. If inflation happened through a series of rapid tunnelings in the string landscape, future high frequency probes of GW c...

  11. Ownership Structure in Agrifood Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); W.J.J. Bijman (Jos)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses the impact of ownership structure on investments in a three-party supply chain from an incomplete contracting perspective. Circumstances are determined in which a marketing cooperative is the unique first-best ownership structure.

  12. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung ...

  13. Supply Chain Management and Hypercompetition

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzab, H,; Grant, DB; Teller, C.; Halldorsson, A

    2008-01-01

    Firms nowadays face significant challenges in their operating environments, which have been characterised in two different ways. From a strategic management perspective these environments are in a state of hypercompetition while from a logistics or supply chain perspective these environments require market responsiveness predicated upon agile supply chains. However, firms must also rely on many interorganizational relationships to ensure efficient and effective movements within their supply c...

  14. Product Classification in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lihong; Xu, Yaoxuan

    2010-01-01

    Oriflame is a famous international direct sale cosmetics company with complicated supply chain operation but it lacks of a product classification system. It is vital to design a product classification method in order to support Oriflame global supply planning and improve the supply chain performance. This article is aim to investigate and design the multi-criteria of product classification, propose the classification model, suggest application areas of product classification results and intro...

  15. The chain re-action

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 18 March, beam commissioning started in the first ‘link’ of the accelerator chain – LINAC 2. This marks the start of what will be the longest period of beam operations in CERN’s history, with the accelerator complex remaining operational throughout the winter to supply the LHC. The Bulletin finds out what is being done to make sure the whole chain is ready for this historic run.

  16. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......, network theory, innovation theory, competence development and political science, which are proposed as focus in future capacity development as part of governmental strategies, which aim at supporting emergence and stabilisation of environmental concerns as part of product chain dynamics....

  17. Developing sustainable food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, B. Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into so...

  18. Analysing biomass torrefaction supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Martin; Olofsson, Ingemar; Flodén, Jonas; Nordin, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop a techno-economic system model to evaluate how logistics and production parameters affect the torrefaction supply chain costs under Swedish conditions. The model consists of four sub-models: (1) supply system, (2) a complete energy and mass balance of drying, torrefaction and densification, (3) investment and operating costs of a green field, stand-alone torrefaction pellet plant, and (4) distribution system to the gate of an end user. The results show that the torrefaction supply chain reaps significant economies of scale up to a plant size of about 150-200 kiloton dry substance per year (ktonDS/year), for which the total supply chain costs accounts to 31.8 euro per megawatt hour based on lower heating value (€/MWhLHV). Important parameters affecting total cost are amount of available biomass, biomass premium, logistics equipment, biomass moisture content, drying technology, torrefaction mass yield and torrefaction plant capital expenditures (CAPEX).

  19. Stochastic seismic tomography by interacting Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Alexis; Gesret, Alexandrine; Romary, Thomas; Noble, Mark; Maisons, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods are widely used for non-linear Bayesian inversion where no analytical expression for the forward relation between data and model parameters is available. Contrary to the linear(ized) approaches they naturally allow to evaluate the uncertainties on the model found. Nevertheless their use is problematic in high dimensional model spaces especially when the computational cost of the forward problem is significant and/or the a posteriori distribution is multimodal. In this case the chain can stay stuck in one of the modes and hence not provide an exhaustive sampling of the distribution of interest. We present here a still relatively unknown algorithm that allows interaction between several Markov chains at different temperatures. These interactions (based on Importance Resampling) ensure a robust sampling of any posterior distribution and thus provide a way to efficiently tackle complex fully non linear inverse problems. The algorithm is easy to implement and is well adapted to run on parallel supercomputers. In this paper the algorithm is first introduced and applied to a synthetic multimodal distribution in order to demonstrate its robustness and efficiency compared to a Simulated Annealing method. It is then applied in the framework of first arrival traveltime seismic tomography on real data recorded in the context of hydraulic fracturing. To carry out this study a wavelet based adaptive model parametrization has been used. This allows to integrate the a priori information provided by sonic logs and to reduce optimally the dimension of the problem.

  20. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  1. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical supply chains present considerable complexity issue for the formulation of optimal plans due to significant uncertainty in the supply chain. The primary goal of biopharmaceutical supply chain planning is to provide reliable supply to patients while coping with various supply chain risks. In chapter 1 first I discuss the key elements and basic characteristics of the biopharmaceutical supply chain . Then I present the major challenges in biopharmaceutical supply chain planning...

  2. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) supply chain collaboration development methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN,MARJORIE B.; CHAPMAN,LEON D.

    2000-03-15

    The Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) project during the last five years of work with the U.S. Integrated Textile Complex (retail, apparel, textile, and fiber sectors) has developed an inter-enterprise supply chain collaboration development methodology. The goal of this methodology is to enable a supply chain to work more efficiently and competitively. The outcomes of this methodology include: (1) A definitive description and evaluation of the role of business cultures and supporting business organizational structures in either inhibiting or fostering change to a more competitive supply chain; (2) ``As-Is'' and proposed ``To-Be'' supply chain business process models focusing on information flows and decision-making; and (3) Software tools that enable and support a transition to a more competitive supply chain, which results form a business driven rather than technologically driven approach to software design. This methodology development will continue in FY00 as DAMA engages companies in the soft goods industry in supply chain research and implementation of supply chain collaboration.

  3. Increasing Capacity Exploitation in Food Supply Chains Using Grid Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Eugen; Müller, Marcus; Jacob, Ansger; Racz, Peter; Waldburger, Martin

    Food supply chains today are characterized by fixed trade relations with long term contracts established between heterogeneous supply chain companies. Production and logistics capacities of these companies are often utilized in an economically inefficient manner only. In addition, increased consumer awareness in food safety issues renders supply chain management even more challenging, since integrated tracking and tracing along the whole food supply chain is needed. Facing these issues of supply chain management complexity and completely documented product quality, this paper proposes a full lifecycle solution for dynamic capacity markets based on concepts used in the field of Grid [1], like management of Virtual Organization (VO) combined with Service Level Agreement (SLA). The solution enables the cost-efficient utilization of real world capacities (e.g., production capacities or logistics facilities) by using a simple, browser-based portal. Users are able to enter into product-specific negotiations with buyers and suppliers of a food supply chain, and to obtain real-time access to product information including SLA evaluation reports. Thus, business opportunities in wider market access, process innovation, and trustworthy food products are offered for participating supply chain companies.

  4. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  5. Evaluation of the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT). 2. Liquid-liquid equilibria and prediction of monomer fraction in hydrogen bonding systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Grenner, Andreas; Economou, Ioannis;

    2008-01-01

    Two statistical thermodynamic models, the nonrandom hydrogen bonding (NRHB) theory, which is a compressible lattice model, and the simplified perturbed-chain-statistical associating fluid theory (sPC-SAFT), which is based on Wertheim's perturbation theory, were used to model liquid......-liquid equilibria and predict the fraction of nonhydrogen bonded molecules in various hydrogen bonding mixtures. Carefully selected binary mixtures, which include water-hydrocarbon, 1-alkanol-hydrocarbon, water-1-alkanol, and glycol-hydrocarbon, were used to benchmark the accuracy of the models. Both models yielded...... for the treatment of hydrogen bonding, yielded similar predictions for the fraction of non-hydrogen bonded molecules (monomer fraction) in pure 1-alkanols and in 1-alkanol-n-hexane mixtures....

  6. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  7. Linear chains and chain-like fractals from electrostatic heteroaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anthony Y; Hauch, Kip D; Berg, John C; Martin, James E; Anderson, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    The internal structure of materials prepared by aggregation of oppositely charged polystyrene spheres (electrostatic heteroaggregation) is investigated by static light scattering, optical microscopy, and Brownian dynamics simulation. Light scattering indicates ultralow mass fractal dimensions, as low as 1.2. Such low fractal dimensions, approaching the theoretical limit of a linear object, imply a chaining mechanism. Optical micrographs reveal linear chains with the particle charge alternating down the chains. Brownian dynamics simulation gives additional support for a chaining mechanism. For the polystyrene system (120-nm primary particle diameters), the fractal dimension is found to increase from 1.2 to 1.7 as the background electrolyte is increased. In terms of electrostatic screening, the results match those reported recently for larger polystyrene spheres. The low fractal dimensions appear to represent a crossover from linear chains to a structure of diffusion-limited aggregates; however, experiments under density-neutral conditions imply that sedimentation plays an important role in the formation of ultralow fractal dimensions. The practical implication is that microcomposites with a locally uniform distribution of starting materials and almost any degree of branching can be prepared from oppositely charged particles. PMID:12742045

  8. The Influence of Supply Chain Integration on the Intrapreneurship in Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FatemehAshrafganjouei,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available These days, SMEs pay a lot of attention to concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM in order to achieve competitiveness. The logic behind such act is integrating the activities of value creation within any kind of organizational context. Such integrity would collaborate with managers to accomplish the competitive edge that they are aiming to achieve. The goal of current research is to identify scopes of a unique construct which is known as Entrepreneurial Supply Chain Management competency. Therefore, the notions of SCM and entrepreneurship are being aligned together for evaluating the organizational performance. The outcomes demonstrate that SCM in fact is a critical issue that can alter the organizational performance, thus, through consideration of SCM, we should focus on supply chain integration and its impacts on intrapreneurship and innovation of an organization. In order to be successful in such competitive context, SMEs need to provide novel competences which are not imitable and to increase their application in supply chain and also to improve their total performance.

  9. A Qualitative Approach for Assessing Resiliency in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikookar Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a comprehensive and competitive management system to enhance resilience capability of supply chains. In addition, the study aims to identify and eliminate barriers affecting resilience by identifying the factors may cause trouble in the near future. The theoretical framework was established to summarize the significant finding in the area of resilient supply chain and as a guideline for the empirical part. A qualitative approach based on multi criteria decision making process has been adopted in order to gather data through in-depth interviews. The developed method to evaluate resilience capability through supply chains piloted in a sample of five companies involved in an automotive supply chain.

  10. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...... are applicable and effective? This study seeks to explore SCM practices, and identify practical and theoretical gaps in toy supply chains. Design/methodology/approach - This article includes a longitudinal and in-depth case study during the past year in an international toy manufacturer, which includes...

  11. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  12. Chains of Mean Field Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, S Hamed; Urbanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    We consider a collection of mean field spin systems, each of which is placed on the positions of a one-dimensional chain, coupled together by a Kac-type interaction along the chain. We analyze the simplest possible cases where the individual system is a Curie-Weiss model, possibly with a random field. We are interested in the regime where the size of each mean field model tends to infinity and, the length of the chain and range of the Kac interaction are large but finite. Below the critical temperature, there appears a series of equilibrium states representing kink-like interfaces between the two equilibrium states of the individual system. The van der Waals curve oscillates periodically around the Maxwell plateau. These oscillations have a period inversely proportional to the chain length and an amplitude exponentially small in the range of the interaction; in other words the spinodal points of the chain model lie exponentially close to the phase transition threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations is clo...

  13. Chain reconfiguration in active noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a typical single molecule experiment, the dynamics of an unfolded protein is studied by determining the reconfiguration time using long-range Förster resonance energy transfer, where the reconfiguration time is the characteristic decay time of the position correlation between two residues of the protein. In this paper we theoretically calculate the reconfiguration time for a single flexible polymer in the presence of active noise. The study suggests that though the mean square displacement grows faster, the chain reconfiguration is always slower in the presence of long-lived active noise with exponential temporal correlation. Similar behavior is observed for a worm-like semi-flexible chain and a Zimm chain. However it is primarily the characteristic correlation time of the active noise and not the strength that controls the increase in the reconfiguration time. In brief, such active noise makes the polymer move faster but the correlation loss between the monomers becomes slow. (paper)

  14. Towards biotracing in food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran;

    2011-01-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly, the int......Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly......, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs...

  15. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications. PMID:24943491

  16. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  17. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  18. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    for the reverse supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – In order to identify the relevance of the Fisher model, the model needs to be recast in terms of PRV, which, in this context, is considered the independent variable in the reverse logistics arena. Products defined as innovative in Fisher's taxonomy......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... correspond to disposed products with high residual value, whereas functional products correspond to disposed products with low residual value. Furthermore, the PRV and the speed at which returned products lose their value are considered in order to determine the configuration of the reverse supply chain...

  19. Research on Launching Ability Evaluation Model for Tactical Missile Based on Markov Chain%马氏链的战术导弹发射能力评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新波; 汪民乐; 徐加强

    2012-01-01

    Research on the change of states of launch unit of tactical missile and launch position in the field with Markov chain. On the base,the launch ability of tactical missile under battle field is studied and the dynamic estimating model of launch ability of tactical missile is established. Through simulation test, the credibility and availability of this model are tested.%采用马氏链状态转移的方法,对战术导弹发射单元与发射阵地在作战过程中的状态变化进行了研究.在此基础上,对战术导弹在战争条件下的发射能力进行研究,建立评估战术导弹发射能力的动态模型.通过仿真试验,验证了模型的可靠性和有效性.

  20. Specific single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibodies to angiotensin II AT(2) receptor: evaluation of the angiotensin II receptor expression in normal and tumor-bearing mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masaaki; Yan, Heping; Zegarra-Moro, Ofelia; Edl, Jennifer; Oursler, Stephanie; Chard-Bergstrom, Cindy; Andrews, Gordon; Kanehira, Tsutomu; Takekoshi, Susumu; Mernaugh, Ray

    2008-08-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)) regulates carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis, we have newly developed anti-AT(2) single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibodies using a rodent phage-displayed recombinant antibody library with various peptide fragments of the receptor protein, and investigated the expression of the AT(2) receptor protein. The specificity of the antibodies was verified using AT(2) over-expressing COS-7 cells and AT(2) naturally expressing PC12W cells. In control wild type mouse lung, a stronger immunoreactivity was observed in bronchial epithelial cells. A moderate immunoreactivity was detected in pulmonary vascular walls and vascular endothelial cells. In the lungs possessing tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK)-induced tumors, significantly increased AT(2) and AT(1 )immunostaining was observed in adenomatous lesions. These data suggest that the increase in both receptors' expression in the alveolar epithelial cells may be accompanied with the onset of NNK-induced tumorigenesis and hence play important roles in lung tumorigenesis.

  1. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r

  2. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.;

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  3. MANAGING RISK IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Karppinen, Sami

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis the focus was to study risk management in supply chain management. During the work different types of risks were studied and how they affect purchasing in industry. The purpose of the work was also to enhance the writer’s ability to do his own daily work and to bring new views to his employer for managing a supply chain. In this work different techniques which have been introduced in the industry were reviewed. During the work, an interview survey was made among the ...

  4. Reseach of Supply Chain Modeling Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The supply chain modeling technology is research. Firstly, the concept of supply chain and supply chain management is introduced. Secondly, enterprise-modeling methods, such as CIM-OSA, GIM-GRAI, PERA and ARIS, are analyzed and compared. The supply chain modeling technology is studied. Then the ARIS-based supply chain modeling method is proposed and the supply chain operation reference model is set up. Finally, the applications of ARIS-based supply chain modeling method in Shanghai Turbine Generator Co. Ltd. (STGC) is described in detail.

  5. Study on Modeling and Simulation of Reliability Diagnosis of Supply Chain Based on Common Cause Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To diagnose key factors which cause the failure of supply chain, on the base of taking 3-tier supply chain centering on manufacturer as the object, the diagnostic model of reliability of supply chain with common cause failure was established. Then considering unreliability and key importance as quantitative index, the diagnostic algorism of key factors of reliability of supply chain with common cause failure was studied by the method of Monte Carlo Simulation. The algorism can be used to evaluate the reliability of f supply chain and determine key factors which cause the failure of supply chain, which supplies a new method for diagnosing reliability of supply chain based on common cause failure. Finally, an example was presented to prove the feasibility and validity of the model and method.

  6. Corrosion analysis in mooring chain links; Analise de corrosao em elos de amarras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Silvia N.; Pereira, Marcos V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia; Costa, Luis C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Motta, Sergio H. [Brasilamarras - Companhia Brasileira de Amarras, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the localized corrosion phenomenon in the weld region of offshore mooring chain links type ORQ. In this sense, a number of chain links were selected after finishing their projected life time without corrosion signs (chains without corrosion) as well as chain links which showed a reduced life time caused by localized corrosion (chains with corrosion). In the sequence, electrochemistry tests evaluated the corrosion susceptibility of the different regions of the weld joint. The results showed that the heat affected zone concerning the chains with corrosion was the anodic region, with high corrosion rate, while the same region on the not corroded chains was the cathodic one, with low corrosion rate. (author)

  7. Sustainability Analysis for Gayo Coffee Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman Jaya; Machfud Machfud; Sapta Raharja; Marimin Marimin

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable supply chain is a development of the conventional supply chains that discuses trade-off among economic, social and environmental dimensions in order to achieve better responsiveness in terms of quality, quantity and time-delivery in the supply chain structure. The objective of this research was to determine the Gayo coffee supply chain sustainability. The research was conducted at Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah Districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Key actors in the supply chain cons...

  8. Supply Chains and Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Rolf A.E.; Buergelt, Doreen; Seidel-Lass, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Judged by its currency, the supply chain is one of the more successful metaphors in economics. The metaphor borrows from mechanics the idea of the chain, that is something that consists of elements that are linked to each of their two immediate neighbors and which jointly provide a strong but flexible connection. The metaphor transplants the chain-idea into the sphere of economics where, before the introduction of supply chains, chains were, for most economists, things best left in the care o...

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  10. Research on Integrated Green Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Lei; WANG Xu

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the analyzing product life cycle and value chain management in green supply chain, integrated green supply chain is put forward and constructed which involve lean production, agile manufacturing and green supply chain. This integrated structure provides an effective method for resolving some questions such as cost, market, environment, etc. in enterprise. A case study is presented at the end of paper to demonstrate how integrated supply chain implemented successfully in enterprise.

  11. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  12. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  13. Supply chain management and optimization in manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Pirim, Harun; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces general supply chain terminology particularly for novice readers, state of the art supply chain management and optimization issues and problems in manufacturing. The book provides insights for making supply chain decisions, planning and scheduling through supply chain network. It introduces optimization problems, i.e. transportation of raw materials, products and location, inventory of plants, warehouses and retailers, faced throughout the supply chain network.

  14. Ontological Supply Chain Management: Concepts, Applications, Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ilter, H. Kemal

    2013-01-01

    SCOM: Multi-Layer Ontological Model for Supply Chain Systems© aims to create a model for tracking and tracing products, agents, flows and operations of a supply chain with an upper ontology.  It will hopefully let us to track or trace most properties in not-usual supply chains such as interstellar supply chains (eg. raw materials from the planet Mars), health-related supply chains (eg. blood products), food management (eg. genetic structures of agricultural products), envir...

  15. Mixed Species Ion Chains for Scalable Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John Albert

    Mixed species chains of barium and ytterbium ions are investigated as a tool for building scalable quantum computation devices. Ytterbium ions provide a stable, environmentally-insensitive qubit that is easily initialized and manipulated, while barium ions are easily entangled with photons that can allow quantum information to be transmitted between systems in modular quantum computation units. Barium and ytterbium are trapped together in a linear chain in a linear rf trap and their normal mode structure and the thermal occupation numbers of these modes are measured with a narrow band laser addressing an electric quadrupole transition in barium ions. Before these measurements, barium ions are directly cooled using Doppler cooling, while the ytterbium ions are sympathetically cooled by the barium. For radial modes strongly coupled to ytterbium ions the average thermal occupation numbers vary between 400 and 12,000 depending on ion species configuration and trap parameters. Ion chain temperatures are also measured using a technique based on ion species reordering. Surface traps with many dc electrodes provide the ability to controllably reorder the chain to optimize normal mode cooling, and initial work towards realizing this capability are discussed. Quantum information can be transferred between ions in a linear chain using an optical system that is well coupled to the motional degrees of freedom of the chain. For this reason, a 532 nm Raman system is developed and its expected performance is evaluated.

  16. Quantitative Model for Supply Chain Visibility: Process Capability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the intensity of enterprise competition has increased as a result of a greater diversity of customer needs as well as the persistence of a long-term recession. The results of competition are becoming severe enough to determine the survival of company. To survive global competition, each firm must focus on achieving innovation excellence and operational excellence as core competency for sustainable competitive advantage. Supply chain management is now regarded as one of the most effective innovation initiatives to achieve operational excellence, and its importance has become ever more apparent. However, few companies effectively manage their supply chains, and the greatest difficulty is in achieving supply chain visibility. Many companies still suffer from a lack of visibility, and in spite of extensive research and the availability of modern technologies, the concepts and quantification methods to increase supply chain visibility are still ambiguous. Based on the extant researches in supply chain visibility, this study proposes an extended visibility concept focusing on a process capability perspective and suggests a more quantitative model using Z score in Six Sigma methodology to evaluate and improve the level of supply chain visibility.

  17. On Constructing Financial Risk Evaluation Index System of Supply Chain from the Perspective of Movables Pledge Financing%以动产质押融资为例构建供应链金融风险评价指标体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗勇; 陈治亚

    2013-01-01

    By taking financing of movables pledge as a case study on the supply chain financial risk,this paper establishes the evaluation index system of supply chain finance through fuzzy comprehensive method. Through factor analysis method,the clarity of creditor's rights,trading relationship stability,liquidity and the storage re-quirements are determined. Then,the eighteen factors,such as operating conditions,loans,debt to asset ratio, profit rate of sales,registered capital,regulatory sites and so on,are chosen as evaluation indices. Furthermore, the index weight through the analytic hierarchy process(AHP)and the evaluation standard are determined. Ac-cording to the empirical case study,the results prove that the index system can assess supply chain risk effec-tively and provides effective basis for risk prevention.%以动产质押融资为例对供应链金融风险进行了研究,基于模糊综合法构建了供应链金融风险评价指标体系。采用要素分析法确定债权明晰程度、交易关系稳定性、变现能力、保管要求;经营状况、贷款记录、资产负债率、销售利润率、注册资金;行业地位、资产负债率、销售利润率;监管地点、业务模式、回款账户锁定;区域行业环境、区域信用环境、区域法制环境等18个因素为评价指标,通过层次分析法(AHP)确定了指标权重,与银行、物流企业专家共同确定了指标评价标准。通过实证案例进行了验算,验算结果与事实相符,该指标体系能有效评价供应链风险,为风险防范提供了有效依据。

  18. Evaluation of parasitological examination, kDNA polymerase chain reaction and rK39-based immunochromatography for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in seropositive dogs from the screening-culling program in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Regina-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dogs play a primary role in the zoonotic cycle of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis of infected dogs, primarily asymptomatic dogs, is crucial to the efficiency of VL control programs. Methods We investigated the agreement of four diagnostic tests for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL: parasite detection, either after myeloculture or by direct microscopic examination of tissue imprints; kinetoplast-deoxyribonucleic acid-polymerase chain reaction (kDNA-PCR; and an immunochromatographic test (ICT. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT, both of which were adopted as part of the screening-culling program in Brazil, were used as reference tests. Our sample set consisted of 44 seropositive dogs, 25 of which were clinically asymptomatic and 19 were symptomatic for CVL according to ELISA-IFAT. Results The highest and lowest test co-positivities were observed for ICT (77.3% and myeloculture (58.1%, respectively. When analyzed together, the overall percentage of co-positive tests was significantly higher for the symptomatic group compared to the asymptomatic group. However, only ICT was significantly different based on the results of a separate analysis per test for each group of dogs. The majority (93.8% of animals exhibited at least one positive test result, with an average of 2.66 positive tests per dog. Half of the symptomatic dogs tested positive for all four tests administered. Conclusions The variability between test results reinforces the need for more efficient and reliable methods to accurately diagnose canine VL, particularly in asymptomatic animals.

  19. Comparative evaluation of a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR to quantify Porcine circovirus-2 DNA in swine tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezen, Diogenes; Rijsewijk, Franciscus A M; Teixeira, Thais F; Holz, Carine L; Varela, Ana P; Cibulski, Samuel P; Gregianini, Tatiane Shäffer; Batista, Helena B C R; Franco, Ana C; Roehe, Paulo M

    2011-11-01

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is considered the major etiological agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. The clinical manifestations of the disease are correlated with moderate to high amounts of PCV-2 DNA in biological samples of affected pigs. A threshold of 10(7) DNA copies/ml is suggested as the trigger factor for symptoms. A comparative study was conducted to determine which quantitative method would be more suitable to estimate the PCV-2 DNA load. Two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed: a competitive PCR (cPCR) and a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR. The assays were compared for their capacity to detect PCV-2 in DNA samples extracted from liver, lung, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and kidney of PMWS-affected (n = 23) or non-PMWS-affected pigs (n = 9). Both assays could successfully quantify PCV-2 DNA in all tissue samples and were able to detect significant differences between the numbers of PCV-2 DNA copies found in tissues of PMWS-affected and non-PMWS-affected pigs (≥ 10(2.5)). The highest mean viral loads were detected by the SYBR Green real-time PCR, up to 10(7.0 ± 1.5) copies/100 ng of total DNA sample, while the cPCR detected up to 10(4.8 ± 1.5). A mean difference of 10(1.8) was found between the amounts of PCV-2 DNA detected, using the SYBR Green real-time PCR and the cPCR, suggesting that the viral load threshold for PMWS should be determined for each particular assay.

  20. 一种船舶舱室火灾连锁报警等级评估方法%One grade evaluation method of ship cabin fire chain alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚绪梁; 蔡晶

    2013-01-01

    This paper deeply analyses the cabin fire alarm distinguish factors,and presents a fuzzy control strategy,input variables consist of the quantized the alarm information of temperature detector and smoke detector and the fire hazard degree of different cabins from fire simulation software,obtain the cabin fire alarm grade information by fuzzy inference and determine,so that the fire alarm system can look-ahead,comprehensively,accurately and reliability start the cabin chain-alarm by these information,reduce the serious damage and loss bring from ship cabin fire.%在分析船上一些典型舱室火灾报警的判别要素基础上,提出一种模糊控制策略,即将量化后的感温、感烟探头火情信息以及由火灾模拟软件得出的不同舱室火灾危险度信息作为输入变量,通过模糊推理判断得到各舱室火灾连锁报警等级信息,以便船舶火灾自动报警系统能够据此信息做到各舱室连锁报警的迅速性、全面性、准确性与可靠性,减少船舶舱室火灾带来的重大危害与损失.

  1. The Service-Profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...

  2. Smallest Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is focused on the general aspect of atomic chain electronics that I have been studying. Results have been published before, but are being rederived here using a new physical/mathematical picture/model, which deepens the physical understanding. Precise adatom structures can be used as a template on a regulated surface with no uncertainty.

  3. Synchronizing the Retail Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Vlist

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDit proefschrift ontwerpt een retail supply chain, die beter en goedkoper is dan de gangbare. Dit wordt bereikt door de distributie te synchroniseren op de productie¬momenten. Goederen zouden direct uit productie al stroomafwaarts moeten bewegen, van fabrikant naar retailer, tegen lage k

  4. Supply Chain Simulation : A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of simulation in supply chain management.It reviews four types of simulation, namely spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discreteevent simulation, and business games.Which simulation type should be applied, depends on the type of managerial question to be answered b

  5. Preisdifferenzierung im Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Koppers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In the field of marketing, pricing is a valuable and long-established steering tool. But in the logistics context of co-operative strategies like supply chain management, this field is mainly neglected. Therefore, the author describes the basic principles and effects of price differentiation and suggests some further research regarding pricing in SCM considerations as well as co-operative pricing concepts.

  6. Supply Chain Management: een overzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    De laatste jaren wordt voor het managen van het netwerk van bedrijven die betrokken zijn bij het tot stand komen van producten of diensten het woord Supply Chain Management, ook wel SCM, gebruikt. SCM wordt als term vooral in grote industrieën gebruikt. Bijna ieder bedrijf heeft echter een toelevern

  7. 焦炉煤气-甲醇产业链延伸技术方案的经济分析%Economic evaluation of industrial chain extension solutions for coke oven gas to methanol and chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易群; 吴彦丽; 范洋; 胡长淳; 褚琦; 冯杰; 李文英

    2014-01-01

    与煤制甲醇和天然气制甲醇工艺相比,焦炉煤气制甲醇不仅可以有效利用焦炉煤气中的氢,而且具有低成本的优势。在焦炉煤气制甲醇工艺基础上,文中提出了3种具有发展潜力的焦炉煤气综合利用方案:①气化煤气-焦炉煤气制甲醇生产方案;②焦炉煤气-乙炔-甲醇下游产品方案;③气化煤气-焦炉煤气-乙炔-甲醇下游产品方案。以200×104 t焦炭的生产规模分析了3种方案经济性,其毛利润分别为24.21亿元,18.92亿元和28.74亿元;内部收益率分别为28.29%、24.34%和27.11%。气化煤气-焦炉煤气-乙炔-甲醇下游产品方案充分发挥了规模效应和产品高附加值的特点,具有明显的经济优势;系统灵活性高,抵御市场风险能力强。%Production cost of methanol from abundant and cheap coke oven gas (COG) is about 800-1000 CNY·t-1 lower than that from coal or natural gas. With expansion of international methanol production capacity and production scale, methanol market competition becomes more intense and cost advantage of coke oven gas to methanol is reduced evidently. It is significant to improve technology and extend industrial chains to use coke oven gas and obtain maximal benefits on the basis of coke oven gas to methanol production. One technical solution is combining coke oven gas with coal gasified gas (CGG) to produce methanol. CH4/CO2 reforming technology is used to convert CO2+CH4 into H2+CO, and adjust H2/CO ratio of syngas in this scheme. With this scheme, methanol production can increase by 30%. Another option is to extend methanol industrial chain to obtain high-value-added downstream products, such as vinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, and 1,4-butanediol. In this design, CH4 is separated from COG to make acetylene, which is used to synthesize methanol downstream products by methane partial oxidation technology. However, 0.07 billion m3 H2 surplus and small scale of methanol production

  8. Food safety management systems performance in the lamb production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oses, S.M.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Jaime, I.; Rovira, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a performance measurement of implemented food safety management system (FSMS) along the lamb chain using an FSMS-diagnostic instrument (FSMS-DI) and a Microbiological Assessment Scheme (MAS). Three slaughterhouses, 1 processing plant and 5 butcher shops were evaluated. All the a

  9. Mapping of Supply Chain Learning: A Framework for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Kanda, Arun; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a mapping framework for evaluating supply chain learning potential for the context of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The extracts of recently completed case based research for ten manufacturing SME units and facts reported in the previous research are utilized…

  10. Greening Supply Chains: Impact on Cost and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mallidis (Ioannis); D. Vlachos (Dimitrios); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe consideration of environmental issues has emerged as a topic of critical importance for today’s globalized supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to develop a strategic-tactical decision-support methodology to assist managers in evaluating the impact of environmental issues, rel

  11. COORDINATING SUPPLY CHAIN INVENTORIES IN MULTI-ECHELON NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAM SUNDAR K,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is the management of dependencies between activities. The purpose of coordination is to achieve collectively goals that individual actors cannot meet. Coordination within a supply chain is strategic responses to the problems that arise from inter – organizational dependencies within the chain. Given the increasing importance of inventory management and cost reduction to be gained through supply chain coordination, the challenge to an organization is how to select the appropriate coordination mechanism to benefit all the players of a supply chain.The present study proposes a model to study and analyze the benefit of coordinating supply chaininventories through the use of common replenishment time periods. It investigates the coordination of orderquantities amongst the players in a three level supply chain with a centralized decision process. The first level ofsupply chain consists of multiple buyers, the second level of a single manufacturer, and the third level consistsof multiple suppliers. Each supplier supplies one or more items required in the manufacture of the productproduced. When players in the supply chain agree to coordinate, it is possible to have some of the playersbenefiting more than others in the chain. Under the proposed strategy, the manufacturer specifies commonreplenishment periods and requires all buyers to replenish only at those time periods. To effect the coordinationmanufacturer offers a price discount to entice the buyers to accept this strategy. The model developed in thiswork guarantees that the local costs for the players either remain the same as before coordination, or decrease asa result of coordination. A mathematical model is developed, and numerical study is conducted to evaluate thebenefit of the proposed coordinated theory.

  12. Efficient Processes and Transparent Information Flow in Supply Chain Through Use of RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Anita

    2007-01-01

    RFID is an up-and-coming technology holding promise of closing information gaps in the supply chain. Information is probably the biggest driver of performance in supply chains today and information control is seen as a huge advantage in management. This report addresses how RFID may contribute to improve management and supply chain within warehouse management. By doing a case study of three Norwegian businesses the report finds processes in management and logistics. An evaluation of where a t...

  13. A Supply chain performance measurement system: A Case study in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Çapar, İsmail; Capar, Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Today's fierce market conditions drive companies to effectively evaluate their overall supply chain performance and identify improvement areas for gaining competitive advantages. In the last few decades, organizations have improved their internal processes by using initatives such as JIT, Kanban, Kaizen, and TQM. At the same time new methods and initiatives in the area of Supply Chain Management have forced organizations to improve not only their internal processes but also the supply chain t...

  14. Measuring success : metrics that link supply chain management to aircraft readiness

    OpenAIRE

    McDoniel, Patrick S.; Balestreri, William G.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis evaluates and analyzes current strategic management planning methods that develop performance metrics linking supply chain management to aircraft readiness. Our primary focus is the Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron. Utilizing the Logistics Management Institute's DoD Supply Chain Implementation Guide and adapted SCOR model, we applied the six step process for developing a strategic logistics management plan for implementing supply chain management for use at the MALS, and subsequ...

  15. Formation of supply chain collaboration and firm performance in the Thai automotive and electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi; 植木, 靖

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors that encourage firms to go into supply chain collaborations (SCC) and relationships between SCC and supply chain performances (SCP), using a questionnaire survey on Thai automotive and electronics industries in 2012. OLS regression results show firms established supplier evaluation and audit system, system of rewards for high-performance supplier and long-term transactions with their supply chain partners under a competitive pressure are more closely cooperate with...

  16. Categories of Supply Chain Performance Indicators: an Overview of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Leończuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of supply chains, whose structure is changing from a linear to network form creates the need to track a growing amount of information allowing the evaluation of the functioning of the entire supply chain. Developing a system for measuring the performance of the supply chain requires the proper selection of indicators. Performance measurement should be done in a particular context, the analysed dimensions of indicators resulting from the purpose and focus of the survey should be determined. The article reviews Polish and foreign literature in terms of the proposed framework and methods for measuring the performance of the supply chain and the indicated categories (dimensions of indicators. The authors approach the subject of evaluation of the performance of the supply chain in very different ways. Indicators are divided according to the level of the decision-making process: strategic, tactical, and operational. They are also divided into cost and non-cost or financial and non-financial ones. There are also approaches using the already well established methods and models. An example of this is the selection of perspectives according to the Balanced Scorecard (BSC and the SCOR model.

  17. Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinna Pamulety

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.

  18. SCRL-Model for Human Space Flight Operations Enterprise Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Brian; Paxton, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present a Supply Chain Readiness Level (SCRL) model that can be used to evaluate and configure adaptable and sustainable program and mission supply chains at an enterprise level. It will also show that using SCRL in conjunction with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs) and National Aeronautics Space Administrations (NASA s) Project Lifecycle Process will provide a more complete means of developing and evaluating a robust sustainable supply chain that encompasses the entire product, system and mission lifecycle. In addition, it will be shown that by implementing the SCRL model, NASA can additionally define supplier requirements to enable effective supply chain management (SCM). Developing and evaluating overall supply chain readiness for any product, system and mission lifecycle is critical for mission success. Readiness levels are presently being used to evaluate the maturity of technology and manufacturing capability during development and deployment phases of products and systems. For example, TRLs are used to support the assessment of the maturity of a particular technology and compare maturity of different types of technologies. MRLs are designed to assess the maturity and risk of a given technology from a manufacturing perspective. In addition, when these measurement systems are used collectively they can offer a more comprehensive view of the maturity of the system. While some aspects of the supply chain and supply chain planning are considered in these familiar metric systems, certain characteristics of an effective supply chain, when evaluated in more detail, will provide an improved insight into the readiness and risk throughout the supply chain. Therefore, a system that concentrates particularly on supply chain attributes is required to better assess enterprise supply chain readiness.

  19. Supply Chain Management Performance in Tourism. Continental Hotels Chain Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Ţigu; Bogdan Călăreţu

    2013-01-01

    With its origins in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM) concept is covering all managerial aspects of the flow of materials and information from source to customer, across the entire range of materials handling and movement functions, and throughout an organization and its supply channels. In tourism, these issues relate to the whole process of providing tourism services from sourcing of raw materials, products or different services) to supply and distribution, and SCM performance can ul...

  20. chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pérez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las barreras y aranceles al comercio exterior han disminuido significativamente gracias a los acuerdos multilaterales y los mecanismos de integración entre las naciones. Los costos logísticos representan una proporción significativa del precio final de los artículos, especialmente de los commodities. Por esta razón, minimizar los costos logísticos es un desafío importante para las naciones para fomentar la competitividad del comercio exterior y en particular para aprovechar la renta de los recursos naturales. En este artículo, proponemos un marco de referencia integral para la medición de costos logísticos, enfocado en determinar los extra-costos que resultan por procedimientos ineficientes y la falta de políticas públicas y regulaciones de las entidades públicas. Estos elementos no han sido considerados en la literatura, y este artículo aborda esta brecha. Como caso de estudio, presentamos la aplicación del marco de referencia para estimar los extra-costos en algunas cadenas logísticas de recursos naturales en Bolivia. Se presenta una discusión de los resultados encontrados, así como recomendaciones para trabajo futuro.

  1. 农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济微观经济组织评价指标体系构建%Constructing Evaluation Index System of the Supply Chain of Agricultural Products in Production Stage to Develop Agricultural Cycle of Economic Microeconomic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳; 冷志杰

    2011-01-01

    通过对农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济评价因素的综合分析,建立了包括财务、附产品的增值效益、环境管理绩效、物流服务水平、学习与发展能力等5个一级指标、16个二级指标的评价指标体系。通过对评价指标确立原则和影响因素的分析,建立了生产阶段发展循环经济微观组织评价指标体系,该体系适用于对农产品供应链生产阶段发展循环经济能力综合评价,得到的评价结果可以为政府找到合适的投资主体,也可以为政府投资或推进循环经济项目提供依据和指导。%Through comprehensive analysis of the factors about the supply chain of agricultural products in production stage to develop agricultural cycle of economic,we established an evaluation index system which includes 5 level indicators and 16 secondary indicators.The level indicators include finance,value added product benefits,environmental performance management,logistics service level,and learning and development ability.Based on the analysis of the evaluation indexes and affecting factors for establishing principles,the production stages of developing circular economy microstructure evaluation index system is established,which is the key members develop circular economy,and we used this method to evaluate the agricultural products supply chain in production stage developing circular economy.The evaluation results can help for the government to find suitable investors,and it can also provide evidence and guidance for the government investment or to promote circular economy project.

  2. The chain relation in sofic subshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kazda, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives a characterisation of the chain relation of a sofic subshift. Every sofic subshift $\\Sigma$ can be described by a labelled graph $G$. Factorising $G$ in a suitable way we obtain the graph $G/_\\approx$ that offers insight into some properties of the original subshift. Using $G/_\\approx$ we describe first the chain relation in $\\Sigma$, then characterise chain-transitive sofic subshifts, chain-mixing sofic subshifts and finally the attractors of the subshift dynamic system. At the end we present (straightforward) algorithms deciding chain-transitivity and chain-mixing properties of a sofic subshift and listing all the attractors of the subshift system.

  3. Den teoretiske udvikling af Supply Chain Strategimodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvad Johansen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    segmentering via postponement-princippet, har givet mærkbare forbedringer. Det beskrives endvidere, hvordan produkternes livscyklus påvirker valget af supply chain design. Begrebet Demand Chain Management( DCM), hvormed strategimodeller bruger klassiske marketingelementer sammen med Supply Chain Management......Denne artikel beskriver med udgangspunkt i artikler og virksomhedseksempler udviklingen inde for supply chain strategimodeller. Ved hjælp af tidligere udviklede koncepter besvares spørgsmålet: “Hvad er den rette supply chain for mine produkter?”. Virksomhedseksempler beskriver, hvordan supply chain...... (SCM), bliver behandlet og der udvikles en DCM-strategimodel....

  4. Does ICT influence supply chain management and performance? A review of survey-based research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xuan; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; van der Vaart, Taco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and classify survey-based research connecting information and communication technology (ICT), supply chain management (SCM), and supply chain (SC) performance. The review evaluates present empirical results and aims at detecting explanations for simil

  5. Supply Chain Reorganization and Coordination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-bin

    2001-01-01

    Three generic forms of governance--hierarchy, hybrid and market are proposed in the newinstitutional economics, giving an abstract description of alternative coordination and control mechanisms forgeneral use. While this theory is known as far away from being operational and specified, a few researchersin the management and organization area are trying to extend Galbraith and/or Mintzberg's organizationaldesign theories into the application of logistical coordination for obtaining a smooth flow of products along thesupply chain within and without the focal organization. In this paper, we present an explorative case study onthe design of various organizational architectures of logistics activities and their relevant coordinationmechanisms, especially internal and external contracts as one new kind of hybrid mechanisms forcoordinating effective supply chains.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VALUE CHAIN OF THE GLOBAL VALUE CHAIN AND THE SCOPE OF THE CHAIN ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Thai

    2013-01-01

    The value chain of vegetable industry is a line of production processing business of vegetable under the mode of globalization, of which, economic subjects of many countries involve in the different stages in the chain. The method of global approach under the value chain has been developed over time and is used as an analysis tool in market research of the global vegetable industry. Three key elements of the pattern of analysis scope of the global vegetable value chain analysis of the global ...

  7. Supply Chain Simulation: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of simulation in supply chain management.It reviews four types of simulation, namely spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discreteevent simulation, and business games.Which simulation type should be applied, depends on the type of managerial question to be answered by the model.Moreover, this paper summarizes novel sensitivity and robustness analyses.This sensitivity analysis yields a shortlist of the truly important factors in large simulation models with (sa...

  8. The Milk Supply Chain Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Howard; Thanassoulis, John

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an Oxford University research project into the UK liquid milk supply chain. Financial sponsorship was kindly provided by the Milk Development Council (MDC) and by DEFRA. The research reported here is independent academic research which is not designed to further any group‟s particular agenda. We have striven to be as objective as possible. The project's aim is to investigate the competitive forces which influence the buyerseller relationsh...

  9. Organizing the Global Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Pol Antràs; Davin Chor

    2012-01-01

    We develop a property-rights model of the firm in which production entails a continuum of uniquely sequenced stages. In each stage, a final-good producer contracts with a distinct supplier for the procurement of a customized stage-specific component. Our model yields a sharp characterization for the optimal allocation of ownership rights along the value chain. We show that the incentive to integrate suppliers varies systematically with the relative position (upstream versus downstream) at whi...

  10. Demand and Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A.A. van der Veenl:; Robben, Henry S.J.

    1999-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de recente ontwikkelingen met be-trekking tot de managementactiviteiten gericht op de keten die begint bij het winnen van grondstoffen en via toeleveranciers, fabrikanten en de (detail)handel loopt naar de eindgebruikers. De moderne denkbeelden op dit terrein worden samengevat met de term Demand & Supply Chain Management (DSCM); het management van de keten die onafhankelijke klanten en leveranciers verbindt als ware het een enkele en-titeit met het doel om waa...

  11. Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical ontologies have become an increasingly critical lens through which researchers analyze the genomic, clinical and bibliographic data that fuels scientific research. Of particular relevance are methods, such as enrichment analysis, that quantify the importance of ontology classes relative to a collection of domain data. Current analytical techniques, however, remain limited in their ability to handle many important types of structural complexity encountered in real biological systems including class overlaps, continuously valued data, inter-instance relationships, non-hierarchical relationships between classes, semantic distance and sparse data. Results In this paper, we describe a methodology called Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA and illustrate its use through a MCOA-based enrichment analysis application based on a generative model of gene activation. MCOA models the classes in an ontology, the instances from an associated dataset and all directional inter-class, class-to-instance and inter-instance relationships as a single finite ergodic Markov chain. The adjusted transition probability matrix for this Markov chain enables the calculation of eigenvector values that quantify the importance of each ontology class relative to other classes and the associated data set members. On both controlled Gene Ontology (GO data sets created with Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens annotations and real gene expression data extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, the MCOA enrichment analysis approach provides the best performance of comparable state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion A methodology based on Markov chain models and network analytic metrics can help detect the relevant signal within large, highly interdependent and noisy data sets and, for applications such as enrichment analysis, has been shown to generate superior performance on both real and simulated data relative to existing

  12. China's Role in Purchasing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva; Alice

    2007-01-01

    @@ In current world market,"Made-in-China"often means good price and competitive quality.In terms of China's trade pattern,more than half of Chinese exporting products belong to processing trade industry according to the demands and requirements of international orders.On the purchasing chain,China is learning from its international partners.Safety and quality always tops all issues.

  13. Development of metallocomplex amino acids synthons for the asymmetric preparation of α-amino acids by stereoselective introduction of a side chain. Evaluation of the model asymmetric preparation of alanine and β-13C monolabelled α-aminoisobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this communication the evaluation of eleven new metallocomplex alanine synthons bearing C2-symmetric benzyl groups with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents is described. α-Methylated glycine synthons (alanine complexes) were evaluated alongside alanine synthons in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the relationship between their structures and stereochemistry of monoalkylated products and to choose several candidates for their further tests for stereospecific preparation of 6-[18F]FDOPA. Glycine-derived analogues of the complexes 3-5 are the best candidates for the development of a 6-[18F]FDOPA preparation procedure. In the model epimerisation reaction they demonstrated the best performance, much better compared to the previously described compound 2. Complexes 3, 5 and 8 are the best in asymmetric preparation of β-13C monolabelled α-aminoisobutyric acid. They have to be tested in the preparation of ?-methyl amino acids like 6-[18F]-α-methylDOPA and 2-[18F]-α-methyltyrosine. (author)

  14. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR VALUE CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The Porter Value Chain has been widely adopted by the business community as a mechanism to understand and comprehend complexity in business environments, with the ultimate goal of structuring the business to maximize its competitive advantage. Implementing the Value Chain is not easy: a number of organizations can testify to their failure to derive any benefits at all from this concept. To overcome this problem, an approach is presented to assist the organization in creating a Value Chain reference model within the broader context of the organization’s enterprise architecture.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die “Porter Waardeketting” is ’n algemene aanvaarde praktyk wat deur maatskappye gebruik word om die kompleksiteit van besigheidsomgewings mee te verstaan. Die uiteindelike doel hiervan is om die besigheid se mededings voordele te optimiseer. Om die Waardekettingkonsep te implementeer, is nie ’n maklike taak nie – verskeie organisasies kan getuig van mislukte implementeringspogings. Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n benadering beskryf wat gebruik kan word om die organisasie te help om ’n Waardekettingmodel te skep in die bree konteks van die organisasie se besigheidsargitektuur.

  15. A Multiobjective Optimization Model in Automotive Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Sadrnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new decade, green investment decisions are attracting more interest in design supply chains due to the hidden economic benefits and environmental legislative barriers. In this paper, a supply chain network design problem with both economic and environmental concerns is presented. Therefore, a multiobjective optimization model that captures the trade-off between the total logistics cost and CO2 emissions is proposed. With regard to the complexity of logistic networks, a new multiobjective swarm intelligence algorithm known as a multiobjective Gravitational search algorithm (MOGSA has been implemented for solving the proposed mathematical model. To evaluate the effectiveness of the model, a comprehensive set of numerical experiments is explained. The results obtained show that the proposed model can be applied as an effective tool in strategic planning for optimizing cost and CO2 emissions in an environmentally friendly automotive supply chain.

  16. Entanglement dynamics via geometric phases in quantum spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C S

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a connection between entanglement induced by interaction and geometric phases acquired by a composite quantum spin system. We begin by analyzing the evaluation of cyclic (Aharonov-Anandan) and non-cyclic (Mukunda-Simon) geometric phases for general spin chains evolving in the presence of time-independent magnetic fields. Then, by considering Heisenberg chains, we show that the interaction geometric phase, namely, the total geometric phase with subtraction of free spin contributions, is directly related to the global (Meyer-Wallach) entanglement exhibited by an initially separable state during its evolution in Hilbert space. This is analytically shown for N=2 spins and numerically illustrated for larger chains. This relationship promotes the interaction geometric phase to an indicator of global entanglement in the system, which may constitute a useful tool to quantum tasks based on entanglement as a resource to their performance.

  17. [The fragile beginning of the vaccine cold chain in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuells, José

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aiming to analyze the vaccine cold chain throughout Spain, performed from 1988-89, sparked interest in vaccine logistics among public health authorities. The studies were performed using evaluation methodology based on cold chain monitor cards with a time-temperature indicator (Battersby's report) and cross-sectional surveys on the conditions of the cold chain (Ferrando's report) in the second and third levels (provincial and local stores). The technical reports revealed the precariousness of the situation, identified the weak points that were jeopardizing the vaccines' efficiency, and favored awareness of an activity that constitutes the vertebral column of any immunization program. The improvements proposed were gradually implemented by regional governments. More funds for equipment and personnel training were provided and specific management protocols were established. PMID:19939512

  18. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  19. Transition Probability Estimates for Reversible Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Telcs, Andras

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides transition probability estimates of transient reversible Markov chains. The key condition of the result is the spatial symmetry and polynomial decay of the Green's function of the chain.

  20. Supply chain strategies, issues and models

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, supply chain operations and relationships among supply chain partners have become highly challenging, necessitating new approaches, e.g., the development of new models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models discusses supply chain issues and models with examples from actual industrial cases. Expert authors with a wide spectrum of knowledge working in various areas of supply chain management from various geographical locations offer refreshing, novel and insightful ideas and address possible solutions using established theories and models. Supply Chain Strategies, Issues and Models features studies that have used mathematical modeling, statistical analyses and also descriptive qualitative studies. The chapters cover many relevant themes related to supply chains and logistics including supply chain complexity, information sharing, quality (six sigma), electronic Kanbans, inventory models, scheduling, purchasing and contracts. To facilitate easy reading, the chapters that deal with suppl...