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Sample records for chain deposition disease

  1. Recurrence of light-chain deposition disease after renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Hammer, Anne; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2008-01-01

    A 51-year-old male with a history of chronic renal disease received a renal allograft, in which disease recurred. Light-chain deposition disease was confirmed through biopsies of the native kidney and graft, and detection of free kappa light chains in serum. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-6......A 51-year-old male with a history of chronic renal disease received a renal allograft, in which disease recurred. Light-chain deposition disease was confirmed through biopsies of the native kidney and graft, and detection of free kappa light chains in serum. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-6...

  2. Light chain deposition disease in multiple myeloma: MR imaging features correlated with histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Lamerz, R.; Bartl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical, histopathological, and imaging findings on MRI of a 56-year-old woman with light chain deposition disease occurring in multiple myeloma are presented. Light chain deposition disease is a variant of multiple myeloma with distinct clinical and histological characteristics. MRI of this patient also revealed an infiltration pattern in the bone marrow distinct from that of typical multiple myeloma. Multiple small foci of low signal intensity were present on T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and STIR images, corresponding to conglomerates of light chains in bone marrow biopsy. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin echo images show diffuse enhancement of 51% over all vertebral bodies, with a minor enhancement of the focal conglomerates of light chains. Light chain deposition disease in multiple myeloma should be added to the list of those few entities with normal radiographs and discrete low-signal marrow lesions on T1- and T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequences. (orig.)

  3. Acquired cutis laxa associated with light and heavy chain deposition disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena A Majithia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired cutis laxa (ACL is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by pendulous and coarsely wrinkled skin. There have been few cases of its association to monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD, which constitutes the light chain (LCDD, heavy chain (HCDD, and light and heavy chain (LHCDD deposition disease. MIDD predominantly involves the kidney. Skin is the next common organ to be affected by HCDD, which presents as ACL. We report the case of a 40-year-old male who presented with ACL associated with LHCDD. The clinical features of ACL in the present case appeared prior to the development of clinical features related to LHCDD.

  4. Primary CNS Nonamyloidogenic Light Chain Deposition Disease: Case Report and Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Juan Jose; Markert, James M; Meador, William; Chapman, Philip; Perry, Arie; Hackney, James R

    2017-12-01

    The true incidence of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) is unknown. To our knowledge only 7 cases of LCDD restricted to the brain have been previously reported. We herein describe an unusual example. A 44-year-old man presented with a history of ischemic retinopathy in 2004 and left lower extremity hypoesthesia in 2007 that progressed gradually to left-sided weakness and numbness in the 2 years prior to his hospitalization in 2015. A stereotactic brain biopsy was performed, displaying nonspecific hyaline deposits of amorphous "amyloid-like" material involving deep brain white matter and vessels. These were Congo red negative and were accompanied by a sparse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Plasma cells demonstrated kappa light chain class restriction by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). There was patchy reactivity with kappa immunohistochemistry in the amorphous deposits. A diagnosis of light chain deposition disease was made. Subsequent systemic myeloma and lymphoma workups were negative. Previously reported cases have included men and women, spanning the ages of 19 and 72 years, often presenting with hemiparesis, hypoesthesia, or seizures. Deposits have been reported in the cerebrum and cerebellum. T2/FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) changes are usual, but lesions may or may not produce contrast enhancement. The light chain deposition may be of kappa or lambda class. Most lesions have been accompanied by local lymphoid and/or plasma cell infiltrates exhibiting light chain restriction of the same class as the deposits. In summary, LCDD limited to the CNS is a rare lesion consisting of deposition of amyloid-like, but Congo red-negative monotypic light chain usually produced by local lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates.

  5. Use of bortezomib in heavy-chain deposition disease: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal; Dillon, John J; Leung, Nelson; Bomback, Andrew S; Appel, Gerald B; D'Agati, Vivette; Canetta, Pietro A

    2014-07-01

    Heavy-chain deposition disease (HCDD) is a rare complication of plasma cell dyscrasia in which monoclonal heavy chains deposit in glomerular and tubular basement membranes of the kidney. Clinical and pathologic features of HCDD have been well described in case reports and series, but evidence supporting specific therapies is sparse. Historically, the disease has had a poor prognosis, intensifying the need to clarify optimal treatments. We describe 3 cases of HCDD with biopsy-proven glomerular involvement, severe nephrotic syndrome, and decline in kidney function that were treated successfully with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor. None of these patients had multiple myeloma. In all cases, bortezomib-based therapy resulted in sustained resolution of nephrotic syndrome and improvement in kidney function. All 3 patients developed peripheral neuropathy; otherwise, treatment was well tolerated. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the clinical effectiveness of bortezomib against HCDD. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary light-chain deposition disease: CT and pathology findings in nine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheard, S.; Nicholson, A.G.; Edmunds, L.; Wotherspoon, A.C.; Hansell, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To review the clinical features of nine patients with pulmonary light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) and record their high-resolution CT (HRCT) and histopathological findings. Materials and methods: Patients with a diagnosis of LCDD on lung biopsy specimen were retrospectively identified. The HRCT characteristics of nodules, cysts, and ancillary findings; change at follow-up; and histopathological findings were documented. Results: Features common to all nine cases were thin-walled cysts. In seven cases, vessels traversing the cysts were identified. The majority of patients (8/9) had at least one pulmonary nodule. There was no zonal predominance of either cysts or nodules. The disease appeared stable in the majority of cases with no serial change in HRCT appearances (5/6 cases with follow-up data, mean duration 29 months). Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the largest series of pulmonary LCDD patients in the literature, and the first systematic assessment of HRCT findings. Pulmonary cysts are a unifying feature, usually with pulmonary nodules, and serial change on HRCT is unusual. - Highlights: • Nine cases of pulmonary light chain deposition disease with high-resolution CT. • CT scans assessed for abnormal features. • Clinical data and histopathological findings obtained. • All patients had thin-walled cysts on CT, often with traversing vessels. • CT features of disease in this group are cysts, nodules and an indolent course

  7. Retinal pigment epithelial detachments and tears, and progressive retinal degeneration in light chain deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Leigh H; Heckenlively, John R; Leys, Anita M

    2013-05-01

    Light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare condition characterised by deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (LCs) in tissues, resulting in varying degrees of organ dysfunction. This study reports the characteristic clinical ocular findings seen in advanced LCDD upon development of ocular fundus changes. This is the first report to describe this entity in vivo in a series of patients. A case series of ocular fundus changes in three patients with kidney biopsy-proven LCDD. All patients underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) exam, perimetry, colour fundus photography and fluorescein angiography; two patients underwent indocyanine green angiography, optical coherence tomography, ultrasound and electroretinography; and one patient underwent fundus autofluorescence. Three patients, 53-60 years old at initial presentation, were studied. All three presented with night blindness, poor dark adaptation, metamorphopsia and visual loss. Examination revealed serous and serohaemorrhagic detachments, multiple retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears, diffuse RPE degeneration and progressive fibrotic changes. Neither choroidal neovascularisation nor other vascular abnormalities were present. Final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 20/40 to 20/300. Progressive LC deposition in the fundus seems to damage RPE pump function with flow disturbance between choroid and retina. This pathogenesis can explain the evolution to RPE detachments and subsequent rips and progressive retinal malfunction.

  8. Heavy Chain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...

  9. Marked improvement by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in a case of light chain deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Ohsawa, Isao; Nishitani, Tomohito; Takeda, Yukihiko; Inoshita, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Masaya; Takagi, Miyuki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with heavy proteinuria (6.2 g/day) in April 2007. Because monoclonal IgG-k was detected in serum and urine samples, bone marrow aspiration and renal biopsy were performed. She was diagnosed with plasma cell dyscrasia because a bone marrow aspiration specimen showed plasma cells at 6.1%. Renal tissues revealed the formation of nodular glomerulosclerosis which was negative for Congo-red staining. Renal immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa light chains in the nodular lesions, proximal tubules and part of Bowman's capsules. Her renal involvement was diagnosed as light chain deposition disease. Proteinuria disappeared and renal function stabilized after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. It appears that an early initiation of active therapy such as high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation may be beneficial for patients with light chain deposition disease.

  10. Successful treatment of nephrotic syndrome induced by lambda light chain deposition disease using lenalidomide: A case report and review of the literature
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Akira; Nagahara, Dai; Tansho, Kosuke

    2018-06-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) that is characterized by the deposition of monoclonal light chains in multiple organs, including the kidney. It is a rare disorder caused by an underlying monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. LCDD with renal involvement causes proteinuria, which sometimes can lead to nephrotic syndrome. The monoclonal light chains are mostly in the κ form. Treatment of LCDD is the same as that for multiple myeloma (MM); however, some conventional anticancer drugs show substantial toxicity and therefore cannot be administered to older patients or those with renal impairment. An 80-year-old woman was referred to our department with severe nephrotic syndrome (13.6 g/gCr) and anemia. A renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and mesangial matrix expansion, and immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for λ chains along the glomerular basement membrane, but was negative for κ chains or amyloid deposition. A bone marrow biopsy revealed 64% plasma cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-λ type M protein was detected, and the levels of free λ chain was significantly increased. We concluded that her nephrotic syndrome was caused by LCDD, which resulted from IgG-λ MM. The induction of a BCD (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone) treatment regimen did not lead to a hematological response or decrease in proteinuria. The administration of combination therapy of lenalidomide and prednisolone led to the successful reduction of proteinuria and hematuria. We presented a very rare case report describing the successful treatment of LCDD (λ chain)-induced nephrotic syndrome with lenalidomide.
.

  11. Long-term reversibility of renal dysfunction associated to light chain deposition disease with bortezomib and dexamethasone and high dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás J. González-López

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman presented with progressive renal insufficiency, until a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of 12 mL/min. A renal biopsy demonstrated glomerular deposition of immunoglobulin k light chain. The presence of a small population of monoclonal plasmacytes producing an only light k monoclonal component was demonstrated and Bortezomib and Dexamethasone (BD was provided as initial therapy. After seven courses of therapy, renal function improved without dialysis requirements up to a GFR 31 mL/min. Under hematological complete response (HCR the patient underwent high dose of melphalan (HDM and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Fifty-four months later the patient remains in HCR and the GFR has progressively improved up to 48 mL/min. This report describes a notably renal function improvement in a patient with Light Chain Deposition Disease after therapy with BD followed by HDM, which can support this treatment as a future option for these patients.

  12. Incidence and outcome of patients starting renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease due to multiple myeloma or light-chain deposit disease: an ERA-EDTA Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakiris, D.J.; Stel, V.S.; Finne, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Information on demographics and survival of patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to multiple myeloma (MM) or light-chain deposit disease (LCDD) is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics, causes...... causes (non-MM) was observed overtime. Patient survival on RRT was examined, unadjusted and adjusted for age and gender. Results. Of the 159 637 patients on RRT, 2453 (1.54%) had MM or LCDD. The incidence of RRT for ESRD due to MM or LCDD, adjusted for age and gender, increased from 0.70 pmp in 1986...

  13. Anemia crônica e glomerulopatia secundárias à Doença de Depósito das Cadeias Leves Chronic anemia and glomerulopathy secondary to Light-chain Deposition Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala P. Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 65 anos de idade, internada com anemia de longa evolução que se associou posteriormente a uma glomerulopatia manifestada por proteinúria, cilindrúria e perda de função renal. As cadeias leves no plasma e na urina estavam elevadas, sobretudo a fração kappa e uma biópsia renal estudada por imunofluorescência e microscopia eletrônica confirmou o diagnóstico de Doença de Depósito das Cadeias Leves. A nefropatia de cadeia leve ocorre pela superprodução de cadeia leve de imunoglobulina produzida por linfócitos B com deposição nas membranas tubulares e no glomérulo.The authors present a case of a 65-year-old female patient, with chronic anemia associated with glomerulopathy manifested as proteinuria, cylindruria and renal failure. There were high serum and urinary levels of light chains and the diagnosis was performed by renal biopsy, examined using immunofluorescence and by electron microscopy that showed light chain paraproteins. Nephropathy of light-chain deposition disease occurs due to an over-production of light chains from immunoglobulins produced by B lymphocytes with a deposit in tubular and glomerular membranes.

  14. Tubulointerstitial nephritis accompanying gamma-heavy chain deposition and gamma-heavy chain restricted plasma cells in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayer, Ali; Green, Dollie F; Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Sujoy, Victoria; Ikpatt, Offiong F; Thomas, David B

    2014-09-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (HC) diseases are rare proliferative disorders of B lymphocytes or plasma cells characterized by the presence of monoclonal α-, µ-, or γ-HC without associated light chains in the blood, urine, or both. We report a 59-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin disease who developed hypercalcemia, proteinuria, and impaired kidney function. Protein electrophoresis and immunofixation displayed γ-HC without associated light chains in the serum and urine. Pathologic examination demonstrated severe tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse and strong linear staining of the glomerular and tubular basement membranes as well as Bowman capsules for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. Immunohistochemical examination of the kidney and bone marrow demonstrated numerous CD138+ plasma cells immunoreactive for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. This is the first report of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with γ-HC deposition and γ-HC restricted plasma cells in the kidney. This report heightens awareness about tubulointerstitial nephritis as a possible manifestation of γ-HC deposition in the kidney.

  15. Aerosol Deposition in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The success of inhalation therapy is not only dependent upon the pharmacology of the drugs being inhaled but also upon the site and extent of deposition in the respiratory tract. This article reviews the main mechanisms affecting the transport and deposition of inhaled aerosol in the human lung. Aerosol deposition in both the healthy and diseased lung is described mainly based on the results of human studies using nonimaging techniques. This is followed by a discussion of the effect of flow regime on aerosol deposition. Finally, the link between therapeutic effects of inhaled drugs and their deposition pattern is briefly addressed. Data show that total lung deposition is a poor predictor of clinical outcome, and that regional deposition needs to be assessed to predict therapeutic effectiveness. Indeed, spatial distribution of deposited particles and, as a consequence, drug efficiency is strongly affected by particle size. Large particles (>6 μm) tend to mainly deposit in the upper airway, limiting the amount of drugs that can be delivered to the lung. Small particles (<2 μm) deposit mainly in the alveolar region and are probably the most apt to act systemically, whereas the particle in the size range 2–6 μm are be best suited to treat the central and small airways. PMID:22686623

  16. Heavy and Light chain amyloidosois presenting as complete heart block: A rare presentation of a rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, P S; Morkhandikar, S; Srinivas, B H; Parameswaran, S

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is an uncommon disease characterized by deposition of proteinaceous material in the extracellular matrix, which results from abnormal protein folding. Even though more than 25 precursor proteins are identified, majority of systemic amyloidosis results from deposition of abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains. In heavy chain amyloidosis (AH), deposits are derived from both heavy chain alone, whereas in heavy and light chain amyloidosis (AHL), the deposits are derived from Ig heavy chains and light chains. Both AH and AHL are extremely rare diseases. Here, we report an unusual presentation of IgG (lambda) AHL amyloidosis in the background of multiple myeloma, where the initial clinical presentation was complete heart block, which preceded the definitive diagnosis by 18 months.

  17. Heavy and Light chain amyloidosois presenting as complete heart block: A rare presentation of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is an uncommon disease characterized by deposition of proteinaceous material in the extracellular matrix, which results from abnormal protein folding. Even though more than 25 precursor proteins are identified, majority of systemic amyloidosis results from deposition of abnormal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains. In heavy chain amyloidosis (AH, deposits are derived from both heavy chain alone, whereas in heavy and light chain amyloidosis (AHL, the deposits are derived from Ig heavy chains and light chains. Both AH and AHL are extremely rare diseases. Here, we report an unusual presentation of IgG (lambda AHL amyloidosis in the background of multiple myeloma, where the initial clinical presentation was complete heart block, which preceded the definitive diagnosis by 18 months.

  18. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, H R; Smit, G P A; Kuks, J B M; Grevink, R G; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2008-10-18

    A 23-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy were diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. The woman had muscle pain, fatigue and bilateral ophthalmoplegia--symptoms consistent with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The boy had aspecific symptoms; eventually, reduced activity of complex 1 was found to be the cause of the mitochondrial respiratory chain disease in the boy and his mother, who had suffered from unexplained fatigue and muscle pain for 15 years. Mitochondrial diseases often involve several organ systems. Diagnosis can be difficult, because laboratory tests such as serum and urinary lactate and creatine kinase have low sensitivity and specificity. Biochemical assessment of muscle biopsy can reveal reduced oxidation ATP synthesis and sometimes specific abnormalities in individual protein complexes. DNA analysis may be helpful in demonstrating mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or deletions. The goal of treatment is to increase mitochondrial ATP production, improve clinical symptoms and enhance stamina. Replacement of the following substances (also referred to as cofactors) may be attempted: co-enzyme Q10, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), riboflavin, thiamine, creatine and carnitine. Evidence regarding the optimal treatment approach is lacking; one usually has to rely on observing effects in the individual patient.

  19. Modeling the energy deposition in the Aurora KrF laser amplifier chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comly, J.C.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Greene, D.P.; Hanson, D.E.; Krohn, B.J.; McCown, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations model the energy depositions by highly energetic electron beams into the cavities of the four KrF laser amplifiers in the Aurora chain. Deposited energy density distributions are presented and studied as functions of e-beam energy and gas pressure. Results are useful for analyzing small signal gain (SSG) measurements and optimizing deposition in future experiments. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Contribution of offshore petroleum deposits to marine food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum production out of offshore petroleum deposits often coincides with abundant fisheries in the world. Superposition of marine microorganism concentration distribution and offshore petroleum field distribution from various data in the literature provides to prove this coincidence. Sakhalin Island coastal regions, North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, etc. are chosen for the superpositions. Significant conformity is observed between the plankton concentration distribution and the offshore petroleum deposit distribution in all those regions. Also, most studies on the consequence of oil spills to marine eco-systems have focused mainly on hazardous marine pollution caused by spilled petroleum at high concentration in marine environment. However, some of those data clearly indicate stimulation of plankton population in properly low concentration levels of dissolved hydrocarbons and dissolved petroleum compositions. Further, increase of hydrocarbon concentration leads to its inhibition from its stimulation conditions upon crossing over a critical concentration level—a plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration (SITC) of hydrocarbons. The SITC varies depending on hydrocarbon compounds, petroleum compositions, and microorganisms such as planktons. Further, petroleum composition diffusing through subterranean layers from petroleum deposits reacts with dissolved oxygen to be consumed at the ocean floor to precipitate the agglomerate suspension of hydrocarbons, leaving the sea water in a condition of oxygen depletion on the ocean floor. Such incidents are also briefly discussed.Plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration of petroleum fractions

  1. Inhalation deposition and retention patterns of a U-Pu chain aggregate aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, J.K.; Sanders, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Chain aggregate aerosol particles are normally formed during many high-temperature combustion and vaporization processes. The shape of chain aggregate aerosol particles could have an effect on the pattern of inhalation deposition and retention of the particles in the respiratory tract. A chain aggregate aerosol of nuclear reactor fuel could be present as an inhalation hazard if it were released to the atmosphere after a meltdown, core-disruptive accident. Rats were exposed to a chain aggregate U-Pu aerosol made by laser vaporization of mixed-oxide, breeder reactor fuel (20% plutonium dioxide and 80% uranium dioxide), then sacrificed to measure the clearance and retention of the fuel aerosol particles. Deposition of the 0.7-micron (activity median aerodynamic equivalent diameter) aerosol particles resulted in an average initial lung burden of 4140 Bq alpha activity. The chain aggregate particle shape was not a major factor in the total deposition; however, it may have influenced the regional distribution of the activity deposited. Retention of the particles in the upper airways of the tracheobronchial tree was on the order of 1% of the concurrent lung burden, which is consistent with recent data of other investigations. This study indicates that insoluble chain aggregate particles are retained in the tracheobronchial airways to a degree similar to simple spherically shaped particles of equivalent volume diameter

  2. Management options in the food chain for accidental radionuclide deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2005-12-01

    Finland with four other countries participated in the European Union's network project FARMING in 2000 - 2004. The aim of the project was to invite participants from each country representing the food supply chain in a stakeholder group and advance with the groups the networking in building preparedness for accidental contamination of the food production systems. The task of the groups was to evaluate the practicability of management options suggested for reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, and for disposal of waste generated in implementation of these options. The criteria for practicability were effectiveness in reduction of radiation exposure through foodstuffs, technical feasibility, capacity, costs for implementation, secondary costs for waste disposal, socio-economic impact, and acceptability concerning ecology and protection of environment and landscape. Practicable management options aimed at sustainable restoration of food production systems after accidental contamination. The Finnish stakeholder group represented farm production, processing industry, food marketing, catering, advisor organisations for households and agriculture, consumers, nature conservation, the media, experts on environmental impact and authorities responsible for production, safety and security of foodstuffs, food supply and feedstuffs. The group was expected to examine the effect of the Finnish, and, also more generally, northern production conditions on the practicability of the suggested management options. The stakeholder group members first familiarized themselves with intervention after accidental contamination of a large milk production area and thereafter with practicability of individual management options. The evaluation was based on the group members' complementary expertise that very well covered the chain 'from field to fork' whether the issue was related to legislation, production methods, logistics, environmental impacts, or the issues of consumers and

  3. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  4. Dense Deposit Disease Mimicking a Renal Small Vessel Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lavleen; Bhardwaj, Swati; Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind; Dinda, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dense deposit disease is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway and frequently deviates from the classic membranoproliferative pattern of injury on light microscopy. Other patterns of injury described for dense deposit disease include mesangioproliferative, acute proliferative/exudative, and crescentic GN. Regardless of the histologic pattern, C3 glomerulopathy, which includes dense deposit disease and C3 GN, is defined by immunofluorescence intensity of C3c two or more orders of magnitude greater than any other immune reactant (on a 0–3 scale). Ultrastructural appearances distinguish dense deposit disease and C3 GN. Focal and segmental necrotizing glomerular lesions with crescents, mimicking a small vessel vasculitis such as ANCA-associated GN, are a very rare manifestation of dense deposit disease. We describe our experience with this unusual histologic presentation and distinct clinical course of dense deposit disease, discuss the pitfalls in diagnosis, examine differential diagnoses, and review the relevant literature. PMID:26361799

  5. Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cimmino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD disease is an arthropathy caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP crystal deposits in articular tissues, most commonly fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. According to EULAR, four different clinical presentations can be observed: 1 asymptomatic CPPD; 2 osteoarthritis (OA with CPPD; 3 acute CPP crystal arthritis; 4 chronic CPP inflammatory crystal arthritis. Acute CPP crystal arthritis is characterized by sudden onset of pain, swelling and tenderness with overlying erythema, usually in a large joint, most often the knee, wrist, shoulder, and hip. Occasionally, ligaments, tendons, bursae, bone and the spine can be involved. CPPD of the atlanto-occipital joint (crowned dens syndrome can cause periodic acute cervico-occipital pain with fever, neck stiffness and laboratory inflammatory syndrome. Chronic inflammatory arthritis is characterized by joint swelling, morning stiffness, pain, and high ESR and CRP. The relationship between OA and CPPD is still unclear. The main problem is whether such crystals are directly involved in the pathogenesis of OA or if they are the result of joint degeneration. Diagnosis is based on evaluation of history and clinical features, conventional radiology, and synovial fluid examination. Non-polarized light microscopy should be used initially to screen for CPPD crystals based upon their characteristic morphology, and compensated polarized light microscopy, showing the crystals to be weakly positive birefringent, is recommended for definitive identification, although this last pattern only occurs in about 20% of samples. The main goals of CPPD therapy are control of the acute or chronic inflammatory reaction and prevention of further episodes.

  6. Application of Markov chains-entropy to analysis of depositional environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men Guizhen; Shi Xiaohong; Zhao Shuzhi

    1989-01-01

    The paper systematically and comprehensively discussed application of Markov chains-entropy to analysis of depositional environments of the upper Carboniferous series Taiyuan Formation in Anjialing, Pingshuo open-cast mine, Shanxi. Definite geological meanings were given respectively to calculated values of transition probability matrix, extremity probability matrix, substitution matrix and the entropy. The lithologic successions of coarse-fine-coarse grained layers from bottom upwards in the coal-bearing series made up the general symmetric cyclic patterns. It was suggested that the coal-bearing strata deposited in the coal-forming environment in delta plain-littoral swamps. Quantitative study of cyclic visibility and variation of formation was conducted. The assemblage relation among stratigraphic sequences and the significance of predicting vertical change were emphasized. Results of study showed that overall analysis of Markov chains was an effective method for analysis of depositional environments of coal-bearing strata. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Managing Distrust-Induced Risk with Deposit in Supply Chain Contract Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guanghua; Dong, Ming; Sun, Qi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the trust issue in a two-echelon supply chain information sharing process. In a supply chain, the retailer reports the forecasted demand to the supplier. Traditionally, the supplier's trust in the retailer's reported information is based on the retailer's reputation. However, this paper considers that trust is random and is also affected by the reputation and the demand gap. The supplier and retailer have been shown to have different evaluations regarding the degree of trust. Furthermore, distrust is inherently linked to perceived risk. To mitigate perceived risk, a two-stage decision process with an unpayback deposit contract is proposed. At the first stage, the supplier and the retailer negotiate the deposit contract. At the second stage, a Stackelberg game is used to determine the retailer's reported demand and the supplier's production quantity. We show that the deposits from the retailer's and supplier's perspectives are different. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the supplier's forecasted demand, the retailer's evaluation of the deposit is more than that of supplier's. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the retailer's forecasted demand, the deposit from the retailer's perspective is at the lowest level. PMID:25054190

  8. Managing Distrust-Induced Risk with Deposit in Supply Chain Contract Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the trust issue in a two-echelon supply chain information sharing process. In a supply chain, the retailer reports the forecasted demand to the supplier. Traditionally, the supplier’s trust in the retailer’s reported information is based on the retailer’s reputation. However, this paper considers that trust is random and is also affected by the reputation and the demand gap. The supplier and retailer have been shown to have different evaluations regarding the degree of trust. Furthermore, distrust is inherently linked to perceived risk. To mitigate perceived risk, a two-stage decision process with an unpayback deposit contract is proposed. At the first stage, the supplier and the retailer negotiate the deposit contract. At the second stage, a Stackelberg game is used to determine the retailer’s reported demand and the supplier’s production quantity. We show that the deposits from the retailer’s and supplier’s perspectives are different. When the retailer’s reported demand is equal to the supplier’s forecasted demand, the retailer’s evaluation of the deposit is more than that of supplier’s. When the retailer’s reported demand is equal to the retailer’s forecasted demand, the deposit from the retailer’s perspective is at the lowest level.

  9. Managing distrust-induced risk with deposit in supply chain contract decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guanghua; Dong, Ming; Sun, Qi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the trust issue in a two-echelon supply chain information sharing process. In a supply chain, the retailer reports the forecasted demand to the supplier. Traditionally, the supplier's trust in the retailer's reported information is based on the retailer's reputation. However, this paper considers that trust is random and is also affected by the reputation and the demand gap. The supplier and retailer have been shown to have different evaluations regarding the degree of trust. Furthermore, distrust is inherently linked to perceived risk. To mitigate perceived risk, a two-stage decision process with an unpayback deposit contract is proposed. At the first stage, the supplier and the retailer negotiate the deposit contract. At the second stage, a Stackelberg game is used to determine the retailer's reported demand and the supplier's production quantity. We show that the deposits from the retailer's and supplier's perspectives are different. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the supplier's forecasted demand, the retailer's evaluation of the deposit is more than that of supplier's. When the retailer's reported demand is equal to the retailer's forecasted demand, the deposit from the retailer's perspective is at the lowest level.

  10. Deposition of 0.1 μm chain aggregate aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Kanapilly, G.M.; DeNee, P.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Deposition and retention of ultrafine chain aggregate particles were studied in 20 beagle dogs. Aggregated particles of insoluble 67 Ga 2 O 3 in the 0.1 μm size range were generated by heat treatment of 67 Ga tetramethylheptanedione. Size characterization was done using electron microscopy, diffusion battery and electrical aerosol analyzer measurements. The average equivalent diffusion diameter of the aerosol was 0.07 μm and the volume median diameter (electrical mobility measurement) was 0.10 μm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Primary particles from which the aggregates were formed were 0.01 to 0.02 μm in diameter. Whole-body counting and gamma camera imaging were used to measure deposition. Total deposition in the whole body was 33 +- 16 % (mean +-S.D.) of the inhaled particles; 82 +- 13 % of this material was deposited in the lung. Retention studies showed that 77 +- 3 % of the material deposited in the lung was in the pulmonary region. Thus, 21 % of the inhaled particles were deposited beyond ciliated airways in alveolar areas. (author)

  11. Eculizumab for dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Smith, Richard J; Barile, Gaetano R; Zhang, Yuzhou; Heher, Eliot C; Herlitz, Leal; Stokes, M Barry; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-05-01

    The principle defect in dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis is hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, may prove beneficial. In this open-label, proof of concept efficacy and safety study, six subjects with dense deposit disease or C3 glomerulonephritis were treated with eculizumab every other week for 1 year. All had proteinuria >1 g/d and/or AKI at enrollment. Subjects underwent biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at the 1-year mark. The subjects included three patients with dense deposit disease (including one patient with recurrent dense deposit disease in allograft) and three patients with C3 glomerulonephritis (including two patients with recurrent C3 glomerulonephritis in allograft). Genetic and complement function testing revealed a mutation in CFH and MCP in one subject each, C3 nephritic factor in three subjects, and elevated levels of serum membrane attack complex in three subjects. After 12 months, two subjects showed significantly reduced serum creatinine, one subject achieved marked reduction in proteinuria, and one subject had stable laboratory parameters but histopathologic improvements. Elevated serum membrane attack complex levels normalized on therapy and paralleled improvements in creatinine and proteinuria. Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a response to eculizumab in some but not all subjects with dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. Elevation of serum membrane attack complex before treatment may predict response. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup of dense deposit disease/C3 glomerulonephritis patients in whom eculizumab therapy can be considered.

  12. A case of regression of atypical dense deposit disease without C3 deposition in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kang, Mung Jae; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2010-07-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of abnormal electron-dense material within the glomerular basement membrane of the kidneys. The diagnosis is made in most patients between 5 and 15 years of age, and within 10 years, approximately half of the affected patients progress to end-stage renal disease. We report a rare case of regressive DDD without C3 deposition after steroid therapy in an 11-year-old boy. The patient presented with edema, gross hematuria, and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Laboratory testing revealed a serum creatinine level of 1.17 mg/dL, albumin level of 2.3 g/dL, and serum C3 level of 125 mg/dL (range 90-180 mg/dL). The results of the renal biopsy were consistent with DDD without C3 deposition. After 6 weeks of steroid therapy, the nephrotic syndrome completely resolved. The follow-up renal biopsy showed a significant reduction in mesangial proliferation and disappearance of electron-dense deposits in the GBM.

  13. Iron Deposition and Ferritin Heavy Chain (Fth Localization in Rodent Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An iron rich layer on the labial surface is characteristic of the enamel of rodent incisors. In order to address a role for iron content in continuously growing incisors during odontogenesis, we studied iron deposition patterns in enamel and dentine using Perls’ blue staining and ferritin heavy chain (Fth immunolocalization. Fth expression is regulated by iron level; therefore its localization can be used as a sensitive indicator for iron deposition. Results Sagittal sections of 4-week old rat incisors showed a gradual increase in iron level in the enamel organ from secretory to maturation stages. In addition, iron was detected in ameloblasts of erupting third molars of 4-week old rats, suggesting iron plays a role in both incisor and molar development. In odontoblasts, the presence of iron was demonstrated, and this is consistent with iron’s role in collagen synthesis. Using postnatal 3-, 6-, 9-day old mice, the spatial and temporal expression of Fth in tooth development again indicated the presence of iron in mature ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Conclusions While these data do not explain what functional role iron has in tooth formation, it does highlight a significant molecular activity associated with the formation of the rodent dentition.

  14. Correlation of atmospheric deposition and diseases in the Euroregion Neisse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wappelhorst, O.; Kuehn, I.; Oehlmann, J.; Korhammer, S.; Markert, B.

    2001-01-01

    A biomonitoring system using the mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum formosum as biomonitors has been used to determine the degree of pollution in the Euroregion Neisse (ERN). This region, located in Central Europe where the borders Germany, Poland and Czech Republic meet, was one of the most highly polluted areas in Europe until the early 1990s. For clarity and ease of access the results have been presented visually using a Geographical Information System (GIS) (Markert et al., 1999; Wappelhorst, 1999; Wappelhorst et al., 1999). The deposition of 37 elements in the Euroregion as found in the moss study is compared with the incidence of various diseases, using data from regional hospitals. Connections between diseases of the respiratory tract and Ce, Fe, Ga and Ge deposition as well as between cardiovascular diseases and Tl were determined. The results will be validated by further studies with an even greater amount of data. (author)

  15. Cultivating a disease management partnership: a value-chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Carolyn F; Monroe, Wendy; Stalder, Sharon A

    2003-01-01

    Disease management (DM) is one of the health care industry's more innovative value-chain models, whereby multiple relationships are created to bring complex and time-sensitive services to market. The very nature of comprehensive, seamless DM provided through an outsourced arrangement necessitates a level of cooperation, trust, and synergy that may be lacking from more traditional vendor-customer relationships. This discussion highlights the experience of one health plan and its vendor partner and their approach to the development and delivery of an outsourced heart failure (HF) DM program. The program design and rollout are discussed within principles adapted from the theoretical framework of a value-chain model. Within the value-chain model, added value is created by the convergence and synergistic integration of the partners' discrete strengths. Although each partner brings unique attributes to the relationship, those attributes are significantly enhanced by the value-chain model, thus allowing each party to bring the added value of the relationship to their respective customers. This partnership increases innovation, leverages critical capabilities, and improves market responsiveness. Implementing a comprehensive, outsourced DM program is no small task. DM programs incorporate a broad array of services affecting nearly every department in a health plan's organization. When true seamless integration between multiple organizations with multiple stakeholders is the objective, implementation and ongoing operations can become even more complex. To effectively address the complexities presented by an HF DM program, the parties in this case moved beyond a typical purchaser-vendor relationship to one that is more closely akin to a strategic partnership. This discussion highlights the development of this partnership from the perspective of both organizations, as revealed through contracting and implementation activities. It is intended to provide insight into the program

  16. Treatment of Nongout Joint Deposition Diseases: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Pascart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This update develops the actual therapeutic options in the management of the joint involvement of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD, basic calcium phosphate (BCP deposition disease, hemochromatosis (HH, ochronosis, oxalosis, and Wilson’s disease. Conventional pharmaceutical treatment provides benefits for most diseases. Anti-interleukine-1 (IL-1 treatment could provide similar results in CPPD than in gout flares. There is only limited evidence about the efficacy of preventive long-term colchicine intake, methotrexate, and hydroxychloroquine in chronic CPPD. Needle aspiration and lavage have satisfactory short and midterm results in BCP. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy has also proved its efficacy for high-doses regimes. Phlebotomy does not seem to have shown real efficacy on joint involvement in HH so far. Iron chelators’ effects have not been assessed on joint involvement either, while IL-1 blockade may prove useful. NSAIDs have limited efficacy on joint involvement of oxalosis, while colchicine and steroids have not been assessed either. The use of nitisinone for ochronotic arthropathy is still much debated, but it could provide beneficial effects on joint involvement. The effects of copper chelators have not been assessed either in the joint involvement of Wilson’s disease. NSAIDs should be avoided because of the liver affection they may worsen.

  17. Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease: imaging aspects and biological behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquino, Danilo Olavarria; Pinto, Alexandre de Lavra; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Fanelli, Vania A.; Abud, Lucas Giansante

    2005-01-01

    Objective: to demonstrate, using imaging methods (x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US), the phases of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease in joints, particularly in the shoulder, from the silent phase to the intra-osseous migration of calcifications and radiologic follow-up examinations showing complete remission after physical therapy. Material and method: we evaluated 27 joints (25 shoulders, one hip and one elbow) of patients followed-up with radiographs. Patients extremely symptomatic and refractory to treatment were referred to MRI or US. Results: total remission of calcifications was observed in 15 joints after treatment - 14 shoulders and one elbow. In two joint, migration of the calcification to bone was observed: one to the bursa subdeltoidea, one to biceps tendon, one to subcoracoid recess and one to the interior of the infra spinal muscle. In two cases MRI and CT scans showed a high inflammatory process triggered by the disease. Conclusion: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease affects multiple joints and can vary from asymptomatic to extremely symptomatic. Imaging methods show all phases of the disease, including the migratory phase. In general, the use of x-ray is enough for the diagnosis and follow-up. MRI and CT provide a more accurate diagnosis in the active phase of the disease. In this paper, remission was seen with physiotherapy (iontophoresis) in 55% of the cases. (author)

  18. Ab initio electronic structure calculations for Mn linear chains deposited on CuN/Cu(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, Maria Andrea; Weht, Ruben; Lozano, Gustavo; Maria Llois, Ana

    2007-01-01

    In a recent experiment, scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to obtain a direct probe of the magnetic interaction in linear manganese chains arranged by atomic manipulation on thin insulating copper nitride islands grown on Cu(001). The local spin excitation spectra of these chains have been measured with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Analyzing the spectroscopic results with a Heisenberg Hamiltonian the interatomic coupling strength within the chains has been obtained. It has been found that the coupling strength depends on the deposition sites of the Mn atoms on the islands. In this contribution, we perform ab initio calculations for different arrangements of infinite Mn chains on CuN in order to understand the influence of the environment on the value of the magnetic interactions

  19. Branched chain amino acid profile in early chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients is a predictor of prognosis during the first period of dialysis. Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid profile. Of these, the plasma levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, especially valine and leucine, correlate well with nutritional status. Plasma BCAAs were evaluated along with albumin and C-reactive protein in 15 patients of early stages of CKD and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A significant decrease in plasma valine, leucine and albumin levels was observed in CKD patients when compared with the controls (P <0.05. No significant difference in C-reactive protein (CRP levels was observed between the two groups. Malnutrition seen in our CKD patients in the form of hypoalbuminemia and decreased concentrations of BCAA points to the need to evaluate the nutritional status in the early stages itself. Simple measures in the form of amino acid supplementation should be instituted early to decrease the morbidity and mortality before start of dialysis in these patients.

  20. Inertial deposition of nanoparticle chain aggregates: Theory and comparison with impactor data for ultrafine atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, Teresa L.; Lall, Anshuman Amit; Zhu Yifang; Yu Rongchung; Friedlander, Sheldon K.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticle chain aggregates (NCAs) are often sized and collected using instruments that rely on inertial transport mechanisms. The instruments size segregate aggregates according to the diameter of a sphere with the same aerodynamic behavior in a mechanical force field. A new method of interpreting the aerodynamic diameter of NCAs is described. The method can be used to calculate aggregate surface area or volume. This is useful since inertial instruments are normally calibrated for spheres, and the calibrations cannot be directly used to calculate aggregate properties. A linear relationship between aggregate aerodynamic diameter and primary particle diameter based on published Monte-Carlo drag calculations is derived. The relationship shows that the aggregate aerodynamic diameter is independent of the number of primary particles that compose an aggregate, hence the aggregate mass. The analysis applies to aggregates with low fractal dimension and uniform primary particle diameter. This is often a reasonable approximation for the morphology of nanoparticles generated in high temperature gases. An analogy is the use of the sphere as an approximation for compact particles. The analysis is applied to the collection of NCAs by a low-pressure impactor. Our results indicate the low-pressure impactor collects aggregates with a known surface area per unit volume on each stage. Combustion processes often produce particles with aggregate structure. For diesel exhaust aggregates, the surface area per unit volume calculated by our method was about twice that of spheres with diameter equal to the aerodynamic diameter. Measurements of aggregates collected near a major freeway and at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) were made for two aerodynamic cutoff diameter diameters (d a,50 ), 50 and 75 nm. (Aerodynamic cutoff diameter refers to the diameter of particles collected with 50% efficiency on a low-pressure impactor stage.) Near-freeway aggregates were probably primarily a

  1. Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain Assessment in IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Grados

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin free light chains are produced in excess during normal antibody synthesis. Their evaluation is commonly used in case of a monoclonal gammopathy. In polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia related to the Sjögren syndrome or systemic lupus, erythematosus serum free light chain levels are increased and could correlate with disease activity. We show here that the κ ( and λ ( free light chains and the κ : λ ratio ( are increased in sixteen patients with IgG4-related disease when compared to healthy controls. The increase of κ and λ free light chains probably reflects the marked polyclonal B cell activation of the disease. We could not assess in this small cohort of patients a significative correlation of serum free light chain levels and disease activity or extension.

  2. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippou, Georgios; Scirè, Carlo A; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the ultrasonographic characteristics of calcium pyrophosphate crystal (CPP) deposits in joints and periarticular tissues and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of expert ultrasonographers in the assessment of CPP deposition disease (CPPD) according to the ne...

  3. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... present in B. mori body was responsible for toxic effects on its life cycle. First instar of B. ..... methyl mercury and zinc in an intertidal rock shore food chain. J. Exp. Mar. ... Embryonic mortality and abnormalities of aquatic birds.

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. Weighted Markov chains for forecasting and analysis in Incidence of infectious diseases in jiangsu Province, China☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhihang; Bao, Changjun; Zhao, Yang; Yi, Honggang; Xia, Letian; Yu, Hao; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper first applies the sequential cluster method to set up the classification standard of infectious disease incidence state based on the fact that there are many uncertainty characteristics in the incidence course. Then the paper presents a weighted Markov chain, a method which is used to predict the future incidence state. This method assumes the standardized self-coefficients as weights based on the special characteristics of infectious disease incidence being a dependent stochastic variable. It also analyzes the characteristics of infectious diseases incidence via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to make the long-term benefit of decision optimal. Our method is successfully validated using existing incidents data of infectious diseases in Jiangsu Province. In summation, this paper proposes ways to improve the accuracy of the weighted Markov chain, specifically in the field of infection epidemiology. PMID:23554632

  6. Weighted Markov chains for forecasting and analysis in Incidence of infectious diseases in jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhihang; Bao, Changjun; Zhao, Yang; Yi, Honggang; Xia, Letian; Yu, Hao; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-01

    This paper first applies the sequential cluster method to set up the classification standard of infectious disease incidence state based on the fact that there are many uncertainty characteristics in the incidence course. Then the paper presents a weighted Markov chain, a method which is used to predict the future incidence state. This method assumes the standardized self-coefficients as weights based on the special characteristics of infectious disease incidence being a dependent stochastic variable. It also analyzes the characteristics of infectious diseases incidence via the Markov chain Monte Carlo method to make the long-term benefit of decision optimal. Our method is successfully validated using existing incidents data of infectious diseases in Jiangsu Province. In summation, this paper proposes ways to improve the accuracy of the weighted Markov chain, specifically in the field of infection epidemiology.

  7. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  8. Supply chain management of health commodities for reducing global disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwu, Otuto Amarauche; Ezeanochikwa, Valentine Nnaemeka; Eya, Benedict Ejikeme

    Reducing global disease burden requires improving access to medicines, thus the need for efficient and effective supply chain management for medicines. The Nigerian government came up with new policies on Mega Drug Distribution Centres and National Drug Distribution Guidelines to improve access to quality medicines with pharmacists having a key role to play. However, pharmacists in Nigeria seem not to be aware and adequately equipped to handle the medicines supply chain. This article aimed at assessing the awareness and readiness of Nigerian pharmacists on supply chain management practices for improving access to medicines. Pharmacists in Nigeria's Capital were randomly sampled. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. 29.3%, 20.7% and 53.7% were not aware of supply chain management, National Drug Distribution Guidelines and Mega Drug Distribution Centres, respectively. 85.46% do not have a copy of the National Drug Distribution Guidelines. 78% were not aware that Mega Drug Distribution Centres are already operational. 35.4% have never been involved in any supply chain management practice. 69.5% often experience stock out of vital and essential medicines, of which 85.2% were in hospitals. 15.9% were successful in managing their facility's supply chains. 84.1% opined that pharmacists in Nigeria are not yet ready to handle the medicines supply chain. Findings showed limited awareness and readiness on supply chain management of medicines. This may be due to inadequate supply chain management skills and infrastructure, poor financing, lack of accountability and poor management. Tackling these as well as pharmacists showing more interest in the country's health policies and obtaining necessary postgraduate certifications will lead to improvements. This will improve access to quality medicines and thus help in the fight to reduce disease burden both

  9. Study on the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, 1; Comparison of the deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with lung function tests in pulmonary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    The deposition patterns of aerosol inhalation scintigraphies and lung function tests were studied in 102 cases; 64 cases of obstructive pulmonary diseases (19 pulmonary emphysema, 27 diffuse panbronchiolitis, 18 chronic bronchitis) and 38 restrictive pulmonary disease (15 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, 16 pulmonary asbestosis, 7 interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease). The deposition patterns were classified into 5 patterns (Type A:normal homogenous distribution; Type B: mildly unhomogenous distribution; Type C: severely unhomogenous distribution mingled with hot spots; Type D: non-hilar hot spots; and Type E: hilar hot spots). The deposition patterns of restrictive pulmonary diseases were markedly abnormal as well as obstructive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Types C, D and E in obstructive pulmonary diseases, Type B in restrictive pulmonary diseases. The deposition patterns showed mainly Type E in pulmonary emphysema, Types C and D in diffuse panbronchiolitis, Types A, B and C in chronic bronchitis, Type B in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia interstitial pneumonia due to collagen vascular disease, Types B and C in pulmonary asbestosis. The deposition patterns correlated well with %FEV{sub 1.0} which was a good indicator of the severity of obstructive pulmonary diseases and restrictive pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in obstructive pulmonary diseases was nearly equal to the mean %FEV{sub 1.0} in restrictive pulmonary diseases in each type of the deposition patterns. (J.P.N.).

  10. Gut microbiota–derived short-chain fatty acids and kidney diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lingzhi Li, Liang Ma, Ping Fu Kidney Research Institute, Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China Abstract: Gut microbiota and its metabolites play pivotal roles in host physiology and pathology. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, as a group of metabolites, exert positive regulatory effects on energy metabolism, hormone secretion, immune inflammation, hypertension, and cancer. The functions of SCFAs are related to their activation of transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and their inhibition of histone acetylation. Though controversial, growing evidence suggests that SCFAs, which regulate inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis, have been involved in kidney disease through the activation of the gut–kidney axis; however, the molecular relationship among gut microbiota–derived metabolites, signaling pathways, and kidney disease remains to be elucidated. This review will provide an overview of the physiology and functions of SCFAs in kidney disease. Keywords: gut microbiome, short-chain fatty acids, kidney diseases, gut–kidney axis

  11. Branched chain amino acid metabolism profiles in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lake, A.D.; Novák, Petr; Shipkova, P.; Aranibar, N.; Robertson, D.G.; Reily, M.D.; Lehman-McKeeman, L.D.; Vaillancourt, R.R.; Cherrington, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 603-615 ISSN 0939-4451 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Branched chain amino acid * nonalcoholic fatty liver disease * nonalcoholic steatohepatitis * metabolomics and transcriptomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.196, year: 2015

  12. Fascin expression in cholesteatoma: correlation with destruction of the ossicular chain and extent of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnetoglu, A; Sari, M; Baglam, T; Erbarut Seven, I; Yumusakhuylu, A C; Topuz, M F; Batman, C

    2015-08-01

    Fascin is an actin-bundling protein found in cell membrane protrusions and increases cell motility. The expression of fascin in epithelial neoplasms has been described only recently. No data are available concerning the role of this protein in invasive cholesteatoma. Thus, we investigated the expression of fascin in cholesteatoma tissue and the relationship between fascin expression and intraoperative evaluation of the destruction of the ossicular chain and extent of disease. Cholesteatoma specimens of 28 patients and external auditory canal (EAC) skin specimens of the same patients (as the control group) were collected from mastoidectomies. Immunohistochemical technique was used to investigate the fascin expression in all cholesteatoma tissues and EAC skin specimens. Immunohistochemical staining was assessed semiquantitatively based on the thickness of epithelium. SPSS software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was performed to statistically analyse the relationships between fascin expression and intraoperative evaluation destruction of ossicular chain and extent of the disease. Immunohistochemically, there was no or very low fascin expression observed in normal epithelial cells of EAC skin, while expressed in cholesteatoma tissue. Also, fascin expression in cholesteatoma tissues was significantly correlated with destruction of ossicular chain and extent of the disease. Fascin expression is usually found in cholesteatoma epithelium and is correlated with destruction of the ossicular chain and extent of disease. Considering all of the correlations between the clinical and histopathological findings, 'fascin immunoexpression scoring' may be used for histological grading of cholesteatoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lambda light chain disease associated with myelomatous pericardial and pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbig, G.; Wieczorkiewicz, A.; Dziaczkowska-Suszek, J.; Krzemien, S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the case of a 53-year patient with lambda light chain disease and concomitant myelomatous pleural and pericardial effusions. The symptoms of cardiac failure dominated the clinical manifestation. Only moderate plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow was present, whereas 100% of these cells infiltrated the pleura. Chemotherapy appeared to be ineffective and patient died from cardiac failure. (authors)

  14. Forward chaining method on diagnosis of diseases and pests corn crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlaeli, Subiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Integrated pest management should be done to control the explosion of plants pest and diseases due to climate change is uncertain. This paper is a present implementation of the forward chaining method in the diagnosis diseases and pests of corn crop to help farmers/agricultural facilitators in getting knowledge about disease and pest corn crop. Forward chaining method as inference engine is used to get a disease/pest that attacks the corn crop based on symptoms. The forward chaining method works based on the fact that there is to get a conclusion. Fact in this system derived from the symptoms of the selected user is matched with the premise on every rule in the knowledge base. A rule that matches the facts to be executed to be the conclusion in the form of diagnosis. This validation using 36 data test, 32 data showed the same diagnostic results between systems with an expert. So, the percentage accuracy of results of diagnosis using data test of 88%. Finally, it can be concluded that the diagnosis system of diseases and pests corn crop can be used to help farmers/agricultural facilitators to diagnose diseases and pests corn crop.

  15. The risk of renal disease is increased in lambda myeloma with bone marrow amyloid deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Kozlowski,1 Scott Montgomery,2–4 Rahel Befekadu,5 Victoria Hahn-Strömberg6 1Department of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 2Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK; 5Department of Transfusion Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 6Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Light chain amyloidosis (AL is a rare deposition disease and is present in 10–15% of patients with myeloma (MM. In contrast to symptomatic AL in MM, presence of bone marrow (BM amyloid deposits (AD in MM is not connected to kidney damage. Renal AD but not BM-AD occur mostly in MM with lambda paraprotein (lambda MM. Methods: We investigated amyloid presence in BM clots taken at diagnosis in 84 patients with symptomatic MM and compared disease characteristics in MM with kappa paraprotein (kappa MM/lambda MM with and without BM-AD. Results: Lambda MM with BM-AD was compared with kappa MM without BM-AD, kappa MM with BM-AD, and lambda MM without BM-AD: lambda MM with BM-AD patients had a significantly higher mean creatinine level (4.23 mg/dL vs 1.69, 1.14, and 1.28 mg/dL, respectively and a higher proportion presented with severe kidney failure (6/11 [55%] vs 6/32 [19%], 1/22 [5%], and 3/19 [16%], respectively. Proteinuria was more common in lambda MM with BM-AD patients compared with kappa MM without BM-AD patients (8/11 [73%] vs 5/32 [16%], respectively. Conclusion: Kidney damage was more common in lambda MM with BM-AD indicating presence of renal AD. Keywords: plasma cells, neoplasms, amyloidosis, renal insufficiency, proteinuria

  16. Characterization of coke deposited on nano-sized Pt-Pd/H-beta spent during long-chain paraffin hydroisomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Einicke, W.D.; Ficht, K.; Glaeser, R. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Bertmer, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental Physics II; Kuchling, T. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    The hydroisomerization of long-chain n-paraffins were studied in the temperature range 205- 230 C at p{sub H2}=50 bar using a bench scale trickle-bed continuous-flow reactor. The bimetallic catalysts consisted of mixtures of platinum and palladium supported on commercially available nano-sized zeolites Beta (n{sub Si}/n{sub Al} = 12 and 25) extruded with a binder ({gamma}-alumina). For hexadecane conversion, high yields to isomers (25 and 45 wt.% of mono- and multibranched isomers, respectively) without extensive cracking (>10 wt.%) were obtained at a conversion of 80 %. Long-term tests with C{sub 16}H{sub 34} and blends of solid n-paraffins for 30-60 days on stream clearly indicate that a minor loss in catalyst activity can easily be compensated by increasing the reaction temperature from 230 C to 235 C. The zeolite sample with a 'mild acidity' revealed low hydrocracking at isomerization yield up to 70 wt.% and high stability. Carbonaceous deposits formed during n-paraffin hydroisomerization were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation, elemental analysis, ATR-FTIR and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy showing the formation of low-temperature, hydrogen-rich coke. (orig.)

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland. Pt. 1: Food-chain model validation and the attribution of radionuclide sources to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.L.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study is part of a continuing programme investigating the behaviour of environmental radioactivity in the vicinity of the AEA Technology establishment at Dounreay, Caithness and Sutherland. The study aims were to assess the applicability of a National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) food-chain model to the Caithness and Sutherland area, and to determine the contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in measured total deposition in the same region. The NRPB model predicts the movement of radionuclides through the food-chain, and in this study was validated by comparing model outputs with measured crop data (ryegrass and clover). Five radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am) were considered. The contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in total deposition were divided into three categories: Dounreay stack inputs, sea-to-land transfer, and the combined contribution from nuclear weapons testing and Chernobyl fallout. The analyses indicated that the contribution of the Dounreay stack to total deposition was very small for the radionuclides studied. The Chernobyl accident made a large impact on the total deposition of 137 Cs in the study area, and 90 Sr deposition was also affected by this, but to a much lesser extent. The Chernobyl accident appeared to have no effect on total Pu deposition in the region. The cessation of nuclear weapons testing and the length of time since Chernobyl meant that actual 137 Cs and 90 Sr deposition as a result of weapons/Chernobyl inputs had reached a low level by the end of the study period (summer 1987). It became evident that a contribution to total deposition was being made by additional factors, thought to be local resuspension of large particles for 137 Cs, and possibly deposition of plant material for 90 Sr. For Pu, sea-to-land transfer was probably an important contributor at coastal sites. (Author)

  18. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly

  19. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  20. Web Based Cattle Disease Expert System Diagnosis with forward Chaining Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamsuri, Ahmad; Syafitri, Wenni; Sadar, Muhamad

    2017-12-01

    Cattle is one of the livestock who have high economic potential, whether for livestock, cattle seed, or even for food stock. Everything that comes from Cattle is a treasure for example the Milk, the Meat, and Cattle-hide. The factor that cause Cattles to die is the spread of disease that could crock up the Cattle’s health. So that the Expert system is needed to utilize and analye the Cattle’s disease so it could detect the disease without going to the veterinarian. Forward chaining method is one of the correct method in this expert system wherein began with Symptoms to determine the illness. From this matter, we built a web based expert system application on Cattles disease to ease the disease detection and showing the brief information about the Cattles itself.

  1. Spatial distributions and deposition chronology of short chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments across the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Chen, Ru; Zhao, Zongshan; Wang, Thanh; Gao, Yan; Li, An; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin; Sun, Liguang

    2013-10-15

    As the most complex halogenated contaminants, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are scarcely reported in marine environments. In this work, a total of 117 surficial sediment (0-3 cm) samples and two sediment cores were collected from the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas to systematically study the spatial and temporal trends of SCCPs at a large scale in the Chinese marine environment. Total SCCP concentrations in the surficial sediments were in the range of 14.5-85.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight, d.w.) with an average level of 38.4 ng g(-1) d.w. Spatial distribution showed a decreasing trend with the distance from the coast to the open waters. Compositional pattern analysis suggested that C10 was the most predominant homologue group, followed by C11, C12, and C13 homologue groups. The concentrations of total SCCPs in sediment cores ranged from 11.6 to 94.7 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS1 and from 14.7 to 195.6 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS2, with sharp rise from the early 1950s to present based on (210)Pb dating technique. The historical records in cores correspond well to the production and usage changes of CPs in China. Multivariate regression statistics indicate TOC, latitude and longitude are the major factors influencing surficial SCCP levels in the Chinese East Seas by combining analysis with the data from the East China Sea (R(2) = 0.332, p < 0.01). These findings indicated that the sources of SCCPs were mainly from river outflows via ocean current and partly from atmospheric depositions by East Asian monsoon in the sampling areas.

  2. The impact of meningococcal polymerase chain reaction testing on laboratory confirmation of invasive meningococcal disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drew, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    Laboratory methods of diagnosis were examined for 266 children with invasive meningococcal disease. Seventy-five (36%) of 207 cases with bloodstream infection had both positive blood culture and blood meningococcal polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 130 (63%) negative blood culture and positive blood PCR, and 2 (1%) had positive blood culture and negative blood PCR. Sixty-three percent of cases were diagnosed by PCR alone.

  3. Notes from the field: the economic value chain in disease management organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald

    2006-12-01

    The disease management (DM) "value chain" is composed of a linear series of steps that include operational milestones in the development of knowledge, each stage evolving from the preceding one. As an adaptation of Michael Porter's "value chain" model, the process flow in DM moves along the following path: (1) data/information technology, (2) information generation, (3) analysis, (4) assessment/recommendations, (5) actionable customer plan, and (6) program assessment/reassessment. Each of these stages is managed as a major line of product operations within a DM company or health plan. Metrics around each of the key production variables create benchmark milestones, ongoing management insight into program effectiveness, and potential drivers for activity-based cost accounting pricing models. The value chain process must remain robust from early entry of data and information into the system, through the final presentation and recommendations for our clients if the program is to be effective. For individuals involved in the evaluation or review of DM programs, this framework is an excellent method to visualize the key components and sequence in the process. The value chain model is an excellent way to establish the value of a formal DM program and to create a consultancy relationship with a client involved in purchasing these complex services.

  4. Representation of a model of radionuclide transfer in food chains following deposition of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 on areas for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    1990-09-01

    The 'SINK' model (contaminants in food chains - FORTRAN 77) was used in an attempt to predict the amounts of radioactivity building up in animal and vegetable foods after one single deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and I-131. The model is described in detail. The input quantities include such factors as time-integrated concentration of activity in the air just above the ground, physicochemical form of the radionuclides, activity deposited with precipitation and amount of rain to fall in any particular case. The model was so designed as to take account of 18 different plants, 11 animal products and 14 kinds of processed nutrients. The radionuclide contents of vegetable foods were calculated with reference to the season of the year, at which deposition took place. The estimations of the activity concentrations in animal foods were in each case based on different fudder rations. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in

  6. Design of the expert system to analyze disease in Plant Teak using Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poningsih Poningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teak is one kind of plant that is already widely known and developed by the wider community in the form of plantations and community forests. This is because until now Teak wood is a commodity of luxury, high quality, the price is expensive, and high economic value. Expert systems are a part of the method sciences artificial intelligence to make an application program disease diagnosis teak computerized seek to replace and mimic the reasoning process of an expert or experts in solving the problem specification that can be said to be a duplicate from an expert because science knowledge is stored inside a database  Expert System for the diagnosis of disease teak using forward chaining method aims to explore the characteristics shown in the form of questions in order to diagnose the disease teak with web-based software. Device keel expert system can recognize the disease after consulting identity by answering some of the questions presented by the application of expert systems and can infer some kind of disease in plants teak. Data disease known customize rules (rules are made to match the characteristics of teak disease and provide treatment solutions.

  7. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-06-01

    Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers' incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing.

  8. An Expert System for Diagnosing Eye Diseases using Forward Chaining Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaiseche, C. P. C.; Kaparang, D. R.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    Expert System is a system that seeks to adopt human knowledge to the computer, so that the computer can solve problems which are usually done by experts. The purpose of medical expert system is to support the diagnosis process of physicians. It considers facts and symptoms to provide diagnosis. This implies that a medical expert system uses knowledge about diseases and facts about the patients to suggest diagnosis. The aim of this research is to design an expert system application for diagnosing eye diseases using forward chaining method and to figure out user acceptance to this application through usability testing. Eye is selected because it is one of the five senses which is very sensitive and important. The scope of the work is extended to 16 types of eye diseases with 41 symptoms of the disease, arranged in 16 rules. The computer programming language employed was the PHP programming language and MySQL as the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The results obtained showed that the expert system was able to successfully diagnose eye diseases corresponding to the selected symptoms entered as query and the system evaluation through usability testing showed the expert system for diagnosis eye diseases had very good rate of usability, which includes learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction so that the system can be received in the operational environment.

  9. Abnormal glycogen chain length pattern, not hyperphosphorylation, is critical in Lafora disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Felix; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Wang, Peixiang; Zhao, Xiaochu; Chown, Erin E; Perri, Ami M; Israelian, Lori; Juana-López, Lucia; Bovolenta, Paola; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago; Steup, Martin; Minassian, Berge A

    2017-07-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal progressive epilepsy essentially caused by loss-of-function mutations in the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the ubiquitin E3 ligase malin. Glycogen in LD is hyperphosphorylated and poorly hydrosoluble. It precipitates and accumulates into neurotoxic Lafora bodies (LBs). The leading LD hypothesis that hyperphosphorylation causes the insolubility was recently challenged by the observation that phosphatase-inactive laforin rescues the laforin-deficient LD mouse model, apparently through correction of a general autophagy impairment. We were for the first time able to quantify brain glycogen phosphate. We also measured glycogen content and chain lengths, LBs, and autophagy markers in several laforin- or malin-deficient mouse lines expressing phosphatase-inactive laforin. We find that: (i) in laforin-deficient mice, phosphatase-inactive laforin corrects glycogen chain lengths, and not hyperphosphorylation, which leads to correction of glycogen amounts and prevention of LBs; (ii) in malin-deficient mice, phosphatase-inactive laforin confers no correction; (iii) general impairment of autophagy is not necessary in LD We conclude that laforin's principle function is to control glycogen chain lengths, in a malin-dependent fashion, and that loss of this control underlies LD. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  10. 2A4 binds soluble and insoluble light chain aggregates from AL amyloidosis patients and promotes clearance of amyloid deposits by phagocytosis †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Mark; Torres, Ronald; Dolan, Philip J; Tam, Stephen J; Tapia, Jose R; Li, Lauri; Salmans, Joshua R; Barbour, Robin M; Shughrue, Paul J; Nijjar, Tarlochan; Schenk, Dale; Kinney, Gene G; Zago, Wagner

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by misfolded light chain (LC) (amyloid) deposition in various peripheral organs, leading to progressive dysfunction and death. There are no regulatory agency-approved treatments for AL amyloidosis, and none of the available standard of care approaches directly targets the LC protein that constitutes the amyloid. NEOD001, currently in late-stage clinical trials, is a conformation-specific, anti-LC antibody designed to specifically target misfolded LC aggregates and promote phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits. The present study demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody 2A4, the murine form of NEOD001, binds to patient-derived soluble and insoluble LC aggregates and induces phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid in vitro. 2A4 specifically labeled all 21 fresh-frozen organ samples studied, which were derived from 10 patients representing both κ and λ LC amyloidosis subtypes. 2A4 immunoreactivity largely overlapped with thioflavin T-positive labeling, and 2A4 bound both soluble and insoluble LC aggregates extracted from patient tissue. Finally, 2A4 induced macrophage engagement and phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits in vitro. These findings provide further evidence that 2A4/NEOD001 can effectively clear and remove human AL-amyloid from tissue and further support the rationale for the evaluation of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis.

  11. 2A4 binds soluble and insoluble light chain aggregates from AL amyloidosis patients and promotes clearance of amyloid deposits by phagocytosis †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Mark; Torres, Ronald; Dolan, Philip J.; Tam, Stephen J.; Tapia, Jose R.; Li, Lauri; Salmans, Joshua R.; Barbour, Robin M.; Shughrue, Paul J.; Nijjar, Tarlochan; Schenk, Dale; Kinney, Gene G.; Zago, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by misfolded light chain (LC) (amyloid) deposition in various peripheral organs, leading to progressive dysfunction and death. There are no regulatory agency–approved treatments for AL amyloidosis, and none of the available standard of care approaches directly targets the LC protein that constitutes the amyloid. NEOD001, currently in late-stage clinical trials, is a conformation-specific, anti-LC antibody designed to specifically target misfolded LC aggregates and promote phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits. The present study demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody 2A4, the murine form of NEOD001, binds to patient-derived soluble and insoluble LC aggregates and induces phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid in vitro. 2A4 specifically labeled all 21 fresh-frozen organ samples studied, which were derived from 10 patients representing both κ and λ LC amyloidosis subtypes. 2A4 immunoreactivity largely overlapped with thioflavin T–positive labeling, and 2A4 bound both soluble and insoluble LC aggregates extracted from patient tissue. Finally, 2A4 induced macrophage engagement and phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits in vitro. These findings provide further evidence that 2A4/NEOD001 can effectively clear and remove human AL-amyloid from tissue and further support the rationale for the evaluation of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis. PMID:27494229

  12. Extensive respiratory chain defects in inhibitory interneurones in patients with mitochondrial disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Nichola Z.; Grady, John; Laude, Alex; Chan, Felix; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; Gorman, Grainne; Whittaker, Roger G.; Ng, Yi; Cunningham, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Mitochondrial disorders are among the most frequently inherited cause of neurological disease and arise due to mutations in mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Currently, we do not understand the specific involvement of certain brain regions or selective neuronal vulnerability in mitochondrial disease. Recent studies suggest γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA)‐ergic interneurones are particularly susceptible to respiratory chain dysfunction. In this neuropathological study, we assess the impact of mitochondrial DNA defects on inhibitory interneurones in patients with mitochondrial disease. Methods Histochemical, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays were performed on post‐mortem brain tissue from 10 patients and 10 age‐matched control individuals. We applied a quantitative immunofluorescent method to interrogate complex I and IV protein expression in mitochondria within GABAergic interneurone populations in the frontal, temporal and occipital cortices. We also evaluated the density of inhibitory interneurones in serial sections to determine if cell loss was occurring. Results We observed significant, global reductions in complex I expression within GABAergic interneurones in frontal, temporal and occipital cortices in the majority of patients. While complex IV expression is more variable, there is reduced expression in patients harbouring m.8344A>G point mutations and POLG mutations. In addition to the severe respiratory chain deficiencies observed in remaining interneurones, quantification of GABAergic cell density showed a dramatic reduction in cell density suggesting interneurone loss. Conclusions We propose that the combined loss of interneurones and severe respiratory deficiency in remaining interneurones contributes to impaired neuronal network oscillations and could underlie development of neurological deficits, such as cognitive impairment and epilepsy, in mitochondrial disease. PMID:25786813

  13. Comparative study of collagen deposition in the colon wall of patients operated for sigmoid diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaroto, Mário; Lopes Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Pinto, Clovis Antonio Lopes; Antico Filho, Armando

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the deposition of collagen in the colon wall of patients with sigmoid diverticulitis. Samples of sigmoid tissue from 15 patients (disease group), seven men and eight women aged 37-77 years who underwent surgery for the treatment of diverticulitis, were selected. For the control group, specimens from five patients, three men and two women aged 19-58 years undergoing emergency surgery for sigmoid trauma were selected. These subjects had no associated diseases. The histological study of the surgical specimens was performed by staining with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius and using a histochemical method for collagen quantification. Collagen deposition in the colon wall in terms of area (F), glandular epithelium (E) and total area was significantly higher in the disease group compared to control (p=0.003, p=0.026 and p=0.010, respectively). The collagen volume fraction (F fraction) and muscle tissue (M fraction) were also significantly higher compared to control (p=0.044 and p=0.026, respectively). The muscle (M area) and volume fraction of glandular epithelium (E fraction) did not differ significantly between the two groups, (p=0.074 and p=1.000, respectively). In this study, collagen deposition in the colon wall of the patients operated for sigmoid diverticulitis was higher compared to patients without the disease.

  14. Deposition and clearance of inhaled 18FDG powder in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, M.; Sasaki, H.; Hatazawa, J.; Ojima, F.; Itoh, M.; Ido, T.

    1998-01-01

    As freon is limited in its use as a generator for aerosol inhalation, powder particles are used as an alternative for inhalation therapy. The pulmonary deposition and clearance of inhaled powder particles was studied by positron emission tomography (PET) in ten patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in five normal controls. The powder, 5 μm in mean diameter, was water soluble and labelled with 2-deoxy-2[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 FDG). Powder inhalation was done with single deep inspiration from residual volume to total lung capacity. The initial deposition ratio in the right or left lung field to total inhaled dose, measured by an anteroposterior rectilinear scan, did not differ between normal and COPD patients. Ratios of radioactivity detected within the central and peripheral regions (the central to peripheral ratio) measured by the PET scan was not significantly different between COPD patients (4.8±2.6, mean±SD) and normals (2.6±0.8, mean±SD). However, the regional powder deposition in peripheral lung fields measured by the PET scan was significantly more uneven in COPD patients than in normal patients. The clearance rate of 18 FDG, defined as the retention ratio of 18 FDG activity to the initially deposited 18 FDG at 60 and 120 min after inhalation, in the trachea, large bronchi or peripheral lung fields measured by tomographic scan showed a wider variation in COPD patients than in normals. To conclude, inhaled powder tended to be deposited more centrally and was distributed more unevenly in the peripheral lung in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients than in normals. This could be a limitation of powder inhalation used for therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. (au)

  15. Chains of transmission and control of Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry, Guinea in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Ousmane; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Heleze, Emmanuel; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Magassouba, N’Faly; Soropogui, Barré; Keita, Sakoba; Gakou, Tata; Bah, El Hadji Ibrahima; Koivogui, Lamine; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Cauchemez, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background An Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic of unprecedented magnitude is ongoing in West Africa, affecting for the first time large urban centers like Conakry, the capital of Guinea. Methods Interviews of EVD patients, relatives and neighbors and laboratory databases were used to reconstruct EVD chains of transmission in Conakry, from March to August 2014. Findings Out of 193 confirmed and probable EVD cases reported in Conakry, Boffa and Télimélé, 152 (79%) were positioned in the chains of transmission. In March, non-Health Care Workers cases infected on average 2.3 (95% CI: 1.6, 3.2) persons, breaking down into 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.2) persons in the community, 0.4 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.9) in the hospital and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0) at funerals. Following implementation of infection control in April, the reproduction number in the hospital and at funerals reduced below 0.1. In the community, the reproduction number, which was positively correlated with patients viremia, dropped by 50% for hospitalized cases but remained unchanged for those not hospitalized. Hospital and funeral transmission represented 35% (7/20) and 15% (3/20) of all transmissions in March; but only 9% (11/128) and 4% (5/128) from April onward. Overall, 82% (119/145) of transmission occurred in the community and 72% (105/145) between family members. Simulations showed that a 10% increase in hospitalizations could have reduced the length of chains by 26% (95% CI: 4%, 45%). Interpretation Monitoring chains of transmission is critical to evaluate and optimize local control strategies for EVD. In Conakry, interventions had the potential to stop the epidemic but reintroductions of the disease and lack of cooperation of a small number of families led to prolonged low-level spread, highlighting challenges of EVD control in large urban centers. Funding Labex IBEID, Reacting, PREDEMICS, NIGMS MIDAS initiative, Institut Pasteur de Dakar. PMID:25619149

  16. CSF neurofilament light chain and phosphorylated tau 181 predict disease progression in PSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C; Bang, Jee; Lobach, Iryna V; Tsai, Richard M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Boxer, Adam L

    2018-01-23

    To determine the ability of CSF biomarkers to predict disease progression in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We compared the ability of baseline CSF β-amyloid 1-42 , tau, phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations, measured by INNO-BIA AlzBio3 or ELISA, to predict 52-week changes in clinical (PSP Rating Scale [PSPRS] and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living [SEADL]), neuropsychological, and regional brain volumes on MRI using linear mixed effects models controlled for age, sex, and baseline disease severity, and Fisher F density curves to compare effect sizes in 50 patients with PSP. Similar analyses were done using plasma NfL measured by single molecule arrays in 141 patients. Higher CSF NfL concentration predicted more rapid decline (biomarker × time interaction) over 52 weeks in PSPRS ( p = 0.004, false discovery rate-corrected) and SEADL ( p = 0.008), whereas lower baseline CSF p-tau predicted faster decline on PSPRS ( p = 0.004). Higher CSF tau concentrations predicted faster decline by SEADL ( p = 0.004). The CSF NfL/p-tau ratio was superior for predicting change in PSPRS, compared to p-tau ( p = 0.003) or NfL ( p = 0.001) alone. Higher NfL concentrations in CSF or blood were associated with greater superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy (fixed effect, p ≤ 0.029 and 0.008, respectively). Both CSF p-tau and NfL correlate with disease severity and rate of disease progression in PSP. The inverse correlation of p-tau with disease severity suggests a potentially different mechanism of tau pathology in PSP as compared to Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease presenting as a pseudotumor of the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, A.; Teruel, J.; Pont, J.; Velayos, A.; Trull, J.; Lopez, E.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old white woman with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. The patient related a 2-month history of swelling with tenderness over the left pre-auricular region. A CT scan suggested a synovial chondromatosis. Surgical removal was done and histologic study showed CPPD crystals. This disease rarely involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported in the literature. (orig.)

  18. Markov chains and entropy tests in genetic-based lithofacies analysis of deep-water clastic depositional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borka Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between structural elements and the so-called genetic lithofacies in a clastic deep-water depositional system. Process-sedimentology has recently been gaining importance in the characterization of these systems. This way the recognized facies attributes can be associated with the depositional processes establishing the genetic lithofacies. In this paper this approach was presented through a case study of a Tertiary deep-water sequence of the Pannonian-basin.

  19. Clinical and pathological features of dense deposit disease in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinquan; Tang, Zheng; Luo, Chunlei; Hu, Yanglin; Zeng, Caihong; Chen, Huiping; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-09-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare disease that has no universally effective treatment. Herein we explore the clinical and pathological features of DDD in Chinese patients and the therapeutic effect of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW). Clinical and pathological data of 10 Chinese patients with biopsy-proved DDD were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients consisted of 6 males and 4 females. All of them had heavy proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria, renal insufficiency, anemia, hypertension and low serum complement 3 (C3) occurred in 3, 3, 5, 6 and 8 cases, respectively. Under light microscopy (LM), 8 cases exhibited membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain disclosed intense PAS-positive bright ribbon-like thickening of glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Immunofluorescence mainly showed diffuse fine granular and short linear deposition of C3 along the glomerular capillary wall. Under electron microscopy, ribbon-like electrondense intramembranous deposits were identified in the lamina densa of the GBM, along the tubule basement membranes (TBM) and wall of Bowman's capsule. Before admission, 6 cases were treated with prednisone, cyclophosphamide and/or cyclosporin A with no response. Proteinuria in 8 cases who received TW during the course decreased at different degrees. The clinical and pathological features in DDD patients were various. The effect of TW in patients with DDD merits further investigation.

  20. Experimental Study of Dispersion and Deposition of Expiratory Aerosols in Aircraft Cabins and Impact on Infectious Disease Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    To, G.N.S.; Wan, M.P.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion and deposition characteristics of polydispersed expiratory aerosols were investigated in an aircraft cabin mockup to study the transmission of infectious diseases. The airflow was characterized by particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Aerosol dispersionwas measured...

  1. Fatal neonatal-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain disease with T cell immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Janine; Schubert, Ralf; Horvàth, Rita; Petersen, Jens; Fütterer, Nancy; Malle, Elisabeth; Stumpf, Andreas; Gebhardt, Boris R; Koehl, Ulrike; Schraven, Burkhart; Zielen, Stefan

    2006-09-01

    We present the clinical and laboratory features of a boy with a new syndrome of mitochondrial depletion syndrome and T cell immunodeficiency. The child suffered from severe recurrent infectious diseases, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Clinically, he presented with severe psychomotor retardation, axial hypotonia, and a disturbed pain perception leading to debilitating biting of the thumb, lower lip, and tongue. Brain imaging showed hypoplasia of corpus callosum and an impaired myelinization of the temporo-occipital region with consecutive supratentorial hydrocephalus. Histologic examination of a skeletal muscle biopsy was normal. Biochemical investigation showed combined deficiency of respiratory chain complexes II+III and IV. MtDNA depletion was found by real-time PCR. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the TK2, SUCLA2, DGUOK, and ECGF1 genes. A heterozygous missense mutation was found in POLG1. The pathogenic relevance of this mutation is unclear. Interestingly, a lack of CD8(+) T lymphocytes as well as NK cells was also observed. The percentage of CD45RO-expressing cells was decreased in activated CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Activation of T lymphocytes via IL-2 was diminished. The occurrence of the immunologic deficiency in our patient with mtDNA depletion is a rare finding, implying that cells of the immune system might also be affected by mitochondrial disease.

  2. Human disease mortality kinetics are explored through a chain model embodying principles of extreme value theory and competing risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, D A; Rosenberg, B

    1992-04-21

    The distributions for human disease-specific mortality exhibit two striking characteristics: survivorship curves that intersect near the longevity limit; and, the clustering of best-fitting Weibull shape parameter values into groups centered on integers. Correspondingly, we have hypothesized that the distribution intersections result from either competitive processes or population partitioning and the integral clustering in the shape parameter results from the occurrence of a small number of rare, rate-limiting events in disease progression. In this report we initiate a theoretical examination of these questions by exploring serial chain model dynamics and parameteric competing risks theory. The links in our chain models are composed of more than one bond, where the number of bonds in a link are denoted the link size and are the number of events necessary to break the link and, hence, the chain. We explored chains with all links of the same size or with segments of the chain composed of different size links (competition). Simulations showed that chain breakage dynamics depended on the weakest-link principle and followed kinetics of extreme-values which were very similar to human mortality kinetics. In particular, failure distributions for simple chains were Weibull-type extreme-value distributions with shape parameter values that were identifiable with the integral link size in the limit of infinite chain length. Furthermore, for chains composed of several segments of differing link size, the survival distributions for the various segments converged at a point in the S(t) tails indistinguishable from human data. This was also predicted by parameteric competing risks theory using Weibull underlying distributions. In both the competitive chain simulations and the parametric competing risks theory, however, the shape values for the intersecting distributions deviated from the integer values typical of human data. We conclude that rare events can be the source of

  3. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  4. Amyloid β deposition, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline in sporadic Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemagne, Victor L; Burnham, Samantha; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Brown, Belinda; Ellis, Kathryn A; Salvado, Olivier; Szoeke, Cassandra; Macaulay, S Lance; Martins, Ralph; Maruff, Paul; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Masters, Colin L

    2013-04-01

    Similar to most chronic diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) develops slowly from a preclinical phase into a fully expressed clinical syndrome. We aimed to use longitudinal data to calculate the rates of amyloid β (Aβ) deposition, cerebral atrophy, and cognitive decline. In this prospective cohort study, healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with AD were assessed at enrolment and every 18 months. At every visit, participants underwent neuropsychological examination, MRI, and a carbon-11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET scan. We included participants with three or more (11)C-PiB PET follow-up assessments. Aβ burden was expressed as (11)C-PiB standardised uptake value ratio (SUVR) with the cerebellar cortex as reference region. An SUVR of 1·5 was used to discriminate high from low Aβ burdens. The slope of the regression plots over 3-5 years was used to estimate rates of change for Aβ deposition, MRI volumetrics, and cognition. We included those participants with a positive rate of Aβ deposition to calculate the trajectory of each variable over time. 200 participants (145 healthy controls, 36 participants with MCI, and 19 participants with AD) were assessed at enrolment and every 18 months for a mean follow-up of 3·8 (95% CI CI 3·6-3·9) years. At baseline, significantly higher Aβ burdens were noted in patients with AD (2·27, SD 0·43) and those with MCI (1·94, 0·64) than in healthy controls (1·38, 0·39). At follow-up, 163 (82%) of the 200 participants showed positive rates of Aβ accumulation. Aβ deposition was estimated to take 19·2 (95% CI 16·8-22·5) years in an almost linear fashion-with a mean increase of 0·043 (95% CI 0·037-0·049) SUVR per year-to go from the threshold of (11)C-PiB positivity (1·5 SUVR) to the levels observed in AD. It was estimated to take 12·0 (95% CI 10·1-14·9) years from the levels observed in healthy controls with low Aβ deposition (1·2 [SD 0·1] SUVR) to the

  5. Hyaline cartilage involvement in patients with gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. An ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippucci, E; Riveros, M Gutierrez; Georgescu, D; Salaffi, F; Grassi, W

    2009-02-01

    The main aim of the present study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography (US) in detecting monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals deposits at knee cartilage level using clinical definite diagnosis as standard reference. A total of 32 patients with a diagnosis of gout and 48 patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy were included in the study. Fifty-two patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis or osteoarthritis (OA) were recruited as disease controls. All diagnoses were made using an international clinical criterion. US examinations were performed by an experienced sonographer, blind to clinical and laboratory data. Hyaline cartilage was assessed to detect two US findings recently indicated as indicative of crystal deposits: hyperechoic enhancement of the superficial margin of the hyaline cartilage and hyperechoic spots within the cartilage layer not generating a posterior acoustic shadow. Hyperechoic enhancement of the chondrosynovial margin was found in at least one knee of 14 out of 32 (43.7%) patients with gout and in a single knee of only one patient affected by pyrophosphate arthropathy (specificity=99%). Intra-cartilaginous hyperechoic spots were detected in at least one knee of 33 out of 48 (68.7%) patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy and in two disease controls one with OA and the second with RA (specificity=97.6%). The results of the present study indicate that US may play a relevant role in distinguishing cartilage involvement in patients with crystal-related arthropathy. The selected US findings were found to be highly specific.

  6. Enhanced Prevalence of Plasmatic Soluble MHC Class I Chain-Related Molecule in Vascular Pregnancy Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Haumonte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex class I related chain (MIC is a stress-inducible protein modulating the function of immune natural killer (NK cells, a major leukocyte subset involved in proper trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether upregulation of soluble MIC (sMIC may reflect immune disorders associated to vascular pregnancy diseases (VPD. sMIC was more frequently detected in the plasma of women with a diagnostic of VPD (32% than in normal term-matched pregnancies (1.6%, P<0.0001, with highest prevalence in intrauterine fetal death (IUDF, 44% and vascular intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, 39%. sMIC levels were higher in preeclampsia (PE than in IUFD (P<0.01 and vascular IUGR (P<0.05. sMIC detection was associated with bilateral early diastolic uterine notches (P=0.037, thrombocytopenia (P=0.03, and high proteinuria (P=0.03 in PE and with the vascular etiology of IUGR (P=0.0038. Incubation of sMIC-positive PE plasma resulted in downregulation of NKG2D expression and NK cell-mediated IFN-γ production in vitro. Our work thus suggests that detection of sMIC molecule in maternal plasma may constitute a hallmark of altered maternal immune functions that contributes to vascular disorders that complicate pregnancy, notably by impairing NK-cell mediated production of IFN-γ, an essential cytokine favoring vascular modeling.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction based epidemiological investigation of canine parvoviral disease in dogs at Bareilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobin Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the suspected samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and epidemiological analysis of positive cases of canine parvovirus type2. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dogs suspected for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 and viral DNA was extracted. Primers were designed, and PCR was done with all extracted DNA samples. Age, sex and breed wise distribution of positive cases were analyzed. Results: Out of a total 44 collected fecal samples, 23 were found to be positive for CPV-2 by developed PCR. The disease was found to be more common in Labrador male pups of 3-6 months of age. The percentage of positive cases in vaccinated dogs was found to be around 17.4%. Conclusion: Almost half (52.3% of total collected samples were found to be positive by PCR. However, number of field samples are needed to further validate this test and additionally sequence analysis needs to be done to ensure the prevalent field strain of CPV-2.

  8. Branched-chain amino acids enhance cyst development in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Junya; Nishio, Saori; Hattanda, Fumihiko; Nakazawa, Daigo; Kimura, Toru; Sata, Michio; Makita, Minoru; Ishikawa, Yasunobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Therefore, we administered BCAA dissolved in the drinking water to Pkd1 flox/flox :Mx1-Cre (cystic) mice from four to 22 weeks of age after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced conditional Pkd1 knockout at two weeks of age. The BCAA group showed significantly greater kidney/body weight ratio and higher cystic index in both the kidney and liver compared to the placebo-treated mice. We found that the L-type amino acid transporter 1 that facilitates BCAA entry into cells is strongly expressed in cells lining the cysts. We also found increased cyst-lining cell proliferation and upregulation of mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways in the BCAA group. In vitro, we cultured renal epithelial cell lines from Pkd1 null mice with or without leucine. Leucine was found to stimulate cell proliferation, as well as activate mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in these cells. Thus, BCAA accelerated disease progression by mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. Hence, BCAA may be harmful to patients with ADPKD. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CSF free light chain identification of demyelinating disease: comparison with oligoclonal banding and other CSF indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner, Kari M; Shosha, Eslam; Bryant, Sandra C; Andreguetto, Bruna D; Murray, David L; Pittock, Sean J; Willrich, Maria Alice V

    2018-02-19

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) used in immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) index testing and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are common laboratory tests used in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The measurement of CSF free light chains (FLC) could pose as an alternative to the labor-intensive isoelectric-focusing (IEF) gels used for OCBs. A total of 325 residual paired CSF and serum specimens were obtained after physician-ordered OCB IEF testing. CSF kappa (cKFLC) and lambda FLC (cLFLC), albumin and total IgG were measured. Calculations were performed based on combinations of analytes: CSF sum of kappa and lambda ([cKFLC+cLFLC]), kappa-index (K-index) ([cKFLC/sKFLC]/[CSF albumin/serum albumin]), kappa intrathecal fraction (KFLCIF) {([cKFLC/sKFLC]-[0.9358×CSF albumin/serum albumin]^[0.6687×sKFLC]/cKFLC)} and IgG-index ([CSF IgG/CSF albumin]/[serum IgG/serum albumin]). Patients were categorized as: demyelination (n=67), autoimmunity (n=53), non-inflammatory (n=50), inflammation (n=38), degeneration (n=28), peripheral neuropathy (n=24), infection (n=13), cancer (n=11), neuromyelitis optica (n=10) and others (n=31). cKFLC measurement used alone at a cutoff of 0.0611 mg/dL showed >90% agreement to OCBs, similar or better performance than all other calculations, reducing the number of analytes and variables. When cases of demyelinating disease were reviewed, cKFLC measurements showed 86% clinical sensitivity/77% specificity. cKFLC alone demonstrates comparable performance to OCBs along with increased sensitivity for demyelinating diseases. Replacing OCB with cKFLC would alleviate the need for serum and CSF IgG and albumin and calculated conversions. cKFLC can overcome challenges associated with performance, interpretation, and cost of traditional OCBs, reducing costs and maintaining sensitivity and specificity supporting MS diagnosis.

  10. Postinduction minimal residual disease monitoring by polymerase chain reaction in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, Maddalena; Fabbri, Giulia; Conter, Valentino; Barisone, Elena; Polato, Katia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Giraldi, Eugenia; Fagioli, Franca; Aricò, Maurizio; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) provides information for patient stratification and individual risk-directed treatment. Cooperative studies have documented that measurement of blast clearance from the bone marrow during and after induction therapy identifies patient populations with different risk of relapse. We explored the possible contribution of measurements of MRD during the course of treatment. We used RQ-PCR to detect MRD in 110 unselected patients treated in Italy in the International Collaborative Treatment Protocol for Children and Adolescents With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000). The trial took place in AIEOP centers during postinduction chemotherapy. Results were categorized as negative, low positive (below the quantitative range [< 5 × 10(-4)]), or high positive (≥ 5 × 10(-4)). Patients with at least one low-positive or high-positive result were assigned to the corresponding subgroup. Patients who tested high positive, low positive, or negative had significantly different cumulative incidences of leukemia relapse: 83.3%, 34.8%, and 8.6%, respectively (P < .001). Two thirds of positive cases were identified within 4 months after induction-consolidation therapy, suggesting that this time frame may be most suitable for cost-effective MRD monitoring, particularly in patients who did not clear their disease at the end of consolidation. These findings provide further insights into the dynamic of MRD and the ongoing effort to define molecular relapse in childhood ALL. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. The role of free kappa and lambda light chains in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparvarinha, Mojgan; Nickho, Hamid; Mohammadi, Hamed; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-07-01

    Kappa (κ) or lambda (λ) free light chains (FLCs) are produced from B cells during immunoglobulin synthesis. FLCs have been shown to participate in several key processes of immune responses. They are necessary to adjust PMN functions and assist PMN pre-stimulation. Moreover, they cause mast cell degranulation which releases pro-inflammatory mediators and stimulates local inflammatory responses in some conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Having low molecular weights which may straightly be toxic to proximal tubule cells (PTCs), FLCs can also have an important role in renal diseases. In this review we have highlighted the involvement of light chains in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases and discussed their potential to be the targets of therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease with bone destruction in the shoulder. CT an MR findings in two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ohba, S.; Sasaki, S.; Ando, K.; Mizutani, M.; Matsushita, Y.; Ohtsuka, T.; Terazawa, T.; Ijima, S.

    1998-01-01

    We report on specific CT and MR features in two cases of tumoral calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease in the shoulder with unusually large tumors. CT revealed features that were specific to the disease. MR was useful for detecting the extent of the mass and for obtaining information on adjacent soft-tissue and bone-marrow changes. (orig.)

  13. Plasma complement and vascular complement deposition in patients with coronary artery disease with and without inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) are associated with accelerated coronary artery disease (CAD), which may result from both systemic and vascular wall inflammation. There are indications that complement may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAD in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). This study aimed to evaluate the associations between circulating complement and complement activation products with mononuclear cell infiltrates (MCI, surrogate marker of vascular inflammation) in the aortic media and adventitia in IRDCAD and non-IRDCAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Furthermore, we compared complement activation product deposition patterns in rare aorta adventitial and medial biopsies from SLE, RA and non-IRD patients. Methods We examined plasma C3 (p-C3) and terminal complement complexes (p-TCC) in 28 IRDCAD (SLE = 3; RA = 25), 52 non-IRDCAD patients, and 32 IRDNo CAD (RA = 32) from the Feiring Heart Biopsy Study. Aortic biopsies taken from the CAD only patients during CABG were previously evaluated for adventitial MCIs. The rare aortic biopsies from 3 SLE, 3 RA and 3 non-IRDCAD were assessed for the presence of C3 and C3d using immunohistochemistry. Results IRDCAD patients had higher p-TCC than non-IRDCAD or IRDNo CAD patients (prheumatic disease, and, in particular, SLE with the complement system. Exaggerated systemic and vascular complement activation may accelerate CVD, serve as a CVD biomarker, and represent a target for new therapies. PMID:28362874

  14. Iron deposition in cranial bone marrow with sickle cell disease: MR assessment using a fat suppression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.; Humbert, J.H.; Kogutt, M.S.; Robinson, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing transfusion therapy and 8 control patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate bone marrow change due to iron deposition from hematologic marrow hyperplasia. Using T1-weighted spin echo images, only two subjects showed extremely low signal intensity marrow compatible with iron deposition. However, using T2-weighted fast spin echo images with fat suppression, cranial bone marrow in SCD patients with transfusion therapy showed considerably lower signal than that of controls. The main cause of marrow signal decrease in SCD patients with transfusion therapy was considered to be iron deposition due to repeated transfusion therapy rather than red marrow hyperplasia. (orig.)

  15. C3 glomerulonephritis and dense deposit disease share a similar disease course in a large United States cohort of patients with C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Santoriello, Dominick; Avasare, Rupali S; Regunathan-Shenk, Renu; Canetta, Pietro A; Ahn, Wooin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Marasa, Maddalena; Rosenstiel, Paul E; Herlitz, Leal C; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Appel, Gerald B

    2018-04-01

    C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and dense deposit disease comprise the two classes of C3 glomerulopathy. Studies from Europe and Asia have aided our understanding of this recently defined disorder, but whether these data apply to a diverse United States patient population remains unclear. We, therefore, reviewed clinical and histopathological data, including generation of a C3 Glomerulopathy Histologic Index to score biopsy activity and chronicity, to determine predictors of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 111 patients (approximately 35% non-white) with C3 glomerulopathy: 87 with C3GN and 24 with dense deposit disease. Complement-associated gene variants and autoantibodies were detected in 24% and 35% of screened patients, respectively. Our C3 Glomerulopathy Histologic Index denoted higher activity in patients with C3GN and higher chronicity in patients with dense deposit disease. Over an average of 72 months of follow-up, remission occurred in 38% of patients with C3GN and 25% of patients with dense deposit disease. Progression to late-stage CKD and ESRD was common, with no differences between C3GN (39%) and dense deposit disease (42%). In multivariable models, the strongest predictors for progression were estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis (clinical variables model) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (histopathology variables model). Using our C3 Glomerulopathy Histologic Index, both total activity and total chronicity scores emerged as the strongest predictors of progression. Thus, in a large, diverse American cohort of patients with C3 glomerulopathy, there is a high rate of progression to CKD and ESRD with no differences between C3GN and dense deposit disease. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-talk between branched-chain amino acids and hepatic mitochondria is compromised in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Bril, Fernando; Garrett, Timothy J.; Nautiyal, Manisha; Mathew, Justin T.; Williams, Caroline M.; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the setting of insulin resistance have been relevant in predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset, but their role in the etiology of hepatic insulin resistance remains uncertain. We determined the link between BCAA and dysfunctional hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is a central feature of hepatic insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Plasma metabolites under basal fasting and euglycemic hyperin...

  17. Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Gezahegn; Zewde, Girma; Admassu, Berhanu

    2013-06-01

    Risks of introduction of lumpy skin disease (LSD) through traded Borena bulls to market chain and its consequences were assessed. The assessment used the framework that has been recommended by the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) for risk analysis. Likelihoods for release and exposure were estimated by a qualitative scale ranging from negligible to very high, whereas the consequences which resulted from disease occurrences were assessed quantitatively. The likelihood of the introduction of LSD to the market chain through traded Borena bulls is found to be high (medium uncertainty), whereas the probability of exposure is very high (medium uncertainty). From the total of 11,189 bulls observed during outbreak investigation of LSD in six sites of feedlot operation in and around Adama, 681(6.1 %) and 204 (1.8 %) bulls were found to be affected and dead with LSD, respectively. The total economic loss due to LSD was estimated to be 667,785.6 USD. The risk estimates for LSD are greater than negligible; therefore, disease prevention and control strategy along the chain should be carefully considered by the Ethiopian veterinary services.

  18. Urban Livestock Keeping in the City of Nairobi: Diversity of Production Systems, Supply Chains, and Their Disease Management and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Fèvre, Eric M; Muinde, Patrick; Murungi, Maurice K; Kiambi, Stella; Akoko, James; Rushton, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors. Supply chain flow diagrams and thematic analysis of the data was done. Results of the study show a large variability of livestock keeping in Nairobi. The majority were small scale with: Supply chain analysis indicated that most dairy farmers sold milk directly to consumers due to "lack of trust" of these in traders. Broiler and pig farmers sold mainly to traders but are dependent on few large dominating companies for their replacement or distribution of products. Selling directly to retailers or consumers (including own consumption), with backyard slaughtering, were important chains for small-scale pig, sheep and goat, and indigenous chicken keepers. Important disease risk practices identified were associated with consumption of dead and sick animals, with underground network of brokers operating for ruminant products. Qualified trained health managers were used mainly by dairy farmers, and large commercial poultry and pig farmers, while use of unqualified health managers or no treatment were common in small-scale farming. Control of urban livestock keepers was reported difficult due to their "feeling of being outlaws," "lack of trust" in government, "inaccessibility" in informal settlements, "lack of government funding," or "understaffing." Findings are useful for designing policies to help to control urban livestock production and

  19. Quantitative evaluation of inhaled radioactive aerosol deposition patterns in the lungs in obstructive airways disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-12-01

    Uneven distribution of inhaled aerosol in the lungs is the characteristics of obstructive airways disease such as chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema, and has been classified typically into peripheral and central deposition patterns, respectively by visual inspection, whereas in the normal the distribution is homogeneous throughout the lungs. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the distribution of inhaled radioactivity in the lungs by way of matrixes by a computer. The seemingly homogeneous distribution pattern in normal subjects has been found to indicate a gradual change in count profile between the neighboring matrixes. The peripheral pattern indicates the patchy presence of small number of matrixes with excessive radioactivity throughout the lungs, and the central pattern, the presence of matrixes of excessive radioactivity along the major central airways forming a comma-like configuration superimposed on the peripheral pattern. Our computer analysis has a potentiality to characterize obstructive airways disease for a better understanding of their pathophysiology, which is not feasible by a simple visual inspection of images on a polaroid picture.

  20. The significance and predictive value of free light chains in the urine of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Carsten Paul; Froelich, Britta; Wallbach, Manuel; Minguet, Joan; Grupp, Clemens; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Koziolek, Michael; Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2016-12-01

    In patients with rheumatic diseases, reliable markers for determining disease activity are scarce. One potential parameter is the level of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), which is known to be elevated in the blood of patients with certain rheumatic diseases. Few studies have quantified FLCs in urine, a convenient source of test sample, in patients with different rheumatic diseases. We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients with rheumatic disease attending the University hospital of Goettingen, Germany. Subjects were included if they had urine levels of both κ and λ FLCs available and did not have myeloma. Data regarding systemic inflammation and kidney function were recorded, and FLC levels were correlated with inflammatory markers. Of the 382 patients with rheumatic disease, 40.1 % had chronic polyarthritis, 21.2 % connective tissue disease, 18.6 % spondyloarthritis and 15.7 % vasculitis. Elevated levels of κ FLCs were found for 84 % of patients and elevated λ for 52.7 %. For the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, FLCs correlated with C-reactive protein (κ, r = 0.368, p rheumatic disease, but not in κ/λ ratio. The correlation between FLCs and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrates their potential for predicting disease activity.

  1. Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    Various hypotheses could explain the relationship between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition and the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid deposition may reduce capillary density, affect endothelial cells of blood vessels, result in diffusion from blood vessels, or interfere with the perivascular clearance mechanism. Hence, the spatial pattern of the classic ('cored') type of Abeta deposit was studied in the upper laminae (I,II/III) of the superior frontal gyrus in nine cases of sporadic AD (SAD). Sections were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta and with collagen IV to study the relationships between the spatial distribution of the classic deposits and the blood vessel profiles. Both the classic deposits and blood vessel profiles were distributed in clusters. In all cases, there was a positive spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the larger diameter (>10 microm) blood vessel profiles and especially the vertically penetrating arterioles. In only 1 case, was there a significant spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the smaller diameter (upper laminae of the frontal cortex. This aggregation could result from diffusion of proteins from blood vessels or from overloading the system of perivascular clearance from the brain.

  2. Chains of transmission and control of Ebola virus disease in Conakry, Guinea, in 2014: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Ousmane; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Heleze, Emmanuel; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Magassouba, N'Faly; Soropogui, Barré; Keita, Sakoba; Gakou, Tata; Bah, El Hadji Ibrahima; Koivogui, Lamine; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Cauchemez, Simon

    2015-03-01

    An epidemic of Ebola virus disease of unprecedented size continues in parts of west Africa. For the first time, large urban centres such as Conakry, the capital of Guinea, are affected. We did an observational study of patients with Ebola virus disease in three regions of Guinea, including Conakry, aiming to map the routes of transmission and assess the effect of interventions. Between Feb 10, 2014, and Aug 25, 2014, we obtained data from the linelist of all confirmed and probable cases in Guinea (as of Sept 16, 2014), a laboratory database of information about patients, and interviews with patients and their families and neighbours. With this information, we mapped chains of transmission, identified which setting infections most probably originated from (community, hospitals, or funerals), and computed the context-specific and overall reproduction numbers. Of 193 confirmed and probable cases of Ebola virus disease reported in Conakry, Boffa, and Télimélé, 152 (79%) were positioned in chains of transmission. Health-care workers contributed little to transmission. In March, 2014, individuals with Ebola virus disease who were not health-care workers infected a mean of 2·3 people (95% CI 1·6-3·2): 1·4 (0·9-2·2) in the community, 0·4 (0·1-0·9) in hospitals, and 0·5 (0·2-1·0) at funerals. After the implementation of infection control in April, the reproduction number in hospitals and at funerals reduced to lower than 0·1. In the community, the reproduction number dropped by 50% for patients that were admitted to hospital, but remained unchanged for those that were not. In March, hospital transmissions constituted 35% (seven of 20) of all transmissions and funeral transmissions constituted 15% (three); but from April to the end of the study period, they constituted only 9% (11 of 128) and 4% (five), respectively. 82% (119 of 145) of transmission occurred in the community and 72% (105) between family members. Our simulations show that a 10% increase in

  3. Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) with Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Human Papillomavirus 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Mary A; Gordon, Katie; Firan, Miahil; Rady, Peter; Agim, Nnenna

    2016-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is an uncommon benign proliferation of oral mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly subtypes 13 and 32. The disease typically presents in young Native American patients and is characterized by multiple asymptomatic papules and nodules on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, and gingiva. The factors that determine susceptibility to FEH are unknown, but the ethnic and geographic distribution of FEH suggests that genetic predisposition, particularly having the human lymphocytic antigen DR4 type, may be involved in pathogenesis. We report a case of FEH with polymerase chain reaction detection of HPV13 in a healthy 11-year-old Hispanic girl and discuss the current understanding of disease pathogenesis, susceptibility, and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Novel Pattern of Iron Deposition in the Fascicula Nigrale in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckham, Miriam E.; Dashtipour, Khashayar; Holshouser, Barbara A.; Kani, Camellia; Boscanin, Alex; Kani, Kayvan; Harder, Sheri L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. To determine whether the pattern of iron deposition in the fascicula nigrale in patients with Parkinson's disease would be different from age-matched controls by utilizing quantitative susceptibility mapping to measure susceptibility change. Methods. MRIs of the brain were obtained from 34 subjects, 18 with Parkinson's disease and 16 age- and gender-matched controls. Regions of interest were drawn around the fascicula nigrale and substantia nigra using SWI mapping software by blinded investigators. Statistical analyses were performed to determine susceptibility patterns of both of these regions. Results. Measurements showed significantly increased susceptibility in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's patients and an increased rostral-caudal deposition of iron in the fascicula nigrale in all subjects. This trend was exaggerated with significant correlation noted with increasing age in the Parkinson group. Conclusion. The pattern of an exaggerated iron deposition gradient of the fascicula nigrale in the Parkinson group could represent underlying tract dysfunction. Significant correlation of increasing iron deposition with increasing age may be a cumulative effect, possibly related to disease duration

  5. Calcific tendinitis of the shoulder in basic calcium phosphate crystal deposition disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Mazzilli, M.P.; Orzincolo, C.

    1986-01-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition can lead to periarticular collections associated with typical radiographic findings, most frequently observed in the shoulder. Moreover, these deposits may be revealed in other articular sites (i.e.,wrist, hand, foot, elbow, hip, etc.). Initially, the calcium deposits may appear poorly defined (cloudlike); sequently, they may reveal different patterns (linear, triangular or circular areas), changing in size, configuration and site. Adjacent bone may be normal, altough osteoporosis, cystic lesions and reactive sclerosis are reported. The radiographic appearance of calcifications will depend upon the exact location of the deposits in the specific tendon of the rotator cuff, the adjacent bursae and the soft tissues

  6. Cross-talk between branched-chain amino acids and hepatic mitochondria is compromised in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Nishanth E; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Bril, Fernando; Garrett, Timothy J; Nautiyal, Manisha; Mathew, Justin T; Williams, Caroline M; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-08-15

    Elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in the setting of insulin resistance have been relevant in predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) onset, but their role in the etiology of hepatic insulin resistance remains uncertain. We determined the link between BCAA and dysfunctional hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is a central feature of hepatic insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Plasma metabolites under basal fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (insulin stimulation) were measured in 94 human subjects with varying degrees of insulin sensitivity to identify their relationships with insulin resistance. Furthermore, the impact of elevated BCAA on hepatic TCA cycle was determined in a diet-induced mouse model of NAFLD, utilizing targeted metabolomics and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic flux analysis. Insulin stimulation revealed robust relationships between human plasma BCAA and indices of insulin resistance, indicating chronic metabolic overload from BCAA. Human plasma BCAA and long-chain acylcarnitines also showed a positive correlation, suggesting modulation of mitochondrial metabolism by BCAA. Concurrently, mice with NAFLD failed to optimally induce hepatic mTORC1, plasma ketones, and hepatic long-chain acylcarnitines, following acute elevation of plasma BCAA. Furthermore, elevated BCAA failed to induce multiple fluxes through hepatic TCA cycle in mice with NAFLD. Our data suggest that BCAA are essential to mediate efficient channeling of carbon substrates for oxidation through mitochondrial TCA cycle. Impairment of BCAA-mediated upregulation of the TCA cycle could be a significant contributor to mitochondrial dysfunction in NAFLD.

  7. Urinary free light chains may help to identify infection in patients with elevated systemic inflammation due to rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Carsten P; Froelich, Britta; Wallbach, Manuel; Minguet, Joan; Grupp, Clemens; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Müller, Gerhard A; Koziolek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The risk of infection in patients with rheumatic diseases is elevated, but a clear marker to differentiate the cause of the systemic inflammation is missing. We assessed the ability urinary immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) to indicate the presence of infection in patients with rheumatic disease. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with rheumatic disease attending the Georg-August University Hospital in Goettingen, Germany, from January 2011 to December 2013. Subjects were included if they had urine levels of κ and λ FLCs available. A reference group of patients without autoimmune disease, but with documented infection, was constructed. A total of 1500 patients had their urinary FLCs quantified during the study period. Of the 382 patients with rheumatic disease, 172 (45%) displayed no systemic inflammation, 162 (42%) had inflammation due to the underlying disease activity, and 48 (13%) had inflammation due to a confirmed infection. Urinary FLC concentrations were much higher in patients with rheumatic diseases and infection (κ 68.8 ± 81.8 mg/L, λ 31.4 ± 53.5 mg/L) compared to those with inflammation due to rheumatic disease activity (κ 22.7 ± 26.3 mg/L, λ 8.1 ± 9.1 mg/L, κ p rheumatic disease activity from that due to the additional presence of infection. The ability to quantify these proteins in urine provides a simple alternative to the use of blood.

  8. Urban Livestock Keeping in the City of Nairobi: Diversity of Production Systems, Supply Chains, and Their Disease Management and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alarcon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors. Supply chain flow diagrams and thematic analysis of the data was done. Results of the study show a large variability of livestock keeping in Nairobi. The majority were small scale with: <5 dairy cows, 1–6 dairy goats, <10 small ruminants, <20 pigs, 200–500 broilers, 300–500 layers, <10 indigenous chickens, or <20 rabbits. Beef keeping was mainly described as a “by the way” system or done by traders to fatten animals for 3 month. Supply chain analysis indicated that most dairy farmers sold milk directly to consumers due to “lack of trust” of these in traders. Broiler and pig farmers sold mainly to traders but are dependent on few large dominating companies for their replacement or distribution of products. Selling directly to retailers or consumers (including own consumption, with backyard slaughtering, were important chains for small-scale pig, sheep and goat, and indigenous chicken keepers. Important disease risk practices identified were associated with consumption of dead and sick animals, with underground network of brokers operating for ruminant products. Qualified trained health managers were used mainly by dairy farmers, and large commercial poultry and pig farmers, while use of unqualified health managers or no treatment were common in small-scale farming. Control of urban livestock

  9. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Abdou S; Kamel, Shereen R; Abo Omar, Hanaa A S; El-Sherif, Ashraf M H; Abdel-Magied, Rasha A

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the study were to detect the frequency of involvement of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) by high-frequency gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler sonography (PDS) and to correlate these findings with demographic and clinical data. Two groups of patients were enrolled: group I (38 patients with CPPD) and group II (22 patients with knee OA). US/PDS examination of the heels was performed to both groups. In the CPPD group, US/PDS examination of the Achilles tendon revealed: calcification in 57.9%, enthesophytosis in 57.9%, enthesopathy in 23.7%, vascular sign in 21%, bursitis in 13.2%, and cortical bone irregularity in 10.5%. US/PDS examination of plantar fascia in the CPPD group revealed: calcification in 15.8%, cortical bone irregularity in 78.9%, enthesophytosis in 60.5%, and planter fasciitis in 42.1%. In patients with CPPD, age was significantly correlated with enthesophytosis and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). Heel tenderness and posterior talalgia were significantly correlated with Achilles tendon enthesopathy, vascular sign, and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p = 0.0001 for each). Inferior talalgia was significantly correlated with plantar fasciitis (p = 0.0001). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of calcifications in Achilles tendon and plantar fascia was 57.9% and 15.8%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both. To conclude, ultrasonographic Achilles tendon and plantar fascia calcifications are frequent findings in patients with CPPD. These calcifications have a high specificity and can be used as a useful indirect sign of CPPD.

  11. The Transmission Chain Analysis of 2014–2015 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Koinadugu District, Sierra Leone: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi-Stanley Muoghalu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSierra Leone experienced an unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak in all its districts. Koinadugu District was the last to report an EVD case. Several outbreak response strategies were implemented. As part of lessons learnt, we conducted an observational study to describe the transmission chain in the district and the impact of the control measures implemented to contain the outbreak.MethodsWe reconstructed the transmission chain, positioning both confirmed and probable cases, described the distribution of the EVD confirmed cases in the context of the routes of transmission (Community, Funeral or Health facility setting and assessed the impact of control measures using the surveillance data collected during the outbreak.ResultsAll 142 confirmed and probable EVD cases registered were fully resolved in the transmission chain. 72.5% of all the EVD cases in the district were exposed in the community, 26.1% exposed during funerals, and 1.4% exposed in the health facility setting. Health-care workers contributed little to the EVD outbreak. 71.1% of EVD transmission occurred among family members. Female EVD cases generated more secondary cases than their male counterparts (P = 0.03. With removal of EVD cases from the community and admission to the community care center (CCC, the EVD transmission in the community decreased to substantially lower rates. In addition, transmission due to exposure in health facilities was further reduced with the implementation of full infection and prevention controls.ConclusionThis study details the transmission chain of EVD in a rural district setting and the public health interventions implemented to successfully limit the outbreak to just one of 11 chiefdoms. Heightened community-based surveillance for early case detection, swift isolation of suspect cases, efficient contact tracing and monitoring, and good infection prevention and control measures in health facilities were highly effective in

  12. The Role of MicroRNAs in Aβ Deposition and Tau Phosphorylation in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with main clinical features of progressive impairment in cognitive and behavioral functions, is the most common degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Recent evidence showed that microRNAs (miRNAs played important roles in the pathological progression of AD. In this article, we reviewed the promising role of miRNAs in both Aβ deposition and Tau phosphorylation, two key pathological characters in the pathological progression of AD, which might be helpful for the understanding of pathogenesis and the development of new strategies of clinical diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  13. TLR4 mutation reduces microglial activation, increases Aβ deposits and exacerbates cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD, are accompanied by activated microglia. The role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of AD remains controversial: either clearing Aβ deposits by phagocytosis or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic substances. Microglia can be activated via toll-like receptors (TLRs, a class of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune system. We previously demonstrated that an AD mouse model homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation of TLR4 had increases in Aβ deposits and buffer-soluble Aβ in the brain as compared with a TLR4 wild-type AD mouse model at 14-16 months of age. However, it is unknown if TLR4 signaling is involved in initiation of Aβ deposition as well as activation and recruitment of microglia at the early stage of AD. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 signaling and microglial activation in early stages using 5-month-old AD mouse models when Aβ deposits start. Methods Microglial activation and amyloid deposition in the brain were determined by immunohistochemistry in the AD models. Levels of cerebral soluble Aβ were determined by ELISA. mRNA levels of cytokines and chemokines in the brain and Aβ-stimulated monocytes were quantified by real-time PCR. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Morris water maze. Results While no difference was found in cerebral Aβ load between AD mouse models at 5 months with and without TLR4 mutation, microglial activation in a TLR4 mutant AD model (TLR4M Tg was less than that in a TLR4 wild-type AD model (TLR4W Tg. At 9 months, TLR4M Tg mice had increased Aβ deposition and soluble Aβ42 in the brain, which were associated with decrements in cognitive functions and expression levels of IL-1β, CCL3, and CCL4 in the hippocampus compared to TLR4W Tg mice. TLR4 mutation diminished Aβ-induced IL-1β, CCL3, and CCL4 expression in monocytes. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of TLR4

  14. Hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease: imaging aspects and biological behavior; Doenca de deposito de hidroxiapatita: aspectos por imagem e comportamento biologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquino, Danilo Olavarria; Pinto, Alexandre de Lavra; Costa, Mauro Jose Brandao da; Fanelli, Vania A. [Hospital Sao Francisco, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: documenta@netside.com.br; Abud, Lucas Giansante [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2005-04-15

    Objective: to demonstrate, using imaging methods (x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US), the phases of hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease in joints, particularly in the shoulder, from the silent phase to the intra-osseous migration of calcifications and radiologic follow-up examinations showing complete remission after physical therapy. Material and method: we evaluated 27 joints (25 shoulders, one hip and one elbow) of patients followed-up with radiographs. Patients extremely symptomatic and refractory to treatment were referred to MRI or US. Results: total remission of calcifications was observed in 15 joints after treatment - 14 shoulders and one elbow. In two joint, migration of the calcification to bone was observed: one to the bursa subdeltoidea, one to biceps tendon, one to subcoracoid recess and one to the interior of the infra spinal muscle. In two cases MRI and CT scans showed a high inflammatory process triggered by the disease. Conclusion: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease affects multiple joints and can vary from asymptomatic to extremely symptomatic. Imaging methods show all phases of the disease, including the migratory phase. In general, the use of x-ray is enough for the diagnosis and follow-up. MRI and CT provide a more accurate diagnosis in the active phase of the disease. In this paper, remission was seen with physiotherapy (iontophoresis) in 55% of the cases. (author)

  15. Investigation of cerebral iron deposition in aged patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yin Liu, Jun Liu, Huanghui Liu, Yunjie Liao, Lu Cao, Bin Ye, Wei Wang Department of Radiology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers.Patients and methods: Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females were studied retrospectively. On phase image of susceptibility-weighted imaging and regions of interest were manually drawn at the bilateral head of the caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus (LN, thalamus (TH, frontal white matter, and occipital white matter. The correlation between iron deposition level and the clinical and imaging variables was also investigated.Results: Iron deposition level at LN was significantly higher in patients with previous stroke history. It linearly correlated with the presence and number of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs but not with white matter hyperintensity and lacunar infarct. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that deep structure CMBs were the most relevant in terms of iron deposition at LN.Conclusion: Iron deposition at LN may increase in cases of more severe ischemia in aged patients with transient ischemic attack, and it may be an imaging marker for CMB of ischemic origin. Keywords: cerebral microbleed, ischemia, susceptibility-weighted imaging, iron, lenticular nucleus

  16. Mutations in specific structural regions of immunoglobulin light chains are associated with free light chain levels in patients with AL amyloidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L Poshusta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The amyloidoses are protein misfolding diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid that leads to cell death and tissue degeneration. In immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL, each patient has a unique monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (LC that forms amyloid deposits. Somatic mutations in AL LCs make these proteins less thermodynamically stable than their non-amyloidogenic counterparts, leading to misfolding and ultimately the formation of amyloid fibrils. We hypothesize that location rather than number of non-conservative mutations determines the amyloidogenicity of light chains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed sequence alignments on the variable domain of 50 kappa and 91 lambda AL light chains and calculated the number of non-conservative mutations over total number of patients for each secondary structure element in order to identify regions that accumulate non-conservative mutations. Among patients with AL, the levels of circulating immunoglobulin free light chain varies greatly, but even patients with very low levels can have very advanced amyloid deposition. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that in specific secondary structure elements, there are significant differences in the number of non-conservative mutations between normal and AL sequences. AL sequences from patients with different levels of secreted light chain have distinct differences in the location of non-conservative mutations, suggesting that for patients with very low levels of light chains and advanced amyloid deposition, the location of non-conservative mutations rather than the amount of free light chain in circulation may determine the amyloidogenic propensity of light chains.

  17. Branched-chain aminoacids and retraining of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menier, R; Talmud, J; Laplaud, D; Bernard, M P

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the efficacy of rehabilitation by retraining, by oral supply in branched-chain aminoacids (BCAA). Patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency mainly suffer from obstructive bronchitis due to tobacco or asthma. Nutritional assessment is one of the components of respiratory rehabilitation, with retraining. Intense physical training for several days negativates the nitrogen balance, the beginning of a training programme for sedentary patients increases their need in proteins. An additional supply in branched-chain aminoacids increases proteic anabolism, by synthesis increase and catabolism slackening of proteins. Moreover it is known that exposure to high altitude reduces lean mass by inducing a muscular atrophy, which can be avoided by the BCAA provided. This leads to wonder if extra supply of BCAA could play similar role in muscular mass loss induced by pathological chronic hypoxia. The prospective and comparative survey carried out in Toki-Eder (private hospital in Cambo) consisted in supplying (during five weeks or more) 30 retrained patients suffering from chronic obstructive bronchitis, and in matching them with 30 witnesses (obstructive patients retrained without additional supply in BCAA). Their mean hypoxemia amounted to 7 torr for age. Each of them improved their reached maximal power, and their VO2 SL, very highly significantly. Each of them developed a moderate metabolic acidosis (whose possible mechanisms are discussed) and slightly increased their ventilation at rest. On the other hand only the supplied patients improved their PaO2 at rest highly significantly, a result which poses the question of the responsible mechanism, most likely a decrease of pulmonary shunt effect. The hypotheses concerning the acid load due to BCAA ingestion are discussed. Only the supplied patients developed hypocapnia expressing a gaseous alkalosis which might be due to a direct effect of BCAA on the respiratory centers. This observation

  18. Tay–Sachs disease mutations in HEXA target the α chain of hexosaminidase A to endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersh, Devin; Iwamoto, Yuichiro; Argon, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Loss of function of the enzyme β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) causes the lysosomal storage disorder Tay–Sachs disease (TSD). It has been proposed that mutations in the α chain of HexA can impair folding, enzyme assembly, and/or trafficking, yet there is surprisingly little known about the mechanisms of these potential routes of pathogenesis. We therefore investigated the biosynthesis and trafficking of TSD-associated HexA α mutants, seeking to identify relevant cellular quality control mechanisms. The α mutants E482K and G269S are defective in enzymatic activity, unprocessed by lysosomal proteases, and exhibit altered folding pathways compared with wild-type α. E482K is more severely misfolded than G269S, as observed by its aggregation and inability to associate with the HexA β chain. Importantly, both mutants are retrotranslocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol and are degraded by the proteasome, indicating that they are cleared via ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Leveraging these discoveries, we observed that manipulating the cellular folding environment or ERAD pathways can alter the kinetics of mutant α degradation. Additionally, growth of patient fibroblasts at a permissive temperature or with chemical chaperones increases cellular Hex activity by improving mutant α folding. Therefore modulation of the ER quality control systems may be a potential therapeutic route for improving some forms of TSD. PMID:27682588

  19. Position of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) mutations predicts the natural history of MYH9-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecci, A.; Panza, E.; Pujol-Moix, N.

    2008-01-01

    MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene for the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMHC-IIA). All patients present from birth with macrothrombocytopenia, but in infancy or adult life, some of them develop sensorineural deafness...... to 50 unrelated pedigrees. The risk of noncongenital manifestations associated with different genotypes was estimated over time by event-free survival analysis. We demonstrated that all subjects with mutations in the motor domain of NMMHC-IIA present with severe thrombocytopenia and develop nephritis...... and deafness before the age of 40 years, while those with mutations in the tail domain have a much lower risk of noncongenital complications and significantly higher platelet counts. We also evaluated the clinical course of patients with mutations in the four most frequently affected residues of NMMHC...

  20. Studies on the transport of fission products through food chains.3. Analysis of the relationship between 137Cs in cereal grain and137Cs deposited in 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.; Haak, E.; Karlstroem, F.

    1976-01-01

    REGRESSION ANALYSES WERE USED TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE 137 Cs content in grain and the deposition of 137 Cs during the months of Jun, Jul and Aug in 1964. Data from about half of the 400 yield survey districts in the country were available. The analyses gave coefficients which describe the influence of different monthly depositions of 137 Cs on the final 137 Cs content in grain under normal weather conditions. Coefficients were obtained for the different crops, one set for the Southern region and one for the Eastern and Western regions. In the Southern region the influence of the deposition in Jun on the 137 Cs content in grain was considerably larger than that of the deposition in July. The influence of the deposition in August was noticeable only in the grain of spring wheat. For the other regions the coefficients indicated about the same influence of the depositions in Jun and Jul on the 137 Cs content in grain of winter wheat. With regard to the spring-sown cereals, however, the transfer efficiency increased in the order: Jun 137 Cs deposited 3-6 per cent were recovered in grain in the southern region and 1.5-4 per cent in the other regions. (author)

  1. Branched-chain amino acids and ammonia metabolism in liver disease: therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Milan

    2013-10-01

    The rationale for recommendation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in treatment of liver failure is based on their unique pharmacologic properties, stimulatory effect on ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN), and decreased concentrations in liver cirrhosis. Multiple lines of evidence have shown that the main cause of the BCAA deficiency in liver cirrhosis is their consumption in skeletal muscle for synthesis of glutamate, which acts as a substrate for ammonia detoxification to GLN and that the BCAA administration to patients with liver failure may exert a number of positive effects that may be more pronounced in patients with marked depression of BCAA levels. On the other hand, due to the stimulatory effect of BCAA on GLN synthesis, BCAA supplementation may lead to enhanced ammonia production from GLN breakdown in the intestine and the kidneys and thus exert harmful effects on the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, to enhance therapeutic effectiveness of the BCAA in patients with liver injury, their detrimental effect on ammonia production, which is negligible in healthy people and/or patients with other disorders, should be avoided. In treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, simultaneous administration of the BCAA (to correct amino acid imbalance and promote ammonia detoxification to GLN) with α-ketoglutarate (to inhibit GLN breakdown to ammonia in enterocytes) and/or phenylbutyrate (to enhance GLN excretion by the kidneys) is suggested. Attention should be given to the type of liver injury, gastrointestinal bleeding, signs of inflammation, and the dose of BCAA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Medium Chain Triglycerides (Axona®) in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Bemis, Marc; Desilets, Alicia R

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists provides symptomatic relief but do not prevent its progression. Thus, additional approaches aimed at slowing the progression of the disease have been investigated. Reports detailing reduced brain glucose metabolism in the early stages of AD led to the hypothesis that alternate energy sources aimed at increasing neuronal metabolism may protect neurons and thus benefit patients with AD. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are metabolized to ketone bodies that serve as an alternative source of energy for neurons. Data from clinical trials suggest that MCTs improve cognition in patients with mild to moderate AD in apolipoprotein E4-negative patients. Adverse events observed were mild and included minor gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, and flatulence. However, since genomic profiles are not routinely conducted in patients with AD in a clinical setting, the role of MCTs in clinical practice seems to be minimal. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction as a prospect for the early diagnosis and prediction of periodontal diseases in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsan, I

    2015-02-01

    This study was to determine the markers representative of pathogenic periodontal microflora [Prevotella intermedia (P.i), Tannerella forsythia (T.f) [Bacteroides forsythus], Treponema denticola (T.d), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g)] in the dental plaque of adolescents with various degrees of severity of periodontium inflammation. Forty-patients aged 15-16 years of age were examined using PMA, CPI and Green-Vermillion indices (Müller 2001). The hygiene status of each patient was also determined using Durr Dental's Vista Proof intraoral camera (Germany). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using a Biometra Thermocycler to detect DNA of pathogenic periodontal bacteria in dental plaque. All marker microorganisms (P.i.+T.f.+T.d.+A.a.+P.g.) were identified in patients diagnosed with periodontitis in dental plaque. A direct correlation between the level of oral hygiene and the severity of the pathological process in it was determined. It was found that the increase in the severity of the disease was accompanied by increased pathogenic periodontal microflora in dental plaque. Identification of periodontal pathogens in dental plaque by PCR greatly enhances the early diagnosis of Cronic cattaral gingivitis (CCG) risk factors in adolescents, and allows for detailed analysis of the relation between each factor and severity of the process. This method may be used for the diagnosis of periodontal diseases, prediction of their future course, and reasonable choice of antimicrobial therapy.

  4. Demise of Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry as an Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özenci, Volkan; Patel, Robin; Ullberg, Måns; Strålin, Kristoffer

    2018-01-18

    Although there are several US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved/cleared molecular microbiology diagnostics for direct analysis of patient samples, all are single target or panel-based tests. There is no FDA-approved/cleared diagnostic for broad microbial detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS), commercialized as the IRIDICA system (Abbott) and formerly PLEX-ID, had been under development for over a decade and had become CE-marked and commercially available in Europe in 2014. Capable of detecting a large number of microorganisms, it was under review at the FDA when, in April 2017, Abbott discontinued it. This turn of events represents not only the loss of a potential diagnostic tool for infectious diseases but may be a harbinger of similar situations with other emerging and expensive microbial diagnostics, especially genomic tests. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Takahashi, H; Kishiyama, K; Sato, Y; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K; Iizuka, H

    1998-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman with Lyme disease and manifesting facial nerve palsy had been bitten by a tick on the left frontal scalp 4 weeks previously. Erythema migrans appeared on the left forehead, accompanied by left facial paralysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-RFLP) was performed on DNA extracted from a skin biopsy of the erythema on the left forehead. Borrelia flagellin gene DNA was detected and its RFLP pattern indicated that the organism was B. garinii, Five weeks later, B. garinii was isolated by conventional culture from the erythematous skin lesion, but not from the cerebrospinal fluid. After treatment with ceftriaxone intravenously for 10 days and oral administration of minocycline for 7 days, both the erythema and facial nerve palsy improved significantly. Nested PCR and culture taken after the lesion subsided, using skin samples obtained from a site adjacent to the original biopsy, were both negative. We suggest that nested PCR-RFLP analysis might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease and for evaluating therapy.

  6. Tay-Sachs disease mutations in HEXA target the α chain of hexosaminidase A to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersh, Devin; Iwamoto, Yuichiro; Argon, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Loss of function of the enzyme β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) causes the lysosomal storage disorder Tay-Sachs disease (TSD). It has been proposed that mutations in the α chain of HexA can impair folding, enzyme assembly, and/or trafficking, yet there is surprisingly little known about the mechanisms of these potential routes of pathogenesis. We therefore investigated the biosynthesis and trafficking of TSD-associated HexA α mutants, seeking to identify relevant cellular quality control mechanisms. The α mutants E482K and G269S are defective in enzymatic activity, unprocessed by lysosomal proteases, and exhibit altered folding pathways compared with wild-type α. E482K is more severely misfolded than G269S, as observed by its aggregation and inability to associate with the HexA β chain. Importantly, both mutants are retrotranslocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol and are degraded by the proteasome, indicating that they are cleared via ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Leveraging these discoveries, we observed that manipulating the cellular folding environment or ERAD pathways can alter the kinetics of mutant α degradation. Additionally, growth of patient fibroblasts at a permissive temperature or with chemical chaperones increases cellular Hex activity by improving mutant α folding. Therefore modulation of the ER quality control systems may be a potential therapeutic route for improving some forms of TSD. © 2016 Dersh et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  8. Enzymatic single-chain antibody tagging: a universal approach to targeted molecular imaging and cell homing in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, H T; Prabhu, S; Leitner, E; Jia, F; von Elverfeldt, D; Jackson, Katherine E; Heidt, T; Nair, A K N; Pearce, H; von Zur Muhlen, C; Wang, X; Peter, K; Hagemeyer, C E

    2011-08-05

    Antibody-targeted delivery of imaging agents can enhance the sensitivity and accuracy of current imaging techniques. Similarly, homing of effector cells to disease sites increases the efficacy of regenerative cell therapy while reducing the number of cells required. Currently, targeting can be achieved via chemical conjugation to specific antibodies, which typically results in the loss of antibody functionality and in severe cell damage. An ideal conjugation technique should ensure retention of antigen-binding activity and functionality of the targeted biological component. To develop a biochemically robust, highly reproducible, and site-specific coupling method using the Staphylococcus aureus sortase A enzyme for the conjugation of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to nanoparticles and cells for molecular imaging and cell homing in cardiovascular diseases. This scFv specifically binds to activated platelets, which play a pivotal role in thrombosis, atherosclerosis, and inflammation. The conjugation procedure involves chemical and enzyme-mediated coupling steps. The scFv was successfully conjugated to iron oxide particles (contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging) and to model cells. Conjugation efficiency ranged between 50% and 70%, and bioactivity of the scFv after coupling was preserved. The targeting of scFv-coupled cells and nanoparticles to activated platelets was strong and specific as demonstrated in in vitro static adhesion assays, in a flow chamber system, in mouse intravital microscopy, and in in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of mouse carotid arteries. This unique biotechnological approach provides a versatile and broadly applicable tool for procuring targeted regenerative cell therapy and targeted molecular imaging in cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases and beyond.

  9. Gitelman syndrome disclosed by calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: early diagnosis by ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabotti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gitelman’s syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive tubular disorder characterized by hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria associated to hypokalemia. The clinical spectrum is wide and usually characterized by chronic fatigue, cramps, muscle weakness and paresthesiae. We describe a case of a 43 year-old male patient with early onset of knee arthritis and no other symptoms. Ultrasound revealed diffuse and confluent hyperechoic deposits in cartilage, fibrocartilage of the menisci and synovium and calcium pyrophosphate crystals were observed in the synovial fluid of the knee. The concomitant presence of hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria and hypokalemia made clear the diagnosis of Gitelman’s syndrome associated with chondrocalcinosis.

  10. Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); S. Stevens (Sarah); D. Gorman (Donal); A. Pan (An); S. Warnakula (Samantha); S. Chowdhury (Susmita); H. Ward (Heather); L.A. Johnson (Laura); F. Crowe (Francesca); F.B. Hu (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To clarify associations of fish consumption and long chain omega 3 fatty acids with risk of cerebrovascular disease for primary and secondary prevention. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: Studies published before September 2012 identified through

  11. Informal value chain actors' knowledge and perceptions about zoonotic diseases and biosecurity in Kenya and the importance for food safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokabi, Simon; Birner, Regina; Bett, Bernard; Isuyi, Linda; Grace, Delia; Güttler, Denise; Lindahl, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept. The study utilised a mixed methods approach, with a questionnaire survey administered to 154 value chain actors. Additional information was elicited through key informant interviews and participatory methods with relevant stakeholders outside the value chain. Our results found low levels of knowledge of zoonoses and low levels of adherence to food safety standards, with only 37% of milk traders knowing about brucellosis, in spite of a sero-prevalence of 9% in the small ruminants tested in this study, and no slaughterhouse worker knew about Q fever. Actors had little formal education (between 0 and 10%) and lacked training in food safety and biosecurity measures. Adoption of biosecurity measures by value chain actors was very low or non-existent, with only 11% of butchers wearing gloves. There was a gendered dimension, evidenced by markedly different participation in value chains and lower adoption rates and knowledge levels among female actors. Finally, cultural and religious practices were shown to play an important role in exposure and transmission of diseases, influencing perceptions and attitudes to risks and adoption of biosecurity measures.

  12. The Impact of the Level of the Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Versus Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda-Faujan, N.; Abdulamir, A.S.; Fatimah, A.B.; Anas, O. Muhammad; Shuhaimi, M.; Yazid, A.M.; Loong, Y.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faeces of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients compared to healthy subjects. SCFAs such as pyruvic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric and butyric acids were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This study showed that the level of acetic, 162.0 µmol/g wet faeces, butyric, 86.9 µmol/g wet faeces, and propionic acids, 65.6 µmol/g wet faeces, decreased remarkably in IBD faecal samples when compared with that of healthy individuals, 209.7, 176.0, and 93.3 µmol/g wet faeces respectively. On the contrary, lactic and pyruvic acids showed higher levels in faecal samples of IBD than in healthy subjects. In the context of butyric acid level, this study also found that the molar ratio of butyric acid was higher than propionic acid in both faecal samples. This might be due to the high intake of starch from rice among Malaysian population. It was concluded that the level of SCFAs differ remarkably between faecal samples in healthy subjects and that in IBD patients providing evidence that SCFAs more likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:20563285

  13. A Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related Metabolic Signature Characterizes Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Goffredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30 or without (n = 48 NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and subsets of patients underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and/or a second MRI after a 2.2 ± 0.8-year follow-up. Adolescents with NAFLD had higher plasma levels of valine (p = 0.02, isoleucine (p = 0.03, tryptophan (p = 0.02, and lysine (p = 0.02 after adjustment for confounding factors. Circulating BCAAs were negatively correlated with peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, higher baseline valine levels predicted an increase in hepatic fat content (HFF at follow-up (p = 0.01. These results indicate that a dysregulation of BCAA metabolism characterizes obese adolescents with NAFLD independently of obesity and insulin resistance and predict an increase in hepatic fat content over time.

  14. Automation and integration of polymerase chain reaction with capillary electrophoresis for high throughput genotyping and disease diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1999-02-12

    Genotyping is to detect specific loci in the human genome. These loci provide important information for forensic testing, construction of genetic linkage maps, gene related disease diagnosis and pharmacogenetic research. Genotyping is becoming more and more popular after these loci can be easily amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Capillary electrophoresis has its unique advantages for DNA analysis due to its fast heat dissipation and ease of automation. Four projects are described in which genotyping is performed by capillary electrophoresis emphasizing different aspects. First, the author demonstrates a principle to determine the genotype based on capillary electrophoresis system. VNTR polymorphism in the human D1S80 locus was studied. Second, the separation of four short tandem repeat (STR) loci vWF, THO1, TPOX and CSF1PO (CTTv) by using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in achieving high resolution and preventing rehybridization of the DNA fragments. Separation under denaturing, non-denaturing conditions and at elevated temperature was discussed. Third, a 250 {micro}m i.d., 365 {micro}m o.d. fused silica capillary was used as the microreactor for PCR. Fourth, direct PCR from blood was studied to simplify the sample preparation for genotyping to minimum.

  15. Spatial patterns of atrophy, hypometabolism, and amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease correspond to dissociable functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Michel J; Teipel, Stefan J

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have emphasized topographical similarities between AD-related brain changes and a prominent cortical association network called the default-mode network (DMN). However, the specificity of distinct imaging abnormalities for the DMN compared to other intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) of the limbic and heteromodal association cortex has not yet been examined systematically. We assessed regional amyloid load using AV45-PET, neuronal metabolism using FDG-PET, and gray matter volume using structural MRI in 473 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, including preclinical, predementia, and clinically manifest AD stages. Complementary region-of-interest and voxel-based analyses were used to assess disease stage- and modality-specific changes within seven principle ICNs of the human brain as defined by a standardized functional connectivity atlas. Amyloid deposition in AD dementia showed a preference for the DMN, but high effect sizes were also observed for other neocortical ICNs, most notably the frontoparietal-control network. Atrophic changes were most specific for an anterior limbic network, followed by the DMN, whereas other neocortical networks were relatively spared. Hypometabolism appeared to be a mixture of both amyloid- and atrophy-related profiles. Similar patterns of modality-dependent network specificity were also observed in the predementia and, for amyloid deposition, in the preclinical stage. These quantitative data confirm a high vulnerability of the DMN for multimodal imaging abnormalities in AD. However, rather than being selective for the DMN, imaging abnormalities more generally affect higher order cognitive networks and, importantly, the vulnerability profiles of these networks markedly differ for distinct aspects of AD pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Cairns, N J; Lantos, P L

    1998-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits was studied in the upper laminae of the superior frontal gyrus in cases of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid-beta-stained tissue was counterstained with collagen IV to determine whether the spatial distribution of the amyloid-beta deposits along the cortex was related to blood vessels. In all patients, amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels were aggregated into distinct clusters and in many patients, the clusters were distributed with a regular periodicity along the cortex. The clusters of diffuse and primitive deposits did not coincide with the clusters of blood vessels in most patients. However, the clusters of classic amyloid-beta deposits coincided with those of the large diameter (>10 microm) blood vessels in all patients and with clusters of small-diameter (upper cortical laminae.

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. [Effects of grain-sized moxibustion on learning and memory ability and amyloid deposition of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chu, Jia-Mei; Gao, Ling-Ai; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Bao, Ye-Hua

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of grain-sized moxibustion at "Xinshu" (BL 15) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on memory-learning ability and amyloid deposition in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. seventeen amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 (APP+/PS 1+) double transgenic 6799 mice aged 3-4 weeks were randomly divided into model group (n = 9) and moxibustion group (n = 8). Nine wide-type (C 57 BL/6 J) female mice were used as the normal control group. Moxibustion (ignited grain-sized moxa cone) was applied to bilateral "Xinshu" (BL 15) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) for about 30 s, once a day for 9 courses (10 days constitute a therapeutic course, with 2 days' break between every two courses). Morris water maze tests were performed to detect the mice's learning-memory ability. The alterations of beta-amyloid deposition (number of the positive plaques) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were detected by using an imaging analysis system following Congo red staining of the cerebral tissue sections. Compared with the normal group, the average escape latency of place navigation tests was significantly increased (P memory ability after moxibustion. Results of Congo red staining of the cerebral tissue showed that there were many irregular, uneven staining positive plaques in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of AD mice in the model group. Compared with the model group, the positive plaque numbers in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus were considerably reduced in the moxibustion group (P memory ability and restrain the formation of amyloid deposition in AD mice.

  19. Change perspective to increase diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease! A new approach: the axial scan of the meniscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Filippou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US is a relevant tool in the study of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP deposition disease. However, differential diagnosis of hyperechoic deposits within the fibrocartilage can be difficult; moreover, US study is limited by the need of an adequate acoustic window. We describe a US scanning technique that offers a new viewpoint in the study of knee meniscal structure: a longitudinal scan performed according to the long axis of meniscus. This technique proves to be particularly useful for the identification of CPP deposition, but could also improve the US diagnostic utility and accuracy in other meniscal pathologies.

  20. Uncoupling of glomerular IgA deposition and disease progression in alymphoplasia mice with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Aizawa

    Full Text Available Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN, at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM. Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6. Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition.

  1. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against α-globin chain-containing human hemoglobins for detecting α-thalassemia disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdeepak, Kanet; Pata, Supansa; Chiampanichayakul, Sawitree; Kasinrerk, Watchara; Tatu, Thanusak

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against α-globin containing human Hbs, named AMS-Alpha1 and AMS-Alpha 2, were produced by the hybridoma technique using spleen cells enriched by the newly developed B lymphocyte enrichment protocol. These two monoclonal antibodies were of IgM class, reacting to only intact form of human Hbs A, A2, E, and F, which contain α-globin chain. By the indirect ELISA, the AMS-Alpha1 and AMS-Alpha 2 quantified less amount of α-globin chain containing hemoglobins in HbH disease than the SEA-α thalassemia 1 carriers and normal individuals. It was thus anticipated that these monoclonal antibodies can be used for detecting Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis in which no α-globin chain is produced.

  2. The frequency of a disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S

    1993-01-01

    A number of rare inherited metabolic disorders are known to lead to death in infancy. Deficiency of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase has, on clinical grounds, been related particularly to sudden infant death syndrome. The contribution of this disorder to the etiology of sudden infant death...... syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...... in the general population. A highly specific polymerase chain reaction assay was applied on dried blood spots. No over-representation of homo- or heterozygosity for G985 appears to exist in such a strictly defined population, for which reason it may be more relevant to look at a broader spectrum of clinical...

  3. Quantification of Eosinophilic Granule Protein Deposition in Biopsies of Inflammatory Skin Diseases by Automated Image Analysis of Highly Sensitive Immunostaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiehl

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulocytes are major effector cells in inflammation. Extracellular deposition of toxic eosinophilic granule proteins (EGPs, but not the presence of intact eosinophils, is crucial for their functional effect in situ. As even recent morphometric approaches to quantify the involvement of eosinophils in inflammation have been only based on cell counting, we developed a new method for the cell‐independent quantification of EGPs by image analysis of immunostaining. Highly sensitive, automated immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin sections of inflammatory skin diseases with 4 different primary antibodies against EGPs. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed by colour translation, linear combination and automated thresholding. Using strictly standardized protocols, the assay was proven to be specific and accurate concerning segmentation in 8916 fields of 520 sections, well reproducible in repeated measurements and reliable over 16 weeks observation time. The method may be valuable for the cell‐independent segmentation of immunostaining in other applications as well.

  4. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  5. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Alisdair M; Christie, Michael R; McLaughlin, Kerry A; Syme, Harriet M; Graham, Peter; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH), CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH), CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc) and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD) were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation). Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016). Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037). Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015) and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017) were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  6. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair M Boag

    Full Text Available Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH, CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH, CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016. Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037. Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015 and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017 were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  7. Alteration in sample preparation to increase the yield of multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction assay for diagnosis of genital ulcer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is common sexually transmitted infection (STI. Multiple studies have shown that GUDs are strongly associated with the transmission and the acquisition of HIV infection. An accurate diagnosis of common etiology of GUD namely Herpes, syphilis and Chancroid is possible using Multiplex PCR (M-PCR. However, frequent presence of Polymerase Chain Reaction inhibitors in the ulcer swab specimen limits the performance of the assay. In order to overcome this problem, alternative specimen preparation method was used. Materials and Methods: To determine the common etiology, GUD specimens obtained under an STI operations research study were tested with M-PCR after the samples were prepared using Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit. PCR inhibiting samples were identified from that, which showed negative results. These samples were subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation before the conduct of M-PCR on them. Results: Of the 237 GUD specimens tested, in 145 etiologies could be detected, whereas 92 samples were found negative. Further spiking with one of the target DNA, 128 of the negative samples were found to contain the inhibitors. These 126 samples were then subjected to phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation followed by M-PCR. Using this method for sample preparation, etiology could be determined in 46 (23% additional samples. This success rate of altered sample preparation method has been lower than that has reported. Conclusion: The results indicate that sample preparation using phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation, prior to M-PCR helps to eliminate the inhibitors and increase the yield of the assay. However, being a laborious procedure, it may be used for samples giving negative results after the screening by Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit.

  8. Characterization of contact structures for the spread of infectious diseases in a pork supply chain in northern Germany by dynamic network analysis of yearly and monthly networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, K; Krieter, J; Traulsen, I

    2015-04-01

    A major risk factor in the spread of diseases between holdings is the transport of live animals. This study analysed the animal movements of the pork supply chain of a producer group in Northern Germany. The parameters in-degree and out-degree, ingoing and outgoing infection chain, betweenness and ingoing and outgoing closeness were measured using dynamic network analysis to identify holdings with central positions in the network and to characterize the overall network topology. The potential maximum epidemic size was also estimated. All parameters were calculated for three time periods: the 3-yearly network, the yearly and the monthly networks. The yearly and the monthly networks were more fragmented than the 3-yearly network. On average, one-third of the holdings were isolated in the yearly networks and almost three quarters in the monthly networks. This represented an immense reduction in the number of holdings participating in the trade of the monthly networks. The overall network topology showed right-skewed distributions for all calculated centrality parameters indicating that network resilience was high concerning the random removal of holdings. However, for a targeted removal of holdings according to their centrality, a rapid fragmentation of the trade network could be expected. Furthermore, to capture the real importance of holdings for disease transmission, indirect trade contacts (infection chain) should be considered. In contrast to the parameters regarding direct trade contacts (degree), the infection chain parameter did not underestimate the potential risk of disease transmission. This became more obvious, the longer the observed time period was. For all three time periods, the results for the estimation of the potential maximum epidemic size illustrated that the outgoing infection chain should be chosen. It considers the chronological order and the directed nature of the contacts and has no restrictions such as the strongly connected components of a

  9. Minimal Change Disease and IgA Deposition: Separate Entities or Common Pathophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Oberweis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Minimal Change Disease (MCD is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children, while IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide. MCD is responsive to glucocorticoids, while the role of steroids in IgA nephropathy remains unclear. We describe a case of two distinct clinical and pathological findings, raising the question of whether MCD and IgA nephropathy are separate entities or if there is a common pathophysiology. Case Report. A 19-year old man with no medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a 20-day history of anasarca and frothy urine, BUN 68 mg/dL, Cr 2.3 mg/dL, urinalysis 3+ RBCs, 3+ protein, and urine protein : creatinine ratio 6.4. Renal biopsy revealed hypertrophic podocytes on light microscopy, podocyte foot process effacement on electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent mesangial staining for IgA. The patient was started on prednisone and exhibited dramatic improvement. Discussion. MCD typically has an overwhelming improvement with glucocorticoids, while the resolution of IgA nephropathy is rare. Our patient presented with MCD with the uncharacteristic finding of hematuria. Given the improvement with glucocorticoids, we raise the question of whether there is a shared pathophysiologic component of these two distinct clinical diseases that represents a clinical variant.

  10. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y

    2005-01-01

    In this work we advance the hypothesis that omega-3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) exhibit cytoprotective and cytotherapeutic actions contributing to a number of anti-angiogenic and neuroprotective mechanisms within the retina. omega-3 LCPUFAs may modulate metabolic processes and attenuate effects of environmental exposures that activate molecules implicated in pathogenesis of vasoproliferative and neurodegenerative retinal diseases. These processes and exposures include ischemia, chronic light exposure, oxidative stress, inflammation, cellular signaling mechanisms, and aging. A number of bioactive molecules within the retina affect, and are effected by such conditions. These molecules operate within complex systems and include compounds classified as eicosanoids, angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, cyclic nucleotides, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, and inflammatory phospholipids. We discuss the relationship of LCPUFAs with these bioactivators and bioactive compounds in the context of three blinding retinal diseases of public health significance that exhibit both vascular and neural pathology. How is omega-3 LCPUFA status related to retinal structure and function? Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major dietary omega-3 LCPUFA, is also a major structural lipid of retinal photoreceptor outer segment membranes. Biophysical and biochemical properties of DHA may affect photoreceptor membrane function by altering permeability, fluidity, thickness, and lipid phase properties. Tissue DHA status affects retinal cell signaling mechanisms involved in phototransduction. DHA may operate in signaling cascades to enhance activation of membrane-bound retinal proteins and may also be involved in rhodopsin regeneration. Tissue DHA insufficiency is associated with alterations in retinal function. Visual processing deficits have been ameliorated with DHA supplementation

  11. Association of branched-chain amino acids with carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery disease risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have determined that branched-chain (BCAAs and aromatic (AAAs amino acids are strongly correlated with obesity and atherogenic dyslipidemia and are strong predictors of diabetes. However, it is not clear if these amino acids are capable of identifying subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD, particularly with subclinical atherosclerosis who are at risk of developing CAD. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy two Chinese subjects (272 males and 200 females, 42-97 y of age undergoing physical exams were recruited at random for participation in the cross-sectional study. Serum BCAAs and AAAs were measured using our previously reported isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Bilateral B-mode carotid artery images for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were acquired at end diastole and cIMT values more than 0.9 mm were categorized as increased. Correlations of BCAAs with cIMT and other CAD risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: BCAAs and AAAs were significantly and positively associated with risk factors of CAD, e.g., cIMT, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, TG, apoB, apoB/apoAI ratio, apoCII, apoCIII and hsCRP, and were significantly and negatively associated with HDL-C and apoAI. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (β = 0.175, P<0.001, log BCAA (β = 0.147, P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (β = 0.141, P = 0.012 were positively and independently associated with cIMT. In the logistic regression model, the most and only powerful laboratory factor correlated with increased cIMT was BCAA (the odds ratio of the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile was 2.679; P = 0.009. CONCLUSION: BCAAs are independently correlated with increased cIMT. This correlation would open a new field of research in the mechanistic understanding and risk assessment of CAD.

  12. Preparation of Ultra Low-κ Porous SiOCH Films from Ring-Type Siloxane with Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Side Chains by Spin-On Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Xiao, Yang; Chi, Zhang; Qing-Qing, Sun; Sai-Sheng, Xu; Li-Feng, Zhang; Yu, Shi; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-low-dielectric-constant (ultra low-k, or ULK) porous SiOCH film is prepared using a single ring-type siloxane precursor of the 2,4,6,8-tetravinyl-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane by means of spin-on deposition, followed by crosslinking reactions between the precursor monomers under UV irradiation. The as-prepared film has an ultra low k of 2.41 at 1 MHz due to incorporation of pores and hydrocarbon crosslinkages, a leakage current density of 9.86 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm, as well as a breakdown field strength of ∼1.5 MV/cm. Further, annealing at 300°C results in lower k (i.e., 1.94 at 1 MHz), smaller leakage current density (2.96 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm) and higher breakdown field strength (about 3.5 MV/cm), which are likely caused by the short-ranged structural rearrangement and reduction of defects in the film. Finally, the mechanical properties and surface morphology of films are also evaluated after different temperature annealing. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin A Weiser

    Full Text Available FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  14. FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Armin A; Thöns, Christian; Filter, Matthias; Falenski, Alexander; Appel, Bernd; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analysis of geographical relationships, and topological clustering of the tracing network structure. FoodChain-Lab has been applied successfully in previous outbreak investigations, for example during the 2011 EHEC outbreak and the 2013/14 European hepatitis A outbreak. The software is most useful in complex, multi-area outbreak investigations where epidemiological evidence may be insufficient to discriminate between multiple implicated food products. The automated analysis and visualization components would be of greater value if trading information on food ingredients and compound products was more easily available.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF GBM HEPARAN-SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN CORE PROTEIN AND SIDE-CHAINS IN HUMAN GLOMERULAR-DISEASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBORN, J; VANDENHEUVEL, LPWJ; BAKKER, MAH; VEERKAMP, JH; ASSMANN, KJM; WEENING, JJ; BERDEN, JHM

    Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing either the core protein or the heparan sulfate (HS) side chain of human GBM heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), we investigated their glomerular distribution on cryostat sections of human kidney tissues. The study involved 95 biopsies comprising twelve

  16. Fasting serum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in subjects with microscopic colitis and celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Bjerregaard, Jens Holst; Skovbjerg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, have been shown to have many positive health effects. The amount and type of SCFAs formed from dietary fibre by the colonic microbiota depends on the substrate available and is reflected in blood. The total intake and type...

  17. Static network analysis of a pork supply chain in Northern Germany-Characterisation of the potential spread of infectious diseases via animal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Krieter, Joachim; Traulsen, Arne; Traulsen, Imke

    2013-07-01

    Transport of live animals is a major risk factor in the spread of infectious diseases between holdings. The present study analysed the pork supply chain of a producer community in Northern Germany. The structure of trade networks can be characterised by carrying out a network analysis. To identify holdings with a central position in this directed network of pig production, several parameters describing these properties were measured (in-degree, out-degree, ingoing and outgoing infection chain, betweenness centrality and ingoing and outgoing closeness centrality). To obtain the importance of the different holding types (multiplier, farrowing farms, finishing farms and farrow-to-finishing farms) within the pyramidal structure of the pork supply chain, centrality parameters were calculated for the entire network as well as for the individual holding types. Using these centrality parameters, two types of holdings could be identified. In the network studied, finishing and farrow-to-finishing farms were more likely to be infected due to the high number of ingoing trade contacts. Due to the high number of outgoing trade contacts multipliers and farrowing farms had an increased risk to spread a disease to other holdings. However, the results of the centrality parameters degree and infection chain were not always consistent, such that the indirect trade contacts should be taken into consideration to understand the real importance of a holding in spreading or contracting an infection. Furthermore, all calculated parameters showed a highly right-skewed distribution. Networks with such a degree distribution are considered to be highly resistant concerning the random removal of nodes. But by strategic removal of the most central holdings, e.g. by trade restrictions or selective vaccination or culling, the network structure can be changed efficiently and thus decompose into fragments. Such a fragmentation of the trade networks is of particular importance from an epidemiological

  18. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based detection and economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease in District Faisalabad, Pakistan during the year 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of the disease by using milk production records and to determine the serotypes circulating in the region during 2015. Sampling was done from different outbreaks initially on the basis of clinical signs and later reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed for the conformation of FMDV genome. Out of total 88 samples, 73 were found positive which were then serotyped into type O (n=44, Asia1 (n=18 and A (n=06. The economic impact was analyzed by recording milk loss at four affected farms. Their average milk yield was observed 9.2 liters before the onset of disease that decreased dramatically after the disease. Milk loss of 225 and 195 liters was recorded for buffalo and cattle respectively, during 70 days of the study period.

  19. Development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease may be predicted in HIV-infected patients by CMV polymerase chain reaction and the antigenemia test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodt, K K; Jacobsen, P H; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    ; OR: CMV PCR 10.0, antigenemia test 4.4 and CMV cultures 4.3. No clinical parameters had any significant predictive value in the stepwise multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS: The CMV PCR and the CMV antigenemia tests are both sensitive methods that may predict development of CMV disease up to several...... evaluated PCR and the antigenemia tests as methods for early detection of CMV disease. METHODS: Two-hundred HIV-seropositive subjects with CD4 T-cell counts below 100 x 10(6)/l were monitored with CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the antigenemia test, blood cultures and CMV immunoglobulin (Ig) G and Ig...... showed that the CMV PCR, the antigenemia test and blood cultures all had significant predictive values for subsequent development of CMV disease with odds ratios (OR) of 30, 22 and 20. CMV serology had no predictive value. Multivariate analysis showed that the PCR method was superior to the other tests...

  20. Falling chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...

  1. Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal

  2. Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Olpin, S; Poorthuis, B J

    1999-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyop......Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence...... of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting......-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established....

  3. Quantification of amyloid deposits and oxygen extraction fraction in the brain with multispectral optoacoustic imaging in arcAβ mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruiqing; Vaas, Markus; Rudin, Markus; Klohs, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and vascular dysfunction are important contributors to the pathogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the spatio-temporal relationship between an altered oxygen metabolism and Aβ deposition in the brain remains elusive. Here we provide novel in-vivo estimates of brain Aβ load with Aβ-binding probe CRANAD-2 and measures of brain oxygen saturation by using multi-spectral optoacoustic imaging (MSOT) and perfusion imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in arcAβ mouse models of AD. We demonstrated a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in the cortical region of the arcAβ mice compared to wildtype littermates at 24 months. In addition, we showed proof-of-concept for the detection of cerebral Aβ deposits in brain from arcAβ mice compared to wild-type littermates.

  4. In vivo changes in microglial activation and amyloid deposits in brain regions with hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, Masamichi; Mori, Norio; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yagi, Shunsuke; Ouchi, Yasuomi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Laboratory of Human Imaging Research, Molecular Imaging Frontier Research Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Yoshikawa, Etsuji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Kanazawa University, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugihara, Genichi; Suda, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu (Japan); Ueki, Takatoshi [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) is known as a pathological substance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is assumed to coexist with a degree of activated microglia in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether these two events occur in parallel with characteristic hypometabolism in AD in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the in vivo relationship between A{beta} accumulation and neuroinflammation in those specific brain regions in early AD. Eleven nootropic drug-naive AD patients underwent a series of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements with [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195, [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG and a battery of cognitive tests within the same day. The binding potentials (BPs) of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 were directly compared with those of [{sup 11}C]PIB in the brain regions with reduced glucose metabolism. BPs of [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB were significantly higher in the parietotemporal regions of AD patients than in ten healthy controls. In AD patients, there was a negative correlation between dementia score and [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 BPs, but not [{sup 11}C]PIB, in the limbic, precuneus and prefrontal regions. Direct comparisons showed a significant negative correlation between [{sup 11}C](R)PK11195 and [{sup 11}C]PIB BPs in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p < 0.05, corrected) that manifested the most severe reduction in [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake. A lack of coupling between microglial activation and amyloid deposits may indicate that A{beta} accumulation shown by [{sup 11}C]PIB is not always the primary cause of microglial activation, but rather the negative correlation present in the PCC suggests that microglia can show higher activation during the production of A{beta} in early AD. (orig.)

  5. In vivo changes in microglial activation and amyloid deposits in brain regions with hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Masamichi; Mori, Norio; Yoshihara, Yujiro; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Yagi, Shunsuke; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Sugihara, Genichi; Suda, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Ueki, Takatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid β protein (Aβ) is known as a pathological substance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is assumed to coexist with a degree of activated microglia in the brain. However, it remains unclear whether these two events occur in parallel with characteristic hypometabolism in AD in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the in vivo relationship between Aβ accumulation and neuroinflammation in those specific brain regions in early AD. Eleven nootropic drug-naive AD patients underwent a series of positron emission tomography (PET) measurements with [ 11 C](R)PK11195, [ 11 C]PIB and [ 18 F]FDG and a battery of cognitive tests within the same day. The binding potentials (BPs) of [ 11 C](R)PK11195 were directly compared with those of [ 11 C]PIB in the brain regions with reduced glucose metabolism. BPs of [ 11 C](R)PK11195 and [ 11 C]PIB were significantly higher in the parietotemporal regions of AD patients than in ten healthy controls. In AD patients, there was a negative correlation between dementia score and [ 11 C](R)PK11195 BPs, but not [ 11 C]PIB, in the limbic, precuneus and prefrontal regions. Direct comparisons showed a significant negative correlation between [ 11 C](R)PK11195 and [ 11 C]PIB BPs in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (p 18 F]FDG uptake. A lack of coupling between microglial activation and amyloid deposits may indicate that Aβ accumulation shown by [ 11 C]PIB is not always the primary cause of microglial activation, but rather the negative correlation present in the PCC suggests that microglia can show higher activation during the production of Aβ in early AD. (orig.)

  6. FTIR Imaging of Brain Tissue Reveals Crystalline Creatine Deposits Are an ex Vivo Marker of Localized Ischemia during Murine Cerebral Malaria: General Implications for Disease Neurochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Phosphocreatine is a major cellular source of high energy phosphates, which is crucial to maintain cell viability under conditions of impaired metabolic states, such as decreased oxygen and energy availability (i.e., ischemia). Many methods exist for the bulk analysis of phosphocreatine and its dephosphorylated product creatine; however, no method exists to image the distribution of creatine or phosphocreatine at the cellular level. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has revealed the ex vivo development of creatine microdeposits in situ in the brain region most affected by the disease, the cerebellum of cerebral malaria (CM) diseased mice; however, such deposits were also observed at significantly lower levels in the brains of control mice and mice with severe malaria. In addition, the number of deposits was observed to increase in a time-dependent manner during dehydration post tissue cutting. This challenges the hypotheses in recent reports of FTIR spectroscopic imaging where creatine microdeposits found in situ within thin sections from epileptic, Alzheimer’s (AD), and amlyoid lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseased brains were proposed to be disease specific markers and/or postulated to contribute to the brain pathogenesis. As such, a detailed investigation was undertaken, which has established that the creatine microdeposits exist as the highly soluble HCl salt or zwitterion and are an ex-vivo tissue processing artifact and, hence, have no effect on disease pathogenesis. They occur as a result of creatine crystallization during dehydration (i.e., air-drying) of thin sections of brain tissue. As ischemia and decreased aerobic (oxidative metabolism) are common to many brain disorders, regions of elevated creatine-to-phosphocreatine ratio are likely to promote crystal formation during tissue dehydration (due to the lower water solubility of creatine relative to phosphocreatine). The results of this study have demonstrated that

  7. The first case of multiple pulmonary granulomas with amyloid deposition in a dental technician; a rare manifestation as an occupational lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Taizou; Numakura, Tadahisa; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Ryoko; Shishikura, Yutaka; Shiihara, Jun; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2018-05-22

    Occupational lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis, are one of the health problems of dental workers that have been receiving increasing interest. Pulmonary amyloidosis is a heterogenous group of diseases, and can be classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary (associated with various inflammatory diseases, hereditary, or neoplastic). To date, the development of pulmonary amyloidosis in dental workers has not been reported. A 58-year-old Japanese female presented with chest discomfort and low-grade fever that has persisted for 2 months. She was a dental technician but did not regularly wear a dust mask in the workplace. Chest X ray and computed tomography revealed multiple well-defined nodules in both lungs and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography revealed abnormal FDG uptake in the same lesions with a maximal standardized uptake value (SUV [max]) of 5.6. We next performed thoracoscopic partial resection of the lesions in the right upper and middle lobes. The histological examination of the specimens revealed granuloma formation with foreign body-type giant cells and amyloid deposition that was confirmed by Congo red staining and direct fast scarlet (DFS) staining that produce apple-green birefringence under crossed polarized light. Because there were no other causes underlying the pulmonary amyloidosis, we performed electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) of the specimens and the result showed silica deposition in the lesions. Based on these results, we finally diagnosed the patient with pulmonary granulomas with amyloid deposition caused by chronic silica exposure. Afterward, her symptoms were improved and the disease has not progressed for 2 years since proper measures against additional occupational exposure were implemented. Our case presented three important clinical insights: First, occupational exposure to silica in a dental workplace could be associated with the development of amyloid deposition in lung. Second, EPMA was useful to

  8. Interventions Targeting Glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like Factor 15-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Signaling Improve Disease Phenotypes in Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Walter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The circadian glucocorticoid-Krüppel-like factor 15-branched-chain amino acid (GC-KLF15-BCAA signaling pathway is a key regulatory axis in muscle, whose imbalance has wide-reaching effects on metabolic homeostasis. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a neuromuscular disorder also characterized by intrinsic muscle pathologies, metabolic abnormalities and disrupted sleep patterns, which can influence or be influenced by circadian regulatory networks that control behavioral and metabolic rhythms. We therefore set out to investigate the contribution of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway in SMA pathophysiology of Taiwanese Smn−/−;SMN2 and Smn2B/− mouse models. We thus uncover substantial dysregulation of GC-KLF15-BCAA diurnal rhythmicity in serum, skeletal muscle and metabolic tissues of SMA mice. Importantly, modulating the components of the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway via pharmacological (prednisolone, genetic (muscle-specific Klf15 overexpression and dietary (BCAA supplementation interventions significantly improves disease phenotypes in SMA mice. Our study highlights the GC-KLF15-BCAA pathway as a contributor to SMA pathogenesis and provides several treatment avenues to alleviate peripheral manifestations of the disease. The therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic perturbations by diet and commercially available drugs could have a broader implementation across other neuromuscular and metabolic disorders characterized by altered GC-KLF15-BCAA signaling. Keywords: Spinal muscular atrophy, KLF15, Glucocorticoids, Branched-chain amino acids, Metabolism, Therapy

  9. Dynamic relationships between age, amyloid-β deposition, and glucose metabolism link to the regional vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Cindee; Baker, Suzanne; Rabinovici, Gil; Jagust, William

    2016-01-01

    Abstract See Hansson and Gouras (doi:10.1093/aww146) for a scientific commentary on this article. Although some brain regions such as precuneus and lateral temporo-parietal cortex have been shown to be more vulnerable to Alzheimer’s disease than other areas, a mechanism underlying the differential regional vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease remains to be elucidated. Using fluorodeoxyglucose and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging glucose metabolism and amyloid-β deposition, we tested whether and how life-long changes in glucose metabolism relate to amyloid-β deposition and Alzheimer’s disease-related hypometabolism. Nine healthy young adults (age range: 20–30), 96 cognitively normal older adults (age range: 61–96), and 20 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (age range: 50–90) were scanned using fluorodeoxyglucose and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography. Among cognitively normal older subjects, 32 were further classified as amyloid-positive, with 64 as amyloid-negative. To assess the contribution of glucose metabolism to the regional vulnerability to amyloid-β deposition, we defined the highest and lowest metabolic regions in young adults and examined differences in amyloid deposition between these regions across groups. Two-way analyses of variance were conducted to assess regional differences in age and amyloid-β-related changes in glucose metabolism. Multiple regressions were applied to examine the association between amyloid-β deposition and regional glucose metabolism. Both region of interest and whole-brain voxelwise analyses were conducted to complement and confirm the results derived from the other approach. Regional differences in glucose metabolism between the highest and lowest metabolism regions defined in young adults (T = 12.85, P glucose metabolism regions defined in young adults (T = 2.05, P glucose metabolism were found such that frontal glucose metabolism was reduced with age, while glucose

  10. Lack of a 5.9 kDa peptide C-terminal fragment of fibrinogen α chain precedes fibrosis progression in patients with liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Marfà

    Full Text Available Early detection of fibrosis progression is of major relevance for the diagnosis and management of patients with liver disease. This study was designed to find non-invasive biomarkers for fibrosis in a clinical context where this process occurs rapidly, HCV-positive patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT. We analyzed 93 LT patients with HCV recurrence, 41 non-LT patients with liver disease showing a fibrosis stage F≥1 and 9 patients without HCV recurrence who received antiviral treatment before LT, as control group. Blood obtained from 16 healthy subjects was also analyzed. Serum samples were fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and their proteomic profile was analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS. Characterization of the peptide of interest was performed by ion chromatography and electrophoresis, followed by tandem mass spectrometry identification. Marked differences were observed between the serum proteome profile of LT patients with early fibrosis recurrence and non-recurrent LT patients. A robust peak intensity located at 5905 m/z was the distinguishing feature of non-recurrent LT patients. However, the same peak was barely detected in recurrent LT patients. Similar results were found when comparing samples of healthy subjects with those of non-LT fibrotic patients, indicating that our findings were not related to either LT or HCV infection. Using tandem mass-spectrometry, we identified the protein peak as a C-terminal fragment of the fibrinogen α chain. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that TGF-β reduces α-fibrinogen mRNA expression and 5905 m/z peak intensity in HepG2 cells, suggesting that TGF-β activity regulates the circulating levels of this protein fragment. In conclusion, we identified a 5.9 kDa C-terminal fragment of the fibrinogen α chain as an early serum biomarker of fibrogenic processes in patients with liver disease.

  11. Long-chain PUFA in Granulocytes, Mononuclear Cells, and RBC in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Relation to Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Marianne H.; Ott, Peter; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    -related liver disease were matched with 20 CF patients without. Blood samples were analysed for liver biochemistry and haematology. Granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Hepatic ultrasound...

  12. Disease-causing mutations in exon 11 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Jensen, T G; Bross, P

    1994-01-01

    spot. Here we describe the results from sequence analysis of exon 11 and part of the flanking introns from 36 compound heterozygous patients with MCAD deficiency. We have identified four previously unknown disease-causing mutations (M301T, S311R, R324X, and E359X) and two silent mutations in exon 11...

  13. The impact of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on food allergy and cardiovascular disease. Fish and no chips?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, L.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis creates more insight into the efficacy and mechanism of action of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which act on the interface between pharmacology and nutrition in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease. PUFA are categorized into n-6 and n-3 PUFA. The last decades have

  14. Development of anti-bovine IgA single chain variable fragment and its application in diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, N. V.; Shukra, A. M.; Neelakantam, B.; Anilkumar, J.; Madhanmohan, M.; Rajan, S.; Dev Chandran

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antibody fragments like single chain variable fragments (scFvs) represent an attractive yet powerful alternative to immunoglobulins and hold great potential in the development of clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. Structurally, scFvs are the smallest antibody fragments capable of retaining the antigen-binding capacity of whole antibodies and are composed of an immunoglobulin (Ig) variable light (VL) and variable heavy (VH) chain joined by a flexible polypeptide linker. In the present study, we constructed a scFv against bovine IgA from a hybridoma cell line IL-A71 that secretes a monoclonal antibody against bovine IgA using recombinant DNA technology. The scFv was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The binding activity and specificity of the scFv was established by its non-reactivity toward other classes of immunoglobulins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis. Kinetic measurement of the scFv indicated that the recombinant antibody fragment had an affinity in picomolar range toward purified IgA. Furthermore, the scFv was used to develop a sensitive ELISA for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier animals. PMID:24678404

  15. Delirium superimposed on dementia: defining disease states and course from longitudinal measurements of a multivariate index using latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi, Antonio; Dyachenko, Alina; Cole, Martin; McCusker, Jane

    2011-12-01

    The study of mental disorders in the elderly presents substantial challenges due to population heterogeneity, coexistence of different mental disorders, and diagnostic uncertainty. While reliable tools have been developed to collect relevant data, new approaches to study design and analysis are needed. We focus on a new analytic approach. Our framework is based on latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains. From repeated measurements of a multivariate disease index, we extract the notion of underlying state of a patient at a time point. The course of the disorder is then a sequence of transitions among states. States and transitions are not observable; however, the probability of being in a state at a time point, and the transition probabilities from one state to another over time can be estimated. Data from 444 patients with and without diagnosis of delirium and dementia were available from a previous study. The Delirium Index was measured at diagnosis, and at 2 and 6 months from diagnosis. Four latent classes were identified: fairly healthy, moderately ill, clearly sick, and very sick. Dementia and delirium could not be separated on the basis of these data alone. Indeed, as the probability of delirium increased, so did the probability of decline of mental functions. Eight most probable courses were identified, including good and poor stable courses, and courses exhibiting various patterns of improvement. Latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains offer a promising tool for studying mental disorders in the elderly. Its use may show its full potential as new data become available.

  16. Circulating N-Linked Glycoprotein Side-Chain Biomarker, Rosuvastatin Therapy, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuolie, Akintunde O; Glynn, Robert J; Padmanabhan, Latha; Ridker, Paul M; Mora, Samia

    2016-07-13

    GlycA, a novel protein glycan biomarker of N-acetyl side chains of acute-phase proteins, was recently associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy women. Whether GlycA predicts CVD events in the setting of statin therapy in men and women without CVD but with evidence of chronic inflammation is unknown. In the Justfication for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial (NCT00239681), participants with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 0.20). In the JUPITER trial, increased levels of GlycA were associated with an increased risk of CVD events independent of traditional risk factors and hsCRP. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00239681. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Rapid Identification of a Cooling Tower-Associated Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak Supported by Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of Environmental Samples, New York City, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Isaac; Fitzhenry, Robert; Boyd, Christopher; Dickinson, Michelle; Levy, Michael; Lin, Ying; Nazarian, Elizabeth; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Passaretti, Teresa; Rakeman, Jennifer; Saylors, Amy; Shamoonian, Elena; Smith, Terry-Ann; Balter, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires’ disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Legionella DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection. We detected L. pneumophila serogroup 1 DNA only at a power plant cooling tower, supporting the decision to order remediation before culture results were available. An isolate from a power plant cooling tower sample was indistinguishable from a patient isolate by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting the cooling tower was the outbreak source. PCR results were available <1 day after sample collection, and culture results were available as early as 5 days after plating. PCR is a valuable tool for identifying Legionella DNA in environmental samples in outbreak settings. PMID:29780175

  18. Rapid Identification of a Cooling Tower-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak Supported by Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing of Environmental Samples, New York City, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Isaac; Fitzhenry, Robert; Boyd, Christopher; Dickinson, Michelle; Levy, Michael; Lin, Ying; Nazarian, Elizabeth; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Passaretti, Teresa; Rakeman, Jennifer; Saylors, Amy; Shamoonian, Elena; Smith, Terry-Ann; Balter, Sharon

    2018-04-01

    We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires' disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Legionella DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection. We detected L. pneumophila serogroup 1 DNA only at a power plant cooling tower, supporting the decision to order remediation before culture results were available. An isolate from a power plant cooling tower sample was indistinguishable from a patient isolate by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting the cooling tower was the outbreak source. PCR results were available <1 day after sample collection, and culture results were available as early as 5 days after plating. PCR is a valuable tool for identifying Legionella DNA in environmental samples in outbreak settings.

  19. The Advance of Technology of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction in Identifying the Genome of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI viruses are zoonotic and caused death in humans. Newcastle Diseases (ND virus has an economical impact in poultry. Therefore, the identification and characterization of AI and ND viruses that are appropriate, accurate and quick are important to protect human and poultry health. Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR was the latest gold standard to detect the genome of AI and ND viruses. Recently, RT-PCR was developed in routine diagnosis and research. RT-PCR is a method to amplify the sequences of DNA genome, preceded by reverse transcriptase process with the primer-mediated enzymatic. Some factors that influenced detection of AI and ND are design primer and probe, types of samples, enzyme, reagent composition, amplification temperature and cycles, technical and non-technical factors such as contamination and trained staff. Modified conventional and real time RT-PCR are able to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the test.

  20. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  1. A Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection and Quantification of Epizootic Epitheliotropic Disease Virus (EEDV; Salmonid Herpesvirus 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV; salmonid herpesvirus [SalHV3]; family Alloherpesviridae) causes a systemic disease of juvenile and yearling Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush. No cell lines are currently available for the culture and propagation of EEDV, so primary diagnosis is limited to PCR and electron microscopy. To better understand the pervasiveness of EEDV (carrier or latent state of infection) in domesticated and wild Lake Trout populations, we developed a sensitive TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect the presence of the EEDV terminase gene in Lake Trout tissues. This assay was able to detect a linear standard curve over nine logs of plasmid dilution and was sensitive enough to detect single-digit copies of EEDV. The efficiency of the PCR assay was 99.4 ± 0.06% (mean ± SD), with a 95% confidence limit of 0.0296 (R(2) = 0.994). Methods were successfully applied to collect preliminary data from a number of species and water bodies in the states of Pennsylvania, New York, and Vermont, indicating that EEDV is more common in wild fish than previously known. In addition, through the development of this qPCR assay, we detected EEDV in a new salmonid species, the Cisco Coregonus artedi. The qPCR assay was unexpectedly able to detect two additional herpesviruses, the Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) and the Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV; SalHV5), which both share high sequence identity with the EEDV terminase gene. With these unexpected findings, we subsequently designed three primer sets to confirm initial TaqMan qPCR assay positives and to differentiate among EEDV, ASPV, and NamHV by detecting the glycoprotein genes via SYBR Green qPCR. Received April 20, 2015; accepted November 10, 2015.

  2. CHAIN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Second Processing Chain (CHAIN2) consists of a suite of ten programs which together provide a full local analysis of the bulk plasma physics within the JET Tokamak. In discussing these ten computational models this report is intended to fulfil two broad purposes. Firstly it is meant to be used as a reference source for any user of CHAIN2 data, and secondly it provides a basic User Manual sufficient to instruct anyone in running the CHAIN2 suite of codes. In the main report text each module is described in terms of its underlying physics and any associated assumptions or limitations, whilst deliberate emphasis is put on highlighting the physics and mathematics of the calculations required in deriving each individual datatype in the standard module PPF output. In fact each datatype of the CHAIN2 PPF output listed in Appendix D is cross referenced to the point in the main text where its evaluation is discussed. An effort is made not only to give the equation used to derive a particular data profile but also to explicitly define which external data sources are involved in the computational calculation

  3. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay versuspolymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Chagas disease diagnosis relies on laboratory tests due to its clinical characteristics. The aim of this research was to review commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR diagnostic test performance. Performance of commercial ELISA or PCR for the diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease were systematically searched in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web, and LILACS through the bibliography from 1980-2014 and by contact with the manufacturers. The risk of bias was assessed with QUADAS-2. Heterogeneity was estimated with the I2 statistic. Accuracies provided by the manufacturers usually overestimate the accuracy provided by academia. The risk of bias is high in most tests and in most QUADAS dimensions. Heterogeneity is high in either sensitivity, specificity, or both. The evidence regarding commercial ELISA and ELISA-rec sensitivity and specificity indicates that there is overestimation. The current recommendation to use two simultaneous serological tests can be supported by the risk of bias analysis and the amount of heterogeneity but not by the observed accuracies. The usefulness of PCR tests are debatable and health care providers should not order them on a routine basis. PCR may be used in selected cases due to its potential to detect seronegative subjects.

  4. Disappearance of Ph1 chromosome with intensive chemotherapy and detection of minimal residual disease by polymerase chain reaction in a patient with blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Miyagawa, K; Endo, M; Takaku, F; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1993-06-01

    We diagnosed a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) on the basis of clinical findings, Ph1 chromosome detected by cytogenetic analysis, and bcr-abl fusion mRNA detected by reverse transcriptase-dependent polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One month after diagnosis, the patient developed extramedullary blast crisis in the lymph nodes, and then medullary blast crisis in the bone marrow, in which different surface markers were shown. Combination chemotherapy with BH-AC, VP16, and mitoxantrone was administered; this resulted in rapid disappearance of the lymphadenopathy, restoration of normal hematopoiesis, and no Ph1 chromosome being detected by cytogenetic analysis. RT-PCR performed to detect the residual Ph1 clone revealed that although the Ph1 clone was preferentially suppressed, it was still residual. The intensive chemotherapy regimen preferentially suppressed the Ph1-positive clone and led to both clinical and cytogenetic remission in this patient with BC of CML; we suggest that RT-PCR is a sensitive and useful method for detecting minimal residual disease during the clinical course of this disease.

  5. Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Nunomura, Yuka; Kokawa, Saki; Kimura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kirino, Yumi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mekata, Hirohisa; Aoki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Mai; Umetsu, Moeko; Morita, Tatsushi; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Asai, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Makino, Shinji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Abi, Ahmad Jan; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2018-05-31

    Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum ; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.

  6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture in the diagnosis of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, M; Cafferkey, M; Corcoran, S; Foran, A; Hapnes, N; LeBlanc, D; McGuinness, C; Nusgen, U; O'Sullivan, N; Cunney, R; Drew, R

    2015-12-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive disease in infants. Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the dltR gene was utilised for the direct detection of GBS DNA in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from infants at an Irish maternity hospital. A retrospective review of laboratory and patient records during the period 2011-2013 was performed in order to evaluate PCR and culture for the diagnosis of invasive GBS disease. A total of 3570 blood and 189 CSF samples from 3510 infants had corresponding culture and PCR results. Culture and PCR exhibited concordance in 3526 GBS-negative samples and 13 (25%) GBS-positive samples (n = 53). Six (11%) and 34 (64%) GBS-positive samples were positive only in culture or PCR, respectively. Culture and PCR identified more GBS-positive infants (n = 47) than PCR (n = 43) or culture (n = 16) alone. Using culture as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for PCR on blood samples were 71.4%, 99.2%, 25% and 99.9%, and for CSF samples, they were 60%, 97.8%, 42.9% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were improved (blood: 84.6% and 55%; CSF: 77.8% and 100%, respectively) when maternal risk factors and other laboratory test results were considered. The findings in this study recommend the use of direct GBS real-time PCR for the diagnosis of GBS infection in infants with a clinical suspicion of invasive disease and as a complement to culture, but should be interpreted in the light of other laboratory and clinical findings.

  7. Quantitative longitudinal interrelationships between brain metabolism and amyloid deposition during a 2-year follow-up in patients with early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Stefan; Yousefi, Behrooz H.; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Klupp, Elisabeth; Rominger, Axel; Foerstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Grimmer, Timo; Drzezga, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Similar regional anatomical distributions were reported for fibrillary amyloid deposition [measured by 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET)] and brain hypometabolism [measured by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET] in numerous Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies evaluating the interrelationships of these two different pathological markers in the same AD population. Our most recent AD study suggested that the longitudinal pattern of hypometabolism anatomically follows the pattern of amyloid deposition with temporal delay, which indicates that neuronal dysfunction may spread within the anatomical pattern of amyloid pathology. Based on this finding we now hypothesize that in early AD patients quantitative longitudinal decline in hypometabolism may be related to the amount of baseline amyloid deposition during a follow-up period of 2 years. Fifteen patients with mild probable AD underwent baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2) examination after 24 ± 2.1 months with [ 18 F]FDG PET, [ 11 C]PIB PET, structural T1-weighted MRI and neuropsychological testing [Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery]. Longitudinal cognitive measures and quantitative PET measures of amyloid deposition and metabolism [standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs)] were obtained using volume of interest (VOI)-based approaches in the frontal-lateral-retrosplenial (FLR) network and in predefined bihemispheric brain regions after partial volume effect (PVE) correction of PET data. Statistical group comparisons (SUVRs and cognitive measures) between patients and 15 well-matched elderly controls who had undergone identical imaging procedures once as well as Pearson's correlation analyses within patients were performed. Group comparison revealed significant cognitive decline and increased mean PIB/decreased FDG SUVRs in the FLR network as well as in several AD-typical regions in

  8. Quantitative longitudinal interrelationships between brain metabolism and amyloid deposition during a 2-year follow-up in patients with early Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Yousefi, Behrooz H.; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Klupp, Elisabeth [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Rominger, Axel [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Foerstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander; Grimmer, Timo [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Similar regional anatomical distributions were reported for fibrillary amyloid deposition [measured by {sup 11}C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography (PET)] and brain hypometabolism [measured by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET] in numerous Alzheimer's disease (AD) studies. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies evaluating the interrelationships of these two different pathological markers in the same AD population. Our most recent AD study suggested that the longitudinal pattern of hypometabolism anatomically follows the pattern of amyloid deposition with temporal delay, which indicates that neuronal dysfunction may spread within the anatomical pattern of amyloid pathology. Based on this finding we now hypothesize that in early AD patients quantitative longitudinal decline in hypometabolism may be related to the amount of baseline amyloid deposition during a follow-up period of 2 years. Fifteen patients with mild probable AD underwent baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2) examination after 24 {+-} 2.1 months with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 11}C]PIB PET, structural T1-weighted MRI and neuropsychological testing [Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery]. Longitudinal cognitive measures and quantitative PET measures of amyloid deposition and metabolism [standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs)] were obtained using volume of interest (VOI)-based approaches in the frontal-lateral-retrosplenial (FLR) network and in predefined bihemispheric brain regions after partial volume effect (PVE) correction of PET data. Statistical group comparisons (SUVRs and cognitive measures) between patients and 15 well-matched elderly controls who had undergone identical imaging procedures once as well as Pearson's correlation analyses within patients were performed. Group comparison revealed significant cognitive decline and increased mean PIB/decreased FDG SUVRs in the FLR network as well as

  9. The TEL-AML1 real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) might replace the antigen receptor-based genomic PCR in clinical minimal residual disease studies in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, V.; Breunis, W. B.; dee, R.; Verhagen, O. J. H. M.; Kroes, W.; van Wering, E. R.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van den Berg, H.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Prospective studies in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have shown that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) using immunoglobin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements as targets can be used to identify patients

  10. Report on waterborne diseases: The polymerase chain reaction for the identification of enteric viruses in water; Rapporto sulle malattie infettive di origine idricamerizzazione a catena per l`identificazione dei virus enterici nell`acqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscillo, M; La Rosa, G [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1995-12-01

    A variety of human infectious diseases are associated with the pollution of water by enteric viruses. The epidemiological data on cases associated with drinking and recreational water show Norwalk, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus and enteroviruses as the etiological agents. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is certainly the most reliable technique available for the rapid identification of these viruses in water samples.

  11. Skin autofluorescence as a measure of advanced glycation endproduct deposition: a novel risk marker in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Andries J; Gerrits, Esther G

    2010-11-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a new method to noninvasively assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in a tissue with low turnover. Recent progress in the clinical application of SAF as a risk marker for diabetic nephropathy as well as cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic end-stage kidney disease, less advanced chronic kidney disease, and renal transplant recipients is reviewed. Experimental studies highlight the fundamental role of the interaction of AGEs with the receptor for AGEs (RAGEs), also called the AGE-RAGE axis, in the pathogenesis of vascular and chronic kidney disease. SAF predicts (cardiovascular) mortality in renal failure and also chronic renal transplant dysfunction. Long-term follow-up results from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and UK Prospective Diabetes Study suggest that AGE accumulation is a key carrier of metabolic memory and oxidative stress. Short-term intervention studies in diabetic nephropathy with thiamine, benfotiamine and angiotensin-receptor blockers aimed at reducing AGE formation have reported mixed results. SAF is a noninvasive marker of AGE accumulation in a tissue with low turnover, and thereby of metabolic memory and oxidative stress. SAF independently predicts cardiovascular and renal risk in diabetes, as well as in chronic kidney disease. Further long-term studies are required to assess the potential benefits of interventions to reduce AGE accumulation.

  12. A Cross-Talk Between Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids and the Host Mucosal Immune System Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Araújo, João Ricardo; Di Santo, James P

    2018-02-15

    Gut microbiota has a fundamental role in the energy homeostasis of the host and is essential for proper "education" of the immune system. Intestinal microbial communities are able to ferment dietary fiber releasing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The SCFAs, particularly butyrate (BT), regulate innate and adaptive immune cell generation, trafficing, and function. For example, BT has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the recruitment and proinflammatory activity of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and effector T cells and by increasing the number and activity of regulatory T cells. Gut microbial dysbiosis, ie, a microbial community imbalance, has been suggested to play a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The relationship between dysbiosis and IBD has been difficult to prove, especially in humans, and is probably complex and dynamic, rather than one of a simple cause and effect relationship. However, IBD patients have dysbiosis with reduced numbers of SCFAs-producing bacteria and reduced BT concentration that is linked to a marked increase in the number of proinflammatory immune cells in the gut mucosa of these patients. Thus, microbial dysbiosis and reduced BT concentration may be a factor in the emergence and severity of IBD. Understanding the relationship between microbial dysbiosis and reduced BT concentration to IBD may lead to novel therapeutic interventions.

  13. Evaluating viral interference between Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Shengqiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous and sequential allantoic cavity inoculations of Specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicken eggs with Influenza virus (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV demonstrated that the interaction of AIV and NDV during co-infection was variable. Our research revisited the replication interference potential of AIV and NDV using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR for AIV and NDV to specifically detect the viral genomes in mixed infections. Results Data from this survey showed that when different doses of NDV (Lasota or F48E8 and AIV (F98 or H5N1 were simultaneously inoculated into embryonating chicken eggs (ECE, interference with the growth of NDV occurred, while interference with the growth of AIV did not occur. When equal amount of the two viruses were sequentially employed, the degree of interference was dependent upon the time of superinfection and the virulence of virus. Conclusion AIV have a negative impact on NDV growth if they are inoculated simultaneously or sequentially and that the degree of interference depended upon the quantity and relative virulence of the virus strains used; however, interference with AIV was not observed. Only if NDV were inoculated at an earlier time will NDV able to interfere with the growth of AIV.

  14. Characterization of a single-chain variable fragment recognizing a linear epitope of aβ: a biotechnical tool for studies on Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dornieden

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with devastating effects. Currently, therapeutic options are limited to symptomatic treatment. For more than a decade, research focused on immunotherapy for the causal treatment of AD. However, clinical trials with active immunization using Aβ encountered severe complications, for example meningoencephalitis. Consequently, attention focused on passive immunization using antibodies. As an alternative to large immunoglobulins (IgGs, Aβ binding single-chain variable fragments (scFvs were used for diagnostic and therapeutic research approaches. scFvs can be expressed in E. coli and may provide improved pharmacokinetic properties like increased blood-brain barrier permeability or reduced side-effects in vivo. In this study, we constructed an scFv from an Aβ binding IgG, designated IC16, which binds the N-terminal region of Aβ (Aβ(1-8. scFv-IC16 was expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized with respect to its interaction with different Aβ species and its influence on Aβ fibril formation. We were able to show that scFv-IC16 strongly influenced the aggregation behavior of Aβ and could be applied as an Aβ detection probe for plaque staining in the brains of transgenic AD model mice. The results indicate potential for therapy and diagnosis of AD.

  15. Detection of tet(M) and tet(O) using the polymerase chain reaction in bacteria isolated from patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, B; Olsen, I; Tenover, F C

    1995-04-01

    The polymerase chain reaction was used to examine 114 tetracycline-resistant anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial isolates from patients with periodontal disease for the tet(M) and tet(O) genes. A 740-base-pair fragment of the tet(M) gene was amplified from 84 of 114 isolates, and a 519-base-pair fragment of the tet(O) gene was amplified from 13 streptococcal isolates. Six of 7 tetracycline-resistant isolates of Veillonella spp. and tetracycline-resistant isolates of Eubacterium spp. (n = 3), Eubacterium saburreum (n = 1), Streptococcus intermedius (n = 5) and Gemella morbillorum (n = 2) all harbored the tet(M) gene. The tet(M) and tet(O) negative as well as selected positive isolates were tested for the tet(K) and tet(L) genes using DNA probes. All isolates of Staphylococcus spp. (n = 11) hybridized with the tet(K) probe. None of the isolates tested hybridized with the probe for tet(L). This is the first report of the tet(M) gene in the facultative bacterium G. morbillorum and in E. saburreum.

  16. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the fungus associated with snake fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohuski, Elizabeth; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Griffin, Kathryn M; Blehert, David S

    2015-04-15

    Fungal skin infections associated with Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a member of the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) complex, have been linked to an increasing number of cases of snake fungal disease (SFD) in captive snakes around the world and in wild snake populations in eastern North America. The emergence of SFD in both captive and wild situations has led to an increased need for tools to better diagnose and study the disease. We developed two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to rapidly detect O. ophiodiicola in clinical samples. One assay targets the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the fungal genome while the other targets the more variable intergenic spacer region (IGS). The PCR assays were qualified using skin samples collected from 50 snakes for which O. ophiodiicola had been previously detected by culture, 20 snakes with gross skin lesions suggestive of SFD but which were culture-negative for O. ophiodiicola, and 16 snakes with no clinical signs of infection. Both assays performed equivalently and proved to be more sensitive than traditional culture methods, detecting O. ophiodiicola in 98% of the culture-positive samples and in 40% of the culture-negative snakes that had clinical signs of SFD. In addition, the assays did not cross-react with a panel of 28 fungal species that are closely related to O. ophiodiicola or that commonly occur on the skin of snakes. The assays did, however, indicate that some asymptomatic snakes (~6%) may harbor low levels of the fungus, and that PCR should be paired with histology when a definitive diagnosis is required. These assays represent the first published methods to detect O. ophiodiicola by real-time PCR. The ITS assay has great utility for assisting with SFD diagnoses whereas the IGS assay offers a valuable tool for research-based applications.

  17. Signaling requirements for Erwinia amylovora-induced disease resistance, callose deposition, and cell growth in the nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight disease in some plants of the Rosaceae family. The nonhost plant Arabidopsis serves as a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of resistance to E. amylovora. Although not yet known to mount gene-for-gene resistance to E. amylovora, we found ...

  18. Skin autofluorescence as a measure of advanced glycation endproduct deposition : a novel risk marker in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Andries J.; Gerrits, Esther G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a new method to noninvasively assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in a tissue with low turnover. Recent progress in the clinical application of SAF as a risk marker for diabetic nephropathy as well as cardiovascular disease in

  19. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  20. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  1. Involvement of receptor tyrosine kinase Tyro3 in amyloidogenic APP processing and β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease known to humankind. It is characterized by brain atrophy, extracellular amyloid plaques, and intracellular neurofibril tangles. β-Amyloid cascade is considered the major causative player in AD. Up until now, the mechanisms underlying the process of Aβ generation and accumulation in the brain have not been well understood. Tyro3 receptor belongs to the TAM receptor subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs. It is specifically expressed in the neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus. In this study, we established a cell model stably expressing APPswe mutants and producing Aβ. We found that overexpression of Tyro3 receptor in the cell model significantly decreased Aβ generation and also down-regulated the expression of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE1. However, the effects of Tyro3 were inhibited by its natural ligand, Gas6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In order to confirm the role of Tyro3 in the progression of AD development, we generated an AD transgenic mouse model accompanied by Tyro3 knockdown. We observed a significant increase in the number of amyloid plaques in the hippocampus in the mouse model. More plaque-associated clusters of astroglia were also detected. The present study may help researchers determine the role of Tyro3 receptor in the neuropathology of AD.

  2. Frequency of Pathogenic Paediatric Bacterial Meningitis in Mozambique: The Critical Role of Multiplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction to Estimate the Burden of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhantumbo, Aquino Albino; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Caireão, Juliana; Munguambe, Alcides Moniz; Comé, Charlotte Elizabeth; Pinto, Gabriela do Carmo; Zimba, Tomás Francisco; Mandomando, Inácio; Semá, Cynthia Baltazar; Dias, Cícero; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2015-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique, acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) represents a main cause of childhood mortality. The burden of ABM is seriously underestimated because of the poor performance of culture sampling, the primary method of ABM surveillance in the region. Low quality cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and frequent consumption of antibiotics prior to sample collection lead to a high rate of false-negative results. To our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the frequency of ABM in Mozambique using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and to compare results to those of culture sampling. Between March 2013 and March 2014, CSF samples were collected at 3 regional hospitals from patients under 5 years of age, who met World Health Organization case definition criteria for ABM. Macroscopic examination, cytochemical study, culture, and qPCR were performed on all samples. A total of 369 CSF samples were collected from children clinically suspected of ABM. qPCR showed a significantly higher detection rate of ABM-causing pathogens when compared to culture (52.3% [193/369] versus 7.3% [27/369], p = 0.000). The frequency of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, group B Streptococci, and Neisseria meningitidis were 32.8% (121⁄369), 12.2%, (45⁄369), 3.0% (16⁄369) and 4.3% (11⁄369), respectively, significantly higher compared to that obtained on culture (p < 0.001 for each). Our findings demonstrate that culture is less effective for the diagnosis of ABM than qPCR. The common use of culture rather than qPCR to identify ABM results in serious underestimation of the burden of the disease, and our findings strongly suggest that qPCR should be incorporated into surveillance activities for ABM. In addition, our data showed that S. pneumoniae represents the most common cause of ABM in children under 5 years of age.

  3. The diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to distinguish intestinal tuberculosis from crohn's disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ting; Fei, Baoying; Zhang, Yu; He, Xujun

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and Crohn's disease (CD) are important differential diagnoses that can be difficult to distinguish. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an efficient and promising tool. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically and objectively assess the potential diagnostic accuracy and clinical value of PCR for MTB in distinguishing ITB from CD. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies, and nine articles with 12 groups of data were identified. The included studies were subjected to quality assessment using the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. The summary estimates were as follows: sensitivity 0.47 (95% CI: 0.42-0.51); specificity 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93-0.97); the positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 10.68 (95% CI: 6.98-16.35); the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.49 (95% CI: 0.33-0.71); and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 21.92 (95% CI: 13.17-36.48). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.9311, with a Q* value of 0.8664. Heterogeneity was found in the NLR. The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated by meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis. The current evidence suggests that PCR for MTB is a promising and highly specific diagnostic method to distinguish ITB from CD. However, physicians should also keep in mind that negative results cannot exclude ITB for its low sensitivity. Additional prospective studies are needed to further evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCR.

  4. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4: a novel biomarker for environmental exposure to particulate air pollution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Yun Lee,1–3 Po-Hao Feng,1,2 Shu-Chuan Ho,4 Kai-Jen Chuang,5,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,3 Chien-Ling Su,2,4 Wen-Te Liu,2,4 Hsiao-Chi Chuang2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 5Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease that is correlated with environmental stress. Particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10 is considered to be a risk factor for COPD development; however, the effects of PM10 on the protein levels in COPD remain unclear. Fifty subjects with COPD and 15 healthy controls were recruited. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins identified immune system process and binding as the most important biological process and molecular function, respectively, in the responses of PM10-exposed patients with COPD. Biomarkers for PM10 in COPD were identified and compared with the same in healthy controls and included proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4, and apolipoprotein F (APOF. PRG4 and ITIH4 were associated with a past 3-year PM10 exposure level. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that ITIH4 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for PM10 exposure (area under the curve [AUC] =0.690, P=0.015 compared with PRG4 (AUC =0.636, P=0.083, APOF (AUC =0.523, P=0.766, 8-isoprostane (AUC =0.563, P=0.405, and C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC =0.634, P=0.086. ITIH4 levels were correlated with CRP (r=0

  5. Value of Tropheryma whipplei quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of Whipple disease: usefulness of saliva and stool specimens for first-line screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollar, Florence; Laouira, Sonia; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2008-09-01

    Whipple disease (WD) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei. WD DNA has been found in stool and saliva specimens from patients and asymptomatic carriers. A total of 4418 samples that were sent to our center for determination of WD were tested by a T. whipplei-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on repetitive sequences. Definite WD was diagnosed in 71 patients, including 55 patients with classic WD (defined by positive results of periodic acid-Schiff staining and/or specific immunohistochemistry of small-bowel biopsy specimens) and 16 patients with localized WD (including patients with endocarditis, neurologic infection, and uveitis). Of the persons without WD, 2.3% had stool specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR and 0.2% had saliva specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR. Diagnosis of WD was likely in patients with positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens (positive predictive value, 95.2%). When the bacterial load was >10(4) colony-forming units per g of stool, the positive predictive value was 100%. A negative result of PCR of a saliva or stool specimen had a negative predictive value of 99.2% for classic WD. For localized WD, positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens had a sensitivity of 58% (compared with 94% for classic WD). The positive predictive value of testing of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine specimens was 100% for each, and the positive predictive value for testing of duodenal biopsy specimens was 97.5%. T. whipplei-specific quantitative PCR of saliva and stool specimens should be performed as first-line noninvasive screening for WD. When the results for both types of specimens are positive, diagnosis of classic WD should be highly suspected, especially if a high bacterial load is detected. Because PCR of saliva and stool specimens lacks sensitivity for determination of localized WD, invasive samples should be tested on the

  6. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  7. The involvement of dityrosine crosslinking in α-synuclein assembly and deposition in Lewy Bodies in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilaly, Youssra K.; Biasetti, Luca; Blakeman, Ben J. F.; Pollack, Saskia J.; Zibaee, Shahin; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Thorpe, Julian R.; Xue, Wei-Feng; Serpell, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by intracellular, insoluble Lewy bodies composed of highly stable α-synuclein (α-syn) amyloid fibrils. α-synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein that has the capacity to assemble to form β-sheet rich fibrils. Oxidiative stress and metal rich environments have been implicated in triggering assembly. Here, we have explored the composition of Lewy bodies in post-mortem tissue using electron microscopy and immunogold labeling and revealed dityrosine crosslinks in Lewy bodies in brain tissue from PD patients. In vitro, we show that dityrosine cross-links in α-syn are formed by covalent ortho-ortho coupling of two tyrosine residues under conditions of oxidative stress by fluorescence and confirmed using mass-spectrometry. A covalently cross-linked dimer isolated by SDS-PAGE and mass analysis showed that dityrosine dimer was formed via the coupling of Y39-Y39 to give a homo dimer peptide that may play a key role in formation of oligomeric and seeds for fibril formation. Atomic force microscopy analysis reveals that the covalent dityrosine contributes to the stabilization of α-syn assemblies. Thus, the presence of oxidative stress induced dityrosine could play an important role in assembly and toxicity of α-syn in PD. PMID:27982082

  8. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cytometric pattern is more accurate than subepithelial deposits of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA for the diagnosis of celiac disease in lymphocytic enteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Bañares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: An increase in CD3+TCRγδ+ and a decrease in CD3- intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL is a characteristic flow cytometric pattern of celiac disease (CD with atrophy. The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of both CD IEL cytometric pattern and anti-TG2 IgA subepithelial deposit analysis (CD IF pattern for diagnosing lymphocytic enteritis due to CD. METHODS: Two-hundred and five patients (144 females who underwent duodenal biopsy for clinical suspicion of CD and positive celiac genetics were prospectively included. Fifty had villous atrophy, 70 lymphocytic enteritis, and 85 normal histology. Eight patients with non-celiac atrophy and 15 with lymphocytic enteritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori acted as control group. Duodenal biopsies were obtained to assess both CD IEL flow cytometric (complete or incomplete and IF patterns. RESULTS: Sensitivity of IF, and complete and incomplete cytometric patterns for CD diagnosis in patients with positive serology (Marsh 1+3 was 92%, 85 and 97% respectively, but only the complete cytometric pattern had 100% specificity. Twelve seropositive and 8 seronegative Marsh 1 patients had a CD diagnosis at inclusion or after gluten free-diet, respectively. CD cytometric pattern showed a better diagnostic performance than both IF pattern and serology for CD diagnosis in lymphocytic enteritis at baseline (95% vs 60% vs 60%, p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the IEL flow cytometric pattern is a fast, accurate method for identifying CD in the initial diagnostic biopsy of patients presenting with lymphocytic enteritis, even in seronegative patients, and seems to be better than anti-TG2 intestinal deposits.

  9. Age-related fat deposition in multifidus muscle could be a marker for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Yoichiro; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Ishibashi, Eriko

    2010-01-01

    Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with visceral obesity, the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and skeletal muscle steatosis in patients with NAFLD has not been established. We evaluated: the relationship between multifidus muscular tissue steatosis, visceral fat accumulation, and biochemical data in a cross-sectional study, and the influence of weight reduction on multifidus muscular tissue steatosis in a longitudinal study. Three hundred thirty-three NAFLD patients were enrolled. Hepatic steatosis, visceral fat area, and the multifidus muscle/subcutaneous fat attenuation ratio (MM/F ratio) were evaluated by computed tomography. To evaluate how weight reduction produced by diet and exercise affected the MM/F ratio, changes in the MM/F ratio were compared between weight reduction and non-weight reduction groups. There was a gender difference in MM/F ratios. The MM/F ratio was significantly correlated with age (male r=0.613, P<0.01; female r=0.440, P<0.01). The MM/F ratio was positively correlated with visceral fat area (male: r=0.262, P<0.01; female: r=0.214, P<0.01). A decrease in the MM/F ratio, concomitant with reduced visceral fat accumulation, led to alleviation of hepatic steatosis in 20 patients with weight reduction, but not in 22 patients without weight reduction. The MM/F ratio was closely related to aging and visceral fat accumulation. The MM/F ratio was improved by weight reduction, indicating that fat accumulation in the multifidus muscle evaluated by computed tomography might be a therapeutic indicator of NAFLD. (author)

  10. In silico designing of therapeutic protein enriched with branched-chain amino acids for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Sunil; Vasu, Prasanna

    2017-09-01

    Leucine, isoleucine, and valine are three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) account for 40-45% of total essential amino acids. BCAA stimulates protein synthesis primarily in skeletal muscles, and it can directly transport to circulatory blood stream bypassing the liver. Hence, a protein enriched with BCAA is an important therapeutic target for the dietary treatment of chronic liver disease. The present study is to design a synthetic protein enriched with BCAA and the challenge is to maximize the BCAA content, keeping the balanced ratio of leucine, isoleucine, valine - 2: 1: 1.2 as specified by WHO/UNU/FAO. Here, we turned the general concept of homology modeling and tried to find a suitable scaffold (α-helix) to host an excess amount of BCAA for increased stability and digestibility. A total of 50 protein models were constructed by using SWISS-MODEL, Modeller 9.17, ProtParam tool, and allergen online tools. Out of 50 different protein models, protein model-50 was found to be best, which had a well-defined 3D structure, good in silico digestibility, balanced ratio of BCAA and showed 65.57% structure identity to the template apo-bovine α-lactalbumin (1F6R). Templates search was performed against PDB using PSI-BLAST, SWISS-MODEL, PROFUNC, I-TASSER, and ConSurf. The secondary structure was predicted by PSSPred, PSIPRED, I-TASSER, PORTER, and SPIDER2. The modeled structure of protein Model-50 was validated by PROCHECK, ERRAT, ProSA, and QMEAN. COACH and ProFUNC tools were performed to determine the functional effects of protein model-50. Overall, the BCAA was enriched from 22 to 56.4% with the balanced ratio of Leu: Ile: Val (2: 1: 1.2). The Ramachandran plot showed 97.7% of the amino acid residues in allowed regions with ERRAT score of 86.05. We have successfully modeled the complete three-dimensional structure of the target protein model-50 using highly reputed computational tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of long and very long chain fatty acids, plasmalogen-C16:0 and phytanic acid as new lipid biomarkers in Tunisian coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Ahmed, Samia; Koubaa, Nadia; Kharroubi, Wafa; Zarrouk, Amira; Mnari, Amira; Batbout, Fethi; Gamra, Habib; Hammami, Sonia; Lizard, Gérard; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Long and very long chain fatty acids (LCFAs and VLCFAs) may play an active role in coronary artery diseases (CAD) etiology. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between LCPUFAs (C20:4n-6; C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3) and VLCSFAs (C22:0, C24:0; and C26:0), as well as markers of peroxisomal integrity evaluated by phytanic acid and plasmalogen-C16:0 (PL-C16:0) in addition to the markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] and conjugated dienes [CD]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) with vascular severity evaluated by Gensini score in order to determine their possible effects on CAD in Tunisian population. Lipidomic strategy based on GC/MS-SIM was used to quantify LCPUFAs, VLCSFAs, and PL-C16:0 in red blood cells of CAD patients, non-CAD patients, and controls. We observed a significant increase in phytanic acid, PL-C16:0 and VLCFAs, particularly C26:0, in CAD group compared to controls. Further our findings showed positive correlations of C26:0 with MDA and with vascular severity score (Gensini score). In addition, a significant negative correlation was shown between hs-CRP and C22:6 n-3 (r=-0.297; p=0.002) and a significant positive association was observed between hs-CRP and C20:4 n-6 levels (r=0.196; p=0.039). Our results show changes in LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs concentrations in RBC among study groups, and suggest alterations in fatty acids metabolism regulated by elongase and desaturase enzymes. The positive correlations of C20:4n-6 and the negative correlations of C22:6n-3, simultaneously with Gensini score and hs-CRP, suggest a link of both inflammation and vascular severity complication of CAD with LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs. Induction of lipid oxidation, can be one of the outcomes of LCFAs and VLCFAs accumulation in vascular tissues and, thus, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Quantification of LCPUFAs and VLCSFAs, phytanic acid and PL-C16:0 simultaneously, would be of great value for the screening of

  12. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  13. (-)-P7C3-S243 Protects a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease From Neuropsychiatric Deficits and Neurodegeneration Without Altering Amyloid Deposition or Reactive Glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Jaymie R; Remy, Matthew T; Cintrón-Pérez, Coral J; El Rassi, Eli; Khan, Michael Z; Dutca, Laura M; Yin, Terry C; McDaniel, Latisha N; Williams, Noelle S; Brat, Daniel J; Pieper, Andrew A

    2017-11-06

    In addition to cognitive deficits, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with other neuropsychiatric symptoms, including severe depression. Indeed, depression often precedes cognitive deficits in patients with AD. Unfortunately, the field has seen only minimal therapeutic advances, underscoring the critical need for new treatments. P7C3 aminopropyl carbazoles promote neuronal survival by enhancing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide flux in injured neurons. Neuroprotection with P7C3 compounds has been demonstrated in preclinical models of neurodegeneration by virtue of promoting neuronal survival independently of early disease-specific pathology, resulting in protection from cognitive deficits and depressive-like behavior. We hypothesize that P7C3 compounds might be uniquely applicable to patients with AD, given the comorbid presentation of depression and cognitive deficits. Aging male and female wild-type and TgF344-AD rats, a well-characterized preclinical AD model, were administered (-)-P7C3-S243 daily for 9 and 18 months, beginning at 6 months of age. Behavioral phenotypes related to cognition and depression were assessed at 15 and 24 months, and brain pathology and biochemistry were assessed at 24 months. (-)-P7C3-S243 safely protected aging male and female wild-type and TgF344-AD rats from cognitive deficits and depressive-like behavior. Depressive-like behavior occurred earlier than cognitive deficits in TgF344-AD rats, consistent with AD in many patients. Treatment with (-)-P7C3-S243 blocked neurodegeneration in TgF344-AD rats, without altering amyloid deposition or indicators of neuroinflammation. Neuronal cell death-specific treatment approaches, such as P7C3 compounds, may represent a new treatment approach for patients experiencing the combination of cognitive deficits and depression associated with AD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A novel mutation in PNPLA2 causes neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy and triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kimihiko; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Izumi, Rumiko; Tateyama, Maki; Kato, Masaaki; Sugimura, Koichiro; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Aoki, Masashi

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in PNPLA2 cause neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) or triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV). We report a 59-year-old patient with NLSDM/TGCV presenting marked asymmetric skeletal myopathy and cardiomyovasculopathy. Skeletal muscle and endomyocardial biopsies showed cytoplasmic vacuoles containing neutral lipid. Gene analysis revealed a novel homozygous mutation (c.576delC) in PNPLA2. We reviewed 37 genetically-proven NLSDM/TGCV cases; median age was 30 years; distribution of myopathy was proximal (69%) and distal predominant (16%); asymmetric myopathy (right>left) was reported in 41% of the patients. Frequently-affected muscles were posterior compartment of leg (75%), shoulder girdle to upper arm (50%), and paraspinal (33%). Skeletal muscle biopsies showed lipid accumulation in 100% and rimmed vacuoles in 22%. Frequent comorbidities were cardiomyopathy (44%), hyperlipidemia (23%), diabetes mellitus (24%), and pancreatitis (14%). PNPLA2 mutations concentrated in Exon 4-7 without apparent genotype-phenotype correlations. To know the characteristic features is essential for the early diagnosis of NLSDM/TGCV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has 31 supernumerary subunits in addition to the 14 conserved from prokaryotes to humans. Multiplicity of structural protein components, as well as of biogenesis factors, makes complex I a sensible pace-...

  16. [Mitochondrial disease due to the deficit of Q-cytochrome C oxidoreductase coenzyme in the respiratory chain. Report of a new case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, S; Lluch, M D; Navarro Quesada, F J; Hevia, A

    1995-01-01

    Reference has been made in the literature of the variability in the clinical presentation of deficiency of complex III of the respiratory chain, identifying up to the moment, four groups, the first of which is characterized by hipotonia and wearness starting at variable ages. We report a new case of mitochondrial myopathy due to deficiency of this complex and included within this first group, and consider the importance of defining the clinical and histochemical characteristics of this polymorphous entity.

  17. CHAINS-PC, Decay Chain Atomic Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CHAINS computes the atom density of members of a single radioactive decay chain. The linearity of the Bateman equations allows tracing of interconnecting chains by manually accumulating results from separate calculations of single chains. Re-entrant loops can be treated as extensions of a single chain. Losses from the chain are also tallied. 2 - Method of solution: The Bateman equations are solved analytically using double-precision arithmetic. Poles are avoided by small alterations of the loss terms. Multigroup fluxes, cross sections, and self-shielding factors entered as input are used to compute the effective specific reaction rates. The atom densities are computed at any specified times. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 100 energy groups, 100 time values, 50 members in a chain

  18. Detection of African swine fever, classical swine fever, and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine oral fluids by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Frederic R; Schroeder, Megan E; Mulhern, Erin L; McIntosh, Michael T; Bounpheng, Mangkey A

    2015-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are highly contagious animal diseases of significant economic importance. Pigs infected with ASF and CSF viruses (ASFV and CSFV) develop clinical signs that may be indistinguishable from other diseases. Likewise, various causes of vesicular disease can mimic clinical signs caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Early detection is critical to limiting the impact and spread of these disease outbreaks, and the ability to perform herd-level surveillance for all 3 diseases rapidly and cost effectively using a single diagnostic sample and test is highly desirable. This study assessed the feasibility of simultaneous ASFV, CSFV, and FMDV detection by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) in swine oral fluids collected through the use of chewing ropes. Animal groups were experimentally infected independently with each virus, observed for clinical signs, and oral fluids collected and tested throughout the course of infection. All animal groups chewed on the ropes readily before and after onset of clinical signs and before onset of lameness or serious clinical signs. ASFV was detected as early as 3 days postinoculation (dpi), 2-3 days before onset of clinical disease; CSFV was detected at 5 dpi, coincident with onset of clinical disease; and FMDV was detected as early as 1 dpi, 1 day before the onset of clinical disease. Equivalent results were observed in 4 independent studies and demonstrate the feasibility of oral fluids and mRT-qPCR for surveillance of ASF, CSF, and FMD in swine populations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Localized Lymph Node Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Dhakal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin-derived light chain amyloidosis can occasionally be associated with localized disease. We present a patient with localized lymph node light chain amyloidosis without an underlying monoclonal protein or lymphoproliferative disorder and review the literature of lymph node amyloidosis discussing work-up and risk factors for systemic progression.

  20. Tracing pathogens in the food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Fratamico, P.M.; McMeekin, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful methods for the detection and investigation of outbreaks of foodborne disease are essential for ensuring consumer safety. Increased understanding of the transmission of pathogens in food chains will also assist efforts to safeguard public health. Tracing pathogens in the food chain

  1. Light chain (AL amyloidosis: update on diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenzweig Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Light chain (AL amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the pathologic production of fibrillar proteins comprised of monoclonal light chains which deposit in tissues and cause organ dysfunction. The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. The goal of treatment is eradication of the monoclonal plasma cell population and suppression of the pathologic light chains which can result in organ improvement and extend patient survival. Standard treatment approaches include high dose melphalan (HDM followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT or oral melphalan with dexamethasone (MDex. The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. A risk adapted approach to SCT followed by novel agents as consolidation reduces treatment related mortality with promising outcomes. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting pathologic plasma cells and amyloid precursor proteins or fibrils are being developed. Referral of patients to specialized centers focusing on AL amyloidosis and conducting clinical trials is essential to improving patient outcomes.

  2. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen P McWilliams-Koeppen

    Full Text Available Light chain (AL amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(PH-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. These data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.

  3. Thermal Stability Threshold for Amyloid Formation in Light Chain Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L. Poshusta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Light chain (AL amyloidosis is a devastating disease characterized by amyloid deposits formed by immunoglobulin light chains. Current available treatments involve conventional chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. We have recently concluded a phase III trial comparing these two treatments. AL amyloidosis patients who achieve hematological complete response (CR do not necessarily achieve organ response regardless of the treatment they received. In order to investigate the possible correlation between amyloid formation kinetics and organ response, we selected AL amyloidosis patients from the trial with kidney involvement and CR after treatment. Six patients were selected and their monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains were characterized. The proteins showed differences in their stability and their kinetics of amyloid formation. A correlation was detected at pH 7.4, showing that less stable proteins are more likely to form amyloid fibrils. AL-T03 is too unstable to form amyloid fibrils at pH 7.4. This protein was found in the only patient in the study that had organ response, suggesting that partially folded species are required for amyloid formation to occur in AL amyloidosis.

  4. Logistic chain modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.

    1995-01-01

    Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to

  5. Elevated Concentrations of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients in Relation to Disease Activity, Inflammatory Status, B Cell Activity and Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Anette H; Lydolph, Magnus; Westergaard, Marie

    2015-01-01

    , FLCs' association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies was examined. METHODS: Using a nephelometric assay, κFLC and λFLC concentrations were quantified in sera from 45 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls. SLE patients with renal insufficiency were excluded in order to preclude high concentrations......OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the concentration of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and investigated its association with various disease parameters in order to evaluate the role of FLCs as a potential biomarker in SLE. Furthermore...... of serum FLCs due to decreased clearance. RESULTS: Serum FLC concentrations were significantly elevated in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (pdisease activity (SLE disease activity...

  6. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  7. Panencephalopathic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with distinct pattern of prion protein deposition in a patient with D178N mutation and homozygosity for valine at codon 129 of the prion protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Gabriella; Indaco, Antonio; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Suardi, Silvia; Finato, Nicoletta; Moretti, Valentino; Micoli, Sandro; Fociani, Paolo; Zerbi, Pietro; Pincherle, Alessandro; Redaelli, Veronica; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    Prion diseases include sporadic, acquired and genetic forms linked to mutations of the prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). In subjects carrying the D178N PRNP mutation, distinct phenotypes can be observed, depending on the methionine/valine codon 129 polymorphism. We present here a 53-year-old woman with D178N mutation in the PRNP gene and homozygosity for valine at codon 129. The disease started at age 47 with memory deficits, progressive cognitive impairment and ataxia. The clinical picture slowly worsened to a state of akinetic mutism in about 2 years and the disease course was 6 years. The neuropathologic examination demonstrated severe diffuse cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss, spongiosis and marked myelin loss and tissue rarefaction in the hemispheric white matter, configuring panencephalopathic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PrP deposition was present in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum with diffuse synaptic-type pattern of immunoreactivity and clusters of countless, small PrP deposits, particularly evident in the lower cortical layers, in the striatum and in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 1 PrP(Sc) (Parchi classification). These findings underline the clear-cut distinction between the neuropathological features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with D178N PRNP mutation and those of fatal familial insomnia. © 2013 International Society of Neuropathology.

  8. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  9. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus in various lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected specific pathogen free chickens by different reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Kusk, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a worldwide distributed immunosuppressive viral disease in young chickens, controlled by vaccination. Emergence of several strains of IBD virus (IBDV) has created a demand for strain-specific diagnostic tools. In the present experiment, five different reverse...... included vaccine strain D78, classical strain Faragher 52/70, and the very virulent Danish strain DK01 The presence of the virus infection was confirmed by histopathologic evaluation of bursa lesions. The largest number of positive samples was obtained with a strain-specific two-step multiplex (MPX) RT...

  10. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  11. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  12. Natural radioactivity in food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnerts, W

    1989-03-01

    A number of longliving and still being produced radioactive isotopes produces well measurable and not to be neglected radiation, by which, via the food chains, plant, animal and man receives a socalled natural radiation dose. Six of the most important isotopes are discussed here. The radioisotopes /sup 14/C and /sup 40/K form part of the most live-necessary elements; they pass without strong enrichment and discrimination through the food chains and form a practically constant part of the living organism. Yet by excessive fertilizing a rather higher content of potassium than necessary is present in plants. Also a higher radiation dose arises from exessive uptake of food. The isotopes of uranium /sup 238/U and radium, /sup 226/Ra, discussed here, occur everywhere in the soil, but locally in very high amounts. They migrate for a very small part into plant and animal, sometimes occur in vegetable food as part of soil particles. Other important isotopes of the uranium families are radioactive lead, /sup 21/0Pb, and polonium, /sup 210/Po, which can be dispersed to a much greater amount than the other isotopes: in the form of the gaseous intermediate product radon, here the isotope /sup 222/Rn. /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po are finally deposited upon plants and other food products. In the hydrosphere /sup 210/Po can be enriched in the food chain from plankton to fish. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs.

  13. Natural radioactivity in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnerts, W.

    1989-01-01

    A number of longliving and still being produced radioactive isotopes produces well measurable and not to be neglected radiation, by which, via the food chains, plant, animal and man receives a socalled natural radiation dose. Six of the most important isotopes are discussed here. The radioisotopes 14 C and 40 K form part of the most live-necessary elements; they pass without strong enrichment and discrimination through the food chains and form a practically constant part of the living organism. Yet by excessive fertilizing a rather higher content of potassium than necessary is present in plants. Also a higher radiation dose arises from exessive uptake of food. The isotopes of uranium 238 U and radium, 226 Ra, discussed here, occur everywhere in the soil, but locally in very high amounts. They migrate for a very small part into plant and animal, sometimes occur in vegetable food as part of soil particles. Other important isotopes of the uranium families are radioactive lead, 21 0Pb, and polonium, 210 Po, which can be dispersed to a much greater amount than the other isotopes: in the form of the gaseous intermediate product radon, here the isotope 222 Rn. 210 Pb and 210 Po are finally deposited upon plants and other food products. In the hydrosphere 210 Po can be enriched in the food chain from plankton to fish. (author). 35 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by β-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R.; Pai, Emil F.; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrPSc). Exposure to PrPSc from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer–octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease. PMID:21041683

  15. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by beta-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R; Pai, Emil F; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-11-16

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrP(Sc)). Exposure to PrP(Sc) from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer-octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease.

  16. Serum levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with systemic disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Data at enrollment in the prospective ASSESS cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Eric Gottenberg

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical and immunological characteristics at enrollment in a large prospective cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS and to investigate the association between serum BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins and systemic disease activity at enrollment.Three hundred and ninety five patients with pSS according to American-European Consensus Criteria were included from fifteen centers of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine in the "Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution of Sjögren's Syndrome" (ASSESS 5-year prospective cohort. At enrollment, serum markers were assessed as well as activity of the disease measured with the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI.Patient median age was 58 (25(th-75(th: 51-67 and median disease duration was 5 (2-9 years. Median ESSDAI at enrollment was 2 (0-7 with 30.9% of patients having features of systemic involvement. Patients with elevated BAFF, beta2-microglobulin and kappa, lambda FLCS had higher ESSDAI scores at enrollment (4 [2]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P = 0.03; 4 [1]-[11] vs 2 [0-7], P< 0.0001; 4 [2]-[10] vs 2 [0-6.6], P< 0.0001 and 4 [2-8.2] vs 2 [0-7.0], P = 0.02, respectively. In multivariate analysis, increased beta2-microglobulin, kappa and lambda FLCs were associated with a higher ESSDAI score. Median BAFF and beta2-microglobulin were higher in the 16 patients with history of lymphoma (1173.3(873.1-3665.5 vs 898.9 (715.9-1187.2 pg/ml, P = 0.01 and 2.6 (2.2-2.9 vs 2.1 (1.8-2.6 mg/l, P = 0.04, respectively.In pSS, higher levels of beta2-microglobulin and free light chains of immunoglobulins are associated with increased systemic disease activity.

  17. Chain transitivity in hyperspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Leobardo; Good, Chris; Puljiz, Mate; Ramírez, Ártico

    2015-01-01

    Given a non-empty compact metric space X and a continuous function f: X → X, we study the dynamics of the induced maps on the hyperspace of non-empty compact subsets of X and on various other invariant subspaces thereof, in particular symmetric products. We show how some important dynamical properties transfer across induced systems. These amongst others include, chain transitivity, chain (weakly) mixing, chain recurrence, exactness by chains. From our main theorem we derive an ε-chain version of Furstenberg’s celebrated 2 implies n Theorem. We also show the implications our results have for dynamics on continua.

  18. Decisive Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Henda, Noomene Ben; Mayr, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We consider qualitative and quantitative verification problems for infinite-state Markov chains. We call a Markov chain decisive w.r.t. a given set of target states F if it almost certainly eventually reaches either F or a state from which F can no longer be reached. While all finite Markov chains are trivially decisive (for every set F), this also holds for many classes of infinite Markov chains. Infinite Markov chains which contain a finite attractor are decisive w.r.t. every set F. In part...

  19. [The value of serum free light chain in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Wen, Y B; Li, H; Su, W; Li, J; Cai, J F; Chen, L M; Li, X M; Li, X W

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum free light chain (FLC) in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS). Methods: Forty-nine hospitalized patients who underwent renal biopsy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Monoclonal gammopathy was detected by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), urine IFE and serum FLC. All patients were classified as MGRS ( n =32) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) ( n =17). Results: Renal lesions in MGRS subgroup included light chain amyloidosis ( n =24, 75.0%), light chain deposition disease ( n =7, 21.9%), and fibrillary glomerulopathy ( n =1, 3.1%). Renal diseases in MGUS subgroup included membranous nephropathy ( n =10), focal segmental glomerulosclerosi (FSGS) ( n =3), diabetic glomerulopathy ( n =1), Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis ( n =1), anti-GBM disease concurrent with membranous nephropathy ( n =1) and glomerulomegaly ( n =1). Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGRS subgroup were 12, 16, 23 and 30, respectively. Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGUS subgroup were 11, 17, 6 and 3, respectively. MGRS and MGUS subgroups differed significantly in positive rate of serum IFE ( P value for MGRS, which was helpful for differential diagnosis of patients who had contraindication to renal biopsy.

  20. Clinical profile of uveitis in Hansen’s disease after completion of treatment – A study of 50 cases using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on aqueous humour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Annamalai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low grade anterior uveitis is the commonest cause of blindness in leprosy. It is usually asymptomatic until the late stages and patients seek help only after irreversible visual loss. We analysed patients who had a recurrence of uveitis after completion of treatment with anti-leprosy drugs and had been proven as histopathologically negative. The presence of chronic uveitis, complications and the extent of ocular damage it may cause, can continue even after treatment, emphasising the importance of follow-up, early detection and treatment. This is a prospective cohort study. Ophthalmic evaluation was performed using slit lamp examination, biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, applanation tonometry, corneal sensation and Schirmer’s test. Split skin microscopy was done to confirm the activity of leprosy. In patients with recalcitrant iridocyclitis, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. The sample was analysed both by smear and polymerase chain reaction. The sequences that were targeted using PCR included genes encoding the DNA of 36-kDa antigen, 18-kDa antigen, 65-kDa antigen and the repetitive sequences among other M. leprae genes. Aqueous aspirate showed copies of mycobacterium leprae DNA in five out of twelve patients with recalcitrant anterior uveitis. Direct smear and staining with Ziehl- Neelson staining for mycobacteria was positive showing both live and dead bacilli. Live bacilli can persist in the aqueous humour even after completion of treatment. In our study this was more frequently observed in tuberculoid leprosy. This is possibly due to an immune mediated response combined with inadequate treatment dose in these patients.

  1. Gushing metal chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  2. Hyperglucagonemia correlates with plasma levels of non-branched-chain amino acids in patients with liver disease independent of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Junker, Anders E; Christensen, Mette; Hædersdal, Sofie; Wibrand, Flemming; Lund, Allan M; Galsgaard, Katrine D; Holst, Jens J; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2018-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) frequently exhibit elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia). Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia may result from elevated levels of plasma amino acids when glucagon's action on hepatic amino acid metabolism is disrupted. We therefore measured plasma levels of glucagon and individual amino acids in patients with and without biopsy-verified NAFLD and with and without type T2D. Fasting levels of amino acids and glucagon in plasma were measured, using validated ELISAs and high-performance liquid chromatography, in obese, middle-aged individuals with I) normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and NAFLD, II) T2D and NAFLD, III) T2D without liver disease, and IV) NGT and no liver disease. Elevated levels of total amino acids were observed in participants with NAFLD and NGT compared with NGT controls (1,310 ± 235 µM vs. 937 ± 281 µM, P = 0.03) and in T2D and NAFLD compared with T2D without liver disease (1,354 ± 329 µM vs. 511 ± 235 µM, P amino acids with known glucagonotropic effects (e.g., glutamine) were increased. Plasma levels of total amino acids correlated to plasma levels of glucagon also when adjusting for body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c ), and cholesterol levels (β = 0.013 ± 0.007, P = 0.024). Elevated plasma levels of total amino acids associate with hyperglucagonemia in NAFLD patients independently of glycemic control, BMI or cholesterol - supporting the potential importance of a "liver-α-cell axis" in which glucagon regulates hepatic amino acid metabolism. Fasting hyperglucagonemia as seen in T2D may therefore represent impaired hepatic glucagon action with increasing amino acids levels. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hypersecretion of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia) has been suggested to be linked to type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that levels of amino acids correlate with levels of glucagon. Hyperglucagonemia

  3. Hyperglucagonemia correlates with plasma levels of non-branched-chain amino acids in patients with liver disease independent of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Junker, Anders E; Christensen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) frequently exhibit elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon (hyperglucagonemia). Hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia may result from elevated levels of plasma amino acids when glucagon's action...... (hyperglucagonemia) has been suggested to be linked to type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that levels of amino acids correlate with levels of glucagon. Hyperglucagonemia may depend on hepatic steatosis rather than type 2 diabetes....... on hepatic amino acid metabolism is disrupted. We therefore measured plasma levels of glucagon and individual amino acids in patients with and without biopsy-verified NAFLD and with and without type T2D. Fasting levels of amino acids and glucagon in plasma were measured, using validated ELISAs and high...

  4. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  5. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  6. Benefits of use, and tolerance of, medium-chain triglyceride medical food in the management of Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective, open-label pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ohnuma, Aiko Toda, Ayako Kimoto, Yuto Takebayashi, Ryoko Higashiyama, Yuko Tagata, Masanobu Ito, Tsuneyoshi Ota, Nobuto Shibata, Heii Arai Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Alzheimer’s Disease Project, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan Objectives: This is the first clinical trial of this type in Japan, designed to analyze two important aspects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD management using medium-chain triglycerides. Axona was administered for 3 months (40 g of powder containing 20 g of caprylic triglycerides. We used an indurating, four-step dose-titration method (from 10 to 40 g per day for 7 days before the trial, and examined the tolerance and adverse effects of this intervention. We also investigated its effect on cognitive function in mild-to-moderate AD patients.Patients and methods: This was a clinical intervention in 22 Japanese patients with sporadic AD at a mild-to-moderate stage (ten females, 12 males, mean age (± standard deviation 63.9 (±8.5 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, 10–25, seven patients were ApoE4-positive. During Axona administration, we examined changes in cognitive function by obtaining MMSE and AD assessment-scale scores. Intolerance and serum ketone concentrations were also examined.Results: The tolerance of Axona was good, without severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. Axona did not improve cognitive function in our sample of AD patients, even in those patients without the ApoE4 allele. However, some ApoE4-negative patients with baseline MMSE score ≥14 showed improvement in their cognitive functions.Conclusion: The modified dose-titration method, starting with a low dose of Axona, decreased gastrointestinal adverse effects in Japanese patients. Axona might be effective for some relatively mildly affected patients with AD (with cognitive function MMSE score of ≥14 and lacking the ApoE4 allele. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, medium-chain triglycerides

  7. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  8. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  9. Markov Tail Chains

    OpenAIRE

    janssen, Anja; Segers, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The extremes of a univariate Markov chain with regularly varying stationary marginal distribution and asymptotically linear behavior are known to exhibit a multiplicative random walk structure called the tail chain. In this paper we extend this fact to Markov chains with multivariate regularly varying marginal distributions in Rd. We analyze both the forward and the backward tail process and show that they mutually determine each other through a kind of adjoint relation. In ...

  10. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  11. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  12. In vitro aggregation behavior of a non-amyloidogenic λ light chain dimer deriving from U266 multiple myeloma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Arosio

    Full Text Available Excessive production of monoclonal light chains due to multiple myeloma can induce aggregation-related disorders, such as light chain amyloidosis (AL and light chain deposition diseases (LCDD. In this work, we produce a non-amyloidogenic IgE λ light chain dimer from human mammalian cells U266, which originated from a patient suffering from multiple myeloma, and we investigate the effect of several physicochemical parameters on the in vitro stability of this protein. The dimer is stable in physiological conditions and aggregation is observed only when strong denaturating conditions are applied (acidic pH with salt at large concentration or heating at melting temperature T(m at pH 7.4. The produced aggregates are spherical, amorphous oligomers. Despite the larger β-sheet content of such oligomers with respect to the native state, they do not bind Congo Red or ThT. The impossibility to obtain fibrils from the light chain dimer suggests that the occurrence of amyloidosis in patients requires the presence of the light chain fragment in the monomer form, while dimer can form only amorphous oligomers or amorphous deposits. No aggregation is observed after denaturant addition at pH 7.4 or at pH 2.0 with low salt concentration, indicating that not a generic unfolding but specific conformational changes are necessary to trigger aggregation. A specific anion effect in increasing the aggregation rate at pH 2.0 is observed according to the following order: SO(4(-≫Cl(->H(2PO(4(-, confirming the peculiar role of sulfate in promoting protein aggregation. It is found that, at least for the investigated case, the mechanism of the sulfate effect is related to protein secondary structure changes induced by anion binding.

  13. Donor genotype in the Interleukin-7 receptor α-chain predicts risk of graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Enevold, Christian; Heilmann, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is challenged by acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD and cGVHD) and viral infections due to long-lasting immunodeficiency. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine essential for de novo T cell generation in thymus.......1-3.8, P = 0.034) and with significantly increased risk of extensive cGVHD (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6, P = 0.025) after adjustment for potential risk factors. In addition, the TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection post-transplant (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-4.3, P.......7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.3, P = 0.0027) and increased treatment-related mortality (HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.0, P = 0.0047), but was not associated with the risk of relapse (P = 0.35). In conclusion, the IL-7Rα rs6897932 genotype of the donor is predictive of aGVHD and cGVHD, CMV infection, and mortality...

  14. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  15. Glomerulonefritis fibrilar: Una rara forma de enfermedad glomerular por depósitos organizados Fibrillary glomerulo-nephritis: A rare form of glomerular disease with organized deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta B. Cabrera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de una mujer de 67 años de edad que consultó por debilidad y astenia, constatándose proteinuria de rango nefrótico y dislipemia. Se realizó punción para biopsia renal, la que se analizó por microscopia óptica, inmunofluorescencia y microscopia electrónica de transmisión. El análisis ultra-estructural reveló la existencia de depósitos fibrilares organizados, rectos, no ramificados, cuyo espesor osciló entre 15 y 20 nm. Dichas fibrillas ópticamente se veían como una expansión mesangial discretamente nodular, ligeramente PAS positiva, rojo Congo negativa y débilmente positiva para IgG. El diagnóstico fue glomerulonefritis fibrilar. Las enfermedades glomerulares por depósitos organizados pueden exhibir superposición sindrómica e histopatológica. Por tal motivo, resulta de importancia una primera separación entre aquellas rojo Congo positivas o negativas, siendo en este último caso la microscopia electrónica de transmisión la que diferencia dos entidades: la glomerulonefritis fibrilar y la glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide. Esta diferencia se apoya no sólo en las características ultraestructurales, sino en sus características clínicas. La glomerulonefritis inmunotactoide muestra una fuerte asociación con procesos linfoproliferativos, a diferencia de lo que ocurre con la glomerulonefritis fibrilar.We describe the case of a 67 year-old female who presented weakness and fatigue. Laboratory data showed nephrotic level of proteinuria and dyslipidemia. A renal biopsy was performed, and studied by light microscopy, immuno-fluorescence and electron microscopy. Ultra-structural analysis revealed the existence of organized fibrillary deposits, straight and without ramifications, the thickness of which ranged from 15 to 20 nm. These fibres were identified, by light microscopy, as slightly nodular mesangial expansions PAS positive, Congo red negative and weakly positive for IgG. Given the above findings, the

  16. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  17. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  18. Critical Chain Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  19. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...

  20. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  1. Elevated Concentrations of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients in Relation to Disease Activity, Inflammatory Status, B Cell Activity and Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette H Draborg

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the concentration of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and investigated its association with various disease parameters in order to evaluate the role of FLCs as a potential biomarker in SLE. Furthermore, FLCs' association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies was examined.Using a nephelometric assay, κFLC and λFLC concentrations were quantified in sera from 45 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls. SLE patients with renal insufficiency were excluded in order to preclude high concentrations of serum FLCs due to decreased clearance.Serum FLC concentrations were significantly elevated in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001 also after adjusting for Ig levels (p<0.0001. The concentration of serum FLCs correlated with a global disease activity (SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI score of the SLE patients (r = 0.399, p = 0.007. Furthermore, concentrations of FLCs correlated with titers of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.383, p = 0.009, and FLC levels and SLEDAI scores correlated in the anti-dsDNA-positive SLE patients, but not in anti-dsDNA-negative SLE patients. Total immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA concentrations correlated with FLC concentrations and elevated FLC levels were additionally shown to associate with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein and also with complement consumption determined by low C4 in SLE patients. Collectively, results indicated that elevated serum FLCs reflects increased B cell activity in relation to inflammation. SLE patients had an increased seropositivity of EBV-directed antibodies that did not associate with elevated FLC concentrations. An explanation for this could be that serum FLC concentrations reflect the current EBV activity (reactivation whereas EBV-directed antibodies reflect the extent of previous infection/reactivations.SLE patients have elevated concentrations of serum FLCs that correlate with global disease

  2. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  3. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  4. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang

    2014-01-01

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm −1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  5. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  6. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  7. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  8. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  9. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated dual-phase 18 F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase 18 F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion 18 F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid 18 F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and 18 F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). 18 F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and 18 F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when 18 F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately reaching the maximum burden in advanced

  10. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Jung-Lung [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Section of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China); Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Humanities in Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China)

    2016-07-15

    We investigated dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase {sup 18}F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and {sup 18}F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately

  11. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  12. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  13. Moldova - Value Chain Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...

  14. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  15. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  16. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  17. PPARγ agonist pioglitazone improves cerebellar dysfunction at pre-Aβ deposition stage in APPswe/PS1dE9 Alzheimer's disease model mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toba, Junya; Nikkuni, Miyu [Laboratory for Molecular Brain Science, Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 162-8480 Japan (Japan); Ishizeki, Masato [Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 162-8480 Japan (Japan); Yoshii, Aya; Watamura, Naoto [Laboratory for Molecular Brain Science, Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 162-8480 Japan (Japan); Inoue, Takafumi [Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 162-8480 Japan (Japan); Ohshima, Toshio, E-mail: ohshima@waseda.jp [Laboratory for Molecular Brain Science, Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, 162-8480 Japan (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the best known neurodegenerative diseases; it causes dementia and its pathological features include accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Elevated Cdk5 activity and CRMP2 phosphorylation have been reported in the brains of AD model mice at the early stage of the disease, but the significance thereof in human AD remains unelucidated. We have recently reported that Aβ accumulation in the cerebellum of AD model APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and cerebellar dysfunctions, such as impairment of motor coordination ability and long-term depression (LTD) induction, at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage. In the present study, we found increased phosphorylation levels of CRMP2 as well as increased p35 protein levels in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. Interestingly, we show that pioglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, normalized the p35 protein and CRMP2 phosphorylation levels in the cerebellum. Impaired motor coordination ability and LTD in APP/PS1 mice were ameliorated by pioglitazone treatment at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage. These results suggest a correlation between CRMP2 phosphorylation and AD pathophysiology, and indicate the effectiveness of pioglitazone treatment at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage in AD model mice. -- Highlights: •Phosphorylation level of CRMP2 increased in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. •p35 protein levels increased in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. •Pioglitazone treatment improved cerebellar dysfunction of APP/PS1 mice.

  18. PPARγ agonist pioglitazone improves cerebellar dysfunction at pre-Aβ deposition stage in APPswe/PS1dE9 Alzheimer's disease model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toba, Junya; Nikkuni, Miyu; Ishizeki, Masato; Yoshii, Aya; Watamura, Naoto; Inoue, Takafumi; Ohshima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the best known neurodegenerative diseases; it causes dementia and its pathological features include accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Elevated Cdk5 activity and CRMP2 phosphorylation have been reported in the brains of AD model mice at the early stage of the disease, but the significance thereof in human AD remains unelucidated. We have recently reported that Aβ accumulation in the cerebellum of AD model APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, and cerebellar dysfunctions, such as impairment of motor coordination ability and long-term depression (LTD) induction, at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage. In the present study, we found increased phosphorylation levels of CRMP2 as well as increased p35 protein levels in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. Interestingly, we show that pioglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, normalized the p35 protein and CRMP2 phosphorylation levels in the cerebellum. Impaired motor coordination ability and LTD in APP/PS1 mice were ameliorated by pioglitazone treatment at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage. These results suggest a correlation between CRMP2 phosphorylation and AD pathophysiology, and indicate the effectiveness of pioglitazone treatment at the pre-Aβ accumulation stage in AD model mice. -- Highlights: •Phosphorylation level of CRMP2 increased in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. •p35 protein levels increased in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice. •Pioglitazone treatment improved cerebellar dysfunction of APP/PS1 mice.

  19. Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Ryan, Lawrence M; Masuda, Ikuko

    2002-12-01

    Excess accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) in aged human cartilage is crucial in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal formation in cartilage matrix. Two sources of ePPi are ePPi-generating ectoenzymes (NTPPPH) and extracellular transport of intracellular PPi by ANK. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of NTPPPH and ANK in ePPi elaboration, by investigating expression of NTPPPH enzymes (cartilage intermediate-layer protein [CILP] and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 [PC-1]) and ANK in human chondrocytes from osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage containing CPPD crystals and without crystals. Chondrocytes were harvested from knee cartilage at the time of arthroplasty (OA with CPPD crystals [CPPD], n = 8; OA without crystals [OA], n = 10). Normal adult human chondrocytes (n = 1) were used as a control. Chondrocytes were cultured with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), which stimulates ePPi elaboration, and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which inhibits ePPi elaboration. NTPPPH and ePPi were measured in the media at 48 hours. Media CILP, PC-1, and ANK were determined by dot-immunoblot analysis. Chondrocyte messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to study expression of mRNA for CILP, PC-1, and ANK. NTPPPH and ANK mRNA and protein were also studied in fresh frozen cartilage. Basal ePPi elaboration and NTPPPH activity in conditioned media from CPPD chondrocytes were elevated compared with normal chondrocytes, and tended to be higher compared with OA chondrocytes. Basal expression of mRNA for CILP (chondrocytes) and ANK (cartilage) was higher in both CPPD chondrocytes and CPPD cartilage extract than in OA or normal samples. PC-1 mRNA was less abundant in CPPD chondrocytes and cartilage extract than in OA chondrocytes and extract, although the difference was not significant. CILP, PC-1, and ANK protein levels were similar in CPPD, OA, and normal chondrocytes

  20. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  1. Supply chain risk management: outlining an agenda for future research.

    OpenAIRE

    Jüttner, Uta; Peck, Helen; Christopher, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the issue of supply chain risk has been pushed to the fore, initially by fears related to possible disruptions from the much publicised ‘millennium bug’. Y2K passed seemingly without incident, though the widespread disruptions caused by fuel protests and then Foot and Mouth Disease in the UK, and by terrorist attacks on the USA have underlined the vulnerability of modern supply chains. Despite increasing awareness among practitioners, the concepts of supply chain vulnerabi...

  2. Quantification of beta A4 protein deposition in the medial temporal lobe: a comparison of Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Lewy body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentleman, S M; Williams, B; Royston, M C; Jagoe, R; Clinton, J; Perry, R H; Ince, P G; Allsop, D; Polak, J M; Roberts, G W

    1992-08-03

    The distribution of beta-amyloid protein (beta A4) was examined in the medial temporal lobes from cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 13), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) (n = 12) and age matched controls (n = 9). Using a previously described image analysis technique the extent of beta A4 pathology was determined in ten distinct anatomical sites within the medial temporal lobe. AD and SDLT cases contained very similar amounts of beta A4 in the areas sampled and both contained significantly more beta A4 than the age matched controls, particularly in the dentate and parahippocampal gyri. The similarity of the beta A4 load in the two conditions is in contrast to reported differences in the number of neurofibrillary tangles which can be observed. It is suggested that AD and SDLT represent a spectrum of pathology which centres around the aberrant processing of the beta A4 precursor protein.

  3. Evidence that a synthetic amyloid-ß oligomer-binding peptide (ABP) targets amyloid-ß deposits in transgenic mouse brain and human Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Balu; Ito, Shingo; Atkinson, Trevor; Gaudet, Chantal; Ménard, Michel; Brown, Leslie; Whitfield, James

    2014-03-14

    The synthetic ~5 kDa ABP (amyloid-ß binding peptide) consists of a region of the 228 kDa human pericentrioloar material-1 (PCM-1) protein that selectively and avidly binds in vitro Aβ1-42 oligomers, believed to be key co-drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not monomers (Chakravarthy et al., (2013) [3]). ABP also prevents Aß1-42 from triggering the apoptotic death of cultured human SHSY5Y neuroblasts, likely by sequestering Aß oligomers, suggesting that it might be a potential AD therapeutic. Here we support this possibility by showing that ABP also recognizes and binds Aβ1-42 aggregates in sections of cortices and hippocampi from brains of AD transgenic mice and human AD patients. More importantly, ABP targets Aβ1-42 aggregates when microinjected into the hippocampi of the brains of live AD transgenic mice. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity analysis of the immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene in Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nu tom

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... related industries and supply chains, such as hatcheries, feed manufacturers ... system has a high risk of disease outbreaks. The bulk of ...... immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in zebrafish: identification and expression of a ...

  5. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  6. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  7. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  8. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data.

  9. Nodal-chain metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, QuanSheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A

    2016-10-06

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain-a chain of connected loops in momentum space-along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF 4 ), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF 4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  10. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Bate, C.; van Gool, W. A.; Hoozemans, J. J. M.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Veerhuis, R.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion disease are characterized neuropathologically by extracellular deposits of Abeta and PrP amyloid fibrils, respectively. In both disorders, these cerebral amyloid deposits are co-localized with a broad variety of inflammation-related proteins (complement factors,

  11. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  12. Chain inflation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialva, Diego; Danielsson, Ulf H

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents an in-depth treatment of the chain inflation scenario. We fully determine the evolution of the universe in the model, the conditions necessary in order to have a successful inflationary period, and the matching with the observational results regarding the cosmological perturbations. We study in great detail, and in general, the dynamics of the background, as well as the mechanism of generation of the perturbations. We also find an explicit formula for the spectrum of adiabatic perturbations. Our results prove that chain inflation is a viable model for solving the horizon, entropy and flatness problems of standard cosmology and for generating the right amount of adiabatic cosmological perturbations. The results are radically different from those found in previous works on the subject. Finally, we argue that there is a natural way to embed chain inflation into flux compactified string theory. We discuss the details of the implementation and how to fit observations

  13. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  14. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  15. Alternative value chains for rare earths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika; Fold, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 peak in rare earth element (REE) prices revealed a vast knowledge gap on the REE-based industry considered to be almost monopolized by Chinese players. A global value chain (GVC) framework is used to provide an understanding of value-adding segments of REE in their transformation from mine...... to market but inquiries on the currently most-advanced company strategies for alternative REE supplies form the cornerstone of this paper. The Anglo-REE deposit developer strategies are aligned with the value-adding segments and different approaches to integration and co-optation of REE processing...

  16. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  17. Solitons in Granular Chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manciu, M.; Sen, S.; Hurd, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors consider a chain of elastic (Hertzian) grains that repel upon contact according to the potential V = adelta u , u > 2, where delta is the overlap between the grains. They present numerical and analytical results to show that an impulse initiated at an end of a chain of Hertzian grains in contact eventually propagates as a soliton for all n > 2 and that no solitons are possible for n le 2. Unlike continuous, they find that colliding solitons in discrete media initiative multiple weak solitons at the point of crossing

  18. Nuclear safety chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.C.; Eames, G.F.; Mayell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    An original scheme has been developed for expressing the complex interrelationships associated with the engineered safeguards provided for a nuclear power station. This management tool, based upon network diagrams called Nuclear Safety Chains, looks at the function required of a particular item of safety plant, defines all of the vital supplies and support features necessary for successful operation, and expresses them in visual form, to facilitate analysis and optimisation for operations and maintenance staff. The safety chains are confined to manual schemes at present, although they are designed to be compatible with modern computer techniques. Their usefulness with any routine maintenance planning application on high technology plant is already being appreciated. (author)

  19. Markov set-chains

    CERN Document Server

    Hartfiel, Darald J

    1998-01-01

    In this study extending classical Markov chain theory to handle fluctuating transition matrices, the author develops a theory of Markov set-chains and provides numerous examples showing how that theory can be applied. Chapters are concluded with a discussion of related research. Readers who can benefit from this monograph are those interested in, or involved with, systems whose data is imprecise or that fluctuate with time. A background equivalent to a course in linear algebra and one in probability theory should be sufficient.

  20. The transfer of radio-active products through food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The food chain mechanism on dry land is considered. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are compared and a fuller investigation of 90 Sr deposition on soils. Calculated values of annual mean deposition of 90 Sr, in mCi/Km 2 , and content of milk, in pCi/gCa, from world wide fallout, 1958-75, in the UK agrees well with those observed by within 10%. The significance of radiation doses received through the food chain are discussed. The total estimated average exposure of members of the UK to natural background radiation in 1977 was 1100μSv, of which 0.2% was due to the discharge of radioactive materials into the environment. (U.K.)

  1. The design of supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature study Abstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, lead time and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design, identifies methods, theories and objectives in the existing literature. Describes the concept external specificity and how it’s used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream, archetypes of risk minimal and maximal desi...

  2. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  3. Hepatic fat quantification using chemical shift MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the presence of hepatic iron deposition: validation in phantoms and in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Soo; Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Seong Who; Byun, Jae Ho; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Moon-Gyu; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2011-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of four chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (CS-MRI) analysis methods and MR spectroscopy (MRS) with and without T2-correction in fat quantification in the presence of excess iron. CS-MRI with six opposed- and in-phase acquisitions and MRS with five-echo acquisitions (TEs of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 msec) were performed at 1.5 T on phantoms containing various fat fractions (FFs), on phantoms containing various iron concentrations, and in 18 patients with chronic liver disease. For CS-MRI, FFs were estimated with the dual-echo method, with two T2*-correction methods (triple- and multiecho), and with multiinterference methods that corrected for both T2* and spectral interference effects. For MRS, FF was estimated without T2-correction (single-echo MRS) and with T2-correction (multiecho MRS). In the phantoms, T2*- or T2-correction methods for CS-MRI and MRS provided unbiased estimations of FFs (mean bias, -1.1% to 0.5%) regardless of iron concentration, whereas the dual-echo method (-5.5% to -8.4%) and single-echo MRS (12.1% to 37.3%) resulted in large biases in FFs. In patients, the FFs estimated with triple-echo (R = 0.98), multiecho (R = 0.99), and multiinterference (R = 0.99) methods had stronger correlations with multiecho MRS FFs than with the dual-echo method (R = 0.86; P ≤ 0.011). The FFs estimated with multiinterference method showed the closest agreement with multiecho MRS FFs (the 95% limit-of-agreement, -0.2 ± 1.1). T2*- or T2-correction methods are effective in correcting the confounding effects of iron, enabling an accurate fat quantification throughout a wide range of iron concentrations. Spectral modeling of fat may further improve the accuracy of CS-MRI in fat quantification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Standard handbook of chains chains for power transmission and material handling

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives

  5. Selective metal-vapor deposition on solvent evaporated polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsujioka@cc.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp

    2015-12-31

    We report a selective metal-vapor deposition phenomenon based on solvent printing and evaporation on polymer surfaces and propose a method to prepare fine metal patterns using maskless vacuum deposition. Evaporation of the solvent molecules from the surface caused large free volumes between surface polymer chains and resulted in high mobility of the chains, enhancing metal-vapor atom desorption from the surface. This phenomenon was applied to prepare metal patterns on the polymer surface using solvent printing and maskless metal vacuum deposition. Metal patterns with high resolution of micron scale were obtained for various metal species and semiconductor polymer substrates including poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). - Highlights: • Selective metal-vapor deposition using solvent evaporation on polymer was attained. • Metal patterns with high resolution were obtained for various metal species. • This method can be applied to achieve fine metal-electrodes for polymer electronics.

  6. Self-assembly of long chain fatty acids: Effect of a methyl branch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljeblad, Jonathan F. D.; Tyrode, Eric; Thormann, Esben

    2014-01-01

    chains of the straight chain fatty acids appear to be oriented perpendicular to the sample surface, based on an orientational analysis of VSFS data and the odd/even effect. In addition, the selection of the subphase (neat water or CdCl2 containing water buffered to pH 6.0) used for the LB-deposition has...

  7. Development Value Chains meet Business Supply Chains : The concept of Global Value Chains unraveled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); S.R. Vellema (Sietze)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractValue chain promotion is considered a key element of private sector development strategies and pro-poor growth. However, (value) chain concepts are rather complex and unclear. This paper unravels the concept of global value chains and studies the diversity of key value chain-related

  8. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  9. Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be obtained as a limiting value of a sample path of a suitable ... makes a mathematical model of chance and deals with the problem by .... Is the Markov chain aperiodic? It is! Here is how you can see it. Suppose that after you do the cut, you hold the top half in your right hand, and the bottom half in your left. Then there.

  10. Serum Free Light Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return ... the free light chains have a much shorter half-life (3-5 hours) than ... cell disorders, the test is also used for assessing response and minimal ...

  11. Galileo Chain Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This relatively rare thermometer has a rather unusual display: lower temperatures are located at the top of the scale, higher ones at the bottom. A sphere on a chain floats in a suitable liquid, sinking at high temperatures when the density of the liquid decreases and rising in the increased density at low temperatures. With reasonable effort and…

  12. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  13. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  14. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  15. Perturbed Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We study irreducible time-homogenous Markov chains with finite state space in discrete time. We obtain results on the sensitivity of the stationary distribution and other statistical quantities with respect to perturbations of the transition matrix. We define a new closeness relation between transition matrices, and use graph-theoretic techniques, in contrast with the matrix analysis techniques previously used.

  16. Economy, market and chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects

  17. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  18. Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Markov Chain Monte Carlo - Examples. Arnab Chakraborty. General Article Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 25-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/03/0025-0034. Keywords.

  19. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  20. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...

  1. The design of supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....

  2. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  3. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  4. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  5. The IASI detection chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Patrick; Fleury, Joel; Le Naour, Claire; Bernard, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The presentation will describe the spectrometer detection chain architecture, composed by three different detectors cooled in a passive cryo-cooler (so called CBS : Cold Box Subsystem) and associated analog electronics up to digital conversion. It will mainly focus on design choices with regards to environment constraints, implemented technologies, and associated performances. CNES is leading the IASI program in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE responsible, notably, of the detection chain architecture. SAGEM SA provides the detector package (so called CAU : Cold Acquisition Unit).

  6. Sympathetic chain Schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.

    2009-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare, benign, slowly growing tumors arising from Schwann cells that line nerve sheaths. Schwannomas arising from the cervical sympathetic chain are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with only an asymptomatic neck mass. Physical examination revealed a left sided Horner syndrome and a neck mass with transmitted pulsation and anterior displacement of the carotid artery. Computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined non-enhancing mass with vascular displacement. The nerve of origin of this encapsulated tumor was the sympathetic chain. The tumor was excised completely intact. The pathologic diagnosis was Schwannoma (Antoni type A and Antoni type B). The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 14 months with persistence of asymptomatic left sided Horner syndrome. The clinical, radiological and pathological evaluations, therapy and postoperative complications of this tumor are discussed. (author)

  7. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  8. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  9. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  10. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  11. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Leonie C. E.; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on port supply chain integration to strengthen operational and business performance. We provide a structured and comprehensive method to enable port supply chain integration and demonstrate its applicability to the biofuel supply chain. We define the value proposition, role,

  12. The innovation value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  13. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  14. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.

  15. Pairwise Choice Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ragain, Stephen; Ugander, Johan

    2016-01-01

    As datasets capturing human choices grow in richness and scale---particularly in online domains---there is an increasing need for choice models that escape traditional choice-theoretic axioms such as regularity, stochastic transitivity, and Luce's choice axiom. In this work we introduce the Pairwise Choice Markov Chain (PCMC) model of discrete choice, an inferentially tractable model that does not assume any of the above axioms while still satisfying the foundational axiom of uniform expansio...

  16. Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...

  17. Approximate quantum Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, David

    2018-01-01

    This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple ma...

  18. The coprime quantum chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussardo, G.; Giudici, G.; Viti, J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we introduce and study the coprime quantum chain, i.e. a strongly correlated quantum system defined in terms of the integer eigenvalues n i of the occupation number operators at each site of a chain of length M. The n i ’s take value in the interval [2,q] and may be regarded as S z eigenvalues in the spin representation j  =  (q  -  2)/2. The distinctive interaction of the model is based on the coprimality matrix \\boldsymbolΦ : for the ferromagnetic case, this matrix assigns lower energy to configurations where occupation numbers n i and n i+1 of neighbouring sites share a common divisor, while for the anti-ferromagnetic case it assigns a lower energy to configurations where n i and n i+1 are coprime. The coprime chain, both in the ferro and anti-ferromagnetic cases, may present an exponential number of ground states whose values can be exactly computed by means of graph theoretical tools. In the ferromagnetic case there are generally also frustration phenomena. A fine tuning of local operators may lift the exponential ground state degeneracy and, according to which operators are switched on, the system may be driven into different classes of universality, among which the Ising or Potts universality class. The paper also contains an appendix by Don Zagier on the exact eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the coprimality matrix in the limit q\\to ∞ .

  19. Physiological aspects of forest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Many kinds of forest disease having the most varied causes are currently classified as 'forest die-back'. These include for one part diseases of obvious etiology: infectious diseases, damage from frost and drought, as well as harmful effects of defined air pollutants from known sources. But apart from this, a fast growing tendency is noted for extensive damage to appear whose origin is not yet clearly elucidated and which are probably the result of many factors, in other words, which can be termed as 'chain disease'. A striking fact is that any scientist who has so far attributed that last-mentioned disease condition of forests to any single decisive cause, has chosen one from his own specific scientific field. Physiologic-biochemical analysis of the damage symptoms is impaired by the fact that trees are, for obvious biological reasons, difficult objects for providing precise data. Yet reliable statements can be made on the paths by which wet and dry depositions penetrate into the plant organs, the penetration of pollutants into the cell, their points of attack in cells and tissue (above all photosynthesis, material transport, and hormone balance), and their influence on the correlations between the individual organs. Particular attention should be paid to possible or indirect effects on the mycorrhiza of forest trees, i.e. on the symbiosis between roots and fungi. The physiologic-biochemical investigations and considerations reported provide circumstantial evidence, but no proof regarding the causes hitherto unexplained. (orig.) [de

  20. Permissible annual depositions and radionuclide concentrations in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Golovko, M.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    It is established that it necessary to take into account the other ways of radionuclide intake apart from the inhalation one when determining the standards for radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric air. Whereby it is proposed to standardize annual depositions rather than permissible concentration in the atmospheric air for the ways related to radionuclide releases on the ground surface, which is explained by ambiguity of their dry deposition rate from the air. Formulae and results of calculation of standard characteristics are presented. The permissible radionuclide depositions, related to the intake through food chains are calculated with account for diet diversity, agroclimatic and phenological parameters in different regions of the country

  1. The deposit financing gap: Another Dutch disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, H.H.M.; Muysken, J.; Sleijpen, O.C.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades the Netherlands have experienced an increase in real-estate prices, accompanied by an increase in mortgages and a marked decline in household savings. As a consequence banks are faced with a large retail funding gap: outstanding mortgage debt is insufficiently matched by

  2. The deposit financing gap: another Dutch disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, H.H.M.; Muysken, J.; Sleijpen, O.C.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the last 2 decades, the Netherlands has experienced an increase in real-estate prices, accompanied by an increase in mortgages and a marked decline in household savings. As a consequence, banks are faced with a large retail funding gap: outstanding mortgage debt is insufficiently matched by

  3. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  4. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  5. Dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: dry deposition, oil shale fugitive air emissions, particle resuspension and translocation, theoretical studies and applications, and processing of emissions by clouds and precipitation. The concentration of contaminant species in air is governed by the rate of input from sources, the rate of dilution or dispersion as a result of air turbulence, and the rate of removal to the surface by wet and dry deposition processes. Once on the surface, contaminants also may be resuspended, depending on meteorological and surface conditions. An understanding of these processes is necessary for accurate prediction of exposures of hazardous or harmful contaminants to humans, animals, and crops. In the field, plume dispersion and plume depletion by dry deposition were studied by the use of tracers. Dry deposition was investigated for particles of both respiration and inhalation interest. Complementary dry deposition studies of particles to rock canopies were conducted under controlled conditions in a wind tunnel. Because of increasing concern about hazardous, organic gases in the atmosphere some limited investigations of the dry deposition of nitrobenzene to a lichen mat were conducted in a stirred chamber. Resuspension was also studied using tracers and contaminated surfaces and in the wind tunnel. The objective of the resuspension studies was to develop and verify models for predicting the airborne concentrations of contaminants over areas with surface contamination, develop resuspension rate predictors for downwind transport, and develop predictors for resuspension input to the food chain. These models will be of particular relevance to the evaluation of deposition and resuspension of both radionuclides and chemical contaminants

  6. A chain of FPU cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, F.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the classical Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chain, the inhomogeneous FPU chain shows nearly all the principal resonances. Using this fact, we can construct a periodic FPU chain of low dimension, for instance a FPU cell of four degrees-of-freedom, that can be used as a building block for a

  7. Designing structural supply chain flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulinski, Ksawery Jan

    2012-01-01

    In a continuously changing business environment the role of supply chain flexibility is constantly increasing. A flexible supply chain can ensure survival in quickly changing market conditions as well as enable sustainable growth. This thesis explores the topic of supply chain flexibility with focus

  8. Process Algebra and Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Hermanns, H.; Brinksma, Hendrik; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    This paper surveys and relates the basic concepts of process algebra and the modelling of continuous time Markov chains. It provides basic introductions to both fields, where we also study the Markov chains from an algebraic perspective, viz. that of Markov chain algebra. We then proceed to study

  9. Process algebra and Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, E.; Hermanns, H.; Brinksma, E.; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys and relates the basic concepts of process algebra and the modelling of continuous time Markov chains. It provides basic introductions to both fields, where we also study the Markov chains from an algebraic perspective, viz. that of Markov chain algebra. We then proceed to study

  10. Risk Management in Logystics Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Butrin, Andrey; Vikulov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to risk management of supply chain. The authors considered indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers.

  11. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model can be used to develop an Academic Chain Operation Reference Model.

  12. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  13. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  14. Coronary triglyceride deposition in contemporary advanced diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Mano, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Yamada, Sohsuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Kotani, Jun-ichi; Kato, Seiya; Nagasaka, Hironori; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue

    2014-07-01

    It is of importance to clarify pathophysiology of diabetic heart diseases such as heart failure and coronary artery disease. We reported a novel clinical phenotype called triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV), showing aberrant TG accumulation in both coronary arteries and myocardium, in a cardiac transplant recipient. Here, we examined autopsied diabetics for TG deposition in cardiovasculature. Consecutive series of hearts from advanced diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects (DM group: DMG, n = 20) and those from age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls (non DM group: NDMG, n = 20) were examined. The diagnostic criteria of 'advanced DM' was made based on 2014 Clinical Practice Recommendations proposed by the American Diabetes Association. The mean duration of DM was 15.8 years. All DMG suffered from heart diseases including coronary artery diseases and 14 subjects had multi-vessel disease. Tissue TG contents were measured biochemically. Coronary arterial TG contents was significantly higher in DMG compared with NDMG. Spatial distribution of TG in transverse sections of coronary arteries showed TG deposition mainly in smooth muscle cells by Imaging Mass Spectrometry. Abundant TG deposition in coronary artery might be associated with advanced DM. © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Conjugation of colloidal clusters and chains by capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Stein, Andreas

    2009-07-29

    Capillary condensation was used to establish connections in colloidal clusters and 1D colloidal chains with high regional selectivity. This vapor-phase process produced conjugated clusters and chains with anisotropic functionality. The capillary condensation method is simple and can be applied to a wide range of materials. It can tolerate geometric variations and even permits conjugation of spatially separated particles. The selective deposition was also used to modulate the functionality on the colloid surfaces, producing tip-tethered nanosized building blocks that may be suitable for further assembly via directional interactions.

  16. Radiology's value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  17. Musical Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  18. Chains of securitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Goede

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Securitization has a dual rationality that twins a financial sense to one of modern statecraft and national security. This forum contribution advocates a focus on material practices as a means of further exploring the entanglement of finance and security. In particular, it advances a notion of ‘chains of securitization’, arguing that such a concept provides researchers with a concrete way to analyze how ‘financial’ objects, such as derivatives, are assembled to generate (insecurities, as well as how ‘security’ objects, such as suspicious transactions, are assembled across public/private domains.

  19. Detox fashion supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This first volume on detox fashion discusses various interesting topics including a Toxic-Free Supply Chain for Textiles and Clothing; Environmental Issues in Textiles; Global Regulations, Restrictions & Research; Making the Change: Consumer Adoption of Sustainable Fashion; and Strategies for Detoxing Your Wardrobe. It provides an overview of the chemical-related issues confronting the fashion sector, summarizes global regulations, and discusses how to make the change by changing consumers’ attitude towards adopting sustainable fashion, as well as the best strategies for detoxing our wardrobes.

  20. 6d string chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Haghighat, Babak; Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2018-02-01

    We consider bound states of strings which arise in 6d (1,0) SCFTs that are realized in F-theory in terms of linear chains of spheres with negative self-intersections 1,2, and 4. These include the strings associated to N small E 8 instantons, as well as the ones associated to M5 branes probing A and D type singularities in M-theory or D5 branes probing ADE singularities in Type IIB string theory. We find that these bound states of strings admit (0,4) supersymmetric quiver descriptions and show how one can compute their elliptic genera.

  1. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies...... of social businesses funded by the Germany-based company Yunus Social Business (YSB; http://www.yunussb.com) are presented, extracting the basic model types and how they involve and affect the stakeholders. These models reveal innovative approaches to enable positive economic, social and ecological impacts...

  2. Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gubi, Ebbe

    it is a structural premise. We also know that logistics costs generally are estimated 15-20% of total product costs. Accordingly, it stands to reason that a company can reduce costs, and thereby gain an edge on its competitors, by tailoring the supply chain in question to an individual product or product family; i.......e. by creating Focused Supply Chains. At the same time, customer satisfaction can be increased. As a second means to achieving a better fit between product and supply chain, the firm can deploy Design for Logistics, the discipline of considering the supply chain during product creation. The thesis sets out...... and supply chains should be created concurrently and integrated. The concept of Concurrent Product & Supply Chain Creation is introduced, and the two main components Focused Supply Chains and Design For Logistics are explained and exemplified by use of Bang & Olufsen....

  3. Self-lacing atom chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandvliet, Harold J W; Van Houselt, Arie; Poelsema, Bene

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of self-lacing atomic chains on Pt modified Ge(001) surfaces have been studied using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The self-lacing chains have a cross section of only one atom, are perfectly straight, thousands of atoms long and virtually defect free. The atomic chains are composed of dimers that have their bonds aligned in a direction parallel to the chain direction. At low temperatures the atomic chains undergo a Peierls transition: the periodicity of the chains doubles from a 2 x to a 4 x periodicity and an energy gap opens up. Furthermore, at low temperatures (T<80 K) novel quasi-one-dimensional electronic states are found. These quasi-one-dimensional electronic states originate from an electronic state of the underlying terrace that is confined between the atomic chains.

  4. A chain of microphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In order to discover a more accurate and selective measuring method for the identification of individual flow-noise pollution sources on wind turbines blades, measuring equipment based on a chain of microphones was developed. The principle underlying the design of this equipment is that signals from a number of microphones can be interpreted. Thus the microphones can register noise from sections of the rotary blade and unwished-for noise is eliminated. The gating technique ensures that noises from individual blades can be separated and that clarity is improved. In addition to this, noise can be determined close to the source. The chain consists of 8 microphones placed in a row at adjustable distances. Measurements are registered on tapes as are the trigger signals for the blade passage. The computer processes the measurement results and unnecessary noise is depressed. The listening angles can also be changed electronically so that the doppler effect can be corrected. Results confirmed that the equipment operated satisfactorily and could also be used in relation to noise pollution in power plants as it is especially effective in depressing excess, and cutting out outside, noise and registers accurately individual sources of noise helped by its ability to ''listen '' at varying angles to the source. (AB)

  5. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  6. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  7. Creative industries value chain: The value chain logic in supply chain relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Madudová

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a deeper look into value chain logic in supply chain relationships in a creative industries value chains. In recent years, value has been recognized as a key factor in better understanding of consumer behavior and gaining a competitive advantage. In a value chain, added value should be defined at every step of the chain. There should be defined activity which adds value as well as the activity that subtracts any value. The total value can be then calcul...

  8. Formation of amyloid fibers by monomeric light chain variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Phillips, Martin L; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-10-03

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. REGIONAL DEPOSITION OF COARSE PARTICLES AND VENTILATION DISTRIBUTION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of inhaled pharmaceuticals depends, in part, on their site of respiratory deposition. Markedly nonuniform ventilation distribution may occur in persons with obstructive airways diseases and may affect particle deposition. We studied the relationship between regional ...

  10. Polyneutron Chain Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John C. Fisher

    2000-01-01

    Although helium atoms do not form molecules, a sufficiently large number will bind into a stable liquid droplet. A comparable situation is expected for neutrons, with a sufficiently large number binding into a stable droplet of neutron matter. Such polyneutron droplets can be viewed as isotopes of an element with nuclear charge Z=0, tentatively denoted neutrium, symbol Nt. Because of the relatively weak binding of neutrons compared with that of a mix of neutrons and protons, the minimum number of neutrons required for stability of a droplet is fairly large. Early estimates of ∼60 may be reduced to a dozen or so by the BCS pairing interaction. The Nt entries with N≥12 are new to the table of isotopes. Because all of them are beta-unstable, none is expected to persist as a free particle. Yet, some may occasionally be produced by means to be described below, and it is of interest to examine their decay chains and their interactions with charged nuclei to ascertain how their presence might be revealed. Although these reactions are interesting, they cannot be taken seriously without identifying a source for the initial Nt isotope that begins the chain. Here, we consider possible interactions between 16 O and A Nt. Although there is no strong interaction between them, we can expect a very weak residual attraction that can form a loosely bound 16 O A Nt nuclear molecule. This is not a compound nucleus in the usual sense because, considered as fluids, the 16 O and A Nt droplets are immiscible. For a droplet with fewer than about 60 neutrons, beta decay of A Nt is prevented by the buildup of Coulomb energy associated with transforming A Nt into A H in close proximity to 16 O. Thus, it is possible that 16 O A Nt molecules can persist indefinitely and that a few of them may be present in ordinary water as supermassive oxygen nuclei. Because the binding of these molecules is weak, the A Nt component can tunnel to an adjacent nucleus, and if the adjacent nucleus is 18 O, a

  11. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  12. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  13. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  14. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  15. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  16. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  17. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  18. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    This paper is a tribute to the scientific accomplishments of Ernst Chain and the influence he exerted over the fields of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Chain is the father of the modern antibiotic era and all the benefits that these therapeutic agents have brought, i.e., longer life spans, greater levels of public health, widespread modern surgery, and control of debilitating infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to become commercially available, and its use ushered in the age of antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin's bactericidal action had been made by Alexander Fleming in London in 1928. After publishing his observations in 1929, no further progress was made until the work was picked up in 1939 by scientists at Oxford University. The group was headed by Howard Florey, and Chain was the group's lead scientist. Chain was born and educated in Germany, and he fled in 1933 as a Jewish refugee from Nazism to England. Other important members of the Oxford research team were Norman Heatley and Edward Abraham. The team was able to produce and isolate penicillin under conditions of scarce resources and many technical challenges. Sufficient material was collected and tested on mice to successfully demonstrate penicillin's bactericidal action on pathogens, while being nontoxic to mammals. Chain directed the microbiological methods for producing penicillin and the chemical engineering methods to extract the material. This technology was transferred to US government facilities in 1941 for commercial production of penicillin, becoming an important element in the Allied war effort. In 1945, the Nobel Prize for medicine was shared by Fleming, Florey, and Chain in recognition of their work in developing penicillin as a therapeutic agent. After World War II, Chain tried to persuade the British government to fund a new national antibiotic industry with both research and production facilities. As

  19. One long chain among shorter chains : the Flory approach revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël , E.; Fredrickson , G.; Pincus , P.

    1992-01-01

    We consider the mean square end-to-end distance of a long chain immersed in a monodisperse, concentrated solution of shorter, chemically identical chains. In contrast with the earlier work of Flory, no simplifying assumption on the wave vector dependence of the effective potential between segments is made. In order to obtain a closed form expression for the dimension of the long chain, we first derive a general expression for the mean square end-to-end distance of a flexible chain with arbitr...

  20. Baby Skyrmion chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, David

    2010-01-01

    The Baby Skyrmion model is a two-dimensional analogue of the full three-dimensional Skyrme model. It is not just useful for guiding investigations in the Skyrme model, it also has applications in condensed matter physics. Previous results on multi-charged Baby Skyrmion solutions have pointed to a modular structure, comprised of charge two rings and single charge one Skyrmions, which combine to form higher charged structures. In this paper we present alternative numerical solutions that correspond to new finite Baby Skyrmion chains, which have lower energy than those found previously, and are also good candidates for the global minimum energy solutions. We then proceed from the infinite plane, to Baby Skyrmions on a cylinder and then a torus, to obtain the solutions of periodic Baby Skyrmions, of which periodic segments will correspond to sections of large charge Baby Skyrmions in the plane

  1. Supply chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-01-01

    'Logic' (Leading Oil and Gas Industry Competitiveness) is a government-industry supply chain management initiative which aims to improve the competitiveness of the UK's North Sea business by 1 billion UK pounds by 2002 and its export performance by 50% inside 5 years. Much of the article is devoted to the background and views of Logic's chief executive Chris. Freeman. Freeman makes clear that 'unlike Crine, we are not a cost-reduction initiative: that may be one of the outcomes, but we are really focusing on the co-operation side of things'. Logic aims to change the culture of the UK offshore industry through example. Freeman believes that the creation of collaborative success will flag up industry and give credence to Logics objectives

  2. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  3. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  4. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  5. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. ► Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. ► It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. ► In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. ► Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca 2+ sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis–Menten V max and K M for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant kinase in cardiac tissue on the basis of its specificity, kinetics, and tissue expression.

  6. Flux through a Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floriani, Elena; Lima, Ricardo; Ourrad, Ouerdia; Spinelli, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flux through a Markov chain of a conserved quantity (mass) is studied. • Mass is supplied by an external source and ends in the absorbing states of the chain. • Meaningful for modeling open systems whose dynamics has a Markov property. • The analytical expression of mass distribution is given for a constant source. • The expression of mass distribution is given for periodic or random sources. - Abstract: In this paper we study the flux through a finite Markov chain of a quantity, that we will call mass, which moves through the states of the chain according to the Markov transition probabilities. Mass is supplied by an external source and accumulates in the absorbing states of the chain. We believe that studying how this conserved quantity evolves through the transient (non-absorbing) states of the chain could be useful for the modelization of open systems whose dynamics has a Markov property.

  7. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  8. A remark on Dickey's stabilizing chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, Andrei K.

    2011-01-01

    We observe that Dickey's stabilizing chain can be naturally included into two-dimensional chain of infinitely many copies of equations of KP hierarchy. -- Highlights: → In this study we consider Dickey's stabilizing chain. → We construct two-dimensional chain of dressing truncated operators. → We show that Dickey's stabilizing chain can be included into two-dimensional chain of KP hierarchies.

  9. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  10. Non-stationary Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mallak, Saed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Mathematics and Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 1996. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves leaf 29 In thi.s work, we studierl the Ergodicilv of Non-Stationary .Markov chains. We gave several e.xainples with different cases. We proved that given a sec[uence of Markov chains such that the limit of this sec|uence is an Ergodic Markov chain, then the limit of the combination ...

  11. Morgellons Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han

    2017-04-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum.

  12. Transport in nanoparticle chains influenced by reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedtke, T.; Mirovsky, P.; Huether, R.; Govor, L.; Bauer, G.H.; Parisi, J.; Haug, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are deposited onto a mica substrate in a dewetting process of hexane solution containing the nanoparticles. The array of nanoparticles was measured inside an electron beam microscope containing a self-developed probing-tip setup. Transport measurements performed under vacuum conditions at room temperature show a power law behavior as expected for low-dimensional cluster systems. During the measurement a variation of the threshold voltage in the nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristic was observed which we attribute to a reordering of the system by an applied electric field. - Highlights: → Fabrication of chains of ordered Au-nanoparticles. → Contact these nanoparticles without further chemical treatment with probing tips inside an electron microscope. → Observation of low-dimensional transport and Coulomb blockade. → Reordering of nanoparticles due to the applied electric field between the tips.

  13. DOS cones along atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin-orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  14. DOS cones along atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin–orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears. (paper)

  15. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Markov chain; state space; stationary transition probability; stationary distribution; irreducibility; aperiodicity; stationarity; M-H algorithm; proposal distribution; acceptance probability; image processing; Gibbs sampler.

  16. Risikobasiertes Supply-Chain-Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Schinz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Das Management erlebt seit einigen Jahren dahingehend einen Paradigmenwechsel, dass nicht mehr Unternehmen als einzelne autonome Einheiten im Wettbewerb zueinander stehen, sondern die Supply Chains, in denen diese Unternehmen eingebunden sind. Ursachen hierfür sind beispielsweise die Auslagerung...... von Nicht-Kernprozessen auf vorgelagerte Stufen der Supply Chain oder auf Supply-Chain-Dienstleister sowie die Internationalisierung der Beschaffung. Dieser Paradigmenwechsel hat traditionelles Denken in den Schranken des Systems „Unternehmen“ abgelöst und zum Supply- Chain-Denken geführt, das vor......- und nachgelagerte Stufen des Systems „End-to-End-Supply-Chain“ einbezieht, etwa auch die Lieferanten von Lieferanten....

  17. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer.

  18. Differential contributions of ApoE4 and female sex to BACE1 activity and expression mediate Aβ deposition and learning and memory in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu eHou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia, disproportionately affects women in both prevalence and severity. This increased vulnerability to AD in women is strongly associated with age-related ovarian hormone loss and apolipoprotein E 4 allele (ApoE4, the most important genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Up to date, the mechanism involved in the interaction between ApoE4 and sex/gender in AD is still unclear. This study evaluated the sex-dependent ApoE4 effects on learning and memory, Aβ deposition and potential mechanisms, using mice bearing both sporadic (ApoE4 and familial (APPSwe, PS1M146V, tauP301L; 3xTg AD risk factors and compared with sex- and age-matched 3xTg or nonTg mice. Compared to nonTg mice, transgenic mice of both sexes showed spatial learning and memory deficits in the radial arm water maze and novel arm discrimination tests at 20 months of age. However, at 10 months, only ApoE4/3xTg mice showed significant learning and memory impairment. Moreover, molecular studies of hippocampal tissue revealed significantly higher protein levels of Aβ species, β-site APP cleavage enzyme (BACE1 and Sp1, a transcription factor of BACE1, in female ApoE4/3xTg when compared with female nonTg, female 3xTg and male ApoE4/3xTg mice. Significantly increased BACE1 enzymatic activities were observed in both male and female mice carrying ApoE4; however, only the females showed significant higher BACE1 expressions. Together, these data suggest that ApoE4 allele is associated with increased BACE1 enzymatic activity, while female sex plays an important role in increasing BACE1 expression. The combination of both provides a molecular basis for high Aβ pathology and the resultant hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits in female ApoE4 carriers.

  19. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  20. Classical swine fever virus detection: results of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ring trial conducted in the framework of the European network of excellence for epizootic disease diagnosis and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Blome, Sandra; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    and specificity values. Nevertheless, some in-house systems had unspecific reactions or suboptimal sensitivity with only a single CSFV genotype. Follow-up actions involved either improvement of suboptimal assays or replacement of specific laboratory assays with the FLI protocol, with or without modifications......The current study reports on a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) ring trial for the detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomic RNA undertaken by 10 European laboratories. All laboratories were asked to use their routine in-house real-time RT...

  1. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker...

  3. Defining a Closed-Loop U.S. Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Jack; Peterson, Ray

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P4).

  4. SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGIES IN THE CONTEXT OF AN E-COMMERCE CHAIN (E-CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gilberto Mendes do Reis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper purpose to explore the relationships between supply chain strategies and product performance in retail e-commerce. In this case, we concern that in current, in order to bear up under competition, organizations have to manage their supply chains so that they meet the needs of their final customers. With this concept in mind, the research presented in this study focuses on establishing the right strategy for supply chains according to their product segment. Thus, after a Literature Review, the paper explain a methodology based in different authors studies. Finally the article focuses on a pratical case in e-commerce retail that describes its application in this field. The research shows that it is possible to use a methodology for classifying supply chains using chain strategies and product features. The use of the right strategy for supply chains will improve the competitive advantage of businesses. One limitation is that the methodology study focuses on only two e-commerce segment; future studies may go further in refining the proposed framework for other segments. The aim of this research is to offer businesses a model for evaluating supply chains, allowing them to improve the performance of their products and services by using the right strategy for supply chains. The classification proposal of this paper presents an original model for classification of supply chains based on different studies on the theme.

  5. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  6. Monitoring the vaccine cold chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, E

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunisation programme. A continuous electronic temperature monitor helped to identify breaks in the cold chain in the community and the study led to the issue of proper guidelines and replacement of faulty equipment.

  7. Spatial Configuration of Macromolecular Chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where C reaches a constant value with increase in n for any series of finitely flexible chains. The smoothed density within the domain of a linear macromolecule having a molecular weight of 100,000 or greater (i.e., n > 1000) is low, only on the order of one percent or less of the space being occupied by chain segments.

  8. Spatial Configuration of Macromolecular Chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where C reaches a constant value with increase in n for any series of finitely flexible chains. ... entirely free of overlaps between any pair of segments is very small for a long chain. The attrition of .... Excerpts froin Flory's Nobel Banquet Speech.

  9. Academic Education Chain Operation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruskov, Petko; Ruskov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for modelling the educational processes as a value added chain. It is an attempt to use a business approach to interpret and compile existing business and educational processes towards reference models and suggest an Academic Education Chain Operation Model. The model

  10. Integrable multiparametric quantum spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Roditi, I; Foerster, Angela; Links, Jon; Roditi, Itzhak

    1998-01-01

    Using Reshetikhin's construction for multiparametric quantum algebras we obtain the associated multiparametric quantum spin chains. We show that under certain restrictions these models can be mapped to quantum spin chains with twisted boundary conditions. We illustrate how this general formalism applies to construct multiparametric versions of the supersymmetric t-J and U models.

  11. Realities of Supply Chain Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampstra, R.P.; Ashayeri, J.; Gattorna, J.

    2006-01-01

    Successful supply chain collaboration (SCC) practices are rather exceptional, yet collaboration is believed to be the single most pressing need in supply chain management.In this paper we discuss the realities of SCC, present prerequisites for the collaboration process, indicate where the process

  12. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  13. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section......The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction......). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies...

  14. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  15. Replicator dynamics in value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator...... dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early...... stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain...

  16. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Schary, Philip B.; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....

  17. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.R.; Zinner, N.T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects of the intralayer repulsion and quantum statistical requirements in systems with more than one chain. Specifically, we consider the case of two chains and solve the problem analytically within the harmonic Hamiltonian approach which is accurate for large dipole moments. The case of three chains is calculated numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments. (author)

  18. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  19. Managing the Global Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Kinra, Aseem

    The world today faces global competition. The supply chain is vital part of the globalization process. Presenting a global view of the scope and complexity of supply chain management, this book reflects the rapid change that has taken place within the supply chain and its environment. This new...... well as current examples of best practice of managing supply chains in a global context....... edition has been fully updated with recent changes in concepts, technology and practice. Integration and collaboration are keywords in future competition. Firms must be agile and lean at the same time. The book gives an insightful overview of the conceptual foundations of the global supply chain, as...

  20. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  1. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  2. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  3. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  4. The Clinical Presentation and Management of Systemic Light-Chain Amyloidosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Amyloidosis includes a group of diseases characterized by the extracellular deposition of various fibrillary proteins that can autoaggregate in a highly abnormal fibrillary conformation. The amyloid precursor protein of systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is comprised of monoclonal light chains that are due to plasma cell dyscrasia. The clinical presentation of patients with AL amyloidosis varies from patient to patient. Current treatment strategies target the clone in order to decrease the production of the pathologic light chains. Recent advances in therapy have helped many patients with AL amyloidosis achieve hematologic and organ responses. AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis in China with increasing morbidity and a high mortality rate. The clinical presentation of AL amyloidosis is variable, and the median overall survival was found to be 36.3 months. The disease prognosis and risk stratification are linked to serialized measurement of cardiac biomarkers and free light chains. The treatment of AL amyloidosis is mainly based on chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis in China with increasing morbidity and a high mortality rate. The lack of prospective clinical trials using the current therapies is a challenge for evidence-based decision making concerning the treatment of AL amyloidosis. (1) AL amyloidosis is the most prevalent type of amyloidosis accounting for 65% of the amyloidosis-diagnosed patients in the UK and for 93% of the amyloidosis-diagnosed patients in China. The predisposition of men over women to develop AL amyloidosis might be higher in China than in Western countries (2:1 vs. 1.3:1). Both in the East and West, incidence increases with age. At

  5. Renal Amyloidosis Associated With 5 Novel Variants in the Fibrinogen A Alpha Chain Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Rowczenio

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: We report 6 novel mutations in the FGA gene: 5 were associated with renal fibrinogen A alpha chain amyloidosis and 1 was found to be incidental to light-chain amyloid deposits discovered in a patient with a plasma cell dyscrasia. Clinical awareness and suspicion of hereditary amyloidosis corroborated by genetic analysis and adequate typing using combined immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection and mass spectrometry is valuable to avoid misdiagnosis, especially when a family history of amyloidosis is absent.

  6. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  7. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  8. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  9. Factors affecting on the particle deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    The deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the respiratory tracts is affected by anatomical structure of the respiratory tracts and respiratory pattern of animals, which are modified by many factors as animal species, physiological and psychological conditions, age, sex, smoking drug, lung diseases, etc. In human, studies have been focused on the initial lung deposition of particles and have made it clear that the respiratory pattern, gender, and diseases may have influence on the deposition pattern. On the other hand, there was little knowledge on the initial lung deposition of particles in laboratory animals. Recently, Raabe et al. have reported the initial lung deposition of 169 Yb-aluminosilicate particles in mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. The authors have also investigated the lung deposition of latex particles with different sizes and 198 Au-colloid in rats whose respiratory volumes during the inhalation were monitored by body plethysmography. These experiments indicated that the deposition of inhaled particles in distal lung e.g. small bronchiolar and alveolar region, was much lower in laboratory animals than that of human. This species difference may be due to smaller diameter of respiratory tract and/or shallower breathing and higher respiratory rate of laboratory animals. The experimental animals in which respiratory diseases were induced artificially have been used to investigate the modification factors on the deposition pattern of inhaled particles. As respiratory diseases, emphysema was induced in rats, hamsters, beagle dogs in some laboratories and pulmonary delayed type hypersensitivity reaction in rats was in our laboratory. The initial lung deposition of particles in these animals was consistently decreased in comparison with normals, regardless of the animal species and the type of disease. (author)

  10. Regeneration and general Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kalashnikov

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergodicity, continuity, finite approximations and rare visits of general Markov chains are investigated. The obtained results permit further quantitative analysis of characteristics, such as, rates of convergence, continuity (measured as a distance between perturbed and non-perturbed characteristics, deviations between Markov chains, accuracy of approximations and bounds on the distribution function of the first visit time to a chosen subset, etc. The underlying techniques use the embedding of the general Markov chain into a wide sense regenerative process with the help of splitting construction.

  11. Markov chains theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sericola, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Markov chains are a fundamental class of stochastic processes. They are widely used to solve problems in a large number of domains such as operational research, computer science, communication networks and manufacturing systems. The success of Markov chains is mainly due to their simplicity of use, the large number of available theoretical results and the quality of algorithms developed for the numerical evaluation of many metrics of interest.The author presents the theory of both discrete-time and continuous-time homogeneous Markov chains. He carefully examines the explosion phenomenon, the

  12. Markov Chains and Markov Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbayo, Segun

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain, which was named after Andrew Markov is a mathematical system that transfers a state to another state. Many real world systems contain uncertainty. This study helps us to understand the basic idea of a Markov chain and how is been useful in our daily lives. For some times there had been suspense on distinct predictions and future existences. Also in different games there had been different expectations or results involved. That is the reason why we need Markov chains to predict o...

  13. Quadratic Variation by Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Horel, Guillaume

    We introduce a novel estimator of the quadratic variation that is based on the the- ory of Markov chains. The estimator is motivated by some general results concerning filtering contaminated semimartingales. Specifically, we show that filtering can in prin- ciple remove the effects of market...... microstructure noise in a general framework where little is assumed about the noise. For the practical implementation, we adopt the dis- crete Markov chain model that is well suited for the analysis of financial high-frequency prices. The Markov chain framework facilitates simple expressions and elegant analyti...

  14. The Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Skitsko Volodymyr I.; Voynikov Mykola Yu.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers current approaches of risk-management in supply chains, the main steps of the risk management process are analyzed and detailed both for a separate enterprise – participant of supply chain, for the supply chain in general, and for the Beer game, based on the international risk management standards. The article provides a way to assess the risks of the «producer» in the Beer game according to the three strategies of its behavior, which presumably can correspond to differe...

  15. New sensors and processing chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yaakoubi, Nourdin

    2014-01-01

    A vital tool for researchers, engineers, and students, New Sensors and Processing Chain focuses on the processing chain to set up in order to extract relevant information on various systems. Highlighting the design of new microsensors and various applications, the authors present recent progress in instrumentation and microsystem design, providing insight to the modification of the sensor itself as well as its environment. Various applications illustrate the presentations, which show how a processing chain is organized from the data acquired by a specific sensor.

  16. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph

    to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified personnel, companies are facing a significant undersupply of talent (Cottrill, 2010). Moreover, organizations appear......While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies......-based dissertation is to address the research gap between human resource management (HRM) and supply chain management (SCM)....

  17. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  18. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  19. Physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Zuo, Chuncheng; Cao, Qianqian; Chen, Hongli

    2017-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes (APEs) in an external electric field. The effects of chain stiffness, the charge distribution of a hydrophilic block, and electric field strength are investigated. Amphiphilic multilayers, which consist of a monolayer of adsorbed hydrophilic monomers (HLMs), a hydrophobic layer, and another hydrophilic layer, are formed in a selective solvent. All cases exhibit locally ordered hydrophilic monolayers. Two kinds of hydrophobic micelles are distinguished based on local structures. Stripe and network hydrophobic patterns are formed in individual cases. Increasing the chain stiffness decreases the thickness of the deposited layer, the lateral size of the hydrophobic micelles, and the amount of deposition. Increasing the number of positively charged HLMs in a single chain has the same effect as increasing chain stiffness. Moreover, when applied normally to the substrate, the electric field compresses the deposited structures and increases the amount of deposition by pulling more PEs toward the substrate. A stronger electric field also facilitates the formation of a thinner and more ordered hydrophilic adsorption layer. These estimates help us explore how to tailor patterned nano-surfaces, nano-interfaces, or amphiphilic nanostructures by physically depositing semi-flexible APEs which is of crucial importance in physical sciences, life sciences and nanotechnology.

  20. Whole body amyloid deposition imaging by 123I-SAP scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor; Hazenberg, Bouke

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the name of a group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Deposition of amyloid can be localized or systemic. The 123I-SAP-scan can be used to image extent and distribution of amyloid deposition in patients with systemic AA, AL and ATTR amyloidosis.

  1. Estimating HPV DNA Deposition Between Sexual Partners Using HPV Concordance, Y Chromosome DNA Detection, and Self-reported Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann N; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2017-12-05

    Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in genital samples may not always represent true infections but may be depositions from infected sexual partners. We examined whether sexual risk factors and a biomarker (Y chromosome DNA) were associated with genital HPV partner concordance and estimated the fraction of HPV detections potentially attributable to partner deposition. The HITCH study enrolled young women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners, from 2005 to 2010. We tested baseline genital samples for Y chromosome DNA and HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction. Type-specific HPV concordance was 42.4% in partnerships where at least one partner was HPV DNA positive. Y chromosome DNA predicted type-specific HPV concordance in univariate analyses, but in multivariable models the independent predictors of concordance were days since last vaginal sex (26.5% higher concordance 0-1 vs 8-14 days after last vaginal sex) and condom use (22.6% higher concordance in never vs always users). We estimated that 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3-21.9%) of HPV DNA detections in genital samples were attributable to vaginal sex in the past week. A substantial proportion of HPV DNA detections may be depositions due to recent unprotected vaginal sex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Supply Chain Shipment Pricing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set provides supply chain health commodity shipment and pricing data. Specifically, the data set identifies Antiretroviral (ARV) and HIV lab shipments to...

  3. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... that allows for recapturing most of the PRV. These notions have then been tested by analyzing two reverse supply chains with a case study research methodology. Findings – The findings show that low PRV is associated with second-class recovery options (recycling and energy recovery) and that high PRV...... is associated with first-class recovery options (reconditioning and remarketing). When the recovery option is recycling, time is not relevant, the primary objective is cost reduction (efficiency), the chain is centralized, and actors and phases of the reverse chain are determined by the specificity...

  4. The chain re-action

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 18 March, beam commissioning started in the first ‘link’ of the accelerator chain – LINAC 2. This marks the start of what will be the longest period of beam operations in CERN’s history, with the accelerator complex remaining operational throughout the winter to supply the LHC. The Bulletin finds out what is being done to make sure the whole chain is ready for this historic run.

  5. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Flöthmann, Christoph H.

    2017-01-01

    While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified ...

  6. ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS FOR VALUE CHAINS

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The Porter Value Chain has been widely adopted by the business community as a mechanism to understand and comprehend complexity in business environments, with the ultimate goal of structuring the business to maximize its competitive advantage. Implementing the Value Chain is not easy: a number of organizations can testify to their failure to derive any benefits at all from this concept. To overcome this problem, an approach is presented to assist the organization in ...

  7. Osteoradionecrosis of the ossicular chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, J.F.; Sotelo-Avila, C.

    1986-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone is a well-known sequela of radiotherapy for neoplasms at the base of the skull. Presenting symptoms include otalgia, chronic aural drainage, and hearing loss, which can be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. The conductive component has been hypothesized to be caused by radionecrosis of the ossicular chain. This case report documents the existence of osteoradionecrosis of the ossicular chain in a 10-year-old boy operated on for resection of extensive osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

  8. Health Care Provider Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Kawczynski , Lukasz; Taisch , Marco

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In every society there is a need for an efficient health care system. This paper aims to propose a value definition and a value chain model within the health care. In order to define value patients and experts were surveyed. The proposed definition offers a complex way of looking at the value within the health care sector. The proposal of the value chain model is anticipated with a value stream mapping activities and experts interviews. Proposed model offers consistent...

  9. Intermodal Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maslarić, Marinko; Brnjac, Nikolina; Bago, Drago

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and secure global supply chains contribute to the Improvement of the competitiveness of the products traded on international markets by reducing their costs and delivery time while increasing the reliability and security. Global supply chains are unthinkable without transport integration, which is usually accomplished through the form of intermodal transport systems. Intermodal transport systems are much more complex than the unimodal ones due to the number of stakeholders, included...

  10. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  11. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  12. "Bullwhip Effect" in Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelko Ščukanec

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The system which connects all the elements between theproducer and the consumer is called the supply chain. This definitionof the supply chain shows its complexity, dynamics anduncertainty. Successful operation of supply chains requires thebest possible coordination of its elements, which obviously indicatesthe utmost importance of the information flow alongthem. The operation of supply chains on the whole has to bemore successful than the operation of their individual elements.It should be noted that such a complex process may give rise toa series of problems, unwanted events, as well as substantial reductionin profits and the level of service. One of such unwantedphenomena which may occur in the supply chain is the"bullwhip effect". This is a possible increase in the diversity oforders which occurs when we move along the elements of thesupply chain (from the customers' orders to the producers' orders.The work analyses the processes within the supply chainsand the occurrence of the bullwhip effect. The main causes ofthe bullwhip effect that we encounter daily in the supply chainshave been clearly defined. The paper also presents the mainnegative consequences of such a disturbance within the supplychains, and provides possible solutions for avoiding the bullwhipeffect.

  13. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  14. CHALLENGES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia GALANTON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  15. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  16. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  17. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical supply chains present considerable complexity issue for the formulation of optimal plans due to significant uncertainty in the supply chain. The primary goal of biopharmaceutical supply chain planning is to provide reliable supply to patients while coping with various supply chain risks. In chapter 1 first I discuss the key elements and basic characteristics of the biopharmaceutical supply chain . Then I present the major challenges in biopharmaceutical supply chain planning...

  18. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  19. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  1. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  2. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  3. Production of a phage-displayed single chain variable fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop specific single chain variable fragments (scFv) against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) via phage display technology. Methods: Purified viruses were initially applied for iterative panning rounds of scFv phage display libraries. The binding ability of the selected scFv antibody fragments against the ...

  4. A Double Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Detecting African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: African swine fever, Swine vesicular disease, Polymerase chain reaction, Recombinant plasmids ... included 5 μL of 10×Pfu DNA polymerase buffer,. 1 μL of Pfu DNA .... Garcia-Barreno B, Sanz A, Nogal ML, Vinuela E,. Enjuanes L.

  5. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  6. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  7. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  8. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  9. Differential recruitment efficacy of patient-derived amyloidogenic and myeloma light chain proteins by synthetic fibrils-A metric for predicting amyloid propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Martin

    Full Text Available Monoclonal free light chain (LC proteins are present in the circulation of patients with immunoproliferative disorders such as light chain (AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma (MM. Light chain-associated amyloid is a complex pathology composed of proteinaceous fibrils and extracellular matrix proteins found in all patients with AL and in ~10-30% of patients who presented with MM. Amyloid deposits systemically in multiple organs and tissues leading to dysfunction and ultimately death. The overall survival of patients with amyloidosis is worse than for those with early stage MM.We have developed a sensitive binding assay quantifying the recruitment of full length, patient-derived LC proteins by synthetic amyloid fibrils, as a method for studying their amyloidogenic potential. In a survey of eight urinary LC, both AL and MM-associated proteins were recruited by synthetic amyloid fibrils; however, AL-associated LC bound significantly more efficiently (p < 0.05 than did MM LCs. The LC proteins used in this study were isolated from urine and presumed to represent a surrogate of serum free light chains.The binding of LC to synthetic fibrils in this assay accurately differentiated LC with amyloidogenic propensity from MM LC that were not associated with clinical amyloid disease. Notably, the LC from a MM patient who subsequently developed amyloid behaved as an AL-associated protein in the assay, indicating the possibility for identifying MM patients at risk for developing amyloidosis based on the light chain recruitment efficacy. With this information, at risk patients can be monitored more closely for the development of amyloidosis, allowing timely administration of novel, amyloid-directed immunotherapies-this approach may improve the prognosis for these patients.

  10. Extraosseous Gaucher cell deposition without adjacent bone involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brendan J; Mills, Anne M; Gaskin, Cree M

    2014-10-01

    Extraosseous Gaucher cell deposits are a rare complication of Gaucher disease that can mimic malignancy. We describe a case of Gaucher cell deposition in the subcutaneous soft tissues overlying the lower thoracic spine in an 18-year-old woman with known type III Gaucher disease. This case is unique in the literature because this subcutaneous Gaucher mass was not associated with extension from underlying bone involvement or clear lymph node origin. It demonstrated no discernible continuity with the adjacent thoracic spinous processes, the cortices of which appeared intact. Although patients with Gaucher disease are at increased risk of malignancy, Gaucher cell deposition should remain a differential consideration for soft tissue masses with or without adjacent bone involvement in patients with known Gaucher disease.

  11. Generalized connective tissue disease in Crtap-/- mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Baldridge

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in CRTAP (coding for cartilage-associated protein, LEPRE1 (coding for prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 [P3H1] or PPIB (coding for Cyclophilin B [CYPB] cause recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and loss or decrease of type I collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation. A comprehensive analysis of the phenotype of the Crtap-/- mice revealed multiple abnormalities of connective tissue, including in the lungs, kidneys, and skin, consistent with systemic dysregulation of collagen homeostasis within the extracellular matrix. Both Crtap-/- lung and kidney glomeruli showed increased cellular proliferation. Histologically, the lungs showed increased alveolar spacing, while the kidneys showed evidence of segmental glomerulosclerosis, with abnormal collagen deposition. The Crtap-/- skin had decreased mechanical integrity. In addition to the expected loss of proline 986 3-hydroxylation in alpha1(I and alpha1(II chains, there was also loss of 3Hyp at proline 986 in alpha2(V chains. In contrast, at two of the known 3Hyp sites in alpha1(IV chains from Crtap-/- kidneys there were normal levels of 3-hydroxylation. On a cellular level, loss of CRTAP in human OI fibroblasts led to a secondary loss of P3H1, and vice versa. These data suggest that both CRTAP and P3H1 are required to maintain a stable complex that 3-hydroxylates canonical proline sites within clade A (types I, II, and V collagen chains. Loss of this activity leads to a multi-systemic connective tissue disease that affects bone, cartilage, lung, kidney, and skin.

  12. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  13. Herpes encephalitis is a disease of middle aged and elderly people: polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus in the CSF of 516 patients with encephalitis. The Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiniemi, M; Piiparinen, H; Mannonen, L; Rantalaiho, T; Vaheri, A

    1996-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic potential of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. Samples of CSF from 516 patients with encephalitis were studied for HSV-DNA by PCR. Samples taken one to 29 days from the onset of symptoms from 38 patients (7.4%) were positive, 32 (6.2%) for HSV-1 and six (1.2%) for HSV-2. At follow up, eight of 28 patients studied were still HSV-PCR positive. A diagnostic serum:CSF antibody ratio to HSV but not to other viruses was detected in 25 of the 38 HSV-PCR positive patients thus supporting the initial PCR findings. Patients positive by HSV-PCR were concentrated in the age group > or = 40 years, and especially in patients aged 60-64 years, of whom nine of 24 (37.5%) were positive. The HSV-PCR was negative in all other patients with encephalitis of known or unknown aetiology. This group included 34 patients with a diagnostic serum:CSF antibody ratio to other viruses. A dual infection, HSV and another microbe, was considered possible in seven patients. The HSV-PCR is a rapid and useful diagnostic method during the early phase of encephalitis. It may be useful in monitoring the efficacy of treatment and allowing the recognition of new features in the appearance of herpes encephalitis. The HSV-PCR test and antibody determinations from serum and CSF are complementary methods, which should both be applied in pursuit of clinical laboratory diagnosis of these conditions.

  14. Supply Chain Management Practices in Toy Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Johansen, J.; Wong, C. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Innovative products usually experience highly unpredictable and variable demand. This is especially valid for the volatile and seasonal toy industry, which produces high obsolete inventory, lost sales and markdown. In such a volatile industry, what supply chain management (SCM) practices...... (traditional mass-production or push-models). These low-responsive practices in the toy supply chain are not caused only by slow knowledge diffusion. SCM know-how is not yet capable of managing such levels of volatility and seasonality. Therefore, explanations of these theoretical gaps and what new theories...... are required for such extreme volatility and seasonality are proposed. Originality/value - It reveals actual SCM practices in a volatile and seasonal supply chain, such that theoretical and practical gaps are identified. Also, it proposes a model to match manufacturing SCM-practices with retailer SCM-practices....

  15. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Penheiter, Alan R. [Molecular Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Burghardt, Thomas P., E-mail: burghardt@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ajtai, Katalin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant

  16. Gluon chains and multiquark hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadach, S.; Jezabek, M.

    1979-01-01

    A monopole approximation to the confining potential is proposed. In this approximation spatially separated groups of quarks carry a definite total colour charge. The potentials which lead to the formation of gluon chains are discussed. The generalization of a (3,3bar) chain notion, studied by Tiktopoulos, to the case of arbitrary colour charges is given. It is argued that these generalized chains may be unstable with respect to splitting into a system of weakly interacting chains of the (3,3bar) type. A unified picture of the high energy hadronic collisions, based on the gluon chain notion and the monopole approximation is proposed. In the meson-meson sector this picture is equivalent to the topological approach. For the other processes it is similar to the approach of Rossi and Veneziano. However, it is argued that the introduction of the junction line into the quark frame is superfluous. The results are expressed in the language of the coloured dual diagrams which provide a generalization of those of Harari and Rosner. (author)

  17. Synthesis and functionalization of dextran-based single-chain nanoparticles in aqueous media

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia R.; Marradi M.; Cossío U.; Benito A.; Pérez-San Vicente A.; Gómez-Vallejo V.; Grande H.-J.; Llop J.; and Loinaz I.

    2017-01-01

    Water-dispersible dextran-based single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCPNs) were prepared in aqueous media and under mild conditions. Radiolabeling of the resulting biocompatible materials allowed the study of lung deposition of aqueous aerosols after intratracheal nebulization by means of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), demonstrating their potential use as imaging contrast agents.

  18. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  19. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  20. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  1. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  3. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  4. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  5. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  6. The process of lipid storage in insect oocytes: The involvement of β-chain of ATP synthase in lipophorin-mediated lipid transfer in the chagas' disease vector Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruttero, Leonardo L; Leyria, Jimena; Ramos, Fabián O; Stariolo, Raúl; Settembrini, Beatriz P; Canavoso, Lilián E

    2017-01-01

    Lipophorin is the main lipoprotein in the hemolymph of insects. During vitellogenesis, lipophorin delivers its hydrophobic cargo to developing oocytes by its binding to non-endocytic receptors at the plasma membrane of the cells. In some species however, lipophorin may also be internalized to some extent, thus maximizing the storage of lipid resources in growing oocytes. The ectopic β chain of ATP synthase (β-ATPase) was recently described as a putative non-endocytic lipophorin receptor in the anterior midgut of the hematophagous insect Panstrongylus megistus. In the present work, females of this species at the vitellogenic stage of the reproductive cycle were employed to investigate the role of β-ATPase in the transfer of lipids to the ovarian tissue. Subcellular fractionation and western blot revealed the presence of β-ATPase in the microsomal membranes of the ovarian tissue, suggesting its localization in the plasma membrane. Immunofluorescence assays showed partial co-localization of β-ATPase and lipophorin in the membrane of oocytes as well as in the basal domain of the follicular epithelial cells. Ligand blotting and co-immunoprecipitation approaches confirmed the interaction between lipophorin and β-ATPase. In vivo experiments with an anti-β-ATPase antibody injected to block such an interaction demonstrated that the antibody significantly impaired the transfer of fatty acids from lipophorin to the oocyte. However, the endocytic pathway of lipophorin was not affected. On the other hand, partial inhibition of ATP synthase activity did not modify the transfer of lipids from lipophorin to oocytes. When the assays were performed at 4°C to diminish endocytosis, the results showed that the antibody interfered with lipophorin binding to the oocyte plasma membrane as well as with the transfer of fatty acids from the lipoprotein to the oocyte. The findings strongly support that β-ATPase plays a role as a docking lipophorin receptor at the ovary of P. megistus

  7. Labour in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Nadvi, Khalid; Chan, Anita

    2012-01-01

    production contexts that influence work conditions. In doing so, it argues that current debates on the role of labour in global value chains have to go beyond a narrow focus on labour standards and corporate social responsibility compliance and engage with economic, technological and social upgrading......A critical challenge facing developing country producers is to meet international labour standards and codes of conduct in order to engage in global value chains. Evidence of gains for workers from compliance with such standards and codes remains limited and patchy. This article focuses...... on the global football industry, a sector dominated by leading global brands that manage dispersed global value chains. It assesses the working conditions for football stitchers engaged in different forms of work organization, factories, stitching centres and home-based settings in Pakistan, India and China...

  8. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......This report presents the analyses of the shaping, implementation and embedding of eight types of environmental initiatives in product chains. The analyses focus on • the role of the type of product and branch, of the size of the companies and of governmental regulation • the focus...... of the environmental concerns and the reductions in environmental impact • organisational changes which have been part of the embedding of the initiatives The analyses are based on 25 cases from national and international product chains involving one or more Danish companies. Based on the analyses of the eight types...

  9. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A

    2017-01-01

    Markov Chains and Mixing Times is a magical book, managing to be both friendly and deep. It gently introduces probabilistic techniques so that an outsider can follow. At the same time, it is the first book covering the geometric theory of Markov chains and has much that will be new to experts. It is certainly THE book that I will use to teach from. I recommend it to all comers, an amazing achievement. -Persi Diaconis, Mary V. Sunseri Professor of Statistics and Mathematics, Stanford University Mixing times are an active research topic within many fields from statistical physics to the theory of algorithms, as well as having intrinsic interest within mathematical probability and exploiting discrete analogs of important geometry concepts. The first edition became an instant classic, being accessible to advanced undergraduates and yet bringing readers close to current research frontiers. This second edition adds chapters on monotone chains, the exclusion process and hitting time parameters. Having both exercises...

  10. Chain and network science: A research framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beers, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this first article of the Journal on Chain and Network Science the base-line is set for a discussion on contents and scope of chain and network theory. Chain and network research is clustered into four main ‘streams’: Network theory, social capital theory, supply chain management and business

  11. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  12. Green supply chains: a new priority for supply chain managers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is not a comprehensive overview of green logistics. What it endeavours to do is to sensitise, in a very summarised way, those involved in logistics and supply chain management about the importance of green logistics and to highlight...

  13. Towards biotracing in food chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    Biotracing is tracing (backward)/tracking (forward) biological contamination in the food/feed chain. Advances in detection technologies, improvements in molecular marker identification, clearer understanding of pathogenicity markers, improved modelling methodologies and, more importantly......, and 21 cross-disciplinary work packages that cover tracing and tracking of contamination in feed, meat and dairy chains, in addition to accidental and deliberate contamination of bottled water. The BIOTRACER Consortium consists of 46 partners, including Europe's largest food/feed industries, several SMEs...... and food retailers. The outcomes will ensure a more reliable and rapid response to a microbial contamination event....

  14. The first nuclear chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The author offers his recollections of the experimental efforts beginning in 1939 which culminated in the Chain Reaction in the squash court on December 2, 1942. Recalled are Columbia University experiments which did much to establish the feasibility of the chain in natural uranium and which stimulated the creation of the Manhattan District. The Columbia group moved to the University of Chicago, where, in early summer of 1942, construction and analysis of a number of subcritical reactors (piles) gave assurance with a high probability that only a reasonable amount of uranium and moderator would be required

  15. Thermodynamics of Dipolar Chain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a quantum system of layers containing perpendicularly oriented dipolar molecules is studied within an oscillator approximation for both bosonic and fermionic species. The system is assumed to be built from chains with one molecule in each layer. We consider the effects...... numerically. Our findings indicate that thermodynamic observables, such as the heat capacity, can be used to probe the signatures of the intralayer interaction between chains. This should be relevant for near future experiments on polar molecules with strong dipole moments....

  16. Markov chains and mixing times

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, David A; Wilmer, Elizabeth L

    2009-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the modern approach to the theory of Markov chains. The main goal of this approach is to determine the rate of convergence of a Markov chain to the stationary distribution as a function of the size and geometry of the state space. The authors develop the key tools for estimating convergence times, including coupling, strong stationary times, and spectral methods. Whenever possible, probabilistic methods are emphasized. The book includes many examples and provides brief introductions to some central models of statistical mechanics. Also provided are accounts of r

  17. Loads applied to fixations for chain stretching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, K; Brychta, P

    1985-06-01

    The chains of scraper chain conveyors must be pre-stretched during standstill in order to compensate the elongations occurring during operation. They require frequent retensiening in order to meet the varying operational requirements. During tensioning, the chains are fixed in a point in the top run by means of fixation elements. The authors present a method for calculating the retaining force needed in the fixations. There are three different initial conditions of the chain before trensioning: Tensionsfree chain, pretensioned chain (stressed chain), slack chain. In all three cases, it is important to find out whether or nor the tensioning drive reaches full speed. The method of calculation is illustrated by the example of a scraper chain conveyor; it enables the establishment of rules for tensioning without damaging the chain and is a good basis for the dimensioning of new types of fixation elements.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a dynamic food chain model DYNACON considering Korean agricultural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.T.; Lee, G.C.; Suh, K.S.; Kim, E.H.; Choi, Y.G.; Han, M.H.; Cho, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity analysis of input parameters for a dynamic food chain model DYNACON was performed as a function of deposition time for the long-lived radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) and the selected foodstuffs (cereals, milk). The influence of input parameters for short and long-term contaminations of the foodstuffs after a deposition was also investigated. The input parameters were sampled using a Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique, and their sensitivity indices were quantified as partial rank correlation coefficient (PRCC). PRCCs were strongly dependent on the contamination period of foodstuffs as well as the deposition time of radionuclides. In case of deposition during growing stage of agricultural plants, the input parameters associated with contamination by foliar absorption were relatively influential in long-term contamination as well as short-term contamination. They were also influential in short-term contamination in case of deposition during non-growing stage. As the contamination period is longer, the influence of parameters associated with contamination by root uptake was increased. This phenomenon was more remarkable in case of the deposition during non-growing stage than growing stage, and in case of 90 Sr deposition than 137 Cs deposition. In case of deposition during growing stage of pasture, the characteristic parameters of cattle such as feed-milk transfer factor and daily intake rate were relatively influential in the contamination of milk. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of ignition by transient energy deposition: Regimes of combustion wave propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiverin, A. D.; Kassoy, D. R.; Ivanov, M. F.; Liberman, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Regimes of chemical reaction wave propagating in reactive gaseous mixtures, whose chemistry is governed by chain-branching kinetics, are studied depending on the characteristics of a transient thermal energy deposition localized in a finite volume of reactive gas. Different regimes of the reaction wave propagation are initiated depending on the amount of deposited thermal energy, power of the source, and the size of the hot spot. The main parameters which define regimes of the combustion wave...

  20. Solubilization of paraffinic deposits for microemulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Erika A.S.; Soares, Ranieri G.F.; Nascimento, Roseane E.S.; Dantas Neto, Afonso A.; Barros Neto, Eduardo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil company has been intensifying its efforts to find more efficient solutions for the problems related to the paraffin in wells and transport lines. When applied in the flow lines, the solvents dissolve the paraffin and they must be used hot, since the temperature increases the solubility of the wax and, consequently, its removal rate. The microemulsions appear as an alternative capable of acting in the solubilization and in the inhibition of the formation of deposits due to its great interfacial area, low superficial tension and high capacity of solubilization. They present some advantages in relation to the methods of use of chemical products due to its flexibility of composition in which they can be used, presenting low toxicity and inflammability, without any loss of its capacity of solubilization. The use of oil-in-water microemulsion aims to solubilized paraffin in the disperse phase, where one can find the apolar part of the molecule of the surfactant and the also apolar chain of paraffin, occurring, therefore the 'encapsulation' of the crystal, prohibiting the growth of the chain due to the affinity of paraffin and oil. In this in case, it is possible to transport the inserted paraffin in direct micelles, reducing the precipitation and optimizing the transport. (author)