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Sample records for chabaudi chabaudi malaria

  1. Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites can develop stable resistance to atovaquone with a mutation in the cytochrome b gene

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    Alves Ana C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistance to many of the drugs in use. The recommended treatment policy is now to use drug combinations. The atovaquone-proguanil (AP drug combination, is one of the treatment and prophylaxis options. Atovaquone (ATQ exerts its action by inhibiting plasmodial mitochondria electron transport at the level of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro resistance to ATQ has been associated with specific point mutations in the region spanning codons 271-284 of the cytochrome b gene. ATQ -resistant Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei lines have been obtained and resistant lines have amino acid mutations in their CYT b protein sequences. Plasmodium chabaudi model for studying drug-responses and drug-resistance selection is a very useful rodent malaria model but no ATQ resistant parasites have been reported so far. The aim of this study was to determine the ATQ sensitivity of the P. chabaudi clones, to select a resistant parasite line and to perform genotypic characterization of the cytb gene of these clones. Methods To select for ATQ resistance, Plasmodium. chabaudi chabaudi clones were exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of ATQ during several consecutive passages in mice. Plasmodium chabaudi cytb gene was amplified and sequenced. Results ATQ resistance was selected from the clone AS-3CQ. In order to confirm whether an heritable genetic mutation underlies the response of AS-ATQ to ATQ, the stability of the drug resistance phenotype in this clone was evaluated by measuring drug responses after (i multiple blood passages in the absence of the drug, (ii freeze/thawing of parasites in liquid nitrogen and (iii transmission through a mosquito host, Anopheles stephensi. ATQ resistance phenotype of the drug-selected parasite clone kept unaltered. Therefore, ATQ resistance in clone AS-ATQ is genetically encoded. The Minimum Curative Dose of AS-ATQ showed a six

  2. Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi and generation of a stable fluorescent line PcGFPCON

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    Reece Sarah E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi has proven of great value in the analysis of fundamental aspects of host-parasite-vector interactions implicated in disease pathology and parasite evolutionary ecology. However, the lack of gene modification technologies for this model has precluded more direct functional studies. Methods The development of in vitro culture methods to yield P. chabaudi schizonts for transfection and conditions for genetic modification of this rodent malaria model are reported. Results Independent P. chabaudi gene-integrant lines that constitutively express high levels of green fluorescent protein throughout their life cycle have been generated. Conclusion Genetic modification of P. chabaudi is now possible. The production of genetically distinct reference lines offers substantial advances to our understanding of malaria parasite biology, especially interactions with the immune system during chronic infection.

  3. Different apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... The few available anti-malaria drugs are becoming increasingly ineffective due to the increasing resistance of the parasites (Carlton et al., 2001). All efforts to develop an effective anti-malaria vaccine have failed to date (Hviid and Barfold, 2008). Basic research is therefore more than ever, urgently, required ...

  4. Augmented particle trapping and attenuated inflammation in the liver by protective vaccination against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria

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    Dkhil Mohamed A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date all efforts to develop a malaria vaccine have failed, reflecting the still fragmentary knowledge about protective mechanisms against malaria. In order to evaluate if vaccination changes responses of the anti-malaria effectors spleen and liver to blood stage malaria, BALB/c mice succumbing to infection with Plasmodium chabaudi were compared to those surviving after vaccination. Methods Mice were vaccinated with host cell plasma membranes isolated from P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes. Hepatic and splenic capacity to trap particulate material was determined after injection of fluorescent polystyrol beads. Hepatic gene expression was measured using real-time RT-PCR and Northern blotting. Results Survival of BALB/c mice was raised from 0% to 80% and peak parasitaemia was decreased by about 30% by vaccination. Vaccination boosted particle trapping capacity of the liver during crisis when splenic trapping is minimal due to spleen 'closing'. It also attenuated malaria-induced inflammation, thus diminishing severe damages and hence liver failure. Vaccination increased hepatic IFN-γ production but mitigated acute phase response. Vaccination has a complex influence on infection-induced changes in expression of hepatic nuclear receptors (CAR, FXR, RXR, and PXR and of the metabolic enzymes Sult2a and Cyp7a1. Although vaccination decreased CAR mRNA levels and prevented Cyp7a1 suppression by the CAR ligand 1,2-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy]benzene (TCPOBOP on day 8 p.i., Sult2a-induction by TCPOBOP was restored. Conclusion These data support the view that the liver is an essential effector site for a vaccine against blood stage malaria: vaccination attenuates malaria-induced inflammation thus improving hepatic metabolic activity and particle trapping activity of the liver.

  5. The evolutionary consequences of blood-stage vaccination on the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi.

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    Victoria C Barclay

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine developers are concerned that antigenic escape will erode vaccine efficacy. Evolutionary theorists have raised the possibility that some types of vaccine could also create conditions favoring the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Such evolution would put unvaccinated people at greater risk of severe disease. Here we test the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi evolving in laboratory mice. The antigen we used, AMA-1, is a component of several candidate malaria vaccines currently in various stages of trials in humans. We first found that a more virulent clone was less readily controlled by AMA-1-induced immunity than its less virulent progenitor. Replicated parasites were then serially passaged through control or AMA-1 vaccinated mice and evaluated after 10 and 21 rounds of selection. We found no evidence of evolution at the ama-1 locus. Instead, virulence evolved; AMA-1-selected parasites induced greater anemia in naïve mice than both control and ancestral parasites. Our data suggest that recombinant blood stage malaria vaccines can drive the evolution of more virulent malaria parasites.

  6. An AFLP-based genetic linkage map of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi

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    Walliker David

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi can be considered as a rodent model of human malaria parasites in the genetic analysis of important characters such as drug resistance and immunity. Despite the availability of some genome sequence data, an extensive genetic linkage map is needed for mapping the genes involved in certain traits. Methods The inheritance of 672 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers from two parental clones (AS and AJ of P. c. chabaudi was determined in 28 independent recombinant progeny clones. These, AFLP markers and 42 previously mapped Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP markers (used as chromosomal anchors were organized into linkage groups using Map Manager software. Results 614 AFLP markers formed linkage groups assigned to 10 of 14 chromosomes, and 12 other linkage groups not assigned to known chromosomes. The genetic length of the genome was estimated to be about 1676 centiMorgans (cM. The mean map unit size was estimated to be 13.7 kb/cM. This was slightly less then previous estimates for the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum Conclusion The P. c. chabaudi genetic linkage map presented here is the most extensive and highly resolved so far available for this species. It can be used in conjunction with the genome databases of P. c chabaudi, P. falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii to identify genes underlying important phenotypes such as drug resistance and strain-specific immunity.

  7. Interruption of the blood-stage cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors

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    M.L. Gazarini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a unicellular protozoan, Plasmodium, which affects 3.7 million people every year. Resistance of the parasite to classical treatments such as chloroquine requires the development of new drugs. To gain insight into the mechanisms that control Plasmodium cell cycle, we have examined the effects of kinase inhibitors on the blood-stage cycle of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. In vitro incubation of red blood cells for 17 h at 37ºC with the inhibitors led to a decrease in the percent of infected cells, compared to control treatment, as follows: genistein (200 µM - 75%, staurosporine (1 µM - 58%, R03 (1 µM - 75%, and tyrphostins B44 (100 µM - 66% and B46 (100 µM - 68%. All these treatments were shown to retard or prevent maturation of the intraerythrocytic parasites. The diverse concentration ranges at which these inhibitors exert their effects give a clue as to the types of signals that initiate the transitions between the different developmental stages of the parasite. The present data support our hypothesis that the maturation of the intraerythrocytic cycle of malaria parasites requires phosphorylation. In this respect, we have recently reported a high Ca2+ microenvironment surrounding the parasite within red blood cells. Several kinase activities are modulated by Ca2+. The molecular identification of the targets of these kinases could provide new strategies against malaria.

  8. Vaccination with a Plasmodium chabaudi adami multivalent DNA vaccine cross-protects A/J mice against challenge with P. c. adami DK and virulent Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS parasites.

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    Scorza, T; Grubb, K; Cambos, M; Santamaria, C; Tshikudi Malu, D; Spithill, T W

    2008-06-01

    A current goal of malaria vaccine research is the development of vaccines that will cross-protect against multiple strains of malaria. In the present study, the breadth of cross-reactivity induced by a 30K multivalent DNA vaccine has been evaluated in susceptible A/J mice (H-2a) against infection with the Plasmodium chabaudi adami DK strain and a virulent parasite subspecies, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. Immunized A/J mice were significantly protected against infection with both P. c. adami DK (31-40% reduction in cumulative parasitemia) and P. c. chabaudi AS parasites, where a 30-39% reduction in cumulative parasitemia as well as enhanced survival was observed. The 30K vaccine-induced specific IFN-gamma production by splenocytes in response to native antigens from both P. c. chabaudi AS and P. c. adami DK. Specific antibodies reacting with surface antigens expressed on P. c. adami DS and P. c. chabaudi AS infected red blood cells, and with opsonizing properties, were detected. These results suggest that multivalent vaccines encoding conserved antigens can feasibly induce immune cross-reactivity that span Plasmodium strains and subspecies and can protect hosts of distinct major histocompatibility complex haplotypes.

  9. Differential miRNA Expression in the Liver of Balb/c Mice Protected by Vaccination during Crisis of Plasmodium chabaudi Blood-Stage Malaria.

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    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are increasingly recognized as epigenetic regulators for outcome of diverse infectious diseases and vaccination efficacy, but little information referring to this exists for malaria. This study investigates possible effects of both protective vaccination and P. chabaudi malaria on the miRNome of the liver as an effector against blood-stage malaria using miRNA microarrays and quantitative PCR. Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage malaria takes a lethal outcome in female Balb/c mice, but a self-healing course after immunization with a non-infectious blood-stage vaccine. The liver robustly expresses 71 miRNA species at varying levels, among which 65 miRNA species respond to malaria evidenced as steadily increasing or decreasing expressions reaching highest or lowest levels toward the end of the crisis phase on day 11 p.i. in lethal malaria. Protective vaccination does not affect constitutive miRNA expression, but leads to significant (p crisis. In vaccination-induced self-healing infections, 18 miRNA-species are up- and 14 miRNA-species are down-regulated by more than 50% during crisis in relation to non-vaccinated mice. Vaccination-induced self-healing and survival of otherwise lethal infections of P. chabaudi activate epigenetic miRNA-regulated remodeling processes in the liver manifesting themselves during crisis. Especially, liver regeneration is accelerated as suggested by upregulation of let-7a-5p, let-7b-5p, let-7c-5p, let-7d-5p, let-7f-5p, let-7g-5p, let-7i-5p, miR-26a, miR-122-5p, miR30a, miR27a, and mir-29a, whereas the up-regulated expression of miR-142-3p by more than 100% is compatible with the view of enhanced hepatic erythropoiesis, possibly at expense of megakaryopoiesis, during crisis of P. chabaudi blood-stage malaria.

  10. Protective vaccination against blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi: differential gene expression in the liver of Balb/c mice towards the end of crisis phase

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    Mohamed A Dkhil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protective vaccination induces self-healing of otherwise fatal blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi in female Balb/c mice. To trace processes critically involved in self-healing, the liver, an effector against blood-stage malaria, is analyzed for possible changes of its transcriptome in vaccination-protected in comparison to non-protected mice towards the end of the crisis phase. Gene expression microarray analyses reveal that vaccination does not affect constitutive expression of mRNA and lincRNA. However, malaria induces significant (p3-fold as compared to the corresponding constitutive expressions. Massive up-regulations, partly by >100-fold, are found for genes as RhD, Add2, Ank1, Ermap, and Slc4a, which encode proteins of erythrocytic surface membranes, and as Gata1 and Gfi1b, which encode transcription factors involved in erythrocytic development. Also, Cldn13 previously predicted to be expressed on erythroblast surfaces is up-regulated by >200-fold, though claudins are known as main constituents of tight junctions acting as paracellular barriers between epithelial cells. Other genes are up-regulated by 10-fold, which can be subgrouped in genes encoding proteins known to be involved in mitosis, in cell cycle regulation, and in DNA repair. Our data suggest that protective vaccination enables the liver to respond to P. chabaudi infections with accelerated regeneration and extramedullary erythropoiesis during crisis, which contributes to survival of otherwise lethal blood-stage malaria.

  11. Physicochemical Aspects of the Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocyte

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    Hayakawa, Eri H.; Kobayashi, Seiki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Membrane electrochemical potential is a feature of the molecular profile of the cell membrane and the two-dimensional arrangement of its charge-bearing molecules. Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are intracellular parasites that remodel host erythrocytes by expressing their own proteins on erythrocyte membranes. Although various aspects of the modifications made to the host erythrocyte membrane have been extensively studied in some human Plasmodium species (such as Plasmodium falciparum), details of the structural and molecular biological modifications made to host erythrocytes by nonhuman Plasmodium parasites have not been studied. We employed zeta potential analysis of erythrocytes parasitized by P. chabaudi, a nonhuman Plasmodium parasite. From these measurements, we found that the surface potential shift was more negative for P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes than for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. However, electron microscopic analysis of the surface of P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes did not reveal any modifications as compared with nonparasitized erythrocytes. These results suggest that differences in the membrane modifications found herein represent unique attributes related to the pathogenesis profiles of the two different malaria parasite species in different host animals and that these features have been acquired through parasite adaptations acquired over long evolutionary time periods. PMID:26557685

  12. Increased Plasmodium chabaudi malaria mortality in mice with nutritional iron deficiency can be reduced by short-term adjunctive iron supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip C; Maretty, Lasse; Staalsoe, Trine

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is the most widespread nutrient deficiency and an important cause of developmental impairment in children. However, some studies have indicated that iron deficiency can also protect against malaria, which is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in large...... parts of the world. This has rendered interventions against iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas controversial. METHODS: The effect of nutritional iron deficiency on the clinical outcome of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice and the impact of intravenous iron supplementation with ferric...... carboxymaltose were studied before and after parasite infection. Plasma levels of the iron status markers hepcidin and fibroblast growth factor 23 were measured in animals surviving and succumbing to malaria, and accompanying tissue pathology in the liver and the spleen was assessed. RESULTS: Nutritional iron...

  13. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS

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    Lawton Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required. Results The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages. Conclusions In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub

  14. P2X7 receptor drives Th1 cell differentiation and controls the follicular helper T cell population to protect against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.

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    Érika Machado de Salles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of protective immunity is crucial to improve vaccine strategies to eradicate malaria. However, it is still unclear whether recognition of damage signals influences the immune response to Plasmodium infection. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP accumulates in infected erythrocytes and is released into the extracellular milieu through ion channels in the erythrocyte membrane or upon erythrocyte rupture. The P2X7 receptor senses extracellular ATP and induces CD4 T cell activation and death. Here we show that P2X7 receptor promotes T helper 1 (Th1 cell differentiation to the detriment of follicular T helper (Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. The P2X7 receptor was activated in CD4 T cells following the rupture of infected erythrocytes and these cells became highly responsive to ATP during acute infection. Moreover, mice lacking the P2X7 receptor had increased susceptibility to infection, which correlated with impaired Th1 cell differentiation. Accordingly, IL-2 and IFNγ secretion, as well as T-bet expression, critically depended on P2X7 signaling in CD4 T cells. Additionally, P2X7 receptor controlled the splenic Tfh cell population in infected mice by promoting apoptotic-like cell death. Finally, the P2X7 receptor was required to generate a balanced Th1/Tfh cell population with an improved ability to transfer parasite protection to CD4-deficient mice. This study provides a new insight into malaria immunology by showing the importance of P2X7 receptor in controlling the fine-tuning between Th1 and Tfh cell differentiation during P. chabaudi infection and thus in disease outcome.

  15. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS)

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Jennifer

    2012-03-29

    Background: The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s) of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required.Results: The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages.Conclusions: In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub-family A and B protein

  16. Osteoclasts Are Required for Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Mobilization but Not for Stress Erythropoiesis in Plasmodium chabaudi adami Murine Malaria

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    Hugo Roméro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anemia and inflammation concurrent with blood stage malaria trigger stress haematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. The activity of osteoclasts seems required for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC from the bone marrow to the periphery. Knowing that BALB/c mice with acute Plasmodium chabaudi adami malaria have profound alterations in bone remodelling cells, we evaluated the extent to which osteoclasts influence their hematopoietic response to infection. For this, mice were treated with osteoclast inhibiting hormone calcitonin prior to parasite inoculation, and infection as well as hematological parameters was studied. In agreement with osteoclast-dependent HSPC mobilization, administration of calcitonin led to milder splenomegaly, reduced numbers of HSPC in the spleen, and their retention in the bone marrow. Although C-terminal telopeptide (CTX levels, indicative of bone resorption, were lower in calcitonin-treated infected mice, they remained comparable in naive and control infected mice. Calcitonin-treated infected mice conveniently responded to anemia but generated less numbers of splenic macrophages and suffered from exacerbated infection; interestingly, calcitonin also decreased the number of macrophages generated in vitro. Globally, our results indicate that although osteoclast-dependent HSC mobilization from bone marrow to spleen is triggered in murine blood stage malaria, this activity is not essential for stress erythropoiesis.

  17. Whole genome re-sequencing identifies a mutation in an ABC transporter (mdr2) in a Plasmodium chabaudi clone with altered susceptibility to antifolate drugs ☆

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    Martinelli, Axel; Henriques, Gisela; Cravo, Pedro; Hunt, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In malaria parasites, mutations in two genes of folate biosynthesis encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) modify responses to antifolate therapies which target these enzymes. However, the involvement of other genes which modify the availability of exogenous folate, for example, has been proposed. Here, we used short-read whole-genome re-sequencing to determine the mutations in a clone of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, which has altered ...

  18. Preconditioning with hemin decreases Plasmodium chabaudi adami parasitemia and inhibits erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice.

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    Dalko, Esther; Gaudreault, Véronique; Sanchez Dardon, Jaime; Moreau, Robert; Scorza, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and dysfunctional erythropoiesis are characteristic of malaria and other hemolytic hemoglobinopathies. High concentrations of free heme are common in these conditions but little is known about the effect of heme on adaptive immunity and erythropoiesis. Herein, we investigated the impact of heme (hemin) administration on immune parameters and steady state erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice, and on parasitemia and anemia during Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection. Intra-peritoneal injection of hemin (5 mg/Kg body weight) over three consecutive days decreased the numbers of splenic and bone marrow macrophages, IFN-γ responses to CD3 stimulation and T(h)1 differentiation. Our results show that the numbers of erythroid progenitors decreased in the bone marrow and spleen of mice treated with hemin, which correlated with reduced numbers of circulating reticulocytes, without affecting hemoglobin concentrations. Although blunted IFN-γ responses were measured in hemin-preconditioned mice, the mice developed lower parasitemia following P.c.adami infection. Importantly, anemia was exacerbated in hemin-preconditioned mice with malaria despite the reduced parasitemia. Altogether, our data indicate that free heme has dual effects on malaria pathology.

  19. Preconditioning with hemin decreases Plasmodium chabaudi adami parasitemia and inhibits erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice.

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    Esther Dalko

    Full Text Available Increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and dysfunctional erythropoiesis are characteristic of malaria and other hemolytic hemoglobinopathies. High concentrations of free heme are common in these conditions but little is known about the effect of heme on adaptive immunity and erythropoiesis. Herein, we investigated the impact of heme (hemin administration on immune parameters and steady state erythropoiesis in BALB/c mice, and on parasitemia and anemia during Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection. Intra-peritoneal injection of hemin (5 mg/Kg body weight over three consecutive days decreased the numbers of splenic and bone marrow macrophages, IFN-γ responses to CD3 stimulation and T(h1 differentiation. Our results show that the numbers of erythroid progenitors decreased in the bone marrow and spleen of mice treated with hemin, which correlated with reduced numbers of circulating reticulocytes, without affecting hemoglobin concentrations. Although blunted IFN-γ responses were measured in hemin-preconditioned mice, the mice developed lower parasitemia following P.c.adami infection. Importantly, anemia was exacerbated in hemin-preconditioned mice with malaria despite the reduced parasitemia. Altogether, our data indicate that free heme has dual effects on malaria pathology.

  20. Electron tomography characterization of hemoglobin uptake in Plasmodium chabaudi reveals a stage-dependent mechanism for food vacuole morphogenesis.

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    Wendt, Camila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare

    2016-05-01

    In the course of their intraerythrocytic development, malaria parasites incorporate and degrade massive amounts of the host cell cytoplasm. This mechanism is essential for parasite development and represents a physiological step used as target for many antimalarial drugs; nevertheless, the fine mechanisms underlying these processes in Plasmodium species are still under discussion. Here, we studied the events of hemoglobin uptake and hemozoin nucleation in the different stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi using transmission electron tomography of cryofixed and freeze-substituted cells. The results showed that hemoglobin uptake in P. chabaudi starts at the early ring stage and is present in all developmental stages, including the schizont stage. Hemozoin nucleation occurs near the membrane of small food vacuoles. At the trophozoite stage, food vacuoles are found closely localized to cytostomal tubes and mitochondria, whereas in the schizont stage, we observed a large food vacuole located in the central portion of the parasite. Taken together, these results provide new insights into the mechanisms of hemoglobin uptake and degradation in rodent malaria parasites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice

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    Allen Judith E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larvae of several common species of parasitic nematodes obligately migrate through, and often damage, host lungs. The larvae induce strong pulmonary Type 2 immune responses, including T-helper (Th2 cells as well as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMφ and associated chitinase and Fizz/resistin family members (ChaFFs, which are thought to promote tissue repair processes. Given the prevalence of systemic or lung-resident Type 1-inducing pathogens in geographical areas in which nematodes are endemic, we wished to investigate the impact of concurrent Type 1 responses on the development of these Type 2 responses to nematode larval migration. We therefore infected BALB/c mice with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, in the presence or absence of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites. Co-infected animals received both infections on the same day, and disease was assessed daily before immunological measurements were taken at 3, 5, 7 or 20 days post-infection. Results We observed that the nematodes themselves caused transient loss of body mass and red blood cell density, but co-infection then slightly ameliorated the severity of malarial anaemia. We also tracked the development of immune responses in the lung and thoracic lymph node. By the time of onset of the adaptive immune response around 7 days post-infection, malaria co-infection had reduced pulmonary expression of ChaFFs. Assessment of the T cell response demonstrated that the Th2 response to the nematode was also significantly impaired by malaria co-infection. Conclusion P. c. chabaudi co-infection altered both local and lymph node Type 2 immune activation due to migration of N. brasiliensis larvae. Given recent work from other laboratories showing that N. brasiliensis-induced ChaFFs correlate to the extent of long-term lung damage, our results raise the possibility that co-infection with malaria might alter pulmonary repair processes following nematode

  2. Cerebral Edema and Cerebral Hemorrhages in Interleukin-10-Deficient Mice Infected with Plasmodium chabaudi

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    Sanni, Latifu A.; Jarra, William; Li, Ching; Langhorne, Jean

    2004-01-01

    During a Plasmodium chabaudi infection in interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mice, there is greater parasite sequestration, more severe cerebral edema, and a high frequency of cerebral hemorrhage compared with infection of C57BL/6 mice. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment ameliorated both cerebral edema and hemorrhages, suggesting that proinflammatory responses contributed to cerebral complications in infected IL-10−/− mice.

  3. Regulatory T cell induction during Plasmodium chabaudi infection modifies the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Alessandro S Farias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is used as an animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by activation of Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Human autoimmune diseases can be either exacerbated or suppressed by infectious agents. Recent studies have shown that regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the escape mechanism of Plasmodium spp. both in humans and in experimental models. These cells suppress the Th1 response against the parasite and prevent its elimination. Regulatory T cells have been largely associated with protection or amelioration in several autoimmune diseases, mainly by their capacity to suppress proinflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we verified that CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells (T regs generated during malaria infection (6 days after EAE induction interfere with the evolution of EAE. We observed a positive correlation between the reduction of EAE clinical symptoms and an increase of parasitemia levels. Suppression of the disease was also accompanied by a decrease in the expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ and increases in the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β1 relative to EAE control mice. The adoptive transfer of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from P. chabaudi-infected mice reduced the clinical evolution of EAE, confirming the role of these T regs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data corroborate previous findings showing that infections interfere with the prevalence and evolution of autoimmune diseases by inducing regulatory T cells, which regulate EAE in an apparently non-specific manner.

  4. Erythrocytic Iron Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice Carrying a Missense Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 1

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    Lelliott, Patrick M.; McMorran, Brendan J.; Foote, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency in areas of high malaria transmission is complicated by evidence which suggests that iron deficiency anemia protects against malaria, while iron supplementation increases malaria risk. Iron deficiency anemia results in an array of pathologies, including reduced systemic iron bioavailability and abnormal erythrocyte physiology; however, the mechanisms by which these pathologies influence malaria infection are not well defined. In the present study, the response to malaria infection was examined in a mutant mouse line, TfrcMRI24910, identified during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen. This line carries a missense mutation in the gene for transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Heterozygous mice exhibited reduced erythrocyte volume and density, a phenotype consistent with dietary iron deficiency anemia. However, unlike the case in dietary deficiency, the erythrocyte half-life, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and intraerythrocytic ferritin content were unchanged. Systemic iron bioavailability was also unchanged, indicating that this mutation results in erythrocytic iron deficiency without significantly altering overall iron homeostasis. When infected with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi adami, mice displayed increased parasitemia and succumbed to infection more quickly than their wild-type littermates. Transfusion of fluorescently labeled erythrocytes into malaria parasite-infected mice demonstrated an erythrocyte-autonomous enhanced survival of parasites within mutant erythrocytes. Together, these results indicate that TFR1 deficiency alters erythrocyte physiology in a way that is similar to dietary iron deficiency anemia, albeit to a lesser degree, and that this promotes intraerythrocytic parasite survival and an increased susceptibility to malaria in mice. These findings may have implications for the management of iron deficiency in the context of malaria. PMID:26303393

  5. Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus enhances non specific protection against Plasmodium chabaudi AS in mice Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus aumenta la protección no específica contra Plasmodium chabaudi AS en ratones

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    Federico Martínez-Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus to enhance resistance against Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NIH mice were IP injected with viable lactobacillus casei seven days (LC1 group or 7 and 14 days (LC2 group before the challenge (day 0 with Plasmodium chabaudi parasitized red blood cells (pRBC. Control mice were inoculated with pRBC only. When parasitaemia was resolved, naive mice were injected with spleen cells from each group. The parasitaemia was measured. Nitric oxide (NO. in serum was determined. RESULTS: Mice from the LC1 group presented a reduction in parasitaemia, with a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted 11 days, and the peak was (36.3 % pRBC on the 12th day post-infection. Mice from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted eight days, and the peak (30 % pRBC was of on the 11th day. In the control, the prepatent period was three days, the parasitaemia lasted 15 days, and the peak (51% pRBC was on day nine. Mice inoculated with spleen cells from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of 21 days, parasitaemia lasted seven days, and the peak (13.5% pRBC was on the 26th day. CONCLUSION: L. casei enhanced nonspecific resistance to P. chabaudi, as indicated by longer prepatent periods, reduced parasitaemia, and reduction in the viability of the parasites recovered from the spleen of infected mice, along with high concentrations of NO. in serum.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de Lactobacillus casei de aumentar la resistencia a la infección con Plasmodium chabaudi en ratones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ratones NIH fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con L. casei viable 7 días (grupo LC1 o 7 y 14 días (grupo LC2 antes del reto (día 0 con glóbulos rojos parasitados (GRP con P. chabaudi. Los testigos fueron inoculados con GRP solamente. Cuando la parasitemia se resolvió, se inocularon ratones limpios con células de bazo de cada grupo. Se

  6. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

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    Eunice W Nduati

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  7. Oswaldofilaria chabaudi n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae from a South American tropidurid lizard (Squamata: Iguania with an update on Oswaldofilariinae

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    Pereira F.B.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Oswaldofilaria is described from Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae: Iguania; its prevalence at the rocky study area at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was approximately 30% and its mean intensity 3.13 ± 2.51. Oswaldofilaria chabaudi n. sp. is distinct from the thirteen Oswaldofilaria species known in Australia, Africa and South-America in having the following characteristics: oesophagus medium-sized, left spicule 1 mm long and high spicular ratio (about 5, tail extremity ornated in both sexes with a bifurcated projection, and tooth-like structures near phasmids in the female. A long left spicule and high spicular ratio are convergent derived characters also found in a parasite of Australian crocodilians, O. kanbaya, and in several species of the closely related genus Befilaria, such as the Central American B. puertoricensis from polychrotids. Oswaldofilaria in South America is represented by eight species. Within these, a primitive group that is parasitic in Iguanidae, Polychrotidae (Iguania and Crocodylidae and that possesses a long oesophagus is recognised, together with two distinct derived lines: three species with numerous, aligned precloacal papillae, parasitic in Teiidae (Laterata and Scincidae (Scincomorpha, and O. chabaudi n. sp., in which this character is absent. Tropidurids (Tropiduris and Plica had previously been reported in the host range of two oswaldofilarine genera, Oswaldofilaria and Piratuba, and their parasites assigned to known species described from other groups of lizards.

  8. Whole genome re-sequencing identifies a mutation in an ABC transporter (mdr2) in a Plasmodium chabaudi clone with altered susceptibility to antifolate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Axel; Henriques, Gisela; Cravo, Pedro; Hunt, Paul

    2011-02-01

    In malaria parasites, mutations in two genes of folate biosynthesis encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) modify responses to antifolate therapies which target these enzymes. However, the involvement of other genes which modify the availability of exogenous folate, for example, has been proposed. Here, we used short-read whole-genome re-sequencing to determine the mutations in a clone of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, which has altered susceptibility to both sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. This clone bears a previously identified S106N mutation in dhfr and no mutation in dhps. Instead, three additional point mutations in genes on chromosomes 2, 13 and 14 were identified. The mutated gene on chromosome 13 (mdr2 K392Q) encodes an ABC transporter. Because Quantitative Trait Locus analysis previously indicated an association of genetic markers on chromosome 13 with responses to individual and combined antifolates, MDR2 is proposed to modulate antifolate responses, possibly mediated by the transport of folate intermediates. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System

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    Zoraima Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs. Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group’s 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest.

  10. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  11. Suppression of in vitro IFN-gamma production by spleen cells of Plasmodium chabaudi-infected C57BL/10 mice exposed to dexamethasone at a low dose.

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    Tsutsui, N; Kamiyama, T

    1998-01-01

    After infection with Plasmodium chabaudi, C57BL/10 mice produced significant amounts of serum IFN-gamma, developed a low level of parasitemia and survived the infection. Production of IFN-gamma was also obvious when spleen cells of the infected mice were stimulated with the parasite antigen contained in an erythrocyte lysate in vitro. Depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated production of IFN-gamma, leading to loss of resistance to the infection. The CD4+ T cells/IFN-gamma-dependent resistance of the C57BL/10 mice against P. chabaudi was applied to assess immunotoxicological effect of dexamethasone (DEX). Administration of a high dose (0.75 mg/kg) resulted in loss of the splenic cellularity, remarkable decrease in serum IFN-gamma production, increased level of parasitemia, and eventual death of the infected mice. In contrast, DEX at a low dose (0.02 mg/kg) induced no alternation in the in vivo host immune activity and the mice survived the infection. However, when spleen cells were obtained from the infected mice administered the low dose of DEX and stimulated in vitro with the parasite antigen, a significantly decreased level of IFN-gamma was demonstrated with compared to control mice. These findings demonstrate that the in vitro production of IFN-gamma by spleen cells from P. chabaudi-resistant C57BL/10 mice was more sensitive to the immunosuppressive effect of in vivo administration of DEX. This ex vivo assay might provide a method for evaluation of drug-induced immunotoxicity at a higher sensitivity than the conventional host resistant assays such as comparison of severity of disease or time to death.

  12. Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts

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    Ferguson Heather M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods Using a rodent malaria model system, behavioural avoidance of super-infection was tested by examining whether already-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were less responsive to new vertebrate hosts if they were infected. Additionally, a second dose of parasites was given to malaria-infected mosquitoes on a biologically realistic time scale to test whether it impeded the development of a first infection. Results No effect of a second infected blood meal on either the prevalence or parasite burden arising from a first was found. Furthermore, it was found that not only were infected mosquitoes more likely to take a second blood meal than their uninfected counterparts, they were disproportionately drawn to infected hosts. Conclusions The alterations in mosquito feeding propensity reported here would occur if parasites have been selected to make infected vertebrate hosts more attractive to mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes are more likely to seek out new blood meals. Although such a strategy might increase the risk of super-infection, this study suggests the cost to parasite development is not high and as such would be unlikely to outweigh the potential benefits of increasing the contact rate between the parasite's two obligate hosts.

  13. Acute Disruption of Bone Marrow B Lymphopoiesis and Apoptosis of Transitional and Marginal Zone B Cells in the Spleen following a Blood-Stage Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice

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    Viki Bockstal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B cells and antibodies are essential for the protective immune response against a blood-stage Plasmodium infection. Although extensive research has focused on memory as well as plasma B-cell responses during infection, little is known about how malaria affects B-cell development and splenic maturation into marginal zone B (MZB and follicular B (FoB cells. In this study, we show that acute Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in C57Bl/6 mice causes severe disruption of B lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow, affecting in particular pro-, pre-, and immature B cells as well as the expression of the bone marrow B-cell retention chemokine CXCL12. In addition, elevated apoptosis of transitional T2 and marginal zone (MZ B cells was observed during and subsequent to the control of the first wave of parasitemia. In contrast, Folllicular (Fo B cells levels were retained in the spleen throughout the infection, suggesting that these are essential for parasite clearance and proper infection control.

  14. Protective vaccination and blood-stage malaria modify DNA methylation of gene promoters in the liver of Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Ghanjati, Foued; Erichsen, Lars; Santourlidis, Simeon; Wunderlich, Frank; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2017-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are increasingly recognized to be critical for vaccination efficacy and outcome of different infectious diseases, but corresponding information is scarcely available for host defense against malaria. In the experimental blood-stage malaria Plasmodium chabaudi, we investigate the possible effects of a blood-stage vaccine on DNA methylation of gene promoters in the liver, known as effector against blood-stage malaria, using DNA methylation microarrays. Naturally susceptible Balb/c mice acquire, by protective vaccination, the potency to survive P. chabaudi malaria and, concomitantly, modifications of constitutive DNA methylation of promoters of numerous genes in the liver; specifically, promoters of 256 genes are hyper(=up)- and 345 genes are hypo(=down)-methylated (p malaria, as, e.g., recruitment of monocyte/macrophage to the liver accelerated liver regeneration and extramedullary hepatic erythropoiesis, thus leading to self-healing of otherwise lethal P. chabaudi blood-stage malaria.

  15. A semi-synthetic whole parasite vaccine designed to protect against blood stage malaria.

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    Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Reiman, Jennifer M; Zaman, Mehfuz; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan; Good, Michael F

    2016-10-15

    Although attenuated malaria parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) are promising vaccine candidates, their application in humans may be restricted for ethical and regulatory reasons. Therefore, we developed an organic microparticle-based delivery platform as a whole parasite malaria-antigen carrier to mimic pRBCs. Killed blood stage parasites were encapsulated within liposomes that are targeted to antigen presenting cells (APCs). Mannosylated lipid core peptides (MLCPs) were used as targeting ligands for the liposome-encapsulated parasite antigens. MLCP-liposomes, but not unmannosylated liposomes, were taken-up efficiently by APCs which then significantly upregulated expression of MHC-ll and costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. Two such vaccines using rodent model systems were constructed - one with Plasmodium chabaudi and the other with P. yoelii. MLCP-liposome vaccines were able to control the parasite burden and extended the survival of mice. Thus, we have demonstrated an alternative delivery system to attenuated pRBCs with similar vaccine efficacy and added clinical advantages. Such liposomes are promising candidates for a human malaria vaccine. Attenuated whole parasite-based vaccines, by incorporating all parasite antigens, are very promising candidates, but issues relating to production, storage and safety concerns are significantly slowing their development. We therefore developed a semi-synthetic whole parasite malaria vaccine that is easily manufactured and stored. Two such prototype vaccines (a P. chabaudi and a P. yoelii vaccine) have been constructed. They are non-infectious, highly immunogenic and give good protection profiles. This semi-synthetic delivery platform is an exciting strategy to accelerate the development of a licensed malaria vaccine. Moreover, this strategy can be potentially applied to a wide range of pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential roles of inflammation and apoptosis in initiation of mid-gestational abortion in malaria-infected C57BL/6 and A/J mice.

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    Sarr, D; Bracken, T C; Owino, S O; Cooper, C A; Smith, G M; Nagy, T; Moore, J M

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infection in pregnant A/J and C57BL/6J mice results in mid-gestational pregnancy loss. Although associated with increased systemic and placental pro-inflammatory responses and coagulopathy, the molecular mechanisms that underlie poor pregnancy outcomes in these mice are not yet fully understood. This study investigates the relationships between inflammation, apoptosis and malaria-induced pregnancy loss. Infection with P. chabaudi AS in early murine pregnancy and term human placental tissues from an endemic setting were assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining, real-time PCR, flow cytometry, western blot, and ELISA. Quantitative PCR reveals accumulation of lymphocytes and monocytes and upregulation of chemokines that attract these cell types in malaria-exposed mid-gestational A/J conceptuses. Monocyte accumulation is confirmed by flow cytometry and placental immunohistochemistry. Concurrent with initiation of malaria-induced abortion, markers of apoptosis are evident in the junctional zone, but not the labyrinth, of A/J placentae. In contrast, mid-gestation conceptuses in infected C57BL/6J lack evidence for monocyte accumulation, exhibiting low or no in situ placental staining despite trophoblast immunoreactivity for the monokine, CCL2. Additionally, placental apoptosis is not consistently observed, and when evident, appears after malaria-induced abortion typically initiates. Similarly, trophoblast apoptosis in term human placental malaria is not observed. Of those studied, a sole common feature of malaria-induced abortion in A/J and C57BL/6J mice is elevation of plasma tumor necrosis factor. Consistent with our previous observations, tumor necrosis factor is likely to be a central driver of malaria-induced pregnancy loss in both strains, but likely operates through mechanisms distinct from placental apoptosis in C57BL/6J mice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of rodent malaria parasite genomes and gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Thomas D

    2014-10-30

    Background: Rodent malaria parasites (RMP) are used extensively as models of human malaria. Draft RMP genomes have been published for Plasmodium yoelii, P. berghei ANKA (PbA) and P. chabaudi AS (PcAS). Although availability of these genomes made a significant impact on recent malaria research, these genomes were highly fragmented and were annotated with little manual curation. The fragmented nature of the genomes has hampered genome wide analysis of Plasmodium gene regulation and function. Results: We have greatly improved the genome assemblies of PbA and PcAS, newly sequenced the virulent parasite P. yoelii YM genome, sequenced additional RMP isolates/lines and have characterized genotypic diversity within RMP species. We have produced RNA-seq data and utilized it to improve gene-model prediction and to provide quantitative, genome-wide, data on gene expression. Comparison of the RMP genomes with the genome of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum and RNA-seq mapping permitted gene annotation at base-pair resolution. Full-length chromosomal annotation permitted a comprehensive classification of all subtelomeric multigene families including the `Plasmodium interspersed repeat genes\\' (pir). Phylogenetic classification of the pir family, combined with pir expression patterns, indicates functional diversification within this family. Conclusions: Complete RMP genomes, RNA-seq and genotypic diversity data are excellent and important resources for gene-function and post-genomic analyses and to better interrogate Plasmodium biology. Genotypic diversity between P. chabaudi isolates makes this species an excellent parasite to study genotype-phenotype relationships. The improved classification of multigene families will enhance studies on the role of (variant) exported proteins in virulence and immune evasion/modulation.

  18. Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Paul

    2010-09-16

    Background: Classical and quantitative linkage analyses of genetic crosses have traditionally been used to map genes of interest, such as those conferring chloroquine or quinine resistance in malaria parasites. Next-generation sequencing technologies now present the possibility of determining genome-wide genetic variation at single base-pair resolution. Here, we combine in vivo experimental evolution, a rapid genetic strategy and whole genome re-sequencing to identify the precise genetic basis of artemisinin resistance in a lineage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. Such genetic markers will further the investigation of resistance and its control in natural infections of the human malaria, P. falciparum.Results: A lineage of isogenic in vivo drug-selected mutant P. chabaudi parasites was investigated. By measuring the artemisinin responses of these clones, the appearance of an in vivo artemisinin resistance phenotype within the lineage was defined. The underlying genetic locus was mapped to a region of chromosome 2 by Linkage Group Selection in two different genetic crosses. Whole-genome deep coverage short-read re-sequencing (IlluminaSolexa) defined the point mutations, insertions, deletions and copy-number variations arising in the lineage. Eight point mutations arise within the mutant lineage, only one of which appears on chromosome 2. This missense mutation arises contemporaneously with artemisinin resistance and maps to a gene encoding a de-ubiquitinating enzyme.Conclusions: This integrated approach facilitates the rapid identification of mutations conferring selectable phenotypes, without prior knowledge of biological and molecular mechanisms. For malaria, this model can identify candidate genes before resistant parasites are commonly observed in natural human malaria populations. 2010 Hunt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction is sustained after rescue therapy in experimental cerebral malaria, and is reduced by additive antioxidant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Patricia A; Comim, Clarissa M; Hermani, Fernanda; Silva, Bruno; Barichello, Tatiana; Portella, Aline C; Gomes, Flavia C A; Sab, Ive M; Frutuoso, Valber S; Oliveira, Marcus F; Bozza, Patricia T; Bozza, Fernando A; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Zimmerman, Guy A; Quevedo, João; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C

    2010-06-24

    Neurological impairments are frequently detected in children surviving cerebral malaria (CM), the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The pathophysiology and therapy of long lasting cognitive deficits in malaria patients after treatment of the parasitic disease is a critical area of investigation. In the present study we used several models of experimental malaria with differential features to investigate persistent cognitive damage after rescue treatment. Infection of C57BL/6 and Swiss (SW) mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) or a lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii XL (PyXL), respectively, resulted in documented CM and sustained persistent cognitive damage detected by a battery of behavioral tests after cure of the acute parasitic disease with chloroquine therapy. Strikingly, cognitive impairment was still present 30 days after the initial infection. In contrast, BALB/c mice infected with PbA, C57BL6 infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and SW infected with non lethal Plasmodium yoelii NXL (PyNXL) did not develop signs of CM, were cured of the acute parasitic infection by chloroquine, and showed no persistent cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species have been reported to mediate neurological injury in CM. Increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was detected in the brains of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with CM, indicating high oxidative stress. Treatment of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with additive antioxidants together with chloroquine at the first signs of CM prevented the development of persistent cognitive damage. These studies provide new insights into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction after rescue therapy for CM that may have clinical relevance, and may also be relevant to cerebral sequelae of sepsis and other disorders.

  20. Cognitive dysfunction is sustained after rescue therapy in experimental cerebral malaria, and is reduced by additive antioxidant therapy.

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    Patricia A Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurological impairments are frequently detected in children surviving cerebral malaria (CM, the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. The pathophysiology and therapy of long lasting cognitive deficits in malaria patients after treatment of the parasitic disease is a critical area of investigation. In the present study we used several models of experimental malaria with differential features to investigate persistent cognitive damage after rescue treatment. Infection of C57BL/6 and Swiss (SW mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA or a lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii XL (PyXL, respectively, resulted in documented CM and sustained persistent cognitive damage detected by a battery of behavioral tests after cure of the acute parasitic disease with chloroquine therapy. Strikingly, cognitive impairment was still present 30 days after the initial infection. In contrast, BALB/c mice infected with PbA, C57BL6 infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and SW infected with non lethal Plasmodium yoelii NXL (PyNXL did not develop signs of CM, were cured of the acute parasitic infection by chloroquine, and showed no persistent cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species have been reported to mediate neurological injury in CM. Increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated dienes was detected in the brains of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with CM, indicating high oxidative stress. Treatment of PbA-infected C57BL/6 mice with additive antioxidants together with chloroquine at the first signs of CM prevented the development of persistent cognitive damage. These studies provide new insights into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction after rescue therapy for CM that may have clinical relevance, and may also be relevant to cerebral sequelae of sepsis and other disorders.

  1. Maternal malaria induces a procoagulant and antifibrinolytic state that is embryotoxic but responsive to anticoagulant therapy.

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    John W Avery

    Full Text Available Low birth weight and fetal loss are commonly attributed to malaria in endemic areas, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these poor birth outcomes are incompletely understood. Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulated hemostasis is important in malaria pathogenesis, but its role in placental malaria (PM, characterized by intervillous sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum, proinflammatory responses, and excessive fibrin deposition is not known. To address this question, markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis were assessed in placentae from malaria-exposed primigravid women. PM was associated with significantly elevated placental monocyte and proinflammatory marker levels, enhanced perivillous fibrin deposition, and increased markers of activated coagulation and suppressed fibrinolysis in placental plasma. Submicroscopic PM was not proinflammatory but tended to be procoagulant and antifibrinolytic. Birth weight trended downward in association with placental parasitemia and high fibrin score. To directly assess the importance of coagulation in malaria-induced compromise of pregnancy, Plasmodium chabaudi AS-infected pregnant C57BL/6 mice were treated with the anticoagulant, low molecular weight heparin. Treatment rescued pregnancy at midgestation, with substantially decreased rates of active abortion and reduced placental and embryonic hemorrhage and necrosis relative to untreated animals. Together, the results suggest that dysregulated hemostasis may represent a novel therapeutic target in malaria-compromised pregnancies.

  2. Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, H.M.; Read, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Background - Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods - Using a

  3. Role of Activins in Hepcidin Regulation during Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Natasha; Armitage, Andrew E; Williams, Andrew R; Fyfe, Alex J; Biswas, Sumi; Hodgson, Susanne H; Llewellyn, David; Choudhary, Prateek; Draper, Simon J; Duffy, Patrick E; Drakesmith, Hal

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological observations have linked increased host iron with malaria susceptibility, and perturbed iron handling has been hypothesized to contribute to the potentially life-threatening anemia that may accompany blood-stage malaria infection. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we examined the pathways involved in regulation of the master controller of iron metabolism, the hormone hepcidin, in malaria infection. We show that hepcidin upregulation in Plasmodium berghei murine malaria infection was accompanied by changes in expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/sons of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) pathway target genes, a key pathway involved in hepcidin regulation. We therefore investigated known agonists of the BMP/SMAD pathway and found that Bmp gene expression was not increased in infection. In contrast, activin B, which can signal through the BMP/SMAD pathway and has been associated with increased hepcidin during inflammation, was upregulated in the livers of Plasmodium berghei -infected mice; hepatic activin B was also upregulated at peak parasitemia during infection with Plasmodium chabaudi Concentrations of the closely related protein activin A increased in parallel with hepcidin in serum from malaria-naive volunteers infected in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) clinical trials. However, antibody-mediated neutralization of activin activity during murine malaria infection did not affect hepcidin expression, suggesting that these proteins do not stimulate hepcidin upregulation directly. In conclusion, we present evidence that the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway is perturbed in malaria infection but that activins, although raised in malaria infection, may not have a critical role in hepcidin upregulation in this setting. Copyright © 2017 Spottiswoode et al.

  4. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR Variants in a Thai Population.

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    Rebekah van Bruggen

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PKLR is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41 is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria.

  5. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR) Variants in a Thai Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Rebekah; Gualtieri, Christian; Iliescu, Alexandra; Louicharoen Cheepsunthorn, Chalisa; Mungkalasut, Punchalee; Trape, Jean-François; Modiano, David; Sirima, Bienvenu Sodiomon; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lathrop, Mark; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Bureau, Jean-François; Gros, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PKLR) is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival) of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q) was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41) is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q) affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria.

  6. Development of a Novel CD4+ TCR Transgenic Line That Reveals a Dominant Role for CD8+ Dendritic Cells and CD40 Signaling in the Generation of Helper and CTL Responses to Blood-Stage Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Lau, Lei Shong; Ghazanfari, Nazanin; Jones, Claerwen M; Ng, Wei Yi; Davey, Gayle M; Berthold, Dorothee; Holz, Lauren; Kato, Yu; Enders, Matthias H; Bayarsaikhan, Ganchimeg; Hendriks, Sanne H; Lansink, Lianne I M; Engel, Jessica A; Soon, Megan S F; James, Kylie R; Cozijnsen, Anton; Mollard, Vanessa; Uboldi, Alessandro D; Tonkin, Christopher J; de Koning-Ward, Tania F; Gilson, Paul R; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Haque, Ashraful; Crabb, Brendan S; Carbone, Francis R; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Heath, William R

    2017-12-15

    We describe an MHC class II (I-Ab)-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line that produces CD4+ T cells specific for Plasmodium species. This line, termed PbT-II, was derived from a CD4+ T cell hybridoma generated to blood-stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). PbT-II cells responded to all Plasmodium species and stages tested so far, including rodent (PbA, P. berghei NK65, Plasmodium chabaudi AS, and Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) and human (Plasmodium falciparum) blood-stage parasites as well as irradiated PbA sporozoites. PbT-II cells can provide help for generation of Ab to P. chabaudi infection and can control this otherwise lethal infection in CD40L-deficient mice. PbT-II cells can also provide help for development of CD8+ T cell-mediated experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) during PbA infection. Using PbT-II CD4+ T cells and the previously described PbT-I CD8+ T cells, we determined the dendritic cell (DC) subsets responsible for immunity to PbA blood-stage infection. CD8+ DC (a subset of XCR1+ DC) were the major APC responsible for activation of both T cell subsets, although other DC also contributed to CD4+ T cell responses. Depletion of CD8+ DC at the beginning of infection prevented ECM development and impaired both Th1 and follicular Th cell responses; in contrast, late depletion did not affect ECM. This study describes a novel and versatile tool for examining CD4+ T cell immunity during malaria and provides evidence that CD4+ T cell help, acting via CD40L signaling, can promote immunity or pathology to blood-stage malaria largely through Ag presentation by CD8+ DC. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Ankyrin-1 Gene Exhibits Allelic Heterogeneity in Conferring Protection Against Malaria

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    Hong Ming Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Allelic heterogeneity is a common phenomenon where a gene exhibits a different phenotype depending on the nature of its genetic mutations. In the context of genes affecting malaria susceptibility, it allowed us to explore and understand the intricate host–parasite interactions during malaria infections. In this study, we described a gene encoding erythrocytic ankyrin-1 (Ank-1 which exhibits allelic-dependent heterogeneous phenotypes during malaria infections. We conducted an ENU mutagenesis screen on mice and identified two Ank-1 mutations, one resulting in an amino acid substitution (MRI95845, and the other a truncated Ank-1 protein (MRI96570. Both mutations caused hereditary spherocytosis-like phenotypes and confer differing protection against Plasmodium chabaudi infections. Upon further examination, the Ank-1(MRI96570 mutation was found to inhibit intraerythrocytic parasite maturation, whereas Ank-1(MRI95845 caused increased bystander erythrocyte clearance during infection. This is the first description of allelic heterogeneity in ankyrin-1 from the direct comparison between two Ank-1 mutations. Despite the lack of direct evidence from population studies, this data further supported the protective roles of ankyrin-1 mutations in conferring malaria protection. This study also emphasized the importance of such phenomena in achieving a better understanding of host–parasite interactions, which could be the basis of future studies.

  8. Towards early in vivo photoacoustic malaria diagnosis with 10,000-fold sensitivity improvement (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kai A.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Stumhofer, Jason S.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-03-01

    Roughly 0.6 million people die each year from malaria due to lack of early diagnosis and well-timed treatment. Our previous study demonstrated great potential of in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for early diagnosis of deadly diseases with focus on cancer and thromboembolic complications. Here we demonstrate potential of advanced PAFC platforms using new laser, ultrasound transducer array and recording system to detect infected red blood cells (iRBCs) with malaria-associated pigment hemozoin which has a higher PA contrast than blood background. Mature parasites of human infecting species such as P. falciparum characteristically sequester mature iRBCs in the capillary bed and display synchrony in their reproductive cycle. To address this issue prior to clinical application, new PAFC platform was verified in a pre-clinical study using new animal models. Specifically, we used P. chabaudi (a rodent malaria species that mimics the characteristics of the most virulent human counterpart) to estimate the detection sensitivity with immature ring-stage parasites in peripheral blood, compared PA signals from the differing species, and examined the relationship between PA signal amplitudes and level of blood oxygenation. Based on previous successful trials on melanoma patients with melanin as an intrinsic PA marker, which has similar absorption as hemozoin, we believe that after additional malaria-related clinical trials, PAFC with a small 1064 nm laser and wearable a cost-effective, easy-to-use, watch-like, safe PA probe will provide malaria diagnosis in humans at parasitemia levels 10e4 -times lower than the current gold standard of diagnosis, the Giemsa-stained blood smear. It can reduce malaria-related mortality by well-timed treatment, especially in children in malaria-endemic countries.

  9. The utility of Plasmodium berghei as a rodent model for anti-merozoite malaria vaccine assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna L.; Forbes, Emily K.; Williams, Andrew R.; Douglas, Alexander D.; de Cassan, Simone C.; Bauza, Karolis; Biswas, Sumi; Dicks, Matthew D. J.; Llewellyn, David; Moore, Anne C.; Janse, Chris J.; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Pleass, Richard J.; Draper, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent malaria species Plasmodium yoelii and P. chabaudi have been widely used to validate vaccine approaches targeting blood-stage merozoite antigens. However, increasing data suggest the P. berghei rodent malaria may be able to circumvent vaccine-induced anti-merozoite responses. Here we confirm a failure to protect against P. berghei, despite successful antibody induction against leading merozoite antigens using protein-in-adjuvant or viral vectored vaccine delivery. No subunit vaccine approach showed efficacy in mice following immunization and challenge with the wild-type P. berghei strains ANKA or NK65, or against a chimeric parasite line encoding a merozoite antigen from P. falciparum. Protection was not improved in knockout mice lacking the inhibitory Fc receptor CD32b, nor against a Δsmac P. berghei parasite line with a non-sequestering phenotype. An improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for protection, or failure of protection, against P. berghei merozoites could guide the development of an efficacious vaccine against P. falciparum. PMID:23609325

  10. CHEMOTHERAPY, WITHIN-HOST ECOLOGY AND THE FITNESS OF DRUG-RESISTANT MALARIA PARASITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijben, Silvie; Nelson, William A.; Wargo, Andrew R.; Sim, Derek G.; Drew, Damien R.; Read, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    A major determinant of the rate at which drug-resistant malaria parasites spread through a population is the ecology of resistant and sensitive parasites sharing the same host. Drug treatment can significantly alter this ecology by removing the drug-sensitive parasites, leading to competitive release of resistant parasites. Here, we test the hypothesis that the spread of resistance can be slowed by reducing drug treatment and hence restricting competitive release. Using the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi, we found that low-dose chemotherapy did reduce competitive release. A higher drug dose regimen exerted stronger positive selection on resistant parasites for no detectable clinical gain. We estimated instantaneous selection coefficients throughout the course of replicate infections to analyze the temporal pattern of the strength and direction of within-host selection. The strength of selection on resistance varied through the course of infections, even in untreated infections, but increased immediately following drug treatment, particularly in the high-dose groups. Resistance remained under positive selection for much longer than expected from the half life of the drug. Although there are many differences between mice and people, our data do raise the question whether the aggressive treatment regimens aimed at complete parasite clearance are the best resistance-management strategies for humans. PMID:20584075

  11. Homeostatic proliferation and IL-7R alpha expression do not correlate with enhanced T cell proliferation and protection in chronic mouse malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Stephens

    Full Text Available While chronic infection has been shown to enhance protection from disease caused by several pathogens, the mechanisms are not known. The gamma-c family of cytokines IL-7, IL-2, and IL-15 are implicated in homeostatic proliferation, which is thought to maintain T cell memory. However in chronic infection, prolonged antigen exposure itself may contribute to lymphocyte survival. We have previously observed that chronic malaria infection enhances protection to re-infection, as well as enhancing B cell responses. Here, we show that chronic Plasmodium chabaudi malaria infection in mice enhances the expansion of CD4(+ T cells in a second infection, and that this correlates with increased expression of the IL-2/15 Receptor beta (CD122 on memory T cells, as well as increasing IL-2 producers on re-infection. IL-2 has been recently linked to improved secondary proliferation, while the role of IL-7 in maintenance of CD4(+ memory cells has been demonstrated in homeostatic proliferation, but its role in protective memory populations in infectious disease protective has not been fully investigated. Increased IL-7Rα (CD127 expression correlated, as previously reported with increased turnover of CD4 memory cells, however, this was not linked to protection or enhanced response to rechallenge, These data support the idea that antigen or IL-2 production resulting from chronic stimulation may play a role in an enhanced secondary T cell response.

  12. A high-coverage artificial chromosome library for the genome-wide screening of drug-resistance genes in malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Shiroh; Kaneko, Izumi; Yuda, Masao

    2012-05-01

    The global spread of drug-resistant parasites is a serious problem for the treatment of malaria. Although identifying drug-resistance genes is crucial for the efforts against resistant parasites, an effective approach has not yet been developed. Here, we report a robust method for identifying resistance genes from parasites by using a Plasmodium artificial chromosome (PAC). Large genomic DNA fragments (10-50 kb) from the drug-resistant rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei were ligated into the PAC and directly introduced into the drug-sensitive (i.e., wild-type) parasite by electroporation, resulting in a PAC library that encompassed the whole genomic sequence of the parasite. Subsequently, the transformed parasites that acquired resistance were selected by screening with the drug, and the resistance gene in the PAC was successfully identified. Furthermore, the drug-resistance gene was identified from a PAC library that was made from the pyrimethamine-resistant parasite Plasmodium chabaudi, further demonstrating the utility of our method. This method will promote the identification of resistance genes and contribute to the global fight against drug-resistant parasites.

  13. Enhanced transmission of drug-resistant parasites to mosquitoes following drug treatment in rodent malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Bell

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistant Plasmodium parasites is a major challenge to effective malaria control. In theory, competitive interactions between sensitive parasites and resistant parasites within infections are a major determinant of the rate at which parasite evolution undermines drug efficacy. Competitive suppression of resistant parasites in untreated hosts slows the spread of resistance; competitive release following treatment enhances it. Here we report that for the murine model Plasmodium chabaudi, co-infection with drug-sensitive parasites can prevent the transmission of initially rare resistant parasites to mosquitoes. Removal of drug-sensitive parasites following chemotherapy enabled resistant parasites to transmit to mosquitoes as successfully as sensitive parasites in the absence of treatment. We also show that the genetic composition of gametocyte populations in host venous blood accurately reflects the genetic composition of gametocytes taken up by mosquitoes. Our data demonstrate that, at least for this mouse model, aggressive chemotherapy leads to very effective transmission of highly resistant parasites that are present in an infection, the very parasites which undermine the long term efficacy of front-line drugs.

  14. CD8+ T cells from a novel T cell receptor transgenic mouse induce liver-stage immunity that can be boosted by blood-stage infection in rodent malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shong Lau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To follow the fate of CD8+ T cells responsive to Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA infection, we generated an MHC I-restricted TCR transgenic mouse line against this pathogen. T cells from this line, termed PbT-I T cells, were able to respond to blood-stage infection by PbA and two other rodent malaria species, P. yoelii XNL and P. chabaudi AS. These PbT-I T cells were also able to respond to sporozoites and to protect mice from liver-stage infection. Examination of the requirements for priming after intravenous administration of irradiated sporozoites, an effective vaccination approach, showed that the spleen rather than the liver was the main site of priming and that responses depended on CD8α+ dendritic cells. Importantly, sequential exposure to irradiated sporozoites followed two days later by blood-stage infection led to augmented PbT-I T cell expansion. These findings indicate that PbT-I T cells are a highly versatile tool for studying multiple stages and species of rodent malaria and suggest that cross-stage reactive CD8+ T cells may be utilized in liver-stage vaccine design to enable boosting by blood-stage infections.

  15. Selective inhibition of PfA-M1, over PfA-M17, by an amino-benzosuberone derivative blocks malaria parasites development in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounaadja, Lotfi; Schmitt, Marjorie; Albrecht, Sébastien; Mouray, Elisabeth; Tarnus, Céline; Florent, Isabelle

    2017-09-21

    Plasmodium falciparum M1 family aminopeptidase is currently considered as a promising target for anti-malarial chemotherapy. Several series of inhibitors developed by various research groups display IC50/Ki values down to nM range on native PfA-M1 or recombinant forms and block the parasite development in culture at µM to sub-µM concentrations. A handful of these inhibitors has been tested on murine models of malaria and has shown anti plasmodial in vivo activity. However, most of these inhibitors do also target the other neutral malarial aminopeptidase, PfA-M17, often with lower Ki values, which questions the relative involvement and importance of each enzyme in the parasite biology. An amino-benzosuberone derivative from a previously published collection of chemicals targeting specifically the M1-aminopeptidases has been identified; it is highly potent on PfA-M1 (Ki = 50 nM) and devoid of inhibitory activity on PfA-M17 (no inhibition up to 100 µM). This amino-benzosuberone derivative (T5) inhibits, in the µM range, the in vitro growth of two P. falciparum strains, 3D7 and FcB1, respectively chloroquino-sensitive and resistant. Evaluated in vivo, on the murine non-lethal model of malaria Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, this amino-benzosuberone derivative was able to reduce the parasite burden by 44 and 40% in a typical 4-day Peters assay at a daily dose of 12 and 24 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route of administration. The evaluation of a highly selective inhibitor of PfA-M1, over PfA-M17, active on Plasmodium parasites in vitro and in vivo, highlights the relevance of PfA-M1 in the biological development of the parasite as well as in the list of promising anti-malarial targets to be considered in combination with current or future anti-malarial drugs.

  16. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  17. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  18. Quantitative measurement of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes in murine models of malaria by flow cytometry using bidimensional assessment of SYTO-16 fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Mulet, Teresa; Gómez, Vanesa; Viera, Sara; Alvarez, Angela; Garuti, Helena; Vázquez, Yolanda; Fernández, Alejandra; Ibáñez, Javier; Jiménez, Magdalena; Gargallo-Viola, Domingo; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo

    2009-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for measuring parasitemias in murine malaria models used to test new antimalarials. Measurement of the emission of the nonpermeable nucleic acid dye YOYO-1 (at 530 and 585 nm after excitation at 488 nm) allowed the unambiguous detection of low parasitemias (> or =0.01%) but required prolonged fixation and permeabilization of the sample. Thus, we tested whether this issue could be overcome by use of the cell-permeant dye SYTO-16 with this same bidimensional method. Blood samples from CD1 mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium vinckei, or Plasmodium chabaudi or from NOD(scidbeta2m-/-) engrafted with human erythrocytes and infected with P. falciparum were stained with SYTO-16 in the presence or absence of TER-119 mAb (for engrafted mice) in 96-well plate format and acquired in Trucount tubes. Bidimensional analysis with SYTO-16 was quantitatively equivalent to YOYO-1. Moreover, by combining SYTO-16 with the use of TER-119-PE antimouse erythrocyte mAb and Trucount tubes, the measurement of the concentration of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes over a range of five orders of magnitude was achieved. Bidimensional analysis using SYTO-16 can be used to accurately measure the concentration of Plasmodium spp.-infected erythrocytes in mice without complex sample preparation. 2008 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. 1H NMR metabonomics indicates continued metabolic changes and sexual dimorphism post-parasite clearance in self-limiting murine malaria model.

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    Arjun Sengupta

    Full Text Available Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. is considered to be a global threat, specifically for the developing countries. In human subjects considerable information exists regarding post-malarial physiology. However, most murine malarial models are lethal, and most studies deal with acute phases occurring as disease progresses. Much less is known regarding physiological status post-parasite clearance. We have assessed the physiological changes at the organ levels using (1H NMR based metabonomics in a non lethal self-clearing murine malarial model of P. chabaudi parasites and Balb/C, far beyond the parasite clearance point. The results showed distinct metabolic states between uninfected and infected mice at the peak parasitemia, as well as three weeks post-parasite clearance. Our data also suggests that the response at the peak infection as well as recovery exhibited distinct sexual dimorphism. Specifically, we observed accumulation of acetylcholine in the brain metabolic profile of both the sexes. This might have important implication in understanding the pathophysiology of the post malarial neurological syndromes. In addition, the female liver showed high levels of glucose, dimethylglycine, methylacetoacetate and histidine after three weeks post-parasite clearance, while the males showed accumulation of branched chain amino acids, lysine, glutamine and bile acids.

  20. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deadly type occurs in Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. A blood test can diagnose it. It can be life-threatening. However, you can treat malaria with drugs. ...

  1. Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Tom E; Beeching, N J

    2013-09-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease, with its largest impact being due to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa. Military populations continue to be at a high risk of malaria and reported case series have frequently revealed poor compliance with preventative measures. The symptoms of malaria are non-specific and its management depends on awareness of the diagnosis and early recognition and treatment. This is aided by new and simple rapid diagnostic tests, but these should not replace the examination of blood films if these are available. Artemisinin combination therapy provides a more rapid and dependable cure of uncomplicated P falciparum infection, with artesunate now being the drug of choice in severe infection.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0290 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0290 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-28 55% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-46 54% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0017 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-49 57% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-22 55% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0814 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0814 ref|XP_745463.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH87248.1| hypothetical protein PC302387.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745463.1 2e-07 26% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 8e-31 57% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0044 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 7e-04 24% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0128 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-35 61% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0985 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0985 ref|XP_736860.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH82997.1| hypothetical protein PC400669.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736860.1 8.6 26% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0052 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-39 53% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0560 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0560 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-43 52% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1208 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-19 32% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-27 47% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0610 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0610 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 0.016 25% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0017 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-38 64% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0602 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0602 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-54 60% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0427 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0427 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 58% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-46 52% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0503 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0503 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 8e-31 53% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0095 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0095 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-29 42% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1302 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1302 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 0.010 25% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0086 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-32 57% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0131 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 7e-18 39% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0544 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0544 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-39 52% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0072 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-57 57% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0306 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0306 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-52 57% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0437 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0437 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 51% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1314 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1314 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 60% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0076 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0076 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-37 58% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0236 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0236 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-30 48% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0058 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 57% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0489 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0489 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-28 39% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0556 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0556 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-50 59% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1039 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 8e-21 46% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0483 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0483 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 50% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-23 45% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-33 55% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-15 36% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-37 54% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1324 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1324 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-11 45% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-44 57% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0060 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 45% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-24 44% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1253 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1253 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 46% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0307 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0307 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 2e-71 59% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0137 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0137 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-38 62% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0136 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0136 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 4e-07 52% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0098 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-48 62% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0115 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-47 53% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0062 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0062 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-18 42% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0524 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0524 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-38 54% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0348 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0348 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 6e-59 41% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0204 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0204 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-46 53% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0148 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0148 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-30 50% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0123 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0123 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-22 40% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0010 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 1e-41 37% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0289 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-14 50% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1219 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1219 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 6e-27 52% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0385 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0385 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-42 45% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0106 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0106 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-51 53% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1311 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1311 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-10 31% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0039 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 7e-68 58% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0060 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 50% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1870 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1870 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-27 44% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0381 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0381 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 51% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-17 33% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0310 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0310 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 57% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1369 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1369 ref|XP_745463.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH87248.1| hypothetical protein PC302387.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745463.1 1e-09 33% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0028 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-18 42% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0975 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0975 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 46% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 55% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-29 51% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0553 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0553 ref|XP_744639.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH77533.1| hypothetical protein PC103780.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_744639.1 8e-19 36% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0003 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-20 40% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0455 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0455 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-40 58% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0124 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-22 37% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0497 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0497 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 8e-45 72% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0013 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 49% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1543 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1543 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-05 24% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0222 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0222 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-14 40% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0720 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0720 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-50 58% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-1375 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-1375 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 0.27 46% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0496 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0496 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-23 37% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0048 ref|XP_734491.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH79466.1| hypothetical protein PC106124.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734491.1 2e-05 32% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0409 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0409 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 1e-06 50% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0132 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0132 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-56 62% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0008 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-28 43% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0636 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0636 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 7e-37 57% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0046 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-40 50% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0401 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0401 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-25 39% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0110 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0110 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 2e-45 46% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0290 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0290 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 49% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0391 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-19 35% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0637 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0637 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-32 42% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0387 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0387 ref|XP_734055.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85114.1| hypothetical protein PC403034.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734055.1 0.002 47% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0085 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0085 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-27 35% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2302 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2302 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-19 32% ...

  19. In vivo approaches reveal a key role for DCs in CD4+ T cell activation and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental blood-stage malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip, with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection.

  20. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose accelerates erythropoietic recovery from experimental malarial anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maretty, Lasse; Sharp, Rebecca Emilie; Andersson, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Iron restriction has been proposed as a cause of erythropoietic suppression in malarial anemia; however, the role of iron in malaria remains controversial, because it may increase parasitemia. To investigate the role of iron-restricted erythropoiesis, A/J mice were infected with Plasmodium chabaudi...... use of iron therapy in malaria and show the need for trials of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose as an adjunctive treatment for severe malarial anemia....

  1. Malaria Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Malaria Go to Information for Researchers ► Malaria is a ... for the disease. Why Is the Study of Malaria a Priority for NIAID? Roughly 3.2 billion ...

  2. Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Derived from CD4+ T Cells Contributes to Control of a Blood-Borne Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Mary F; de Melo, Gabrielly L; Anidi, Chioma; Hamburger, Rebecca; Kim, Chris Y; Lee, So Youn; Pham, Jennifer; Kim, Charles C

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes. Selective deletion of Csf1 in CD4+ cells during P. chabaudi infection diminished proliferation and activation of certain myeloid subsets, most notably lymph node-resident CD169+ macrophages, and resulted in increased parasite burden and impaired recovery of infected mice. Depletion of CD169+ macrophages during infection also led to increased parasitemia and significant host mortality, confirming a previously unappreciated role for these cells in control of P. chabaudi. This work establishes the CD4+ T cell as a physiologically relevant source of MCSF in vivo; probes the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response during type 1 infection; and delineates a novel mechanism by which T helper cells regulate myeloid cells to limit growth of a blood-borne intracellular pathogen.

  3. Cerebral malaria Malaria cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia. La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC.

  4. Malaria Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/18/2008.

  5. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  6. Malaria and Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria and Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... may be at risk for infection. Determine if malaria transmission occurs at the destinations Obtain a detailed ...

  7. Malaria Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 216 million clinical episodes, and 445,000 deaths. Biology, Pathology, Epidemiology Among the malaria species that infect ... Cinchona spp., South America, 17th century). Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  8. Platelets activate a pathogenic response to blood-stage Plasmodium infection but not a protective immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramaglia, Irene; Velez, Joyce; Combes, Valery; Grau, Georges E R; Wree, Melanie; van der Heyde, Henri C

    2017-03-23

    Clinical studies indicate that thrombocytopenia correlates with the development of severe falciparum malaria, suggesting that platelets either contribute to control of parasite replication, possibly as innate parasite killer cells or function in eliciting pathogenesis. Removal of platelets by anti-CD41 mAb treatment, platelet inhibition by aspirin, and adoptive transfer of wild-type (WT) platelets to CD40-KO mice, which do not control parasite replication, resulted in similar parasitemia compared with control mice. Human platelets at a physiologic ratio of 1 platelet to 9 red blood cells (RBCs) did not inhibit the in vitro development or replication of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum The percentage of Plasmodium-infected (iRBCs) with bound platelets during the ascending parasitemia in Plasmodium chabaudi- and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and the 48-hour in vitro cycle of P falciparum was <10%. P chabaudi and P berghei iRBCs with apoptotic parasites (TdT+) exhibited minimal platelet binding (<5%), which was similar to nonapoptotic iRBCs. These findings collectively indicate platelets do not kill bloodstage Plasmodium at physiologically relevant effector-to-target ratios. P chabaudi primary and secondary parasitemia was similar in mice depleted of platelets by mAb-injection just before infection, indicating that activation of the protective immune response does not require platelets. In contrast to the lack of an effect on parasite replication, adoptive transfer of WT platelets to CD40-KO mice, which are resistant to experimental cerebral malaria, partially restored experimental cerebral malaria mortality and symptoms in CD40-KO recipients, indicating platelets elicit pathogenesis and platelet CD40 is a key molecule. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Malaria prevention and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malaria parasites into the blood. Four species of malaria parasites can infect humans and cause illness; only P. falci- parum malaria is potentially life-threat- ening. Most of the malaria found in Af- rica is of the falciparum species - this is the most dangerous species of malaria. Symptoms may develop as soon as seven days ...

  10. falciparum malaria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    destruction by the reticulo-endothelial system.'·. Skudowitz er al. '7 have shown that thrombocytopenia in falciparum malaria is the result of excessive splenic pool- ing as well as decreased platelet survival. Unfortunately, platelet counts could not be measured in our study. In patients with systemic lupus erythemarosus a ...

  11. Kompliceret malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Jacobsen, E

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of cases of malaria, imported to Denmark, are caused by Plasmodium falciparum and severe and complicated cases are more often seen. In the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, 23 out of 32 cases, hospitalized from 1.1-30.6.1988, i.e. 72%, were caused by P...

  12. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-02

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  13. Malaria (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in others. Proper treatment can cure malaria. What Causes Malaria? Malaria is caused by parasites carried by mosquitoes. ... seen a lot, doctors often treat people for malaria who have a fever with no obvious cause without getting lab tests to prove the person ...

  14. Present development concerning antimalarial activity of phospholipid metabolism inhibitors with special reference to in vivo activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Ancelin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic screening of more than 250 molecules against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro has previously shown that interfering with phospholipid metabolism is lethal to the malaria parasite. These compounds act by impairing choline transport in infected erythrocytes, resulting in phosphatidylcholine de novo biosynthesis inhibition. A thorough study was carried out with the leader compound G25, whose in vitro IC50 is 0.6 nM. It was very specific to mature parasites (trophozoïtes as determined in vitro with P. falciparum and in vivo with P. chabaudi -infected mice. This specificity corresponds to the most intense phase of phospholipid biosynthesis activity during the parasite cycle, thus corroborating the mechanism of action. The in vivo antimalarial activity (ED50 against P. chabaudi was 0.03 mg/kg, and a similar sensitivity was obtained with P. vinckei petteri, when the drug was intraperitoneally administered in a 4 day suppressive test. In contrast, P. berghei was revealed as less sensitive (3- to 20-fold, depending on the P. berghei-strain. This difference in activity could result either from the degree of synchronism of every strain, their invasion preference for mature or immature red blood cells or from an intrinsically lower sensitivity of the P. berghei strain to G25. Irrespective of the mode of administration, G25 had the same therapeutic index (lethal dose 50 (LD50/ED50 but the dose to obtain antimalarial activity after oral treatment was 100-fold higher than after intraperitoneal (or subcutaneous administration. This must be related to the low intestinal absorption of these kind of compounds. G25 succeeded to completely inhibiting parasitemia as high as 11.2% without any decrease in its therapeutic index when administered subcutaneously twice a day for at least 8 consecutive days to P. chabaudi -infected-rodent model. Transition to human preclinical investigations now requires a synthesis of molecules which would permit oral

  15. Grammomys surdaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteh, Solomon; Anderson, Charles; Lambert, Lynn; Orr-Gonzalez, Sachy; Herrod, Jessica; Robbins, Yvette L; Carter, Dariyen; Karhemere, Stomy Bin Shamamba; Pyana, Pati; Büscher, Philippe; Duffy, Patrick E

    2017-04-01

    AbstractInbred mice are commonly used to test candidate malaria vaccines, but have been unreliable for predicting efficacy in humans. To establish a more rigorous animal model, we acquired African woodland thicket rats of the genus Grammomys , the natural hosts for Plasmodium berghei . Thicket rats were acquired and identified as Grammomys surdaster by skull and teeth measurements and mitochondrial DNA genotyping. Herein, we demonstrate that thicket rats are highly susceptible to infection by P. berghei , and moderately susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium chabaudi : 1-2 infected mosquito bites or 25-100 sporozoites administered by intravenous injection consistently resulted in patent parasitemia with P. berghei , and resulted in patent parasitemia with P. yoelii and P. chabaudi strains for at least 50% of animals. We then assessed efficacy of whole-organism vaccines to induce sterile immunity, and compared the thicket rat model to conventional mouse models. Using P. berghei ANKA radiation-attenuated sporozoites, and P. berghei ANKA and P. yoelii chemoprophylaxis vaccination approaches, we found that standard doses of vaccine sufficient to protect laboratory mice for a long duration against malaria challenge, are insufficient to protect thicket rats, which require higher doses of vaccine to achieve even short-term sterile immunity. Thicket rats may offer a more stringent and pertinent model for evaluating whole-organism vaccines.

  16. Immunization of mice with Plasmodium TCTP delays establishment of Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K J; Van, T T H; MacDonald, S M; Meshnick, S R; Fernley, R T; Macreadie, I G; Smooker, P M

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) may play an important role in the establishment or maintenance of parasitemia in a malarial infection. In this study, the potential of TCTP as a malaria vaccine was investigated in two trials. In the initial vaccine trial, Plasmodium falciparum TCTP (PfTCTP) was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to immunize BALB/c mice. Following challenge with Plasmodium yoelii YM, parasitemia was significantly reduced during the early stages of infection. In the second vaccine trial, the TCTP from P. yoelii and P. berghei was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in several mouse malaria models. A significant reduction in parasitemia in the early stages of infection was observed in BALB/c mice challenged with P. yoelii YM. A significantly reduced parasitemia at each day leading up to a delayed and reduced peak parasitemia was also observed in BALB/c mice challenged with the nonlethal Plasmodium chabaudi (P.c.) chabaudi AS. These results suggest that TCTP has an important role for parasite establishment and may be important for pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. STATUS HEMATOLOGI PENDERITA MALARIA SEREBRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dunia. Berdasarkan klasifikasi klinis, malaria dibedakan atas malaria berat dan malaria tanpa komplikasi. Malaria serebral merupakan komplikasi terberat dari malaria falsiparum.Telah dilakukan penelitian seksi silang terhadap penderita malaria falciparum yang dirawat inap di Bangsal Penyakit Dalam RS. Perjan. Dr. M. Djamil Padang dari bulan Juni 2002 sampai Juni 2006. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan jumlah sampel sebanyak 60 orang, terdiri dari 16 orang penderita malaria serebral dan 44 orang penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi.Data penelitian menunjukan terdapat perbedaan bermakna nilai hematokrit (p<0,05 dan jumlah leukosit (p<0,05 antara penderita malaria serebral dengan penderita malaria tanpa komplikasi. Dan terdapat korelasi positif antara nilai hemoglobin dengan hematokrit (r=0,864; p<0,05 pada penderita malaria falsiparum.Kata kunci: malaria serebral, malaria tanpa komplikasi, malaria falsiparumAbstract Malaria is still a problem of health of world society. Based on the clinical classification, are distinguished on severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Cerebral malaria is the worst complication of falciparum malaria. Cross section of the research done at the Hospital Dr. M. Djamil Padang againts medical record of malaria patients who are hospitalized in the Internal Medicine from June 2002 until June 2004. In this study, a total sample of 60 people, consisting of 16 cerebral malaria and 44 uncomplicated malaria. Data showed there were significant differences for hematocrit values (p <0.05 and total leukocytes values (p <0.05 between cerebral malaria and uncomplicated malaria patients. There is a positive correlation between hemoglobin with hematocrit values (r = 0.864; p <0.05 of falciparum malaria patients. Keywords: cerebral malaria, uncomplicated malaria, falciparum malaria

  18. De behandeling van malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, P. A.; Zijlmans, C. W.; Boele van Hensbroek, M.; Wetsteyn, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The diagnosis of malaria should include the species involved and in case of P. falciparum infection the parasitaemia index: the percentage of the infected red cells. P. vivax, ovale and malariae infection are treated with chloroquine, in case of P. vivax and ovale malaria followed by primaquine.

  19. Malaria in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohee, Lauren M; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-08-01

    Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Malaria og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Rønn, A M; Langhoff-Roos, J

    1992-01-01

    In regions where malaria is endemism, the disease is a recognised cause of complications of pregnancy such as spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth retardation and foetal death. Malaria is seldom seen in pregnant women in Denmark but, during the past two years, the authors...... the patients but also their practitioners were unaware that malaria can occur several years after exposure. Three out of the four patients had employed malaria prophylaxis. As resistance to malarial prophylactics in current use is increasing steadily, chemoprophylaxis should be supplemented by mechanical...... protection against malaria and insect repellents. As a rule, malaria is treated with chloroquine. In cases of Falciparum malaria in whom chloroquine resistance is suspected, treatment with mefloquine may be employed although this should only be employed in cases of dire necessity in pregnant patients during...

  1. Malaria: Epidemiology and Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp, are naturally trans­mitted by the mosquito Anopheles spp. Malaria transmission occurs because of interaction between the agent, the definitive host and intermediate hosts (humans. Therefore, the trans­mission of malaria is injluenced by the presence and fluctuations in vector populations (i.e transmitting mosquito Anopheles spp.Malaria diagnosis consists of clinical diagnosis and diagnosis based on laboratory examina­tion. Clinical diagnosis or clinical malaria diagnosis was presumptive diagnosis of malaria based on clinical examination of patients with symptoms include fever (periodical, heat, level of consciousness, dizziness, etc. as well as specific local typical symptoms. Experiences of medical personnel who perform precise diagnosis will determine whether or not the diag­nosis, so that clinical diagnosis cannot be the main reference in the treatment of malaria be­cause of high error rates.

  2. Sri Lanka Malaria Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoek Wim

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a relatively good national case reporting system in Sri Lanka, detailed maps of malaria distribution have not been publicly available. Methods In this study, monthly records over the period 1995 – 2000 of microscopically confirmed malaria parasite positive blood film readings, at sub-district spatial resolution, were used to produce maps of malaria distribution across the island. Also, annual malaria trends at district resolution were displayed for the period 1995 – 2002. Results The maps show that Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence has a marked variation in distribution over the island. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria follows a similar spatial pattern but is generally much lower than that of P. vivax. In the north, malaria shows one seasonal peak in the beginning of the year, whereas towards the south a second peak around June is more pronounced. Conclusion This paper provides the first publicly available maps of both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution on the island of Sri Lanka at sub-district resolution, which may be useful to health professionals, travellers and travel medicine professionals in their assessment of malaria risk in Sri Lanka. As incidence of malaria changes over time, regular updates of these maps are necessary.

  3. Congenital Malaria in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Culleton, Richard; Tao, Li; Xia, Hui; Gao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum–endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax–endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. Methods/Principal Findings Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%), reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients were cured

  4. HIV AND MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririek Parwitasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IV/AIDS is a global problem involving industrialized and developing country including Indonesia. Malaria has killed millions ofhuman beings almost 3 million people each year, whereas since 1999, nearly 36 million people in the world infected with HIV and 3 million more have died (Kakilaya, 2006. HIV infection increases the risk and aggravate malaria. In Africa in the area of malaria transmission intensities high and low, HIVaggravate malaria and improve case fatality at any age (Eline 2006. HIVis an RNA viruses whose hallmark is the reverse transcriptation ofits genomic. Malaria is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite ofinfected anopheles mosquito. Infection malaria can stimulate HIV replication and may cause faster progression ofHIV disease.

  5. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  6. Vaccines against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B

    2015-03-15

    Despite global efforts to control malaria, the illness remains a significant public health threat. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against malaria, but an efficacious vaccine would represent an important public health tool for successful malaria elimination. Malaria vaccine development continues to be hindered by a poor understanding of antimalarial immunity, a lack of an immune correlate of protection, and the genetic diversity of malaria parasites. Current vaccine development efforts largely target Plasmodium falciparum parasites in the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages, with some research on transmission-blocking vaccines against asexual stages and vaccines against pregnancy-associated malaria. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidate is RTS,S, and early results of ongoing Phase 3 testing show overall efficacy of 46% against clinical malaria. The next steps for malaria vaccine development will focus on the design of a product that is efficacious against the highly diverse strains of malaria and the identification of a correlate of protection against disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Bacteraemia in cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enwere, G.; van Hensbroek, M. B.; Adegbola, R.; Palmer, A.; Onyiora, E.; Weber, M.; Greenwood, B.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a treatment trial of cerebral malaria, blood cultures were done in 276 Gambian children, aged between 1 and 9 years, with cerebral malaria. Fourteen (5%) of these were positive. The organisms isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (6), coliforms (4), Pseudomonas spp. (2), Salmonella spp. (1)

  8. Changing the Malaria Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tega

    Changing the Malaria Environment. On Friday, 21st ... that malaria exerts a great burden in Africa, but even the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges the difficulty of counting ... Although selectivity and resistance also limits the deployment of biological control mechanisms, they represent local technologies.

  9. MALARIA AMONG CHILDREN (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humans affecting more than half of the world population, majority of ... of this study was to describe patterns and trend of severe and complicated malaria cases, which could partly measure impact of .... Core body temperature >40°C. Hyperbilirubinemia.

  10. Malaria at Johannesburg Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGE GROUPS. There were 43 positive blood smears from 32 male and 11 female patients (median age 30 years; range 3 - 66 years). The incidence of malaria in the different age groups is shown in. Table I. Over the last 10 - 15 years the deterioration in the incidence of malaria in Mrica has been partly due to the increasing ...

  11. Fighting malaria without DDT

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    The women are part of a successful Mexican initiative that is fighting malaria on many fronts. Through community involve- ment in control strategies, improved surveillance and treatment, and the use of new household spraying techniques, Mexico has dramatically reduced malaria transmission. In 2001 there were just 4,996 ...

  12. MALARIA DI PURWOREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harijani A. Marwoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dalam 5 tahun terakhir banyak laporan tentang adanya peningkatan  angka penyakit yang dapat menimbulkan wabah di Jawa Tengah, terutama malaria. Angka malaria/API (Annual Parasite Incidence meningkat > 16 kali lipat, di mana 65% diantaranya berasal dari Purworejo. Masalah malaria tinggi meliputi 11 kecamatan, dengan jumlah desa HCI (High Case Incidence mencapai 171 buah. Masalah malaria tersebut meluas ke daerah pegunungan Menoreh (Magelang,    Wonosobo, Kebumen dan Banyumas. Bahkan sejak tahun 1999 mulai masuk wilayah Kota Purworejo.Sejak tahun 1999 telah dilakukan penelitian kerjasama antara Badan Penelitian dan Pengem­bangan Kesehatan (BPPK - Naval Medical Reseach Unit 2 (Namru 2 - Dinas Kesehatan Ka­bupaten (DKK Purworejo dalam berbagai aspek untuk penanggulangan malaria setempat.

  13. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  14. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  15. Modern malaria chemoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G Dennis; Edstein, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    Currently available medications for malaria chemoprophylaxis are efficacious but the problems of patient compliance, the advance of parasite drug resistance, and real or perceived serious adverse effects mean that new chemical compounds are needed.Primaquine, which has been widely used to treat relapsing malaria since the 1950s, has been shown to prevent malaria when taken daily. Tafenoquine is a new 8-aminoquinoline with a much longer half-life than primaquine. Field trials to date indicate that tafenoquine is efficacious and can be taken weekly or perhaps even less frequently. Both primaquine and tafenoquine require exact knowledge of a person's glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase status in order to prevent drug-induced haemolysis. Other potential malaria chemoprophylactic drugs such as third-generation antifol compounds and Mannich bases have reached advanced preclinical testing. Mefloquine has been seen to cause serious neuropsychiatric adverse effects on rare occasions. Recent public controversy regarding reputedly common serious adverse effects has made many Western travellers unwilling to take mefloquine. Special risk groups exposed to malaria, such as long-term travellers, children, pregnant women, aircrew and those requiring unimpeded psychomotor reactions, migrants returning to visit malarious countries of origin and febrile persons who have returned from malaria endemic areas, all require a nuanced approach to the use of drugs to prevent malaria. The carrying of therapeutic courses of antimalarial drugs to be taken only if febrile illness develops is indicated in very few travellers despite its appeal to some who fear adverse effects more than they fear potentially lethal malaria infection. Travellers with a significant exposure to malaria require a comprehensive plan for prevention that includes anti-mosquito measures but which is still primarily be based on the regular use of efficacious antimalarial medications.

  16. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristóteles Comte de Alencar Filho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.

  17. Malaria and Vascular Endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, Aristóteles Comte Filho de, E-mail: aristoteles.caf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Okoshi, Katashi; Okoshi, Marina Politi [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Unesp), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Involvement of the cardiovascular system in patients with infectious and parasitic diseases can result from both intrinsic mechanisms of the disease and drug intervention. Malaria is an example, considering that the endothelial injury by Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can cause circulatory disorders. This is a literature review aimed at discussing the relationship between malaria and endothelial impairment, especially its effects on the cardiovascular system. We discuss the implications of endothelial aggression and the interdisciplinarity that should guide the malaria patient care, whose acute infection can contribute to precipitate or aggravate a preexisting heart disease.

  18. IFNAR1-Signalling Obstructs ICOS-mediated Humoral Immunity during Non-lethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sebina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (PcAS and P. yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL infection. Firstly, we demonstrated that CD4+ T-cells and ICOS-signalling were crucial for generating germinal centre (GC B-cells, plasmablasts and parasite-specific antibodies, and likewise that T follicular helper (Tfh cell responses relied on B cells. Next, we found that IFNAR1-signalling impeded the resolution of non-lethal blood-stage infection, which was associated with impaired production of parasite-specific IgM and several IgG sub-classes. Consistent with this, GC B-cell formation, Ig-class switching, plasmablast and Tfh differentiation were all impaired by IFNAR1-signalling. IFNAR1-signalling proceeded via conventional dendritic cells, and acted early by limiting activation, proliferation and ICOS expression by CD4+ T-cells, by restricting the localization of activated CD4+ T-cells adjacent to and within B-cell areas of the spleen, and by simultaneously suppressing Th1 and Tfh responses. Finally, IFNAR1-deficiency accelerated humoral immune responses and parasite control by boosting ICOS-signalling. Thus, we provide evidence of a host innate cytokine response that impedes the onset of humoral immunity during experimental malaria.

  19. IFNAR1-Signalling Obstructs ICOS-mediated Humoral Immunity during Non-lethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebina, Ismail; James, Kylie R; Soon, Megan S F; Fogg, Lily G; Best, Shannon E; Labastida Rivera, Fabian de; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Amante, Fiona H; Thomas, Bryce S; Beattie, Lynette; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Fernando; Smyth, Mark J; Hertzog, Paul J; Hill, Geoffrey R; Hutloff, Andreas; Engwerda, Christian R; Haque, Ashraful

    2016-11-01

    Parasite-specific antibodies protect against blood-stage Plasmodium infection. However, in malaria-endemic regions, it takes many months for naturally-exposed individuals to develop robust humoral immunity. Explanations for this have focused on antigenic variation by Plasmodium, but have considered less whether host production of parasite-specific antibody is sub-optimal. In particular, it is unclear whether host immune factors might limit antibody responses. Here, we explored the effect of Type I Interferon signalling via IFNAR1 on CD4+ T-cell and B-cell responses in two non-lethal murine models of malaria, P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (PcAS) and P. yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL) infection. Firstly, we demonstrated that CD4+ T-cells and ICOS-signalling were crucial for generating germinal centre (GC) B-cells, plasmablasts and parasite-specific antibodies, and likewise that T follicular helper (Tfh) cell responses relied on B cells. Next, we found that IFNAR1-signalling impeded the resolution of non-lethal blood-stage infection, which was associated with impaired production of parasite-specific IgM and several IgG sub-classes. Consistent with this, GC B-cell formation, Ig-class switching, plasmablast and Tfh differentiation were all impaired by IFNAR1-signalling. IFNAR1-signalling proceeded via conventional dendritic cells, and acted early by limiting activation, proliferation and ICOS expression by CD4+ T-cells, by restricting the localization of activated CD4+ T-cells adjacent to and within B-cell areas of the spleen, and by simultaneously suppressing Th1 and Tfh responses. Finally, IFNAR1-deficiency accelerated humoral immune responses and parasite control by boosting ICOS-signalling. Thus, we provide evidence of a host innate cytokine response that impedes the onset of humoral immunity during experimental malaria.

  20. Exploring the antimalarial potential of whole Cymbopogon citratus plant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu M; Fernández-Rivera, Omar; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2016-12-04

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) has been used in traditional medicine as an herbal infusion to treat fever and malaria. Generally, whole plant extracts possess higher biological activity than purified compounds. However, the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant has not been experimentally tested. To evaluate the antimalarial activity of an herbal infusion and the whole Cymbopogon citratus plant in two experimental models of malaria. The plant was dried for 10 days at room temperature and was then milled and passed through brass sieves to obtain a powder, which was administered to CBA/Ca mice with a patent Plasmodium chabaudi AS or P. berghei ANKA infection. We analysed the effects of two different doses (1600 and 3200mg/kg) compared with those of the herbal infusion and chloroquine, used as a positive control. We also assessed the prophylactic antimalarial activities of the whole C. citratus plant and the combination of the whole plant and chloroquine. The C. citratus whole plant exhibited prolonged antimalarial activity against both P. chabaudi AS and P. berghei ANKA. The low dose of the whole C. citratus plant displayed higher antimalarial activity than the high dose against P. berghei ANKA. As a prophylactic treatment, the whole plant exhibited higher antimalarial activity than either the herbal infusion or chloroquine. In addition, the combination of the whole C. citratus plant and chloroquine displayed higher activity than chloroquine alone against P. berghei ANKA patent infection. We demonstrated the antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant in two experimental models. The whole C. citratus plant elicited higher anti-malarial activity than the herbal infusion or chloroquine when used as a prophylactic treatment. The antimalarial activity of the whole C. citratus plant supports continued efforts towards developing whole plant therapies for the management of malaria and other infectious diseases prevalent in resource

  1. Unstable vivax malaria in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Korean vivax malaria had been prevalent for longtime throughout the country with low endemicity. As a result of the Korean war (1950-1953), malaria became epidemic. In 1959-1969 when the National Malaria Eradication Service (NMES) was implemented, malaria rates declined, with low endemicity in the south-west and south plain areas and high endemic foci in north Kyongsangbuk-do (province) and north and east Kyonggi-do. NMES activities greatly contributed in accelerating the control and later eradication of malaria. The Republic of Korea (South Korea) was designated malaria free in 1979. However, malaria re-emerged in 1993 and an outbreak occurred in north Kyonggi-do and north-west Kangwon-do (in and/or near the Demilitarized Zone, DMZ), bordering North Korea. It has been postulated that most of the malaria cases resulted from bites of sporozoite-infected females of An. sinensis dispersed from North Korea across the DMZ. Judging from epidemiological and socio-ecological factors, vivax malaria would not be possible to be endemic in South Korea. Historical data show that vivax malaria in Korea is a typical unstable malaria. Epidemics may occur when environmental, socio-economical, and/or political factors change in favor to malaria transmission, and when such factors change to normal conditions malaria rates become low and may disappear. Passive case detection is a most feasible and recommendable control measure against the unstable vivax malaria in Korea in cost-effect point of view. PMID:11002647

  2. Unstable vivax malaria in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, H I

    2000-09-01

    Korean vivax malaria had been prevalent for longtime throughout the country with low endemicity. As a result of the Korean war (1950-1953), malaria became epidemic. In 1959-1969 when the National Malaria Eradication Service (NMES) was implemented, malaria rates declined, with low endemicity in the south-west and south plain areas and high endemic foci in north Kyongsangbuk-do (province) and north and east Kyonggi-do. NMES activities greatly contributed in accelerating the control and later eradication of malaria. The Republic of Korea (South Korea) was designated malaria free in 1979. However, malaria re-emerged in 1993 and an outbreak occurred in north Kyonggi-do and north-west Kangwon-do (in and/or near the Demilitarized Zone, DMZ), bordering North Korea. It has been postulated that most of the malaria cases resulted from bites of sporozoite-infected females of An. sinensis dispersed from North Korea across the DMZ. Judging from epidemiological and socio-ecological factors, vivax malaria would not be possible to be endemic in South Korea. Historical data show that vivax malaria in Korea is a typical unstable malaria. Epidemics may occur when environmental, socio-economical, and/or political factors change in favor to malaria transmission, and when such factors change to normal conditions malaria rates become low and may disappear. Passive case detection is a most feasible and recommendable control measure against the unstable vivax malaria in Korea in cost-effect point of view.

  3. Bioinformatics approaches to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Aaen

    Malaria is a life threatening disease found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Each year it kills 781 000 individuals; most of them are children under the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa. The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum......, which is the subject of the first part of this thesis. The PfEMP1 protein which is encoded by the highly variablevargene family is important in the pathogenesis and immune evasion of malaria parasites. We analyzed and classified these genes based on the upstream sequence in seven......Plasmodium falciparumclones. We show that the amount of nucleotide diversity is just as big within each clone as it is between the clones. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotic species. We are studying DNA methylation in the malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum. The work is still in progress...

  4. MALARIA AMONG CHILDREN (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure impact of interventions, admitted to pediatric ward of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: ..... multifaceted effort made in malaria control and prevention ... second rainy season (spring fall) is not usual in this area. (15).

  5. Imported malaria in Tunisia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouratbine, A; Chahed, M K; Aoun, K; Krida, G; Ayari, S; Ben Ismail, R

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the national programme of malaria eradication carried out between 1968 and 1972, there has been no active transmission of the parasitosis in Tunisia since the last indigenous case in 1979...

  6. Muscling out malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2006-01-01

    ) [2] highlighted the back-to-back articles in Science 3 and 4 that demonstrated the potential biocontrol of malaria by targeting mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium and Beauveria spp.). The wide impact of the original articles and the need to find alternatives to pesticidal control...... where malaria is endemic, humanity cannot afford shortcuts, because any failures owing to poor management or premature implementation will reduce local governmental support rather than enhance it (Andrew Read, pers. commun.). Therefore, if we are to ‘muscle out malaria', well...... of key importance, and the new focus on fungal biocontrol of malaria should therefore act as a catalyst for further research on the basic biology of fungal pathogens. Understanding morphological, biochemical or immune system-based resistance to insect pathogenic fungi will be easier if we know...

  7. Congenital malaria: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related mortality and morbidity particularly in Africa, South-East Asia, Eastern. Mediterranean Regions and parts of South America (WHO 2008). In the World Malaria Report. (WMR) of 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 243 ...

  8. [Imported malaria in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouratbine, A; Chahed, M K; Aoun, K; Krida, G; Ayari, S; Ben Ismail, R

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the national programme of malaria eradication carried out between 1968 and 1972, there has been no active transmission of the parasitosis in Tunisia since the last indigenous case in 1979. Since 1980, with the increase in international exchanges especially with sub-Saharian countries, only imported cases of malaria have been reported in Tunisia. A retrospective and thorough survey of malaria cases diagnosed in the laboratory of parasitology of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis from 1980 to 1995 determined the epidemiological characteristics of this imported parasitosis. All in all, during the sixteen years following eradication, 245 cases were registered. The majority of cases (86.2%) was diagnosed by a systematic control of groups at risk within the national programme of malaria eradication. The remaining 13.8% cases sought medical advice when clinical symptoms appeared after their return from endemic countries. The population most affected by imported malaria were men (sex-ratio: 6.8) aged between 20 and 40 years (76% of cases); 38% were Tunisians having sojourned in an endemic country, essentially students from sub-Saharian Africa. The presumed country of contamination was African in 92.7% of the cases. Entrance into Tunisia by patients was mainly by air; 4% of the registered cases had come by land from Algeria. Sound knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria would make for a better follow-up of the affected population and thus reduce the probability of repeated transmission.

  9. Mapping Malaria Case Event and Factors of Vulnerability to Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the spatial patterns of malaria case event, people's perception of transmission and prevention of malaria, and the factors of vulnerability to malaria in, Ile-Ife, ... Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System analytical operations employed with ArcGIS 9.2 include query, overlay among others.

  10. Knowledge of malaria and practice of home management of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is the 3rd leading cause of death for children under five years worldwide. Home-based management of malaria may go a long way in reducing the attending morbidity and mortality associated with malaria in this group ...

  11. Malaria parasitemia among asymptomatic infants seen in a malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sustainable Development Goal number three call for complete reversal in the incidence of malaria by 2030. Malaria however remains a health priority in sub-Saharan Africa, with children under five experiencing the highest morbidity and mortality. In clinical settings, management of malaria cases has primarily ...

  12. Flow cytometry as a tool for analyzing changes in Plasmodium falciparum cell cycle following treatment with indol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Ribeiro, Ramira Yuri; Nery, Arthur A; Ulrich, Henning; Garcia, Célia R S

    2011-11-01

    Melatonin and its derivatives modulate the Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium chabaudi cell cycle. Flow cytometry was employed together with the nucleic acid dye YOYO-1 allowing precise discrimination between mono- and multinucleated forms of P. falciparum-infected red blood cell. The use of YOYO-1 permitted excellent discrimination between uninfected and infected red blood cells as well as between early and late parasite stages. Fluorescence intensities of schizont-stage parasites were about 10-fold greater than those of ring-trophozoite form parasites. Melatonin and related indolic compounds including serotonin, N-acetyl-serotonin and tryptamine induced an increase in the percentage of multinucleated forms compared to non-treated control cultures. YOYO-1 staining of infected erythrocyte and subsequent flow cytometry analysis provides a powerful tool in malaria research for screening of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  13. Malaria control in rural Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenga, Tumaini; Kabaghe, Alinune Nathanael; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kadama, Asante; McCann, Robert S.; Phiri, Kamija Samuel; Vugt, van Michèle; Berg, van den Henk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential

  14. MALARIA VACCINE: MYTH OR REALITY?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    Malaria currently remains the highest killer disease nationwide despite existing control measures. Malaria vaccine would provide a more efficient means of control and prevention of this disease. The objective of this review is to present the current trends in the production of malaria vaccine thereby supporting the view that ...

  15. Towards A Malaria Vaccine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S GARG

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have seen a marked change in the understanding of malaria mmunology.We have very little knowledge on immunity of Malaria based on experiments in humanbeings due to ethical reasons. Whatsoever our knowledge exists at present is based onexperimentas in mice and monkey. However it is clear that it is sporzoite or merozoitewhich is directly exposed to our immune system in the life cycle of Malaria parasite. On thebasis of human experiments we can draw inference that immunity to malaria is species.specific (on cross immunity, stage specific and strain specific as well acquired in the response to surface antigen and relapsed antigen although the parasite also demonstrates escape machanism to immune system.So the host system kills or elimi nate the parasite by means of (a Antbody to extracell~ular form of parasite with the help of mechanism of Block invasion, Agglutination or opsonization and/or (b Cellular machanism-either by phago-cytosis of parasite or by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ABCC (? or by effects of mediators like tumor necrosis fJ.ctor (TNF in cerebaral malaria or crisis forming factor as found in sudan or by possible role of lysis mechanism.However, inspite of all these theories the parasite has been able to invade the immunesystem by virtue of its intracellular development stage specificity, sequestration in capillaries and also by its unusual characteristics of antigenic diversity and antigenic variation.

  16. MALARIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebako Ndip Takem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women have a higher risk of malaria compared to non-pregnant women. This review provides an update on knowledge acquired in the past decade on P. falciparum and P.vivax infections in pregnancy. Maternal risk factors for malaria in pregnancy (MiP include low maternal age, low gravidity, and low gestational age. The effects of MIP include maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW, preterm delivery and increased infant mortality. P. falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta by expressing surface antigens, mainly variant surface antigen (VAR2CSA, that bind to specific receptors, mainly chondroitin sulphate A. In stable transmission settings, the higher malaria risk in primigravidae can be explained by the non recognition of these surface antigens by the immune system. Recently, placental sequestration has been described also for P.vivax infections. The mechanism of preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation is not completely understood, but fever (preterm delivery, anaemia, and high cytokines levels have been implicated.       Clinical suspicion of MiP should be confirmed by parasitological diagnosis. The sensitivity of microscopy, with placenta histology as the gold standard, is 60% and 45% for peripheral and placental falciparum infections, respectively. Compared to microscopy, RDTs have a lower sensitivity. Insecticide treated nets (ITN and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp are recommended for the prevention of MiP in stable transmission settings. ITNs have been shown to reduce malaria infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes by 28-47%. Although resistance is a concern, SP has been shown to be equivalent to MQ and AQ for IPTp. For the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, a combination of quinine + clyndamycin is recommended in all trimesters, while artesunate+ clindamycin or any other ACT known to be effective in the region are recommended in the second and third trimesters. For severe

  17. Vacuna contra la malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-01-01

    La malaria es una enfermedad parasitaria producida por la picadura de un mosquito; una afección que en el año 2015 registró 212 millones de casos y 429.000 muertes. Cada dos minutos, la malaria provocó la muerte de un niño menor de cinco años en todo el mundo. Diferentes científicos a lo largo de todo el mundo han hecho múltiples intentos para combatir esta enfermedad con una vacuna efectiva que pueda erradicarla de raíz.

  18. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  19. Malaria resistance | Iyabo | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age and puberty have been found to contribute to malaria resistance. It is expected that knowledge of natural resistance to malaria may aid in developing Vaccines against this deadly disease. Keywords: malaria resistance, puberty, malaria economy, malaria vaccine. Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 49(5) 2006: 133-142 ...

  20. Determining utility values related to malaria and malaria chemoprophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle Doug

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoprophylaxis for travellers' malaria is problematic. Decision modeling may help determine optimal prevention strategies for travellers' malaria. Such models can fully assess effect of drug use and disease on quality of life, and help travellers make informed values based decisions. Such models require utility values reflecting societal preferences over different health states of relevance. To date, there are no published utility values relating to clinical malaria or chemoprophylaxis adverse events. Methods Utility estimates for health states related to falciparum malaria, sequelae and drug-related adverse events were obtained using a self-administered visual analogue scale in 20 individuals. Utility values for health states related to clinical malaria were obtained from a survey of 11 malaria experts questioned about length of hospital stay or equivalent disability with simple and severe travellers' malaria. Results The general public (potential travellers, were more tolerant of taking prophylaxis if associated with no or mild AEs and least tolerant of mild sequelae from malaria and severe drug related events. The rating value reported for taking no prophylaxis was quite variable. Tropical medicine specialists estimated a mean hospital stay 3.23 days (range 0.5-4.5 days for simple and 6.36 days (range 4.5 - 7 days for severe malaria. Conclusions This study provides a benchmark for important utility value estimates for modeling malaria and drug-related outcomes in non-immune travellers.

  1. Malaria, malnutrition, and birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cates, Jordan E.; Unger, Holger W.; Briand, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Background : Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; <2,500 g) may depend upon maternal nutritional status. We investigated this dependence further using a large, diverse study population.  Methods and findings :...

  2. Clinical malaria vaccine development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerwein, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a major economic and public health problem in mainly sub-Saharan Africa. Globally 300-500 million new infections occur each year with 1-3 million fatal cases in particular young children. The most effective way to reduce disease and death from infectious diseases is to vaccinate

  3. {IATED MALARIA IN GHANA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The arte- iincompiicated Plasmodium fkilciparum malaria in mether derivative has good solubility in lipids as adults attending outpatient clinic at the Navrongo. War Memorial Hospital. A total of US patients Weii as aqueous media Wiiii duiei fest Onset Oi' ...

  4. Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for. Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A study 5 years after implementation of combination therapy in Mpumalanga,. South Africa. Aaron Mabuza, John Govere, Kobus .... Parasitological success was defined as conversion from a positive smear at recruitment to a negative ...

  5. 2. Malaria paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continued resistance monitoring and investigation of other potential molecular markers is recommended as wider ACT use is scaled up in the country. INTRODUCTION. Malaria persists as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia, claiming more than 4 million clinical cases and 50,000 deaths annually on the.

  6. Pain in Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Study Design: This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study at two major health facilities in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria, involving out- patients diagnosed of ..... Table 5. Respondents' Perceived Effect of Malaria Pain on Selected Life Activities. Life Activity. Does not interfere. Freq. (%). Mildly interfere. Freq. (%). Moderately.

  7. Coadaptation and malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria emerges from a disequilibrium of the system 'human-plasmodium-mosquito' (HPM. If the equilibrium is maintained, malaria does not ensue and the result is asymptomatic plasmodium infection. The relationships among the components of the system involve coadaptive linkages that lead to equilibrium. A vast body of evidence supports this assumption, including the strategies involved in the relationships between plasmodium and human and mosquito immune systems, and the emergence of resistance of plasmodia to antimalarial drugs and of mosquitoes to insecticides. Coadaptive strategies for malaria control are based on the following principles: (1 the system HPM is composed of three highly complex and dynamic components, whose interplay involves coadaptive linkages that tend to maintain the equilibrium of the system; (2 human and mosquito immune systems play a central role in the coadaptive interplay with plasmodium, and hence, in the mainten-ance of the system's equilibrium; the under- or overfunction of human immune system may result in malaria and influence its severity; (3 coadaptation depends on genetic and epigenetic phenomena occurring at the interfaces of the components of the system, and may involve exchange of infectrons (genes or gene fragments between the partners; (4 plasmodia and mosquitoes have been submitted to selective pressures, leading to adaptation, for an extremely long while and are, therefore, endowed with the capacity to circumvent both natural (immunity and artificial (drugs, insecticides, vaccines measures aiming at destroying them; (5 since malaria represents disequilibrium of the system HPM, its control should aim at maintaining or restoring this equilibrium; (6 the disequilibrium of integrated systems involves the disequilibrium of their components, therefore the maintenance or restoration of the system's equilibrium depend on the adoption of integrated and coordinated measures acting on all components, that means

  8. Relegating malaria resurgences to history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Robert D

    2012-04-24

    Progress in malaria control over the past decade has been striking, with malaria mortality rates falling by approximately one quarter globally and more than a third in the World Health Organization African Region. In the accompanying paper, Cohen et al. demonstrate the potential fragility of these gains, comprehensively describing malaria resurgences that have occurred over the past 80 or so years. They found that the vast majority of resurgences were due, at least in part, to the weakening of malaria control programmes; resource constraints were the most commonly identified factor. Their findings are timely and compelling, demonstrating that global efforts will be wasted if the required resources are not secured to achieve and maintain universal access to life-saving malaria prevention and control tools. The greatest threats to current malaria control efforts are not biological, but financial. The increases in funding for malaria over the past decade, while impressive, still fall far short of the nearly $6 billion dollars required annually. Domestic spending by endemic country governments on malaria specifically, and health more generally, could go a long way towards filling the projected funding gap. However, external funding is also essential, and the global community needs to work together to ensure full funding of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, which has been the single largest source of malaria funding over the past decade. This year, on April 25th, World Malaria Day will be celebrated with the theme Sustain Gains, Save Lives: Invest in Malaria. The review by Cohen et al. suggests one possible future if such investment is not made. However, with sufficient support, malaria resurgences can be relegated to history.

  9. Use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard A Okech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in Mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the Kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. The underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. We therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria control knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP that the residents in Mwea applied in an integrated fashion, also known as integrated malaria management (IMM. METHODS: Integrated Malaria Management was assessed among community members of Mwea division, central Kenya using KAP survey. The KAP study evaluated community members' malaria disease management practices at the home and hospitals, personal protection measures used at the household level and malaria transmission prevention methods relating to vector control. Concurrently, we also passively examined the prevalence of malaria parasite infection via outpatient admission records at the major referral hospital in the area. In addition we studied the mosquito vector population dynamics, the malaria sporozoite infection status and entomological inoculation rates (EIR over an 8 month period in 6 villages to determine the risk of malaria transmission in the entire division. RESULTS: A total of 389 households in Mwea division were interviewed in the KAP study while 90 houses were surveyed in the entomological study. Ninety eight percent of the households knew about malaria disease while approximately 70% of households knew its symptoms and methods to manage it. Ninety seven percent of the interviewed households went to a health center for malaria diagnosis and treatment. Similarly a higher proportion (81% used anti-malarial medicines bought from local pharmacies. Almost 90% of households reported

  10. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malaria, most of them children in Africa. Because malaria causes so much illness and death, the disease is ... tiredness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice (yellow coloring of the skin ...

  11. World Malaria Report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Bridget E; Rajahram, Giri S; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2017-03-31

    The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation. The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

  12. "The Impact of Malaria Eradication on Fertility"

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne M. Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The malaria eradication campaign that started in Sri Lanka in the late 1940s virtually eliminated malaria transmission on the island. I use the pre-eradication differences in malaria endemicity within Sri Lanka to identify the effect of malaria eradication on fertility and child survival. Malaria eradication increased the number of live births through increasing age specific fertility and causing an earlier first birth. The effect of malaria on the transition time to higher order births is in...

  13. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  14. Pengobatan Malaria dengan Kombinasi Artemisinin

    OpenAIRE

    Tjitra, Emilianan

    2005-01-01

    Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal ...

  15. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    OpenAIRE

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-01-01

    Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal ...

  16. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while hypoglyc......In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...

  17. PENELITIAN OBAT ANTI MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some sensitivity tests of antimalarial drugs had been done by National Institute of Health Research and Development in collaboration with Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health, Naval Medical Research Unit No.2 and Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia. In-vivo and or in-vitro Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance was reported from 11 provinces : Aceh, North Sumatera, Riau, Lampung, West Java, Jakarta (imported case, Central Java, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara and Irian Jaya. Only quinine had a good response for treatment of falciparum malaria resistant to multidrug. R falciparum resistant to mefloquine or halofantrine was found although it was not available in Indonesia yet. Chloroquine prophylaxis using standard dose was still effective in Tanjung Pinang and Central Java. To support the successfulness of treatment in malaria control programme, further studies on alternative antimalaria drugs is needed.

  18. Molecular Vaccines for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    biodegradable emulations containing squalene draining lymph node , increased cellular distress and the anti- and mannide-monooleate as emulsifier and have...molecules, and promote DC migration to the T cell area of taining MPL (3-0-desacyl-4’-monophosphoryllipid A), an immu- the lymph node .62 A variety...targets, such as malaria, HIV and tuberculosis , where and immunostimulants, and the redesign of antigenic targets to traditional approaches have

  19. Malaria and Agriculture in Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    discussing his village's number one health problem — malaria. "You are disabled because you can't walk. ... and Ecology (ICIPE) and the International. Water Management Institute (IWMI) are exploring whether cattle ... A new perspective on the links between health and ecosystems. Malaria is thought to have emerged as a ...

  20. The malaria vectors of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmit the malaria parasite (Coetzee, et al., 2000). An. gambi- ae s.s. is more common in more humid areas of Africa, whereas. An. arabiensis prefers more arid zones ... agent of lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis. Because the aquatic breeding sites expand and prolifer- ate following rainfall, malaria transmission typically ...

  1. Newer approaches to malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Se; Pradhan, Prita; Pradhan, Suresh Chandra

    2011-07-01

    Malaria is the third leading cause of death due to infectious diseases affecting around 243 million people, causing 863,000 deaths each year, and is a major public health problem. Most of the malarial deaths occur in children below 5 years and is a major contributor of under-five mortality. As a result of environmental and climatic changes, there is a change in vector population and distribution, leading to resurgence of malaria at numerous foci. Resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge to malaria control and there are new drug developments, new approaches to treatment strategies, combination therapy to overcome resistance and progress in vaccine development. Now, artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line therapy as the malarial parasite has developed resistance to other antimalarials. Reports of artemisinin resistance are appearing and identification of new drug targets gains utmost importance. As there is a shift from malaria control to malaria eradication, more research is focused on malaria vaccine development. A malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is in phase III of development and may become the first successful one. Due to resistance to insecticides and lack of environmental sanitation, the conventional methods of vector control are turning out to be futile. To overcome this, novel strategies like sterile insect technique and transgenic mosquitoes are pursued for effective vector control. As a result of the global organizations stepping up their efforts with continued research, eradication of malaria can turn out to be a reality.

  2. IFN Regulatory Factor 3 Balances Th1 and T Follicular Helper Immunity during Nonlethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kylie R; Soon, Megan S F; Sebina, Ismail; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Davey, Gayle; Liligeto, Urijah N; Nair, Arya Sheela; Fogg, Lily G; Edwards, Chelsea L; Best, Shannon E; Lansink, Lianne I M; Schroder, Kate; Wilson, Jane A C; Austin, Rebecca; Suhrbier, Andreas; Lane, Steven W; Hill, Geoffrey R; Engwerda, Christian R; Heath, William R; Haque, Ashraful

    2018-01-10

    Differentiation of CD4+ Th cells is critical for immunity to malaria. Several innate immune signaling pathways have been implicated in the detection of blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, yet their influence over Th cell immunity remains unclear. In this study, we used Plasmodium-reactive TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells, termed PbTII cells, during nonlethal P. chabaudi chabaudi AS and P. yoelii 17XNL infection in mice, to examine Th cell development in vivo. We found no role for caspase1/11, stimulator of IFN genes, or mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein, and only modest roles for MyD88 and TRIF-dependent signaling in controlling PbTII cell expansion. In contrast, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was important for supporting PbTII expansion, promoting Th1 over T follicular helper (Tfh) differentiation, and controlling parasites during the first week of infection. IRF3 was not required for early priming by conventional dendritic cells, but was essential for promoting CXCL9 and MHC class II expression by inflammatory monocytes that supported PbTII responses in the spleen. Thereafter, IRF3-deficiency boosted Tfh responses, germinal center B cell and memory B cell development, parasite-specific Ab production, and resolution of infection. We also noted a B cell-intrinsic role for IRF3 in regulating humoral immune responses. Thus, we revealed roles for IRF3 in balancing Th1- and Tfh-dependent immunity during nonlethal infection with blood-stage Plasmodium parasites. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Malaria in pregnancy | Okpere | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria remains one of the highest contributors to the precarious maternal mortality figures in sub-Saharan Africa. At least 6 million women worldwide are at risk of malaria infection in pregnancy. Malaria contributes to at least 10,000 maternal deaths and to at least 200,000 newborn deaths annually. Malaria is a contributor ...

  4. Fats & Fakes : Towards improved control of malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Effective malaria control reduced the malaria burden worldwide tremendously. Simultaneously, the epidemiology of malaria is changing and has become more complex. To continue the progress of the last decade, this thesis addressed several areas of importance in the field of malaria. Since effective

  5. demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gyuk et al.

    Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and malaria vaccines should be made easily accessible to members of households alongside with environmental hygiene in order to reduce the incidence of malaria in the area. Keywords: Malaria, Incidence, Prevalence and Socioeconomic factors. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is one of the ...

  6. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    This being the case, the government is advised to make the rural areas, where majority of farmers reside, a priority in its malaria control efforts. Key Words: Malaria burden; Nigerian agricultural output; and malaria control efforts. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a serious problem in Africa (Gallup and Sachs, 2001; Shepard, et al,.

  7. Tacrolimus prevents murine cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lam Quoc; Nhi, Dang My; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immunosuppressants frequently used in human organ transplantation. Tacrolimus is also reported to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. Here, we report that tacrolimus prevented the death from cerebral malaria of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected C57BL/6J mice, but not their death from malaria due to the high parasitaemia and severe anaemia. The mycophenolate mofetil-treated mice showed higher mortality from cerebral malaria and succumbed to malaria earlier than tacrolimus-treated littermates. Tacrolimus attenuated the infiltration of mononuclear cells including pathogenic CD8+ T cells into the brain. It appears to prevent murine cerebral malaria through the inhibition of cerebral infiltration of CD8+ T cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Cheng, Zhibin

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by five species of Plasmodium parasites. Accurate diagnosis of malaria plays an essential part in malaria control. With traditional diagnostic methodologies, malaria control programs have achieved remarkable success during the past decade, and are now heading toward malaria elimination in many areas. This new situation, however, calls for novel diagnostics with improved sensitivity, throughput, and reduced cost for active screening of malaria parasites, as all transfected individuals have to be identified in order to block transmission. In this chapter, we provide a brief introduction of malaria, the requirement of diagnostic advances in the age of malaria elimination, and a comprehensive overview of the currently available molecular malaria diagnostics, ranging from well-known tests to platforms in early stages of evaluation. We also discussed several practical issues for the application of molecular tests in malaria identification. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Students' awareness of malaria at the beginning of national malaria elimination programme in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Jian-hai; Wang, Ru-bo; Xia, Zhi-gui; Zhou, Shui-sen; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Qing-feng; Feng, Xin-yu

    2013-01-01

    In the battle against malaria in China, the rate of elementary and high school students' awareness on malaria knowledge is an important index for malaria elimination, but only rare data is available...

  10. Malaria: uncomplicated, caused by Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Robinson, David; Jones, Katharine; Garner, Paul; Sinclair, David

    2008-01-01

    Uncomplicated malaria is where the person has symptomatic infection with malaria parasites, but no signs of vital organ disturbance. Uncomplicated malaria can progress to severe malaria, become chronic, or resolve, depending on host immunity and prompt access to appropriate treatment.Severe malaria is more likely to develop in people with no prior immunity, and accounts for over one million deaths worldwide each year.The choice between treatment regimens depends partly on backg...

  11. [Fake malaria drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2009-03-02

    The literature on fake medicaments is sparse, even if approximately 15% of all medicaments are fake, a figure that for antimalarials in particular reaches 50% in parts of Africa and Asia. Sub-standard and fake medicines deplete the public's confidence in health systems, health professionals and in the pharmaceutical industry - and increase the risk that resistance develops. For a traveller coming from a rich Western country, choosing to buy e.g. preventive antimalarials over the internet or in poor malaria-endemic areas, the consequences may be fatal. International trade-, control- and police-collaboration is needed to manage the problem, as is the fight against poverty and poor governance.

  12. Bioorganometallic Chemistry and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biot, Christophe; Dive, Daniel

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of organometallic antimalarials. It begins with a general introduction to malaria and the biology of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, with a focus on the heme detoxification system. Then, a number of metal complexes from the literature are reported for their antiplasmodial activity. The second half of the chapter deals with the serendipitous discovery of ferroquine, its mechanism(s) of action, and the failure to induce a resistance. Last, but not least, we suggest that the bioorganometallic approach offers the potential for the design of novel therapeutic agents.

  13. Adjunctive therapy for cerebral malaria and other severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    OpenAIRE

    John, Chandy C; Kutamba, Elizabeth; Mugarura, Keith; Opoka, Robert O

    2010-01-01

    Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum causes more than 800,000 deaths every year. Primary therapy with quinine or artesunate is generally effective in controlling P. falciparum parasitemia, but mortality from cerebral malaria and other forms of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. Long-term cognitive impairment is also common in children with cerebral malaria. Of the numerous adjunctive therapies for cerebral malaria and severe malaria studied over the past five decades, only one (...

  14. Predictive score of uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients turning to severe malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Thanachartwet, Vipa; Duangdee, Chatnapa; Paksala, Siriphan; Chonsawat, Putza; Srivilairit, Siripan; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Wilairatana, Polrat

    2007-01-01

    In acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria, there is a continuum from mild to severe malaria. However, no mathematical system is available to predict uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients turning to severe malaria. This study aimed to devise a simple and reliable model of Malaria Severity Prognostic Score (MSPS). The study was performed in adult patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases between 2000 and 2005. Total 38 initia...

  15. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-08-25

    Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%). The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18%) were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the baseline malaria prevalence and summaries of the data collected are provided along with the

  16. Malaria prevalence in endemic districts of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM, provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT and combination therapy with Coartem. It is imperative, therefore, that baseline data on malaria prevalence and other malaria indicators are collected to assess the effectiveness of the interventions and rationalize the prevention and control efforts. The objective of this study was to obtain this baseline on the prevalence of malaria and bed net use in the thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2007, BRAC and ICDDR,B carried out a malaria prevalence survey in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used and 9750 blood samples were collected. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT were used for the diagnosis of malaria. The weighted average malaria prevalence in the thirteen endemic districts was 3.97%. In five south-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was 6.00% and in the eight north-eastern districts weighted average malaria prevalence rate was (0.40%. The highest malaria prevalence was observed in Khagrachari district. The majority of the cases (90.18% were P. falciparum infections. Malaria morbidity rates in five south-eastern districts was 2.94%. In eight north-eastern districts, morbidity was 0.07%. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Bangladesh has hypoendemic malaria with P. falciparum the dominant parasite species. The malaria situation in the five north-eastern districts of Bangladesh in particular warrants urgent attention. Detailed maps of the

  17. Healthy malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathen, K

    1998-01-01

    According to an article in the May 27, 1998, issue of the Times of India, Dr. Menno Jan Bouma, an epidemiologist from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, has suggested spraying India's cows, goats, and buffaloes with insecticide in a bid to combat malaria. This strategy, however, fails to fully consider what is currently known about insect behavior, insecticides' modes of action, and the interaction between the two in the environment. A population of insects can ultimately develop resistance and adapt to the repeated onslaught of insecticides. Furthermore, each type of insecticide which could potentially be used has its own set of problems with regard to the environment, the products into which they break down, and how they affect wildlife and humans. The once commonplace spraying of livestock in the West led to Mad Cow Disease, Chicken Flu, and other problems. India's meat and dairy products will definitely be contaminated should the country's livestock be sprayed with insecticides. In the long-term interest of humankind, efforts must be made to contain, not eradicate, mosquitoes and malaria.

  18. [Malaria tropica and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broermann, L; Heidenreich, W

    1992-10-01

    The authors report on a female patient of 26 years of age suffering from malaria tropica infection in her 36th week of pregnancy with fatal outcome. The newborn (after performance of Caesarean section) was infected connatally. Although infections with malaria are rare in Europe today--especially during pregnancy--there is a probability of rising incidence on account of increasing international tourism. Therapeutic problems are expected to multiply due to the resistance of Plasmodia to antiparasitary medication. Additionally pregnancy involves the risk of a more severe course of the disease in the mother. Pregnant women should be discouraged from travelling to countries with malarial risk because of the likelihood of a high rate of abortion, danger of intrauterine retardation, increased incidence of premature deliveries and risk of connatal infection of the newborn. If such warnings cannot be heeded, the persons concerned must be given all relevant information on conventional preventive measures in accordance with WHO recommendations and drug prophylaxis as recommended by a hospital or institution dealing with tropical diseases according to updated standards. The measures to be taken must be adapted to the individual risk of exposure of the patient.

  19. Malaria on the move: human population movement and malaria transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, P; Hall, L

    2000-01-01

    Reports of malaria are increasing in many countries and in areas thought free of the disease. One of the factors contributing to the reemergence of malaria is human migration. People move for a number of reasons, including environmental deterioration, economic necessity, conflicts, and natural disasters. These factors are most likely to affect the poor, many of whom live in or near malarious areas. Identifying and understanding the influence of these population movements can improve preventio...

  20. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  1. Transgenic mosquitoes and malaria transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George K. Christophides

    2005-01-01

    Summary As the malaria burden persists in most parts of the developing world, the concept of implementation of new strategies such as the use of genetically modified mosquitoes to control the disease...

  2. Malaria ecology and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, G. C.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the costs that climate change will exact on society is crucial to devising an appropriate policy response. One of the channels through while climate change will affect human society is through vector-borne diseases whose epidemiology is conditioned by ambient ecology. This paper introduces the literature on malaria, its cost on society, and the consequences of climate change to the physics community in hopes of inspiring synergistic research in the area of climate change and health. It then demonstrates the use of one ecological indicator of malaria suitability to provide an order-of-magnitude assessment of how climate change might affect the malaria burden. The average of Global Circulation Model end-of-century predictions implies a 47% average increase in the basic reproduction number of the disease in today's malarious areas, significantly complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  3. The march toward malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E

    2015-11-27

    In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of

  4. Heritability of Malaria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While many individual genes have been identified that confer protection against malaria, the overall impact of host genetics on malarial risk remains unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have used pedigree-based genetic variance component analysis to determine the relative contributions of genetic and other factors to the variability in incidence of malaria and other infectious diseases in two cohorts of children living on the coast of Kenya. In the first, we monitored the incidence of mild clinical malaria and other febrile diseases through active surveillance of 640 children 10 y old or younger, living in 77 different households for an average of 2.7 y. In the second, we recorded hospital admissions with malaria and other infectious diseases in a birth cohort of 2,914 children for an average of 4.1 y. Mean annual incidence rates for mild and hospital-admitted malaria were 1.6 and 0.054 episodes per person per year, respectively. Twenty-four percent and 25% of the total variation in these outcomes was explained by additively acting host genes, and household explained a further 29% and 14%, respectively. The haemoglobin S gene explained only 2% of the total variation. For nonmalarial infections, additive genetics explained 39% and 13% of the variability in fevers and hospital-admitted infections, while household explained a further 9% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic and unidentified household factors each accounted for around one quarter of the total variability in malaria incidence in our study population. The genetic effect was well beyond that explained by the anticipated effects of the haemoglobinopathies alone, suggesting the existence of many protective genes, each individually resulting in small population effects. While studying these genes may well provide insights into pathogenesis and resistance in human malaria, identifying and tackling the household effects must be the more efficient route to reducing the burden

  5. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivity......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....

  6. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  7. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    , and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... elicited by natural malaria infection in previously primed donors....

  8. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  9. (quinine) and to prevent malaria (mefloquine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Quinine is the main treatment for severe malaria in Comoros and Madagascar. Mefloquine and cycloguanil-based antimalarial drugs are recommended for the prevention of malaria, particularly for travellers.'·' Very few in vivo or in vitro.

  10. Malaria in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the epidemiological situation of imported malaria in Poland in 2013 compared to the data from previous years. The assessment was performed based on the results of the analysis of individual reports sent to the NIPH-NIH by sanitary-epidemiological stations and aggregated data published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland". Cases were registered according to the case definition criteria applicable in the EU countries. In 2013, a total of 36 imported malaria cases were registered in Poland, 15 more than in 2012. No deaths were recorded. As much as 80% of all cases were imported from African countries, of whom the majority came from Nigeria, 14% from Asia and 6% from South America. Concurrent infection with dengue virus was confirmed in one person coming back from Philippines. Plasmodium species was determined in 35 of 36 cases by blood film or PCR test. Invasion with P. falciparum and P. vivax was found in 23 (66%) and 9 (26%) cases, respectively. There was also one case of each of the following: P. ovale, P. malariae and mixed invasion. As in previous years, in most cases, the invasion was associated with tourist trips (47%) or work-related travels (36%). Immigrants or students visiting the country of origin accounted for 11% of patients, in two cases (6%) purpose of the journey was not determined. As many as 7 patients used chemoprophylaxis, including two persons who took drugs in compliance with the recommendations. Despite a significant increase in the number of cases compared to previous years, the total number of imported malaria remains low. Persistent large number of delays in the diagnosis and a high percentage of severe malaria cases indicate the need to raise doctors awareness of the possibility of malaria incidence. Travelers should be also constantly reminded of the need to inform their GPs about the stay in the malaria endemic areas in the event of fever after returning.

  11. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research

    OpenAIRE

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-N??ez, V?nia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues ...

  12. Analisis Pemeriksaan Laboratorium pada Penderita Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Permadi, I GEDE Wempi

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is the disease initially in the area of the Marsh called the disease of freshwater marshes.Scientific research on malaria make progress in their important first in 1880, when a French army doctor workingin the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed parasites forthe first time, inside the red blood cells of people suffering from malaria. This paper outlines some of thediagnostic screening for malaria. Examination of the diagnosis of ma...

  13. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Ubydul; Ahmed, Syed Masud; Hossain, Shahed; Huda, Mamun; Hossain, Awlad; Alam, Mohammad Shafiul; Mondal, Dinesh; Khan, Wasif Ali; Khalequzzaman, Mohammod; Haque, Rashidul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the 1971 ban of DDT in Bangladesh, malaria cases have increased steadily. Malaria persists as a major health problem in the thirteen south-eastern and north-eastern districts of Bangladesh. At present the national malaria control program, largely supported by the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), provides interventions including advocacy at community level, Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) distribution, introduction of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and ...

  14. Genetic mapping and coccidial parasites: Past achievements and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... gondii and the Eimeria species can cause severe disease of medical and veterinary importance. As many as one-third ... Cyclospora cayetanensis can cause severe human disease. Indeed, as much as a third of the ..... malarial parasite Plasmodium chabaudi supported the notion. (Martinelli et al. 2005a).

  15. Malaria in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    in malaria risk areas. Of this, 4.2%, 32.5% and 43.8% live in areas of high, moderate and low risk to malaria respectively. (http://www.searo.who.int/). The Global Malaria ..... The key to the resistance management is the effective and continuous ..... there is a need to identify areas vulnerable to climate change and its impact ...

  16. Is the Malaria Elimination Target Achievable?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Though preventable, malaria is still one of the major public health problems worldwide- mostly in low and middle income countries (1-4). In. 2013, malaria killed over a billion people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa (5). In 2015, there were over 200 million new cases and more than. 400,000 malaria-related deaths around the ...

  17. Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique). Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique and is considered a major impediment to development. The effectiveness of any malaria control program depends on reliable data delivered in timely fashion, something that is currently ...

  18. determination of some haematological parameters in malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... 2006). In Nigeria, there are over 100 million people at risk of malaria every year and it is estimated that about 50 % of the adult population experience at least one episode yearly (Igbeneghu and Odaibo,. 2013).Malaria causes a lot of debilitating effect in adults and the yearly economic loss due to malaria in.

  19. Malaria deaths in a rural hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An audit of all malaria deaths that occurred at Manguzi Hospital between 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999 was performed. There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. The most common causes of death were cerebral malaria, pulmonary oedema, ...

  20. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Childhood malaria continues to be a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Care- givers ability to detect the illness in children early and institute effective treatment is critical to illness outcome. The investigation of mothers' perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour in childhood malaria in a ...

  1. Determination of some haematological parameters in malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia was determined microscopically by stained thick film, packed cell volume (PCV) by microhaematocrit method, while total white blood cell count (TWBC) and platelet count (PLC) by manual methods. The total of 100 malaria infected patients and 50 apparently healthy malaria non-infected students were ...

  2. The Malaria Season Is Upon Us

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria - the parasite and its detection. Malaria is transmitted by .... in the air rather than parallel to the surface on which she is resting as for non-malaria ... needs to remain cautious of novel and non-certified methods of preventing mosquito ...

  3. Malaria parasite positivity among febrile neonates | Enyuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...

  4. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  5. Bilataral peripheral gangrene following malaria parasitaemia at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many parts of the East African region malaria is endemic, while in other parts it is hyper-endemic. While all the four species of the plasmodium parasite (vivax, ovale, malaria& falciparum), are prevalent in E Africa, it is the Plasmodium falciparum that is most aggressive and rampant. In this region malaria is still by far ...

  6. New Weapons in the War on Malaria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    against the mosquitoes that carry malaria. www .idrc.ca/tehip. New Weapons in the War on Malaria. Halting the disease is crucial to improving overall health in Tanzania. Evidence showing the large impact of malaria on Tanzanians' health has provided the impetus for significant policy changes on how to treat and prevent ...

  7. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goal 6 of the MDGs was set to combat HIV/. AIDS ... [5]. Later that year, the Southern. African Development Community (SADC) similarly pledged to eliminate malaria from southern Africa. The SADC Malaria Strategic ... Political commitment and long-term funding for the malaria control programme have been a critical.

  8. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective use of insecticide treated nets and intermittent prophylaxis therapy for malaria during pregnancy. KEY WORDS: Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, Nigeria, prevalence, unbooked paturients. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a parasitic disease of humans especially in the sub‑Saharan Africa, where about 90% of deaths ...

  9. Malaria Training Centre | Malenga | Malawi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [Introduction]: The Malaria Training Centre is part of a collaborative effort in malaria research and training between the College of Medicine and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM). Funding for a period of 5 years has been secured through the Gates Malaria Programme (GMP) of the London School of Hygiene ...

  10. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    associated with malaria prevalence. Keywords: Malaria, Demographic, Plasmodiu. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a parasitic disease,. Nigeria and many tropical and subtropic regions of the globe. It is caused by th protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malar is caused by four different species o. Plasmodium: P. falciparum ...

  11. Congenital clinical malaria: Incidence, management and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, 6 babies that had both neonatal malaria and septicaemia died while, 5 babies that were negative for both malaria parasite and blood culture but with worsening clinical signs and persistent fever also died despite adequate treatment for possible septicaemia and malaria. Conclusion: Although no mortality occurred ...

  12. Changing malaria transmission and implications in China towards National Malaria Elimination Programme between 2010 and 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hai Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards the implementation of national malaria elimination programme in China since 2010, the epidemiology of malaria has changed dramatically, and the lowest malaria burden was achieved yearly. It is time to analyze the changes of malaria situation based on surveillance data from 2010 to 2012 to reconsider the strategies for malaria elimination. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Malaria epidemiological data was extracted from the provincial annual reports in China between 2010 and 2012. The trends of the general, autochthonous and imported malaria were analyzed, and epidemic areas were reclassified according to Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (2010-2020. As a result, there reported 2743 malaria cases with a continued decline in 2012, and around 7% autochthonous malaria cases accounted. Three hundred and fifty-three individual counties from 19 provincial regions had autochthonous malaria between 2010 and 2012, and only one county was reclassified into Type I (local infections detected in 3 consecutive years and the annual incidences ≥ 1/10,000 again. However, the imported malaria cases reported of each year were widespread, and 598 counties in 29 provinces were suffered in 2012. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria was reduced significantly from 2010 to 2012 in China, and malaria importation became an increasing challenge. It is necessary to adjust or update the interventions for subsequent malaria elimination planning and resource allocation.

  13. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  14. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barclay Victoria C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  15. Surveillance considerations for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Victoria C; Smith, Rachel A; Findeis, Jill L

    2012-08-31

    Constant malaria monitoring and surveillance systems have been highlighted as critical for malaria elimination. The absence of robust monitoring and surveillance systems able to respond to outbreaks in a timely manner undeniably contributed to the failure of the last global attempt to eradicate malaria. Today, technological advances could allow for rapid detection of focal outbreaks and improved deployment of diagnostic and treatment supplies to areas needing support. However, optimizing diffusion activities (e.g., distributing vector controls and medicines, as well as deploying behaviour change campaigns) requires networks of diverse scholars to monitor, learn, and evaluate data and multiple organizations to coordinate their intervention activities. Surveillance systems that can gather, store and process information, from communities to national levels, in a centralized, widely accessible system will allow tailoring of surveillance and intervention efforts. Different systems and, thus reactions, will be effective in different endemic, geographical or socio-cultural contexts. Investing in carefully designed monitoring technologies, built for a multiple-acter, dynamic system, will help to improve malaria elimination efforts by improving the coordination, timing, coverage, and deployment of malaria technologies.

  16. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  17. In vivo assessment of rodent Plasmodium parasitemia and merozoite invasion by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelliott, Patrick M; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2015-04-05

    During blood stage infection, malaria parasites invade, mature, and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs). This results in a regular growth cycle and an exponential increase in the proportion of malaria infected RBCs, known as parasitemia. We describe a flow cytometry based protocol which utilizes a combination of the DNA dye Hoechst, and the mitochondrial membrane potential dye, JC-1, to identify RBCs which contain parasites and therefore the parasitemia, of in vivo blood samples from Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS infected mice. Using this approach, in combination with fluorescently conjugated antibodies, parasitized RBCs can be distinguished from leukocytes, RBC progenitors, and RBCs containing Howell-Jolly bodies (HJ-RBCs), with a limit of detection of 0.007% parasitemia. Additionally, we outline a method for the comparative assessment of merozoite invasion into two different RBC populations. In this assay RBCs, labeled with two distinct compounds identifiable by flow cytometry, are transfused into infected mice. The relative rate of invasion into the two populations can then be assessed by flow cytometry based on the proportion of parasitized RBCs in each population over time. This combined approach allows the accurate measurement of both parasitemia and merozoite invasion in an in vivo model of malaria infection.

  18. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. [Malaria: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Gaetano

    2010-12-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of its aetiological agent, but malaria is still the first cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. After the initial illusory successes of the fight against the infection, malarial infection is currently in a phase of expansion due to the sum of several contributory factors: the rise of anophelism related to the failure of eradication campaigns in endemic areas, due to environmental, structural and economic causes; the spread of stocks of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in such areas; the increase in travel for work and tourism, and the flows of populations due to wars, political issues, or just survival. In this paper we inspected all the aspects of the infection, from historical aspects - in which there was sometimes a mingling of history and legend - to those more properly defined as scientific. We seek to point out less well-known details, both about the vector and the clinical-epidemiological aspects concerning the populations in endemic areas, semi-immune subjects and foreigners. We also underline the importance both of prophylaxis and treatment of infection in travellers in high-risk areas, in the light of pharmacological resistance developed by the parasite and of the new usable molecules.

  20. [Pulmonary manifestations associated with malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovette, P; Camara, P; Burgel, P R; Mbaye, P S; Sane, M; Klotz, F

    1998-12-01

    Pulmonary manifestations are frequently observed in children, pregnant women and travellers with malaria. The pathophysiology of these pulmonary manifestations is poorly understood but would appear to be secondary to an interaction between the parasitized red cells and the pulmonary capillary endothelium. Bronchitis and pneumonia do not directly compromise outcome but, left unrecognized, the delay in diagnosis and treatment may be fatal. Acute respiratory distress in children is the first cause of overmortality, coming before neurological involvement. The acute respiratory distress caused by severe malaria has no specific characteristics. Iatrogenic complications and pulmonary superinfections must be differentiated. The prevention of pulmonary manifestations associated with malaria can easily be accomplished by limiting water intake and carefully monitoring urinary output and weight. Treatment is the same as for acute flare-ups in combination with symptomatic respiratory treatment when required.

  1. Immunoinformatics of Placental Malaria Vaccine Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Eyrich

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium, which is transferred by female Anopheles mosquitos. WHO estimates that in 2012 there were 207 million cases of malaria, of which 627,000 were fatal. People living in malaria-endemic areas, gradually acquire...... immunity with multiple infections. Placental malaria (PM) is caused by P. falciparum sequestering in the placenta of pregnant women due to the presence of novel receptors in the placenta. An estimated 200,000 infants die a year as a result of PM. In 2004 the specific protein responsible...... and development in the field of placental malaria vaccine development....

  2. Cutaneous findings in five cases of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh B Vaishnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Cutaneous lesions in malaria are rarely reported and include urticaria, angioedema, petechiae, purpura, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Here, five malaria cases associated with cutaneous lesions have been described. Out of the five cases of malaria, two were associated with urticaria and angioedema, one case was associated with urticaria, and other two were associated with reticulated blotchy erythema with petechiae. Most of the cutaneous lesions in malaria were nonspecific and reflected the different immunopathological mechanism in malarial infection.

  3. Challenges of malaria diagnosis in clinical settings and disease surveillance under reduced malaria burden in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Samuel Tarimo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile illnesses that are caused by malaria and other infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In malaria endemic countries, malaria is considered as one of the most serious febrile illnesses. Over the last two decades, major investment in malaria control has witnessed a major achievement in decline of malaria burden, however, other causes of febrile illnesses have remained prevalent. The decline in malaria burden poses challenges for the diagnosis of malaria in clinical settings, research and disease surveillance. This review highlights the challenges facing the diagnosis of malarial and nonmalarial fevers under reduced malaria burden from the perspectives of parasite diagnosis and interpretations of the diagnoses of malarial and non-malarial fevers, and the possible approaches to address the challenges for a better understanding of the dynamics of febrile illnesses under reduced malaria burden.

  4. Malaria vaccine: a step toward elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Harashish; Bhatt, Bhumika; Malik, Jagbir S; Sk, Shashikantha; Mehta, Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Malaria has long been recognized as a public health problem. At the community level, vector control, and antimalarial medicines are the main means for reducing incidence, morbidity, and mortality of malaria. A vaccine not only would bring streamlining in the prevention of morbidity and mortality from malaria but also would be more accessible if integrated with Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI). Globally, an estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria. Most cases (80%) and deaths (90%) occurred in Africa, and most deaths (77%) are in children under 5 years of age. An effective vaccine has long been envisaged as a valuable addition to the available tools for malaria control. Although research toward the development of malaria vaccines has been pursued since the 1960s, there are no licensed malaria vaccines. The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine, which targets P. falciparum, has reached phase 3 clinical trials and results are promising. Malaria Vaccine Technology Road Map 2013 has envisaged the world aiming for a licensed vaccine by 2030 that would reduce malaria cases by 75% and be capable of eliminating malaria. It will not only fill the gaps of today's interventions but also be a cost-effective method of decreasing morbidity and mortality from malaria.

  5. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF UNCOMPLICATED AND SEVERE MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease.  The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu, dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal.

  6. Malaria in Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela: current challenges in malaria control and elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recht, Judith; Siqueira, André M; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Herrera, Sonia M; Herrera, Sócrates; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2017-07-04

    In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Challenges to continuing efforts to further decrease malaria incidence in this region include: a significant increase in malaria cases in recent years in Venezuela, evidence of submicroscopic and asymptomatic infections, peri-urban malaria, gold mining-related malaria, malaria in pregnancy, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and primaquine use, and possible under-detection of Plasmodium malariae. Some of these challenges underscore the need to implement appropriate tools and procedures in specific regions, such as a field-compatible molecular malaria test, a P. malariae-specific test, malaria diagnosis and appropriate treatment as part of regular antenatal care visits, G6PD test before primaquine administration for P. vivax cases (with weekly primaquine regimen for G6PD deficient individuals), single low dose of primaquine for P. falciparum malaria in Colombia, and national and regional efforts to contain malaria spread in Venezuela urgently needed especially in mining areas. Joint efforts and commitment towards malaria control and elimination should be strategized based on examples of successful regional malaria fighting initiatives, such as PAMAFRO and RAVREDA/AMI.

  7. Households' incidence on malaria and expenditures to treat malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is the major health problem in Sudan and accounts for more than 40% of health facility visits and 35,000 deaths in Sudan. Although treatable, it affects people from different socio-economic status (SES), causing suffering and poor socio-economic development. OBJECTIVES: To explore the ...

  8. An open source business model for malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Årdal

    Full Text Available Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related

  9. An open source business model for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Greater investment is required in developing new drugs and vaccines against malaria in order to eradicate malaria. These precious funds must be carefully managed to achieve the greatest impact. We evaluate existing efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria to determine how best malaria R&D can benefit from an enhanced open source approach and how such a business model may operate. We assess research articles, patents, clinical trials and conducted a smaller survey among malaria researchers. Our results demonstrate that the public and philanthropic sectors are financing and performing the majority of malaria drug/vaccine discovery and development, but are then restricting access through patents, 'closed' publications and hidden away physical specimens. This makes little sense since it is also the public and philanthropic sector that purchases the drugs and vaccines. We recommend that a more "open source" approach is taken by making the entire value chain more efficient through greater transparency which may lead to more extensive collaborations. This can, for example, be achieved by empowering an existing organization like the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) to act as a clearing house for malaria-related data. The malaria researchers that we surveyed indicated that they would utilize such registry data to increase collaboration. Finally, we question the utility of publicly or philanthropically funded patents for malaria medicines, where little to no profits are available. Malaria R&D benefits from a publicly and philanthropically funded architecture, which starts with academic research institutions, product development partnerships, commercialization assistance through UNITAID and finally procurement through mechanisms like The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the U.S.' President's Malaria Initiative. We believe that a fresh look should be taken at the cost/benefit of patents particularly related to new malaria

  10. Malaria successes and challenges in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajesh; Rastogi, Rakesh Mani; Ortega, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    Asia ranks second to Africa in terms of malaria burden. In 19 countries of Asia, malaria is endemic and 2.31 billion people or 62% of the total population in these countries are at risk of malaria. In 2010, WHO estimated around 34.8 million cases and 45,600 deaths due to malaria in Asia. In 2011, 2.7 million cases and > 2000 deaths were reported. India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan are responsible for >85% of the reported cases (confirmed) and deaths in Asia. In last 10 yr, due to availability of donor's fund specially from Global fund, significant progress has been made by the countries in Asia in scaling-up malaria control interventions which were instrumental in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality significantly. There is a large heterogeneity in malaria epidemiology in Asia. As a result, the success in malaria control/elimination is also diverse. As compared to the data of the year 2000, out of 19 malaria endemic countries, 12 countries were able to reduce malaria incidence (microscopically confirmed cases only) by 75%. Two countries, namely Bangladesh and Malaysia are projected to reach 75% reduction by 2015 while India is projected to reach 50-75% only by 2015. The trend could not be assessed in four countries, namely Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan and Timor-Leste due to insufficient consistent data. Numerous key challenges need to be addressed to sustain the gains and eliminate malaria in most parts of Asia. Some of these are to control the spread of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin, control of outdoor transmission, control of vivax malaria and ensuring universal coverage of key interventions. Asia has the potential to influence the malaria epidemiology all over the world as well as to support the global efforts in controlling and eliminating malaria through production of quality-assured ACTs, RDTs and long-lasting insecticidal nets.

  11. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in malaria morbidity and mortality with a drastic drop in Malaria attributed mortality rate from 16.3% in 2008 to 3.6% in 2011 (President's Malaria Initiative, 2013). However, there has recently been an increase in malaria prevalence which is a cause of concern. Rwanda has five high malaria burden districts which accounted ...

  12. Characterization of malaria vectors in Huye District, Southern Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    with other vectors playing a secondary role in malaria transmission. Malaria interventions need to be strengthened to reduce even further the malaria transmission in the area. Keywords: malaria, mosquito, composition, larval habitats, Rwanda. Introduction. Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity ...

  13. Malaria-induced immune thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Mickley, H; Schmidt, K G

    1984-01-01

    On return from Liberia, a previously healthy 36-year-old man showed signs of malaria accompanied by severe haemolysis and slight thrombocytopenia. We found evidence of a platelet-associated IgG being responsible for the thrombocytopenia, inasmuch as the direct platelet suspension immunofluorescen...

  14. Chemical biology: Knockout for malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Joanna; Sieber, Stephan A.

    2014-02-01

    Discovering and validating new targets is urgently required to tackle the rise in resistance to antimalarial drugs. Now, inhibition of the enzyme N-myristoyltransferase has been shown to prevent the formation of a critical subcellular organelle in the parasite that causes malaria, leading to death of the parasite.

  15. Border malaria in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H

    1997-09-01

    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  16. Neonatal Malaria in the Gambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    crying, difficulty in breathing, vomiting, hepatomegaly, abdominal distension and irritability. A similar picture ... Children, especially. African children, carry the greatest burden of the disease with an estimated two hundred million episodes of clinical malaria each year. 3-7 .... (3; 21.4%), depressed neonatal (primitive reflexes).

  17. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  18. Ocular complications of malaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-08

    Oct 8, 2011 ... Malaria is endemic in Nigeria. With the emergence of chloroquine resistance various modes of treatment including parenteral quinine are employed with consequent untoward effects. This article reports two cases of severe ocular toxicity, including mimicry of intracranial space-occupying lesion, from ...

  19. Neonatal Malaria in the Gambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Department of ... mechanisms such as the milk diet of the infant being deficient ... this protection may not be complete and that symptomatic malaria in the newborn period can occur, and that such babies may present with severe disease. 13-23.

  20. Utility of health facility-based malaria data for malaria surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Afrane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, intensive malaria control programs are being implemented in Africa to reduce the malaria burden. Clinical malaria data from hospitals are valuable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating the impacts of these interventions. However, the reliability of hospital-based data for true malaria incidence is often questioned because of diagnosis accuracy issues and variation in access to healthcare facilities among sub-groups of the population. This study investigated how diagnosis and treatment practices of malaria cases in hospitals affect reliability of hospital malaria data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was undertaken in health facilities in western Kenya. A total of 3,569 blood smears were analyzed after being collected from patients who were requested by clinicians to go to the hospital's laboratory for malaria testing. We applied several quality control measures for clinical malaria diagnosis. We compared our slide reading results with those from the hospital technicians. Among the 3,390 patients whose diagnoses were analyzed, only 36% had clinical malaria defined as presence of any level of parasitaemia and fever. Sensitivity and specificity of clinicians' diagnoses were 60.1% (95% CI: 61.1-67.5 and 75.0% (95% CI: 30.8-35.7, respectively. Among the 980 patients presumptively treated with an anti-malarial by the clinicians without laboratory diagnosis, only 47% had clinical malaria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed substantial over-prescription of anti-malarials and misdiagnosis of clinical malaria. More than half of the febrile cases were not truly clinical malaria, but were wrongly diagnosed and treated as such. Deficiency in malaria diagnosis makes health facility data unreliable for monitoring trends in malaria morbidity and for evaluating impacts of malaria interventions. Improving malaria diagnosis should be a top priority in rural African health centers.

  1. Students' awareness of malaria at the beginning of national malaria elimination programme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian-hai; Wang, Ru-bo; Xia, Zhi-gui; Zhou, Shui-sen; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Qing-feng; Feng, Xin-yu

    2013-07-12

    In the battle against malaria in China, the rate of elementary and high school students' awareness on malaria knowledge is an important index for malaria elimination, but only rare data is available. This study aimed to investigate the level of malaria awareness in students at elementary and high schools in malaria endemic areas of China, and to provide the baseline information for the malaria elimination. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 different malaria-endemic provinces in the first year of China's National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP). A structured questionnaire was administrated to students at elementary and high schools enrolled. A total of 44,519 questionnaires were effective while 1,220 were excluded because of incomplete survey responses. More than 60% of students were aware of malaria, but only 9,013 of them answered correctly to all five questions, and there were still 1,862 students unaware of malaria. There were significant differences of the awareness of malaria among different age groups, between male and female, between two different education levels. The study reveals that students at elementary and high school levels did not have adequate knowledge of malaria about biology, pathogenicity, transmitting vectors and preventive methods and so on at the beginning of NMEP in China. Further emphasis should be paid on health education campaigns in China to increase students' public awareness of malaria about vector control, treatment, prevention.

  2. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-12-22

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy.

  3. Urbanization and the global malaria recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2013-04-17

    The past century has seen a significant contraction in the global extent of malaria transmission, resulting in over 50 countries being declared malaria free, and many regions of currently endemic countries eliminating the disease. Moreover, substantial reductions in transmission have been seen since 1900 in those areas that remain endemic today. Recent work showed that this malaria recession was unlikely to have been driven by climatic factors, and that control measures likely played a significant role. It has long been considered, however, that economic development, and particularly urbanization, has also been a causal factor. The urbanization process results in profound socio-economic and landscape changes that reduce malaria transmission, but the magnitude and extent of these effects on global endemicity reductions are poorly understood. Global data at subnational spatial resolution on changes in malaria transmission intensity and urbanization trends over the past century were combined to examine the relationships seen over a range of spatial and temporal scales. A consistent pattern of increased urbanization coincident with decreasing malaria transmission and elimination over the past century was found. Whilst it remains challenging to untangle whether this increased urbanization resulted in decreased transmission, or that malaria reductions promoted development, the results point to a close relationship between the two, irrespective of national wealth. The continuing rapid urbanization in malaria-endemic regions suggests that such malaria declines are likely to continue, particularly catalyzed by increasing levels of direct malaria control.

  4. Glucose production and gluconeogenesis in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, E.; Romijn, J. A.; Ekberg, K.; Wahren, J.; van Thien, H.; Ackermans, M. T.; Thuy, L. T.; Chandramouli, V.; Kager, P. A.; Landau, B. R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Although glucose production is increased in severe malaria, the influence of uncomplicated malaria on glucose production is unknown. Therefore, we measured in eight adult Vietnamese patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and eight healthy Vietnamese controls glucose production (by infusion

  5. Outdoor malaria transmission in forested villages of Cambodia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durnez, Lies; Mao, Sokny; Denis, Leen; Roelants, Patricia; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc

    2013-01-01

    ...), targeting indoor- and late-biting malaria vectors only. The present study evaluated the vector density, early biting activity and malaria transmission of outdoor-biting malaria vectors in two forested regions in Cambodia...

  6. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  7. Identification of hot spots of malaria transmission for targeted malaria control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Drakeley, C.; Gesase, S.; Hashim, R.; Magesa, S.; Mosha, F.; Otieno, S.; Carneiro, I.; Cox, J.; Msuya, E.; Kleinschmidt, I.; Maxwell, C.; Greenwood, B.; Riley, E.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Chandramohan, D.; Gosling, R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the risk of malaria within populations is a frequently described but poorly understood phenomenon. This heterogeneity creates opportunities for targeted interventions but only if hot spots of malaria transmission can be easily identified. METHODS: We determined spatial

  8. Ranking Malaria Risk Factors to Guide Malaria Control Efforts in African Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. Methods and Findings: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through...

  9. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh-Ai Cheong, Irene; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students' understanding and identifying alternative conceptions with respect to malaria. Results showed that students' understanding of malaria was high for content, low for reasons, and limited and superficial for both content and reasons. The instrument revealed several common alternative conceptual understandings students' hold about malaria. The MalariaTT2 instrument developed could be used in classroom lessons for challenging alternative conceptions and enhancing conceptions of malaria.

  10. Vaccines for Malaria: How Close Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thera, Mahamadou A.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines are the most powerful public health tools mankind has created, but malaria parasites are bigger, more complicated, and wilier than the viruses and bacteria that have been conquered or controlled with vaccines. Despite decades of research toward a vaccine for malaria, this goal has remained elusive. Nevertheless, recent advances justify optimism that a licensed malaria vaccine is within reach. A subunit recombinant protein vaccine that affords in the neighborhood of 50% protective efficacy against clinical malaria is in the late stages of clinical evaluation in Africa. Incremental improvements on this successful vaccine are possible and worth pursuing, but the best hope for a highly efficacious malaria vaccine that would improve prospects for malaria eradication may lie with the use of attenuated whole parasites and powerful immune-boosting adjuvants. PMID:22077719

  11. Molecular basis of human cerebral malaria development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Saw Thu; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Kerdpin, Usanee; Plabplueng, Chotiros; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is still a deleterious health problem in tropical countries. The wide spread of malarial drug resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine are obstacles for disease management and prevention. Parasite and human genetic factors play important roles in malaria susceptibility and disease severity. The malaria parasite exerted a potent selective signature on the human genome, which is apparent in the genetic polymorphism landscape of genes related to pathogenesis. Currently, much genomic data and a novel body of knowledge, including the identification of microRNAs, are being increasingly accumulated for the development of laboratory testing cassettes for cerebral malaria prevention. Therefore, understanding of the underlying complex molecular basis of cerebral malaria is important for the design of strategy for cerebral malaria treatment and control.

  12. Shrinking the malaria map: progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feachem, Richard GA; Phillips, Allison A; Hwang, Jimee; Cotter, Chris; Wielgosz, Benjamin; Greenwood, Brian M; Sabot, Oliver; Rodriguez, Mario Henry; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Ghebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom; Snow, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past 150 years, roughly half of the countries in the world eliminated malaria. Nowadays, there are 99 endemic countries—67 are controlling malaria and 32 are pursuing an elimination strategy. This four-part Series presents evidence about the technical, operational, and financial dimensions of malaria elimination. The first paper in this Series reviews definitions of elimination and the state that precedes it: controlled low-endemic malaria. Feasibility assessments are described as a crucial step for a country transitioning from controlled low-endemic malaria to elimination. Characteristics of the 32 malaria-eliminating countries are presented, and contrasted with countries that pursued elimination in the past. Challenges and risks of elimination are presented, including Plasmodium vivax, resistance in the parasite and mosquito populations, and potential resurgence if investment and vigilance decrease. The benefits of elimination are outlined, specifically elimination as a regional and global public good. Priorities for the next decade are described. PMID:21035842

  13. Prevalence of malaria and patients in Ethiope E alence of malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Malaria and human blood factors. Int J Med Biomed Res 2014;3(3):191-201. 192. Human malaria is commonly caused by five plasmodiumspecies: Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, P. falciparum, P. ovale and P. knowlesi each with their geographical location and varied incubation periods (IP), from infection ...

  14. Progress towards malaria control targets in relation to national malaria programme funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Hosseini (Mehran); R.D. Newman (Robert D); R.E. Cibulskis (Richard E)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Malaria control has been dramatically scaled up the past decade, mainly thanks to increasing international donor financing since 2003. This study assessed progress up to 2010 towards global malaria impact targets, in relation to Global Fund, other donor and domestic malaria

  15. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld, Florence J. V.; Vreden, Stephen G. S.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the

  16. HIPOGLIKEMIA PADA SEORANG PENDERITA MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Harianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemia is a serious and often fatal complication of severe malaria. This condition has been reported in many parts of the world including from Thailand (1983 and from Indonesia by Hoffman (1988 and Harianto (1990. Two main causes that can lead to development of this condition are quinine administration and the severity of the malaria condition itself. A case study is presented about development of prolonged hypoglycemia after quinine administration. A 41 years old male was hospitalized with 4 days history of fever, headache vomiting and icterus. On examination he was found to be in good mental status, had a normal blood pressure, and a body temperature of 40°C. He also had icterus and hepatomegaly. Laboratory examination on admission showed malaria slide positive forRfalciparum ring 30-40, with parasite count of 3% (+ on day I. CBC showed: WBC of 21,700/mm3 and platelet count of 40,000/mm3. Blood chemistry showed glucose level of 77 mm %, serum bilirubin of 29.34 mg % (direct 21.87 mg % SGOT 31 u/l, SGPT 20 u/l, serum ureum 167 mg %, creatinine of 3.36 mg %, serum Na 123 m Eq/L and K 3.99 Eq/L. Urinalysis was normal except for specific gravity of 1.07. After diagnosis of bilious malaria was confirmed, the patient was given i.v. quinine 500 mg diluted in 500 ml 5% dextrose, infused over 4 hours and repeated every 8 hours. On day IVi.v. quinine was switched to oral preparation of 600 mg given bid and the next day quinine was changed to oral chloroquine. The day after admission (30 hours after quinine administration, blood glucose dropped to 21 mg %, 16-46 mg % on day III, and to less than 10 mg % on day IV. It gradulty returned to normal afterwards. Administration of 10% dextrose and boluses of 40% glucose were able to keep the patient in good clinical condition and prevent death. Malaria slide improved on day III, became negative by day IV and serum bilirubin also decreased on follow up. Hypoglycemia should be expected in severe malaria

  17. Chloroquine resistant malaria in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khichi, Qasim Khan; Channar, Mohammad Saleem; Wairraich, Mohammad Ihsan; Butt, Ahsan

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the clinical presentation, treatment given, and outcome of patients suffering from congenital and acquired malaria in neonatal period. Analytical study. Paediatrics Ward-2, QAMC/BVH, Bahawalpur for 02 years from October 2001 to October 2003. The study included 45 cases of neonatal malaria. Thirty cases of malaria, admitted during first ten days of life, diagnosed as congenital malaria, were kept in group A, while 15 cases admitted in the ward from the age of 11 to 28 days, labeled as acquired malaria, were named group B. The clinical features at the time of presentation were noted in each group from the charts having positive malarial parasite (M.P.) on thick and thin slides. The diagnosed cases were treated with the standard dose of chloroquine sulphate. Those patients who improved clinically as well as revealed no parasite on follow-up were labeled as chloroquine sensitive. On the other hand, patients showing poor clinical response with persistence of the parasites in the blood or initially disappearing but later again having a clinical disease with positive M.P. on follow-up, were labeled as chloroquine resistant. They were treated with quinine sulphate. Outcome was compared in both the groups regarding the pattern of chloroquine resistance and death/ survival. Data was collected on which Fischer's exact test of significance was performed to know the level of significance. P-value of < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Low birth weight, severe hemolytic anemia with history of fever in the mother were main features in group A while in group B fever, anaemia and history of blood transfusion were marked features. In group A 76.66% were caused by Plasmodium (P.) falciparum. While in group B 60% were caused by Plasmodium vivax. In group A 26.66% were chloroquine resistant while 33.65% were chloroquine resistant in group B. The mortality was 16.66% in group A and 13.33% in group B. Intrauterine growth retardation, hemolytic jaundice and history

  18. Experimental asexual blood stage malaria immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amante, Fiona H; Engwerda, Christian R; Good, Michael F

    2011-04-01

    Immunity to asexual blood stages of malaria is complex, involving both humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms. The availability of murine models of malaria has greatly facilitated the analysis of immune mechanisms involved in resistance to the asexual blood stages. This unit details the materials and methods required for inducing protective immunity toward experimental blood stage malaria parasites by vaccination, repeated infection, and drug cure, as well as adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells.

  19. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: A LOCAL MALARIA THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Abulude, Francis Olawale

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at providing a treatment intended to relieve or cure malaria fever in Nigeria. In doing this, the herbs and direction of preparation were provided.This paper aims at providing a treatment intended to relieve or cure malaria fever in Nigeria. In doing this, the herbs and direction of preparation were provided.This paper aims at providing a treatment intended to relieve or cure malaria fever in Nigeria. In doing this, the herbs and direction of preparation were provided.

  20. Malaria vector control and personal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Malaria transmission rates and risks can be greatly reduced by vector control, mitigating high malaria incidence and prevalence rates. Methods and strategies for malaria vector control (MVC) have been well documented by WHO, although its implementation varies widely. Technical guidelines for MVC strategies and materials are readily available, but the status and role of MVC have not been reviewed and redefined in terms of programme management and resource allocation. There are huge changes since November 1993 when the last WHO Study Group reviewed vector control for malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, following the 1992 adoption of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. Operationally, with reform of the health sector in many countries, the centrally managed and vertically structured malaria control programme (MCP) has been superseded by a community-based and decentralized one. This poses challenges for effective implementation of MVC strategies. Therefore it became evident that the role of vector control in malaria control needs to be reconsidered to develop a strategic framework for MVC implementation by national malaria control programmes and other partners. This report of a WHO Study Group on Malaria Vector Control and Personal Protection reviewed the current vector control strategies and their effectiveness in various operational and eco-epidemiological settings, and identified challenges for implementation in different health systems. An outline strategic framework for strengthening malaria vector control implementation was developed. The process of deciding about which mosquito control method is appropriate in a given situation should be guided by an analysis of the level of malaria endemicity and vector bionomics, the eco-epidemiological setting, the health management system and an estimate of the programme sustainability. This report also provides a basis for the development of a strategic framework for strengthening malaria vector control

  1. ANALISIS PEMERIKSAAN LABORATORIUM PADA PENDERITA MALARIA

    OpenAIRE

    I GEDE Wempi Permadi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTMalaria is the disease initially in the area of the Marsh called the disease of freshwater marshes.Scientific research on malaria make progress in their important first in 1880, when a French army doctor workingin the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed parasites forthe first time, inside the red blood cells of people suffering from malaria. This paper outlines some of thediagnostic screening for malaria. Examination of the diagnos...

  2. Molecular basis of human cerebral malaria development

    OpenAIRE

    Wah, Saw Thu; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Kerdpin, Usanee; Plabplueng, Chotiros; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is still a deleterious health problem in tropical countries. The wide spread of malarial drug resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine are obstacles for disease management and prevention. Parasite and human genetic factors play important roles in malaria susceptibility and disease severity. The malaria parasite exerted a potent selective signature on the human genome, which is apparent in the genetic polymorphism landscape of genes related to pathogenesis. Currently, m...

  3. Hyposplenism revealed by Plasmodium malariae infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hommel, Benjamin; Galloula, Alexandre; Simon, Anne; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Hyposplenism, due to splenectomy, inherited red blood cell disorders or acquired conditions such as celiac disease, has an important impact on the severity of malaria, especially in non-immune patients. Conversely, that malaria may reveal functional hyposplenism has not been described previously. METHODS: A 31-year old gardener was diagnosed with an uncomplicated attack of Plasmodium malariae 11 years after leaving the endemic area. In addition to trophozoi...

  4. Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0098 TITLE: Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria Prophylaxis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Natasa Strbo CONTRACTING...1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 09/30/16-09/29/17 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Secreted HSP Vaccine for Malaria ...thereby stimulating an avid, antigen specific, cytotoxic CD8 T cell response. Here we developed malaria vaccine that relies on secreted gp96-Ig

  5. Pulmonary pathology in pediatric cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, Danny; Factor, Rachel; Whitten, Rich; Carr, Richard A.; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory signs are common in African children where malaria is highly endemic and, thus, parsing the role of pulmonary pathology in illness is challenging. We examined the lungs of 100 children from an autopsy series in Blantyre, Malawi, in many of whom death was attributed to P falciparum malaria. Our aim was to describe the pathological manifestations of fatal malaria, to understand the role of parasites, pigment, and macrophages, and to catalogue co-morbidities. From available patients ...

  6. Cultural Epidemiology for Malaria Control in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ahorlu, Collins Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Malaria is a threat to more than 40% of the world’s population and responsible for more than 300 million acute cases each year, which resulted in 1.2 million deaths in 2002. Over 80% of the malaria-related morbidity and mortality occur in sub-Saharan Africa with children under five and pregnant women at highest risk. The malaria situation in Ghana is typical of sub-Saharan Africa, where malaria is ranked first among the ten diseases most frequently seen in most health facilitie...

  7. T-cell responses in malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Jakobsen, P H; Abu-Zeid, Y A

    1992-01-01

    Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It remains one of the most severe health problems in tropical regions of the world, and the rapid spread of resistance to drugs and insecticides has stimulated intensive research aimed at the development of a malaria...... vaccine. Despite this, no efficient operative vaccine is currently available. A large amount of information on T-cell responses to malaria antigens has been accumulated, concerning antigens derived from all stages of the parasite life cycle. The present review summarizes some of that information......, and discusses factors affecting the responses of T cells to malaria antigens....

  8. Malaria complicating open-heart surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, C K; Cheung, K L; Wai, K H; Ong, G B

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of malaria developing immediately after open-heart surgery are reported to illustrate that malaria is one of the rarer causes of postoperative pyrexia. The diagnosis can easily be missed, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and even mortality. It is important for cardiac surgeons to be aware of this possibility in malaria-free as well as malaria-endemic areas as patients or blood donors who come from or have recently visited an endemic area are potential victims or sources of the inf...

  9. A depiction of imported malaria in Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, there were roughly 219 million cases of malaria reported worldwide resulting in an estimated 660,600 deaths [1]. In contrast, the total number of cases according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in the United States (USA was only 1691 [2]. Of those, 1688 were cases of imported malaria [2]. This is the highest number of cases reported in U.S. since 1980 [2]. Here, we describe a case of imported malaria and conduct a retrospective case series at four Connecticut (CT hospitals in order to describe the demographics of imported malaria and to identify potential barriers to timely diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Case management of malaria: treatment and chemoprophylaxis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Upke, I S; Moonasar, D; Raman, J; Barnes, K I; Baker, L; Blumberg, L

    2013-01-01

    .... Malaria case management encompasses prompt and effective treatment to minimise morbidity and mortality, reduce transmission and prevent the emergence and spread of antimalarial drug resistance...

  11. Hysteresis in simulations of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Teresa K.; Qiu, Xin; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Malaria transmission is a complex system and in many parts of the world is closely related to climate conditions. However, studies on environmental determinants of malaria generally consider only concurrent climate conditions and ignore the historical or initial conditions of the system. Here, we demonstrate the concept of hysteresis in malaria transmission, defined as non-uniqueness of the relationship between malaria prevalence and concurrent climate conditions. We show the dependence of simulated malaria transmission on initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. Using realistic time series of environmental variables, we quantify the effect of hysteresis in a modeled population. In a set of numerical experiments using HYDREMATS, a field-tested mechanistic model of malaria transmission, the simulated maximum malaria prevalence depends on both the initial prevalence and the initial level of human immunity in the population. We found the effects of initial conditions to be of comparable magnitude to the effects of interannual variability in environmental conditions in determining malaria prevalence. The memory associated with this hysteresis effect is longer in high transmission settings than in low transmission settings. Our results show that efforts to simulate and forecast malaria transmission must consider the exposure history of a location as well as the concurrent environmental drivers.

  12. [Rapid diagnostic test for malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S

    2017-02-01

    The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) whose main interest lies in their implementation without special equipment by unskilled personnel have grown significantly over the past fifteen years to diagnose malaria. They rely on the detection of specific Plasmodium proteins, PfHRP2, pLDH and aldolase. If the detection of PfHRP2 has very good sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the detection of pLDH or aldolase is less efficient for other species, leaving its place to the reference microscopic diagnosis. RDT could not generally be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy because they can remain positive after clinical and parasitological cure. Furthermore, the development of the use of these tests has highlighted the need for quality assurance programs to monitor their production as their use.

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  14. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  15. Malaria ecology, child mortality & fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Gordon C; Conley, Dalton; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    The broad determinants of fertility are thought to be reasonably well identified by demographers, though the detailed quantitative drivers of fertility levels and changes are less well understood. This paper uses a novel ecological index of malaria transmission to study the effect of child mortality on fertility. We find that temporal variation in the ecology of the disease is well-correlated to mortality, and pernicious malaria conditions lead to higher fertility rates. We then argue that most of this effect occurs through child mortality, and estimate the effect of child mortality changes on fertility. Our findings add to the literature on disease and fertility, and contribute to the suggestive evidence that child mortality reductions have a causal effect on fertility changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, M L; Vanstreels, R E T; Wallace, R; García-Párraga, D; Braga, É M; Chitty, J; Catão-Dias, J L; Madeira de Carvalho, L M

    2016-08-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however, its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of avian malaria, and provides details on the strategies that can be employed for the diagnostic, treatment and prevention of this disease in captive penguins, discussing possible directions for future research.

  17. PENGOBATAN MALARIA DENGAN KOMBINASI ARTEMISININ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilianan Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous approaches in malaria treatment fail to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Widespread overuse of antimalarial treatment of clinical malaria may have contributed to increase drug resistance. Moreover, poor compliance or inadequate dosage also selects for parasite resistance. The paradigm of radical treatment using drug combinations may improve the cure rate and compliance, thereby preventing or delaying the emergence of parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. The ideal combined antimalarial regimen in Indonesia should be safe and tolerated by all age groups, effective and rapidly acting for both P.falciparum and P.vivax malaria, short course, good compliance and acceptable, without resistance and/or cross-resistance or , not widely spread use, cost-effective and affordable. Artemisinin derivatives are the best partner drug for combination, with advantages that include: well absorbed, safe and well tolerated, rapidly converted to active metabolite, having very short half-life, broad specificity of action, and extremely potent. Current artemisinin-based combinations which are suitable for Indonesia include: amodiaquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (AQ3+ATS3, mefloquine plus artesunate given as single daily dose for 3 days (MQ3+ATS3, lumefantrine/benflumetol plus artemether given as twice daily dose for 3 days (COARTEMETHER, piperaquine plus dihydroartemisinin given as single daily dose for 2-3 days (PPQ2-3+DHA2-3, and piperaquine plus artemisinin given as single daily dose for 2 days (PPQ2+ATM2. Given the imbalance between rapid development of parasite resistance and slow availability of new effective antimalarial drugs, research and development of antimalarial drugs must be encouraged.

  18. The Malaria Problem: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ebikeme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the world's most prevalent infectious disease, a major cause of mortality, and a barrier to social and economic development and growth in many countries throughout the world. Antimalarials represent an important part of strategy to curbing this debilitating disease. The spread of drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. To date, parasite resistance to all but one case of antimalarials exists in most endemic countries. Meaning, new drug to combat the disease are a priority.

  19. Global challenges of malaria risk - perspectives from Transfusion-transmitted malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Ofori, Alex; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Bates, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a protozoan disease that is transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito. It can however be transmitted by blood transfusion if the blood donor is parasitaemic. Of the five species of Plasmodium that causes malaria, P. falciparum causes the most severe form of malaria. Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk of malaria. Mortality due to malaria has reduced by 48% from 839,000 deaths in 2000 to 438,000 deaths in 2015. This is largely due to a combination of two approaches, vector ...

  20. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  1. [Microbiological diagnosis of imported malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrús, Diego; Carranza, Cristina; Manuel Ramos, José; Carlos Rodríguez, Juan; Rubio, José Miguel; Subirats, Mercedes; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnosis of malaria is based on the combined and sequential use of rapid antigen detection tests (RDT) of Plasmodium and subsequent visualization of the parasite stained with Giemsa solution in a thin and thick blood smears. If an expert microscopist is not available, should always be a sensitive RDT to rule out infection by Plasmodium falciparum, output the result immediately and prepare thick smears (air dried) and thin extensions (fixed with methanol) for subsequent staining and review by an expert microscopist. The RDT should be used as an initial screening test, but should not replace microscopy techniques, which should be done in parallel. The diagnosis of malaria should be performed immediately after clinical suspicion. The delay in laboratory diagnosis (greater than 3 hours) should not prevent the initiation of empirical antimalarial treatment if the probability of malaria is high. If the first microscopic examination and RDT are negative, they must be repeated daily in patients with high suspicion. If suspicion remains after three negative results must be sought the opinion of an tropical diseases expert. Genomic amplification methods (PCR) are useful as confirmation of microscopic diagnosis, to characterize mixed infections undetectable by other methods, and to diagnose asymptomatic infections with submicroscopic parasitaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of gamma-sterilization ({sup 60}Co) by RT-PCR by DHFR expression detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converso, Ana Paula G.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anapaulagconverso@gmail.com; hfandrad@usp.br; Vieira, Daniel P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: dperezv@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The improvement of techniques to detect pathogen agents in blood had reduced significantly the contamination mechanisms by hemocomponents in blood transfusion procedures. Ionizing radiation is a method that has presented several applications on medicine and in currently days has been showing special attention on blood banks which has been applied to avoid TA-GVHD development. DHFR is an enzyme constitutive in Plasmodium protozoa and has an important role in folate metabolism on these parasites. Detecting the expression of RNAm coder for this enzyme is possible to evaluate the viability of this parasite in blood samples. Plasmodium chabaudi AJ is a parasite that induces lethal malaria in rodents similar to human malaria In this work, the objective was to detect the presence of plasmodium protozoa in irradiated blood samples, infected experimentally, through the application of a RT-PCR using primers for the coder sequence of DHFR's mRNA. We studied doses of ionizing radiation between 0 and 75 Gy. The irradiation procedures were accomplished in Center of Radiation Technology of IPEN-CNEN in a {sup 60}Co panoramic source. Our results had demonstrated that RT-PCR is a sensible method to evaluate the viability of plasmodium in blood samples because the technique could detect low parasite burden in all tested samples. (author)

  3. Automated detection of malaria pigment: feasibility for malaria diagnosing in an area with seasonal malaria in northern Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, Adrianus J.; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Witte, Piet; Mucheto, Samson; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of automated malaria detection with the Cell-Dyn 3700 (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA, USA) haematology analyser for diagnosing malaria in northern Namibia. METHODS: From April to June 2003, all patients with a positive blood smear result and a subset of

  4. Climate change and the global malaria recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

    2010-05-20

    The current and potential future impact of climate change on malaria is of major public health interest. The proposed effects of rising global temperatures on the future spread and intensification of the disease, and on existing malaria morbidity and mortality rates, substantively influence global health policy. The contemporary spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity within this range, when compared with comparable historical maps, offer unique insights into the changing global epidemiology of malaria over the last century. It has long been known that the range of malaria has contracted through a century of economic development and disease control. Here, for the first time, we quantify this contraction and the global decreases in malaria endemicity since approximately 1900. We compare the magnitude of these changes to the size of effects on malaria endemicity proposed under future climate scenarios and associated with widely used public health interventions. Our findings have two key and often ignored implications with respect to climate change and malaria. First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate.

  5. Imported Plasmodium vivax malaria ex Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolini, Silvia; Gautret, Philippe; Kain, Kevin C; Smith, Kitty; Leder, Karin; Jensenius, Mogens; Coyle, Christina M; Castelli, Francesco; Matteelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    According to WHO, 1.5 million cases of malaria are reported annually in Pakistan. Malaria distribution in Pakistan is heterogeneous, and some areas, including Punjab, are considered at low risk for malaria. The aim of this study is to describe the trend of imported malaria cases from Pakistan reported to the international surveillance systems from 2005 to 2012. Clinics reporting malaria cases acquired after a stay in Pakistan between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, were identified from the GeoSentinel (http://www.geosentinel.org) and EuroTravNet (http://www.Eurotravnet.eu) networks. Demographic and travel-related information was retrieved from the database and further information such as areas of destination within Pakistan was obtained directly from the reporting sites. Standard linear regression models were used to assess the statistical significance of the time trend. From January 2005 to December 2012, a total of 63 cases of malaria acquired in Pakistan were retrieved in six countries over three continents. A statistically significant increasing trend in imported Plasmodium vivax malaria cases acquired in Pakistan, particularly for those exposed in Punjab, was observed over time (p = 0.006). Our observation may herald a variation in malaria incidence in the Punjab province of Pakistan. This is in contrast with the previously described decreasing incidence of malaria in travelers to the Indian subcontinent, and with reports that describe Punjab as a low risk area for malaria. Nevertheless, this event is considered plausible by international organizations. This has potential implications for changes in chemoprophylaxis options and reinforces the need for increased surveillance, also considering the risk of introduction of autochthonous P. vivax malaria in areas where competent vectors are present, such as Europe. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  6. Climate, environment and transmission of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Zaramella, Marco; Caputo, Annamaria; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Malaria, the most common parasitic disease in the world, is transmitted to the human host by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. The transmission of malaria requires the interaction between the host, the vector and the parasite.The four species of parasites responsible for human malaria are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax. Occasionally humans can be infected by several simian species, like Plasmodium knowlesi, recognised as a major cause of human malaria in South-East Asia since 2004. While P. falciparum is responsible for most malaria cases, about 8% of estimated cases globally are caused by P. vivax. The different Plasmodia are not uniformly distributed although there are areas of species overlap. The life cycle of all species of human malaria parasites is characterised by an exogenous sexual phase in which multiplication occurs in several species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and an endogenous asexual phase in the vertebrate host. The time span required for mature oocyst development in the salivary glands is quite variable (7-30 days), characteristic of each species and influenced by ambient temperature. The vector Anopheles includes 465 formally recognised species. Approximately 70 of these species have the capacity to transmit Plasmodium spp. to humans and 41 are considered as dominant vector capable of transmitting malaria. The intensity of transmission is dependent on the vectorial capacity and competence of local mosquitoes. An efficient system for malaria transmission needs strong interaction between humans, the ecosystem and infected vectors. Global warming induced by human activities has increased the risk of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Recent decades have witnessed changes in the ecosystem and climate without precedent in human history although the emphasis in the role of temperature on the epidemiology of malaria has given way to predisposing conditions such as ecosystem changes, political

  7. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  8. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O

    2016-10-01

    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.

  9. Estimating individual exposure to malaria using local prevalence of malaria infection in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally Olotu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in malaria exposure complicates survival analyses of vaccine efficacy trials and confounds the association between immune correlates of protection and malaria infection in longitudinal studies. Analysis may be facilitated by taking into account the variability in individual exposure levels, but it is unclear how exposure can be estimated at an individual level. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We studied three cohorts (Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya in Kilifi District, Kenya to assess measures of malaria exposure. Prospective data were available on malaria episodes, geospatial coordinates, proximity to infected and uninfected individuals and residence in predefined malaria hotspots for 2,425 individuals. Antibody levels to the malaria antigens AMA1 and MSP1(142 were available for 291 children from Junju. We calculated distance-weighted local prevalence of malaria infection within 1 km radius as a marker of individual's malaria exposure. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression model to assess the discriminatory power of these markers for malaria infection (i.e. asymptomatic parasitaemia or clinical malaria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to assess the discriminatory power of the models. Local malaria prevalence within 1 km radius and AMA1 and MSP1(142 antibodies levels were independently associated with malaria infection. Weighted local malaria prevalence had an area under ROC curve of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.66-0.73, 0.71 (95%CI: 0.69-0.73 and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.80-0.83 among cohorts in Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya respectively. In a small subset of children from Junju, a model incorporating weighted local malaria prevalence with AMA1 and MSP1(142 antibody levels provided an AUC of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.88. CONCLUSION: We have proposed an approach to estimating the intensity of an individual's malaria exposure in the field. The weighted local malaria prevalence can be used as individual marker of

  10. Estimating individual exposure to malaria using local prevalence of malaria infection in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Ally; Fegan, Gregory; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Ogada, Edna; Drakeley, Chris; Marsh, Kevin; Bejon, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneity in malaria exposure complicates survival analyses of vaccine efficacy trials and confounds the association between immune correlates of protection and malaria infection in longitudinal studies. Analysis may be facilitated by taking into account the variability in individual exposure levels, but it is unclear how exposure can be estimated at an individual level. We studied three cohorts (Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya) in Kilifi District, Kenya to assess measures of malaria exposure. Prospective data were available on malaria episodes, geospatial coordinates, proximity to infected and uninfected individuals and residence in predefined malaria hotspots for 2,425 individuals. Antibody levels to the malaria antigens AMA1 and MSP1(142) were available for 291 children from Junju. We calculated distance-weighted local prevalence of malaria infection within 1 km radius as a marker of individual's malaria exposure. We used multivariable modified Poisson regression model to assess the discriminatory power of these markers for malaria infection (i.e. asymptomatic parasitaemia or clinical malaria). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the discriminatory power of the models. Local malaria prevalence within 1 km radius and AMA1 and MSP1(142) antibodies levels were independently associated with malaria infection. Weighted local malaria prevalence had an area under ROC curve of 0.72 (95%CI: 0.66-0.73), 0.71 (95%CI: 0.69-0.73) and 0.82 (95%CI: 0.80-0.83) among cohorts in Chonyi, Junju and Ngerenya respectively. In a small subset of children from Junju, a model incorporating weighted local malaria prevalence with AMA1 and MSP1(142) antibody levels provided an AUC of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.79-0.88). We have proposed an approach to estimating the intensity of an individual's malaria exposure in the field. The weighted local malaria prevalence can be used as individual marker of malaria exposure in malaria vaccine trials and longitudinal

  11. Combining malaria control with rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oria, Prisca A.

    2016-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that

  12. Plasmodium falciparum malaria associated with ABO blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood group types and P. falciparum malaria, as well as malaria preventive measures. The venous blood specimens were collected, processed, Giemsa-stained and examined microscopically. ABO groups were determined by agglutination test using ...

  13. Cerebral Malaria Complicated by Blindness, Deafness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a parasitic disease affecting about 1 billion people globally and causing about 1.24 million deaths ... its attendant sequelae such as cerebral palsy, cortical blindness, sensory-neural deafness and rarely ... under pressure, and its analysis and culture were normal. Blood film for malaria parasite was positive for ...

  14. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askling, Helena H.; Bruneel, Fabrice; Burchard, Gerd; Castelli, Francesco; Chiodini, Peter L.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Paul, Margaret; Petersen, Eskild; Popescu, Corneliu; Ramharter, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is

  15. Management of malaria | Ogun | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of malaria. ... Malaria accounts for over 60% of outpatient visits in Nigeria and is responsible for 30% and 11% mortality in under five years old and pregnant women ... Recommended antimalarial is Artemether-Lumefantrine and in the rare case of a patient not responding to ACT, Quinine is recommended.

  16. The Malaria Season Is Upon Us

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unpredictable occurrence of Odyssean or airport/suitcase malaria anywhere in South Africa highlights the fact that we should remain vigilant for the possibility of a rogue infection. Unfortunately for those living ..... Design of a Phase III cluster randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a malaria transmission blocking ...

  17. Predicting Malaria's Changing Course | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... East Africa is experiencing outbreaks of malaria in highland areas where there is little experience with the disease. Researchers led by the Kenya Medical Research Institute are combining climate observation with medical research to predict highland malaria outbreaks in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda so ...

  18. Malaria - Africa's silent tsunami | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-12

    Jan 12, 2011 ... Tanzania has one of the largest populations at risk of malaria in the world and suffers 100,000 deaths from malaria each year, far more than from AIDS and all other causes. Not only is the need great in Tanzania; these funds will arrive in a country well primed and prepared to take maximum advantage.

  19. Handheld Computers for Malaria Monitoring (Mozambique) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Malaria is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique and is considered a major impediment to development. The effectiveness of any malaria control program depends on reliable data delivered in timely fashion, something that is currently lacking in the nation's health service. This grant will allow the ...

  20. IDRC's fight against malaria | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-04-22

    Apr 22, 2004 ... WHO RBM Infosheet (What is Malaria?) Since 1976, Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has contributed more than CA$15 million to close to 50 projects to combat malaria, one of the leading causes of illness and death in the developing world. These funds have helped ...

  1. Malaria vector control: current and future strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The recently announced call for malaria eradication represents a new page in the history of this disease. This has been triggered by remarkable reductions in malaria resulting from combined application of effective drugs and vector control. However, this strategy is threatened by development of

  2. Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    as maternal age, parity, past clinical history of malaria, anti malaria drug. (such as chloroquine, amodiaquine in combination with sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine) used for treatment and prophylaxis were obtained from them. Laboratory test such as packed cell volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin. Genotype were carried out on ...

  3. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the clinical feature had good sensitivity, specificity or predictive value for congenital malaria, and only 1.6% death was recorded in a baby with high parasite density. Conclusion: Congenital malaria is common in newborns with suspected neonatal sepsis. History of peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine ...

  4. Spontaneous peripheral gangrene following severe cerebral malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... phalanges of the right index and middle fingers and the distal phalanges of the great, second and middle toes of the right foot following cerebral malaria. Until now, there has been only five such cases of peripheral gangrene associated with 'cerebral' malaria reported in literature and all these were all from Southeast Asia.

  5. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  6. Relationship between Malaria Parasitaemia and Packed Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitic infection is a disease causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favour their prevalence. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and its influence on pack cell volume among Primary School ...

  7. randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... of the new malaria vaccine is accepted for use among pregnant women. Therefore, prevention of malaria among pregnant women is still largely dependent upon chemoprophylaxis until such time that a cheap and effective vaccine will be available for use in poor resource countries like Tanzania.

  8. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of “vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission” (VIMT), which includes not only “classical” transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented. PMID:21311586

  9. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, southern Algeria, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubidi, Said C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cecile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-02-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  10. Severe falciparum malaria associated with massive pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microthrombotic complications are the best described; however, a number of cases of thrombosis involving larger vessels have been published in the literature. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with malaria associated with massive pulmonary embolism. Keywords: Falciparum, malaria, pulmonary embolism ...

  11. An ecohydrological model of malaria outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montosi, E.; Manzoni, S.; Porporato, A.; Montanari, A.

    2012-08-01

    Malaria is a geographically widespread infectious disease that is well known to be affected by climate variability at both seasonal and interannual timescales. In an effort to identify climatic factors that impact malaria dynamics, there has been considerable research focused on the development of appropriate disease models for malaria transmission driven by climatic time series. These analyses have focused largely on variation in temperature and rainfall as direct climatic drivers of malaria dynamics. Here, we further these efforts by considering additionally the role that soil water content may play in driving malaria incidence. Specifically, we hypothesize that hydro-climatic variability should be an important factor in controlling the availability of mosquito habitats, thereby governing mosquito growth rates. To test this hypothesis, we reduce a nonlinear ecohydrological model to a simple linear model through a series of consecutive assumptions and apply this model to malaria incidence data from three South African provinces. Despite the assumptions made in the reduction of the model, we show that soil water content can account for a significant portion of malaria's case variability beyond its seasonal patterns, whereas neither temperature nor rainfall alone can do so. Future work should therefore consider soil water content as a simple and computable variable for incorporation into climate-driven disease models of malaria and other vector-borne infectious diseases.

  12. Malaria in Pregnancy: Morbidities and Management | Yakasai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria infection during pregnancy remains an important public health concern especially in the tropics with substantial risk for the mother, her fetus and the neonate. More than 25 million African women in malaria endemic areas get pregnant and are at risk of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Several pregnancy ...

  13. children residing in a malaria endemic zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and fever with convulsions [6]. However, no guidelines have been published on the relationship between fever and diarrhoea. There is the tendency for health personnel in most areas endemic for malaria to prescribe antimalarials to children with acute diarrhoea. We have investigated in this study the prevalence of malaria ...

  14. MALARIA MORBIDITY AMONGST HOSPITAL WORKERS IN ILORIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, 50 percent of the. Doctors issued Sick Leave Certificates were ill due to malaria while it accounted for 62.5% among the Nurses. This finding is very noteworthy showing again that Malaria could also affect productivity at the highest level of health care delivery in the developing countries. By extension, it is also an.

  15. Ocular complications of malaria treatment | Nwosu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is endemic in Nigeria. With the emergence of chloroquine resistance various modes of treatment including parenteral quinine are employed with consequent untoward effects. This article reports two cases of severe ocular toxicity, including mimicry of intracranial space‑occupying lesion, from treatment of malaria ...

  16. Neonatal malaria complicated by hypoglycaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no established and widely accepted guidelines for clinical management of severe neonatal malaria. The aim of this paper is to raise the alertness of physicians regarding the occurrence of severe malaria in the neonatal period and to describe the treatment modality we adopted (in the absence of an internationally ...

  17. Malaria in South Sudan 3: laboratory diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for G6PD Deficiency (to avoid the. • antimalarials like primaquine that precipitates haemolysis). Renal function tests (malaria affects the kidneys either. • directly or by hypovolaemia caused by vomiting, diarrhoea and fever). Urinalysis (to detect haemolysis). •. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria in children(3).

  18. Malaria Protection In Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency gene in malaria endemic regions is believed to be due to the enzyme deficiency advantage against fatal malaria. However, the mechanism of this protection is not well understood and therefore was investigated by comparing differences in ...

  19. Malaria vaccines: immunity, models and monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars; Barfod, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Although experts in the field have agreed on the malaria vaccine technology roadmap that should be followed (http://www.malariavaccineroadmap.net/), the path towards an effective malaria vaccine remains littered with intellectual and practical pot-holes. The animal models that are currently...

  20. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria in pregnancy has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality in our environment. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, and parasite density of asymptomatic malaria parasitemia among unbooked paturients at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Subjects and ...

  1. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of causative factors responsible for prevalence of malaria in the village of Solana, India, were studied. Mosquitoes and larvae density in and around the area were measured by process of random sampling and counting their numbers under microscopy. Malaria in population of the village was diagnosed by ...

  2. Automated haematology analysis to diagnose malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campuzano-Zuluaga, Germán; Hänscheid, Thomas; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, flow cytometry-based automated haematology analysers have been studied for malaria diagnosis. Although current haematology analysers are not specifically designed to detect malaria-related abnormalities, most studies have found sensitivities that comply with WHO

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, Cécile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria. PMID:20113565

  4. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria, Southern Algeria, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boubidi, Sa?d C; Gassen, Ibrahim; Khechache, Yacine; Lamali, Karima; Tchicha, Boualem; Brengues, C?cile; Menegon, Michela; Severini, Carlo; Fontenille, Didier; Harrat, Zoubir

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria occurred in Tinzaouatine in southern Algeria in 2007. The likely vector, Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, had not been detected in Algeria. Genes for resistance to chloroquine were detected in the parasite. The outbreak shows the potential for an increase in malaria vectors in Algeria.

  5. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports malaria infection caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. This study provides information on the infectivity rate of this parasite in dry season and the variation of laboratory diagnosed cases of malaria to clinically diagnosed ...

  6. Using retrospective epidemiological data to determine malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the country is not homogenous. In the warm humid coastal and low-lying areas transmission occurs throughout the year. In other areas malaria transmission occurs during part of the year and in a few areas it occurs as epidemics and only in some years (Mboera & Kitua, 2001). Malaria epidemic may be defined as a sharp.

  7. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  8. Cerebral Malaria Complicated by Blindness, Deafness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Malaria is a parasitic disease affecting about 1 billion people globally and causing about 1.24 million deaths annually especially in the developing countries.[1,2] About. 1% of the patients with Plasmodium falciparum develop severe manifestations culminating in multi-organ failure.[3]. Cerebral malaria is one of ...

  9. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Anopheles gambiae s.l. ranked the highest among other species. Further molecular identification of sub-species complex of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus is strongly recommended in the area. Keywords: Identification, malaria, vectors, anopheles, species. INTRODUCTION. Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity ...

  10. Health promotion: From malaria control to elimination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advocacy, health promotion, health education, strategic marketing, advertising, and the strengthening of existing partnerships are essential prerequisites in closing the identified gaps in the malaria control programme when moving from control to elimination.[10]. To chart the way forward for moving malaria programmes ...

  11. Knowledge and perceptions about indoor residual spray for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Munga

    of malaria in the previous 2–3 years. Whether or not the local communities considered malaria as an important cause of mortality, 74% (n = 256) believed that malaria was an important cause of mortality, while 25% (n = 88) did not believe so. Only 1.1% of the respondents did not know whether malaria cause death or not.

  12. PLASMODIUM MALARIAE INFECTION BOOSTS PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM GAMETOCYTE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCKENZIE, F. ELLIS; JEFFERY, GEOFFREY M.; COLLINS, WILLIAM E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed records of malariotherapy patients sequentially or simultaneously inoculated with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Gametocyte production was enhanced in P. falciparum by prior or concurrent P. malariae infection but diminished or unaffected in P. malariae by P. falciparum. Conversely, asexual-form production was diminished in P. malariae but unaffected in P. falciparum. PMID:12452496

  13. Knowledge and pattern of malaria case management among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the workers (70%) had not had any recent training on malaria case management. In spite of this, knowledge of malaria was good among the respondents (95% were able to define malaria and 98.1% were able to list the symptoms of malaria respectively). More than half of the respondents (55%) were also able to

  14. Malaria infection and socioeconomic status of some residents of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study investigated the prevalence of malaria and socioeconomic status of subjects in part of Port Harcourt ... Keywords: Malaria infection, prevalence, Parasite intensity, Socio-economic status,. Malaria is one of the most severe ..... of effective vaccine for malaria prevention and development of unacceptable ...

  15. Malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Manicaland province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Zimbabwe targets reducing malaria incidence from 22/1000 in 2012 to 10/1000 by 2017, and malaria deaths to near zero by 2017. As the country moves forward with the malaria elimination efforts, it is crucial to monitor trends in malaria morbidity and mortality in the affected areas. In 2013, Manicaland Province ...

  16. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC. Keywords: Cerebral malaria, cytokine storm, DIC, heparin ...

  17. Prevalence of congenital malaria among newborn babies at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital malaria is increasingly reported among babies born to mothers residing in malaria endemic areas despite the fact that maternal antibodies block malaria parasites from crossing the placenta into the foetus. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital malaria among newborn babies ...

  18. Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Griffin, J.T.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Smith, D.L.; Churcher, T.S.; Takken, W.; Ghani, A.; Drakeley, C.; Gosling, R.

    2012-01-01

    Current malaria elimination guidelines are based on the concept that malaria transmission becomes heterogeneous in the later phases of malaria elimination [1]. In the pre-elimination and elimination phases, interventions have to be targeted to entire villages or towns with higher malaria incidence

  19. Community awareness about malaria, its treatment and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the rapid expansion of malaria into highland areas of Ethiopia and the movement of malaria inexperienced people to endemic areas, there is no enough information about how highland communities perceive malaria. Objective: To assess communities' awareness of malaria and its mosquito vector in ...

  20. Malaria in pregnancy: ultrasound studies of fetal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria has been a plague for human mankind. Each year roughly 125 million pregnancies are at risk for malaria infection. This thesis demonstrates the detrimental effects of malaria in pregnancy on the mother and the baby. To determine the effects of malaria in pregnancy on birth outcomes, accurate

  1. Reported knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. There are between 300 and 500 million malaria infections and 1 million malaria attributed deaths worldwide each year (Roll Back Malaria/WHO, 2002). About 90% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (Roll Back Malaria/WHO, 2002), and the majority of these cases occur among women and children ...

  2. laboratory assessment of hypoglycaemia due to malaria in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    uncomplicated malaria in the health centres as well as late arrival at the hospital. Early laboratory and clinical diagnosis, correct treatment and improved quality management are key strategies for malaria control. Key words: Hypoglycaemia, Malaria, Children. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a major global threat to health, ...

  3. Malaria control in South Africa - challenges and successes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa; relatively small areas experience seasonal transmission. (hence malaria is unstable and epidemic-prone);3 a well- organised national malaria control programme exists; and the country has a relatively well-developed scientific, economic and health infrastructure. History of malaria control in South Africa. Malaria was ...

  4. Optimal control for Malaria disease through vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzir, Said; Nasir, Muhammad; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by an amoeba (single-celled animal) type of plasmodium where anopheles mosquito serves as the carrier. This study examines the optimal control problem of malaria disease spread based on Aron and May (1982) SIR type models and seeks the optimal solution by minimizing the prevention of the spreading of malaria by vaccine. The aim is to investigate optimal control strategies on preventing the spread of malaria by vaccination. The problem in this research is solved using analytical approach. The analytical method uses the Pontryagin Minimum Principle with the symbolic help of MATLAB software to obtain optimal control result and to analyse the spread of malaria with vaccination control.

  5. Malaria in highlands of Ecuador since 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren L; Hunter, Fiona F

    2012-04-01

    A recent epidemic of malaria in the highlands of Bolivia and establishment of multiple Anopheles species mosquitoes in the highlands of Ecuador highlights the reemergence of malaria in the Andes Mountains in South America. Because malaria was endemic to many highland valleys at the beginning of the 20th century, this review outlines the 20th century history of malaria in the highlands of Ecuador, and focuses on its incidence (e.g., geographic distribution) and elimination from the northern highland valleys of Pichincha and Imbabura and the role of the Guayaquil to Quito railway in creating highland larval habitat and inadvertently promoting transportation of the vector and parasite. Involvement of control organizations in combating malaria in Ecuador is also outlined in a historical context.

  6. Oxidative stress in children with severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaria, Nidhi; Mohanty, C; Das, B K; Mishra, S P; Prasad, Rajniti

    2012-04-01

    Fifty cases of severe malaria were studied for their oxidant and antioxidant status. Severe anemia (54%) was the most common presentation followed by hyperpyrexia, cerebral malaria and jaundice. Plasma malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, nitrite, ascorbic acid and copper levels were significantly raised in cases as compared with controls (p children with severe malaria (p < 0.001). Plasma zinc was increased in cases but difference is not statistically significant. Significantly decreased level of nitrites and increased value of glutathione was found in patients with hemoglobinuria and jaundice, respectively. The significantly elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels reflect the increased oxidative stress, whereas decreased levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase point toward utilization of the antioxidants in severe malaria. Thus, changes in oxidants and antioxidants observed suggest the production of reactive oxygen species and their possible role in pathogenesis of severe malaria.

  7. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households...... than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so...

  8. Impact of chloroquine resistance on malaria mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Preziosi, M P; Enel, C; Desgrées du Loû, A; Delaunay, V; Samb, B; Lagarde, E; Molez, J F; Simondon, F

    1998-08-01

    Over 12 years, from 1984 to 1995, we conducted a prospective study of overall and malaria specific mortality among three rural populations in the Sahel, savanna and forest areas of Senegal. The emergence of chloroquine resistance has been associated with a dramatic increase in malaria mortality in each of the studied populations. After the emergence of chloroquine resistance, the risk of malaria death among children 0-9 years old in the three populations was multiplied by 2.1, 2.5 and 5.5, respectively. This is the first study to document malaria mortality at the community level in Africa before and after the emergence of chloroquine resistance. Findings suggest that the spread of chloroquine resistance has had a dramatic impact on the level of malaria mortality in most epidemiological contexts in tropical Africa.

  9. Pengendalian Malaria dalam Upaya Percepatan Pencapaian Target Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2012-08-01

    health official Malaria Center, and community leaders who observe malaria. Retrieval of data time is 10 – 16 April 2011 by in-depth interviews. It was found that malaria control programs have been implemented by the Departement of Health North Maluku Province, but have not been able to effectively reduce malaria morbidity. This is because malaria control is performed is not comprehensive. Handling is more directed to break the chain transmission to human, their habitats have not been touched up. Key words: Control of malaria, millennium development goals, malaria morbidity

  10. Malaria in three epidemiological strata in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldabdallahi Moukah, Mohamed; Ba, Ousmane; Ba, Hampaté; Ould Khairy, Mohamed Lemine; Faye, Ousmane; Bogreau, Hervé; Simard, Frédéric; Basco, Leonardo K

    2016-04-12

    Malaria epidemiology in Mauritania has been characterized on the basis of epidemiological strata, defined by climatic and geographic features, which divide the country into three zones: Sahelian zone, Sahelo-Saharan transition zone, and Saharan zone. The association between geographic stratification and malaria transmission was assessed through a series of parasitological and entomological surveys. Surveys were conducted during the 'cool' dry season in 2011, 'hot' dry season in 2012, and rainy season in 2013 in a total of 12 sentinel sites. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were collected from children aged 2-9 years old in randomly selected households for microscopic examination and rapid diagnostic test for malaria. Adult mosquitoes were sampled by pyrethrum spray catch and CDC light traps and identified using morphological keys and molecular tools. Of 3445 children included, 143 (4.15 %) were infected with malaria parasites including Plasmodium falciparum (n = 71, 2.06 %), Plasmodium vivax (57, 1.65 %), P. falciparum-P. vivax (2, 0.06 %), Plasmodium ovale (12, 0.35 %), and Plasmodium malariae (1, 0.03 %). A large majority of P. falciparum infections were observed in the Sahelo-Saharan zone. Malaria prevalence (P strata during the 'cool' dry season in 2011 but was absent in all study sites, except for Teyarett district in Nouakchott, during the 'hot' dry season in 2012. During the rainy season in 2013, An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles pharoensis, and Anopheles rufipes were abundant in different zones. The results of the present study support the stratification of malaria in Mauritania. However, the Sahelian zone had the lowest malaria prevalence, while the Sahelo-Saharan zone had the highest malaria burden. Local changes due to anthropogenic factors (i.e., human migration, urbanization, malaria interventions) should be considered in order to optimize the control strategy.

  11. Important advances in malaria vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic infection in Asian countries affecting the poor of the poor. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine for the treatment of malaria, various attempts are being made worldwide. If successful, such a vaccine can be effective for treatment of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. This would also be able to avoid complications such as drug resistance, resistance to insecticides, nonadherence to the treatment schedule, and eventually high cost of treatment in the resource-limited settings. In the current compilation, the details from the literature were collected by using PubMed and Medline as search engines and searched for terms such as malaria, vaccine, and malaria treatment. This review collates and provides glimpses of the information on the recent malaria vaccine development. The reader will be taken through the historical perspective followed by the approaches to the malaria vaccine development from pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines, asexual stage vaccines, transmission blocking vaccines, etc. Looking at the current scenario of the malaria and treatment strategies, it is an absolute need of an hour that an effective malaria vaccine should be developed. This would bring a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment modalities especially when there is increasing emergence of resistance to existing drug therapy. It would be of great purpose to serve those living in malaria endemic region and also for travelers which are nonimmune and coming to malaria endemic region. As infection by P. vivax is more prevalent in India and other Asian subcontinent and is often prominent in areas where elimination is being attempted, special consideration is required of the role of vaccines in blocking transmission, regardless of the stages being targeted. Development of vaccines is feasible but with the support of private sector and government organization in terms of regulatory and most importantly

  12. Assessment of climate-driven variations in malaria incidence in Swaziland: toward malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Soble, Adam; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Mkhonta, Nomcebo; Seyama, Eric; Mthethwa, Steven; Pindolia, Deepa; Kunene, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Swaziland aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, imported cases from neighbouring endemic countries continue to sustain local parasite reservoirs and initiate transmission. As certain weather and climatic conditions may trigger or intensify malaria outbreaks, identification of areas prone to these conditions may aid decision-makers in deploying targeted malaria interventions more effectively. Malaria case-surveillance data for Swaziland were provided by Swaziland's National Malaria Control Programme. Climate data were derived from local weather stations and remote sensing images. Climate parameters and malaria cases between 2001 and 2015 were then analysed using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models and distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). The incidence of malaria in Swaziland increased between 2005 and 2010, especially in the Lubombo and Hhohho regions. A time-series analysis indicated that warmer temperatures and higher precipitation in the Lubombo and Hhohho administrative regions are conducive to malaria transmission. DLNM showed that the risk of malaria increased in Lubombo when the maximum temperature was above 30 °C or monthly precipitation was above 5 in. In Hhohho, the minimum temperature remaining above 15 °C or precipitation being greater than 10 in. might be associated with malaria transmission. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of short-term climate variations on malaria transmission in Swaziland. The geographic separation of imported and locally acquired malaria, as well as population behaviour, highlight the varying modes of transmission, part of which may be relevant to climate conditions. Thus, the impact of changing climate conditions should be noted as Swaziland moves toward malaria elimination.

  13. How well are malaria maps used to design and finance malaria control in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A Omumbo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rational decision making on malaria control depends on an understanding of the epidemiological risks and control measures. National Malaria Control Programmes across Africa have access to a range of state-of-the-art malaria risk mapping products that might serve their decision-making needs. The use of cartography in planning malaria control has never been methodically reviewed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An audit of the risk maps used by NMCPs in 47 malaria endemic countries in Africa was undertaken by examining the most recent national malaria strategies, monitoring and evaluation plans, malaria programme reviews and applications submitted to the Global Fund. The types of maps presented and how they have been used to define priorities for investment and control was investigated. RESULTS: 91% of endemic countries in Africa have defined malaria risk at sub-national levels using at least one risk map. The range of risk maps varies from maps based on suitability of climate for transmission; predicted malaria seasons and temperature/altitude limitations, to representations of clinical data and modelled parasite prevalence. The choice of maps is influenced by the source of the information. Maps developed using national data through in-country research partnerships have greater utility than more readily accessible web-based options developed without inputs from national control programmes. Although almost all countries have stratification maps, only a few use them to guide decisions on the selection of interventions allocation of resources for malaria control. CONCLUSION: The way information on the epidemiology of malaria is presented and used needs to be addressed to ensure evidence-based added value in planning control. The science on modelled impact of interventions must be integrated into new mapping products to allow a translation of risk into rational decision making for malaria control. As overseas and domestic funding diminishes

  14. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koita, Kadiatou; Novotny, Joseph; Kunene, Simon; Zulu, Zulizile; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Gandhi, Monica; Gosling, Roland

    2013-06-27

    Swaziland has made great progress towards its goal of malaria elimination by 2015. However, malaria importation from neighbouring high-endemic Mozambique through Swaziland's eastern border remains a major factor that could prevent elimination from being achieved. In order to reach elimination, Swaziland must rapidly identify and treat imported malaria cases before onward transmission occurs. A nationwide formative assessment was conducted over eight weeks to determine if the imported cases of malaria identified by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme could be linked to broader social networks and to explore methods to access these networks. Using a structured format, interviews were carried out with malaria surveillance agents (6), health providers (10), previously identified imported malaria cases (19) and people belonging to the networks identified through these interviews (25). Most imported malaria cases were Mozambicans (63%, 12/19) making a living in Swaziland and sustaining their families in Mozambique. The majority of imported cases (73%, 14/19) were labourers and self-employed contractors who travelled frequently to Mozambique to visit their families and conduct business. Social networks of imported cases with similar travel patterns were identified through these interviews. Nearly all imported cases (89%, 17/19) were willing to share contact information to enable network members to be interviewed. Interviews of network members and key informants revealed common congregation points, such as the urban market places in Manzini and Malkerns, as well as certain bus stations, where people with similar travel patterns and malaria risk behaviours could be located and tested for malaria. This study demonstrated that imported cases of malaria belonged to networks of people with similar travel patterns. This study may provide novel methods for screening high-risk groups of travellers using both snowball sampling and time-location sampling of networks to

  15. Clinical pattern of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan in an area characterized by seasonal and unstable malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Elghazali, G; A-Elgadir, T M E

    2005-01-01

    A hospital-based study was carried out in Gedarif town, eastern Sudan, an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission. Among the 2488 diagnosed malaria patients, 4.4% fulfilled the WHO criteria for severe malaria, and seven died of cerebral malaria. The predominant complication was severe...

  16. Acceptability by community health workers in Senegal of combining community case management of malaria and seasonal malaria chemoprevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tine, Roger Ck; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndour, Cheikh T

    2013-01-01

    Community case management of malaria (CCMm) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) are anti-malarial interventions that can lead to substantial reduction in malaria burden acting in synergy. However, little is known about the social acceptability of these interventions. A study was undertaken...... to assess whether combining the interventions would be an acceptable approach to malaria control for community health workers (CHWs)....

  17. Avian malaria in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, E R; Banda, M; Howe, L; Castro, I C; Alley, M R

    2014-07-01

    Avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have the ability to cause morbidity and mortality in naïve hosts, and their impact on the native biodiversity is potentially serious. Over the last decade, avian malaria has aroused increasing interest as an emerging disease in New Zealand with some endemic avian species, such as the endangered mohua (Mohua ochrocephala), thought to be particularly susceptible. To date, avian malaria parasites have been found in 35 different bird species in New Zealand and have been diagnosed as causing death in threatened species such as dotterel (Charadrius obscurus), South Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus), mohua, hihi (Notiomystis cincta) and two species of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Introduced blackbirds (Turdus merula) have been found to be carriers of at least three strains of Plasmodium spp. and because they are very commonly infected, they are likely sources of infection for many of New Zealand's endemic birds. The spread and abundance of introduced and endemic mosquitoes as the result of climate change is also likely to be an important factor in the high prevalence of infection in some regions and at certain times of the year. Although still limited, there is a growing understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Plasmodium spp. in New Zealand. Molecular biology has played an important part in this process and has markedly improved our understanding of the taxonomy of the genus Plasmodium. This review presents our current state of knowledge, discusses the possible infection and disease outcomes, the implications for host behaviour and reproduction, methods of diagnosis of infection, and the possible vectors for transmission of the disease in New Zealand.

  18. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkholtz Lyn-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities.

  19. Sustainable malaria control: transdisciplinary approaches for translational applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Bornman, Riana; Focke, Walter; Mutero, Clifford; de Jager, Christiaan

    2012-12-26

    With the adoption of the Global Malaria Action Plan, several countries are moving from malaria control towards elimination and eradication. However, the sustainability of some of the approaches taken may be questionable. Here, an overview of malaria control and elimination strategies is provided and the sustainability of each in context of vector- and parasite control is assessed. From this, it can be concluded that transdisciplinary approaches are essential for sustained malaria control and elimination in malaria-endemic communities.

  20. Relation of nutritional status, immunity, hemoglobinopathy and falciparum malaria infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nyakeriga, Alice

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between nutritional status and malaria disease is complex and often controversial. Nutritional deficiencies (macro- or micro-nutrient) are thought to lead to malnutrition with subsequent susceptibility to malaria infection. On the other hand severe malaria or repeated malaria infections lead to malnutrition. While the cause and effect are difficult to attribute, micronutrient deficiencies such as iron deficiency and malaria infection often co-exist and show complex interaction...

  1. Imported submicroscopic malaria in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Olivencia Germán

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Submicroscopic malaria (SMM can be defined as low-density infections of Plasmodium that are unlikely to be detected by conventional microscopy. Such submicroscopic infections only occasionally cause acute disease, but they are capable of infecting mosquitoes and contributing to transmission. This entity is frequent in endemic countries; however, little is known about imported SMM. The goals of this study were two-fold: a to know the frequency of imported SMM, and b to describe epidemiological, laboratorial and clinical features of imported SMM. Methods A retrospective study based on review of medical records was performed. The study population consisted of patients older than 15 years attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007. Routinely detection techniques for Plasmodium included Field staining and microscopic examination through thick and thin blood smear. A semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR was used to diagnose or to confirm cases with low parasitaemia. Results SMM was diagnosed in 104 cases, representing 35.5% of all malaria cases. Mean age (IC95% was 40.38 years (37.41-43.34, and sex distribution was similar. Most cases were in immigrants, but some cases were found in travellers. Equatorial Guinea was the main country where infection was acquired (81.7%. Symptoms were present only in 28.8% of all SMM cases, mainly asthenia (73.3% of symptomatic patients, fever (60% and arthromialgias (53.3%. The associated laboratory abnormalities were anaemia (27.9%, leukopaenia (15.4% and thrombopaenia (15.4%. Co-morbidity was described in 75 cases (72.1%. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that imported SMM should be considered in some patients attended at Tropical Medicine Units. Although it is usually asymptomatic, it may be responsible of fever, or laboratory abnormalities in patients coming from endemic areas. The possibility of transmission in SMM has

  2. Control of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-10-01

    The most significant and efficient measures against Plasmodium knowlesi outbreaks are efficient anti malaria drug, biological control in form of predatory mosquitoes and culling control strategies. In this paper optimal control theory is applied to a system of ordinary differential equation. It describes the disease transmission and Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is applied for analysis of the control. To this end, three control strategies representing biological control, culling and treatment were incorporated into the disease transmission model. The simulation results show that the implementation of the combination strategy during the epidemic is the most cost-effective strategy for disease transmission.

  3. Perception of malaria risk in a setting of reduced malaria transmission: a qualitative study in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauch Julie A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission has declined dramatically in Zanzibar in recent years. Continuing use of preventive measures such as long-lasting insecticidal-treated nets (LLINs, and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are essential to prevent malaria resurgence. This study employed qualitative methods to explore community perceptions of malaria risk and adherence to prevention measures in two districts in Zanzibar. Methods Key informant interviews with 24 primary health care providers and 24 focus group discussions with local residents in Zanzibar districts Wete and Central were conducted during April and May 2012 focusing on perception of malaria risk, current preventive practices used, reasons for using preventive practices and effective strategies for malaria control. Results Health care providers and residents appear to be aware of the decreasing incidence of malaria. Both groups continue the use of malaria preventive practices in this low and seasonal transmission setting. The most important preventive measures identified were LLINs, indoor residual spraying (IRS, and education. Barriers to malaria prevention include: lack of staff at clinics, insufficient number of LLINs distributed, and inadequate malaria education. Reasons for continued use of preventive practices include: fear of malaria returning to high levels, presence of mosquitoes during rainy seasons, and concern about local cases from other villages or imported cases from mainland Tanzania. Mosques, clinics, schools and community meetings were listed as most important sources of education. However, residents express the desire for more education. Conclusion Health care providers and residents generally reported consistent use of malaria preventive measures. However, maintaining and continuing to reduce malaria transmission will require ongoing education for both health care providers and residents to reinforce the importance of using preventive measures

  4. Retinopathy in severe malaria in Ghanaian children - overlap between fundus changes in cerebral and non-cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essuman, Vera A; Ntim-Amponsah, Christine T; Astrup, Birgitte S

    2010-01-01

    diagnostic tool. This study was designed to determine the diagnostic usefulness of retinopathy on ophthalmoscopy in severe malaria syndromes: Cerebral malaria (CM) and non-cerebral severe malaria (non-CM), i.e. malaria with respiratory distress (RD) and malaria with severe anaemia (SA), in Ghanaian children......-CM syndromes. However, the high prevalence of any retinopathy in the latter suggests that the brain and the retina may be suffering from ischaemia in both CM and non-CM....

  5. Evaluation of Diagnos Malaria Stix test (antigen detection assay) for diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haris M; Shujatullah, Fatima; Shahid, M; Raza, Adil; Malik, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Malaria is one of the most common parasitic infection in India. The diagnosis largely depends on peripheral blood smear examination. Newer diagnostic methods like various antigen detection assays are now in use for prompt diagnosis and treatment. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of Diagnos Malaria Stix (antigen detection) assay in diagnosis of malaria. This involves detection of PfHRP-2 antigen and P.V. specific pLDH antigen. 162 patients with signs and symptoms of malaria included in the study. Leishman stained blood smear examination was done for all patients. Commercially available Diagnos Malaria Stix assay was used. Diagnos Malaria Stix showed sensitivity, specificity positive and negative predictive values of 100% each while Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Leishman stained blood smear examination were 45.45%, 100%, 100% and 92% respectively.

  6. A research agenda for malaria eradication: drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or "attack" phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection. Drugs will continue to be used to treat acute malaria illness and prevent complications in vulnerable groups, but better drugs are needed for elimination-specific indications such as mass treatment, curing asymptomatic infections, curing relapsing liver stages, and preventing transmission. The ideal malaria eradication drug is a coformulated drug combination suitable for mass administration that can be administered in a single encounter at infrequent intervals and that results in radical cure of all life cycle stages of all five malaria species infecting humans. Short of this optimal goal, highly desirable drugs might have limitations such as targeting only one or two parasite species, the priorities being Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The malaria research agenda for eradication should include research aimed at developing such drugs and research to develop situation-specific strategies for using both current and future drugs to interrupt malaria transmission.

  7. Hydrological and geomorphological controls of malaria transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. W.; Macklin, M. G.; Thomas, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria risk is linked inextricably to the hydrological and geomorphological processes that form vector breeding sites. Yet environmental controls of malaria transmission are often represented by temperature and rainfall amounts, ignoring hydrological and geomorphological influences altogether. Continental-scale studies incorporate hydrology implicitly through simple minimum rainfall thresholds, while community-scale coupled hydrological and entomological models do not represent the actual diversity of the mosquito vector breeding sites. The greatest range of malaria transmission responses to environmental factors is observed at the catchment scale where seemingly contradictory associations between rainfall and malaria risk can be explained by hydrological and geomorphological processes that govern surface water body formation and persistence. This paper extends recent efforts to incorporate ecological factors into malaria-risk models, proposing that the same detailed representation be afforded to hydrological and, at longer timescales relevant for predictions of climate change impacts, geomorphological processes. We review existing representations of environmental controls of malaria and identify a range of hydrologically distinct vector breeding sites from existing literature. We illustrate the potential complexity of interactions among hydrology, geomorphology and vector breeding sites by classifying a range of water bodies observed in a catchment in East Africa. Crucially, the mechanisms driving surface water body formation and destruction must be considered explicitly if we are to produce dynamic spatial models of malaria risk at catchment scales.

  8. Malaria in a returning traveler from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Michael; Bavaro, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Malaria in Jamaica is a real, but uncommon entity and poses a health risk to our Department of Defense personnel, which should not be overlooked in returning travelers. Malaria in Jamaica was actually considered eradicated in the 1960s, but there has been a reemergence attributed to the combination of Haitian nationals as well as endemic Anopheles mosquitoes in the Kingston area. Our facility recently admitted a 33-year-old Marine who had two Emergency Department visits before being evaluated for malaria. He had returned from Kingston 14 days before presentation, which included fever, night sweats, and headache followed by a period of malaise prior to the next paroxysm. He was found to have a 1.5% parasitemia with Malaria falciparum that borders on severe malaria. Fortunately, he was treated effectively with atovaquone/proguanil and had a favorable outcome. The Center for Disease Control acknowledges that malaria is present in Jamaica, but only recommends mosquito avoidance without prophylaxis. This case emphasizes the need to consider malaria in differential diagnosis in Jamaica as well as in any returning travelers with fever because of broad global travel. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  10. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  11. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Seasonal vaccination against malaria: a potential use for an imperfect malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Dicko, Alassane; Sagara, Issaka; Zongo, Issaka; Tinto, Halidou; Cairns, Matthew; Kuepfer, Irene; Milligan, Paul; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Doumbo, Ogobara; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2017-05-02

    In many parts of the African Sahel and sub-Sahel, where malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity, transmission of the infection is highly seasonal. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), which involves administration of a full course of malaria treatment to young children at monthly intervals during the high transmission season, is proving to be an effective malaria control measure in these areas. However, SMC does not provide complete protection and it is demanding to deliver for both families and healthcare givers. Furthermore, there is a risk of the emergence in the future of resistance to the drugs, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine, that are currently being used for SMC. Substantial progress has been made in the development of malaria vaccines during the past decade and one malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01, has received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Authority and will soon be deployed in large-scale, pilot implementation projects in sub-Saharan Africa. A characteristic feature of this vaccine, and potentially of some of the other malaria vaccines under development, is that they provide a high level of efficacy during the period immediately after vaccination, but that this wanes rapidly, perhaps because it is difficult to develop effective immunological memory to malaria antigens in subjects exposed previously to malaria infection. A potentially effective way of using malaria vaccines with high initial efficacy but which provide only a short period of protection could be annual, mass vaccination campaigns shortly before each malaria transmission season in areas where malaria transmission is confined largely to a few months of the year.

  13. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askling Helena H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the

  14. Management of imported malaria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, Helena H; Bruneel, Fabrice; Burchard, Gerd; Castelli, Francesco; Chiodini, Peter L; Grobusch, Martin P; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Paul, Margaret; Petersen, Eskild; Popescu, Corneliu; Ramharter, Michael; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2012-09-17

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms.Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti

  15. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns of malaria infection in Bhutan: a country embarking on malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Kinley; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Silawan, Tassanee; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; White, Nicholas J

    2011-04-16

    At the verge of elimination of malaria in Bhutan, this study was carried out to analyse the trend of malaria in the endemic districts of Bhutan and to identify malaria clusters at the sub-districts. The findings would aid in implementing the control activities. Poisson regression was performed to study the trend of malaria incidences at district level from 1994 to 2008. Spatial Empirical Bayesian smoothing was deployed to identify clusters of malaria at the sub-district level from 2004 to 2008. Trend of the overall districts and most of the endemic districts have decreased except Pemagatshel, which has an increase in the trend. Spatial cluster-outlier analysis showed that malaria clusters were mostly concentrated in the central and eastern Bhutan in three districts of Dagana, Samdrup Jongkhar and Sarpang. The disease clusters were reported throughout the year. Clusters extended to the non-transmission areas in the eastern Bhutan. There is significant decrease in the trend of malaria with the elimination at the sight. The decrease in the trend can be attributed to the success of the control and preventive measures. In order to realize the target of elimination of malaria, the control measure needs to be prioritized in these high-risk clusters of malaria.

  17. Doxycycline for Malaria Chemoprophylaxis and Treatment: Report from the CDC Expert Meeting on Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kathrine R.; Magill, Alan J.; Parise, Monica E.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Doxycycline, a synthetically derived tetracycline, is a partially efficacious causal prophylactic (liver stage of Plasmodium) drug and a slow acting blood schizontocidal agent highly effective for the prevention of malaria. When used in conjunction with a fast acting schizontocidal agent, it is also highly effective for malaria treatment. Doxycycline is especially useful as a prophylaxis in areas with chloroquine and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Although not recommended for pregnant women and children doxycycline. This report examines the evidence behind current recommendations for the use of doxycycline for malaria and summarizes the available literature on its safety and tolerability. PMID:21460003

  18. Spatio-temporal patterns of malaria infection in Bhutan: a country embarking on malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silawan Tassanee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the verge of elimination of malaria in Bhutan, this study was carried out to analyse the trend of malaria in the endemic districts of Bhutan and to identify malaria clusters at the sub-districts. The findings would aid in implementing the control activities. Poisson regression was performed to study the trend of malaria incidences at district level from 1994 to 2008. Spatial Empirical Bayesian smoothing was deployed to identify clusters of malaria at the sub-district level from 2004 to 2008. Results Trend of the overall districts and most of the endemic districts have decreased except Pemagatshel, which has an increase in the trend. Spatial cluster-outlier analysis showed that malaria clusters were mostly concentrated in the central and eastern Bhutan in three districts of Dagana, Samdrup Jongkhar and Sarpang. The disease clusters were reported throughout the year. Clusters extended to the non-transmission areas in the eastern Bhutan. Conclusions There is significant decrease in the trend of malaria with the elimination at the sight. The decrease in the trend can be attributed to the success of the control and preventive measures. In order to realize the target of elimination of malaria, the control measure needs to be prioritized in these high-risk clusters of malaria.

  19. The complexities of malaria disease manifestations with a focus on asymptomatic malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a serious parasitic disease in the developing world, causing high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of malaria is complex, and the clinical presentation of disease ranges from severe and complicated, to mild and uncomplicated, to asymptomatic malaria. Despite a wealth of studies on the clinical severity of disease, asymptomatic malaria infections are still poorly understood. Asymptomatic malaria remains a challenge for malaria control programs as it significantly influences transmission dynamics. A thorough understanding of the interaction between hosts and parasites in the development of different clinical outcomes is required. In this review, the problems and obstacles to the study and control of asymptomatic malaria are discussed. The human and parasite factors associated with differential clinical outcomes are described and the management and treatment strategies for the control of the disease are outlined. Further, the crucial gaps in the knowledge of asymptomatic malaria that should be the focus of future research towards development of more effective malaria control strategies are highlighted. PMID:22289302

  20. The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-30

    Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

  1. Report: Unsupervised identification of malaria parasites using computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Najeed Ahmed; Pervaz, Hassan; Latif, Arsalan; Musharaff, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Malaria in human is a serious and fatal tropical disease. This disease results from Anopheles mosquitoes that are infected by Plasmodium species. The clinical diagnosis of malaria based on the history, symptoms and clinical findings must always be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria involves identification of malaria parasite or its antigen / products in the blood of the patient. Manual diagnosis of malaria parasite by the pathologists has proven to become cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need of automatic, efficient and accurate identification of malaria parasite. In this paper, we proposed a computer vision based approach to identify the malaria parasite from light microscopy images. This research deals with the challenges involved in the automatic detection of malaria parasite tissues. Our proposed method is based on the pixel-based approach. We used K-means clustering (unsupervised approach) for the segmentation to identify malaria parasite tissues.

  2. Lymphocyte Perturbations in Malawian Children with Severe and Uncomplicated Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Gilchrist, James J; Graham, Stephen M; Pensulo, Paul; Mwimaniwa, Grace; Banda, Meraby; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Elizabeth E; Drayson, Mark T; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2015-11-18

    Lymphocytes are implicated in immunity and pathogenesis of severe malaria. Since lymphocyte subsets vary with age, assessment of their contribution to different etiologies can be difficult. We immunophenotyped peripheral blood from Malawian children presenting with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, and uncomplicated malaria (n = 113) and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 42) in Blantyre, Malawi, and investigated lymphocyte subset counts, activation, and memory status. Children with cerebral malaria were older than those with severe malarial anemia. We found panlymphopenia in children presenting with cerebral malaria (median lymphocyte count, 2,100/μl) and uncomplicated malaria (3,700/μl), which was corrected in convalescence and was absent in severe malarial anemia (5,950/μl). Median percentages of activated CD69(+) NK (73%) and γδ T (60%) cells were higher in cerebral malaria than in other malaria types. Median ratios of memory to naive CD4(+) lymphocytes were higher in cerebral malaria than in uncomplicated malaria and low in severe malarial anemia. The polarized lymphocyte subset profiles of different forms of severe malaria are independent of age. In conclusion, among Malawian children cerebral malaria is characterized by lymphocyte activation and increased memory cells, consistent with immune priming. In contrast, there are reduced memory cells and less activation in severe malaria anemia. Further studies are required to understand whether these immunological profiles indicate predisposition of some children to one or another form of severe malaria. Copyright © 2016 Mandala et al.

  3. randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-01

    , Huong, A.Y. and. Roberts, J.M. Malaria chemoprophylaxis to pregnant women provided by community health workers in Saradidi, Kenya: II. Effect on parasitaemia and haemoglobin levels. Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 1987;.

  4. Brief historical perspectives of malaria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2013-02-01

    The history of malaria as a serious human disease dates back to ancient times. For centuries, malaria has been a deadly disease with high morbidity and mortality that profoundly impacted the socioeconomic status of endemic countries. However, its causative agent remained unidentified until the last decades of the nineteenth century. There were no effective synthetic anti-malarial agents until the mid-twentieth century. Currently malaria has been eliminated or pre-eliminated in numerous countries; however, this preventable and curable disease remains a significant global health problem. A major concern is drug resistance. Presented here, is a brief look at the history of malaria in Iran and the rest of the world, particularly during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  5. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  6. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Kamareddine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  7. KEMUNGKINAN MALARIA PRIMATA SEBAGAI MASALAH ZOONOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Until today, four species of Plasmodium are pedicular to inan {Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale and at least five species are common in simian: Plasmodium inue, P. cynomolgy, P. knowlesi, P. brasilianum and P. simium. There is little doubts that simian Plasmodium can infect man, it is known as zoonosis. Number of cases of zoonosis infection of simian Plasmodium have been reported from several countries; P. knowlesi (1965, in America, P. simium (1966 in Brazilia, P. inui (1971 in Pahang Malaysia, P. cynomolgi (1973 in America and P. Brazilianum in Sao Paulo (1966, 1995. While pro and contra about zoonotic malaria still not clearly discussed, the new cases have occurred. This give an indication that this zoor >tic malaria will probably be in Indonesia where human, primate, Plasmodium (agents and vector live in the same ecosystem. This paper will discuss the simian Plasmodium and its possibility to be a zoonotic malaria.

  8. Whole organism blood stage vaccines against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; Good, Michael F

    2015-12-22

    Despite a century of research focused on the development and implementation of effective control strategies, infection with the malaria parasite continues to result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. An effective malaria vaccine is considered by many to be the definitive solution. Yet, after decades of research, we are still without a vaccine that is capable of inducing robust, long lasting protection in naturally exposed individuals. Extensive sub-unit vaccine development focused on the blood stage of the malaria parasite has thus far yielded disappointing results. There is now a renewed focus on whole parasite vaccine strategies, particularly as they may overcome some of the inherent weaknesses deemed to be associated with the sub-unit approach. This review discusses the whole parasite vaccine strategy focusing on the blood stage of the malaria parasite, with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges in the development of killed and live attenuated vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global malaria connectivity through air travel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Zhuojie; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    .... Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify...

  10. ANALISIS PEMERIKSAAN LABORATORIUM PADA PENDERITA MALARIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I GEDE Wempi Permadi

    2013-01-01

    .... Scientific research on malaria make progress in their important first in 1880, when a French army doctor working in the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse...

  11. Management of uncomplicated malaria | Blumberg | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education ... The key issues in the successful management of malaria are early and accurate ... particularly in young children and pregnant women, and parasite drug resistance significantly influences treatment outcome.

  12. Chloroquine-Chlorpheniramine Interaction In Human Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chlorpheniramine (CQ-CP) combination therapy on the efficacy and disposition of chloroquine (CQ) in acute uncomplicated malaria. A 3-day standard treatment with 25 mg CQ base per kilogram body weight alone or in combination with chlorpheniramine ...

  13. Gluconeogenesis and fasting in cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thien, H.; Ackermans, M. T.; Weverling, G. J.; Dang Vinh, T.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects after an overnight fast, glucose production is for approximately 50% derived from glycogenolysis. If the fast is prolonged, glucose production decreases due to a decline in glycogenolysis, while gluconeogenesis remains stable. In cerebral malaria, glucose production

  14. Malaria in pregnancy: pathogenesis and immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogerson, Stephen J; Hviid, Lars; Duffy, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the biological basis for susceptibility to malaria in pregnancy was recently advanced by the discovery that erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum accumulate in the placenta through adhesion to molecules such as chondroitin sulphate A. Antibody recognition of placental...... infected erythrocytes is dependent on sex and gravidity, and could protect from malaria complications. Moreover, a conserved parasite gene-var2csa-has been associated with placental malaria, suggesting that its product might be an appropriate vaccine candidate. By contrast, our understanding of placental...... immunopathology and how this contributes to anaemia and low birthweight remains restricted, although inflammatory cytokines produced by T cells, macrophages, and other cells are clearly important. Studies that unravel the role of host response to malaria in pathology and protection in the placenta...

  15. NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Legionellosis to Malaria - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  17. Utilization Of Malaria Prophylaxes Amongst Nigerian Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    . Bed Nets; Antenatal Population;. Sulphodoxine-Pyrimethamine. Correspondence: Dr. V. K. Oriji e-mail: vadoriji@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION. Malaria in pregnancy is a serious public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a major.

  18. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  19. Malaria in India: The Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparup; Anvikar, Anupkumar R.; Cator, Lauren J.; Dhiman, Ramesh C.; Eapen, Alex; Mishra, Neelima; Nagpal, Bhupinder N.; Nanda, Nutan; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Read, Andrew F.; Sharma, Surya K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Vineeta; Sinnis, Photini; Srivastava, Harish C.; Sullivan, Steven A.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Carlton, Jane M.; Valecha, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India and one which contributes significantly to the overall malaria burden in Southeast Asia. The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program of India reported ~1.6 million cases and ~1100 malaria deaths in 2009. Some experts argue that this is a serious underestimation and that the actual number of malaria cases per year is likely between 9 and 50 times greater, with an approximate 13-fold underestimation of malaria-related mortality. The difficulty in making these estimations is further exacerbated by (i) highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, (ii) the transmission and overlap of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors, (iii) increasing antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, and (iv) the impact of climate change on each of these variables. Simply stated, the burden of malaria in India is complex. Here we describe plans for a Center for the Study of Complex Malaria in India (CSCMi), one of ten International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) located in malarious regions of the world recently funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. The CSCMi is a close partnership between Indian and United States scientists, and aims to address major gaps in our understanding of the complexity of malaria in India, including changing patterns of epidemiology, vector biology and control, drug resistance, and parasite genomics. We hope that such a multidisciplinary approach that integrates clinical and field studies with laboratory, molecular, and genomic methods will provide a powerful combination for malaria control and prevention in India. PMID:22142788

  20. Global malaria connectivity through air travel.

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    Huang, Zhuojie; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-08-02

    Air travel has expanded at an unprecedented rate and continues to do so. Its effects have been seen on malaria in rates of imported cases, local outbreaks in non-endemic areas and the global spread of drug resistance. With elimination and global eradication back on the agenda, changing levels and compositions of imported malaria in malaria-free countries, and the threat of artemisinin resistance spreading from Southeast Asia, there is a need to better understand how the modern flow of air passengers connects each Plasmodium falciparum- and Plasmodium vivax-endemic region to the rest of the world. Recently constructed global P. falciparum and P.vivax malaria risk maps, along with data on flight schedules and modelled passenger flows across the air network, were combined to describe and quantify global malaria connectivity through air travel. Network analysis approaches were then utilized to describe and quantify the patterns that exist in passenger flows weighted by malaria prevalence. Finally, the connectivity within and to the Southeast Asia region where the threat of imported artemisinin resistance arising is highest, was examined to highlight risk routes for its spread. The analyses demonstrate the substantial connectivity that now exists between and from malaria-endemic regions through air travel. While the air network provides connections to previously isolated malarious regions, it is clear that great variations exist, with significant regional communities of airports connected by higher rates of flow standing out. The structures of these communities are often not geographically coherent, with historical, economic and cultural ties evident, and variations between P. falciparum and P. vivax clear. Moreover, results highlight how well connected the malaria-endemic areas of Africa are now to Southeast Asia, illustrating the many possible routes that artemisinin-resistant strains could take. The continuing growth in air travel is playing an important role in the

  1. [Thijsse, teacher of nature, teacher of malaria].

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    Visscher-Endeveld, Lies; Verhave, Jan Peter

    2005-01-01

    The start of organised malaria control in The Netherlands originated from an epidemic that became apparent in 1919. Shortly thereafter the Commission for Malaria Control realised the need for involvement of the population in the endemic area of North-Holland province. Education and propaganda would make them alert to reduce the risk of infection and aware of the need for medical diagnosis and treatment. The commission called upon Dr. Jac. P. Thijsse, a professional educator who had just received an honorary doctor's degree at the University of Amsterdam for his excellent work on bringing nature and field biology to the attention of the general public. He had founded the Society for Nature Conservation. Thijsse was invited to write a book on malaria, for use at primary school level. The booklet was called 'About mosquitoes and malaria' and it was widely used by teachers and pupils. Thijsse was also instrumental in the making of a propaganda film on malaria and its control. It was acclaimed by visiting malariologists from abroad for its quality, and it was watched with astonishment by the people in rural North-Holland. Thijsse was a member of the scientific Malaria Commission for five years. His profound knowledge about flora and fauna made him an expert in predicting the chances of mosquito breeding in polder canals with fresh or brackish water. After his resignation he was nominated president for a committee to organise a contest for a new propaganda poster. He passed away in 1945, just before a new epidemic would strike the war-exhausted population of the coastal provinces. It would have been a disappointment to him, because he had strongly believed that the scientific and organising power of the Malaria Commission would be successful in bringing the fever curse to a halt. This epidemic was the last one, and whatever the cause, malaria had disappeared from the Netherlands in 1960.

  2. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  3. Murine malaria is associated with significant hearing impairment

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    Stephan Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been suspected to cause hearing loss. Developmental, cognitive and language disorders have been observed in children, surviving cerebral malaria. This prospective study aims to evaluate whether malaria influences hearing in mice. Methods Twenty mice were included in a standardized murine cerebral malaria model. Auditory evoked brainstem responses were assessed before infection and at the peak of the illness. Results A significant hearing impairment could be demonstrated in mice with malaria, especially the cerebral form. The control group did not show any alterations. No therapy was used. Conclusion This suggests that malaria itself leads to a hearing impairment in mice.

  4. Rarity of Mixed Species Malaria with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae in Travelers to Saarland in Germany.

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    Yayan, Josef; Rasche, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is an acute, life-threatening infectious disease that spreads in tropical and subtropical regions. Malaria is mainly brought over to Germany by travelers, so the disease can be overlooked due to its nonspecific symptoms and a lack of experience of attending physicians. The aim of this study was to analyze, retrospectively, epidemiological and clinical data from patients examined for malaria. Patient data were collected from hospital charts at the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Germany, for the period of 2004-2012. The data of patients with and without malaria were compared in terms of their epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and medical treatment aspects. We identified found 15 patients with malaria (28.3 %, mean age 42.3 ± 16.5 years, three females [20 %]; 95 % confidence interval of 0.2-0.4) out of the 53 patients examined. Mainly locals brought malaria over to Homburg, Germany (p = 0.009). Malaria tropica was the most common species (p < 0.0001). One patient (6.7 %) with malaria, who had recently traveled, had a mixed infection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae (p = 0.670). Malaria is characterized by thrombocytopenia (p = 0.047) and elevated C-reactive protein (p = 0.019) in serum, and fever is the leading symptom (p = 0.031). In most cases, malaria was brought from Ghana (33.3 %). Further, patients had contracted malaria despite malaria prophylaxis (33.3 %, p = 0.670). In conclusion, malaria test should be used in patients with fever after a journey from Africa. Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is the most common species of brought over malaria. Mixed-species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae are uncommon in travelers with malaria.

  5. Malaria in Sucre State, Venezuela

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    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the malaria research program in Sucre State, Venezuela, taking an ecosystem approach. The goal was to determine which methods could have been introduced at the onset that would have made the study more ecological and interdisciplinary. Neither an ecosystem approach nor integrated disease control were in place at the time of the study. This study began to introduce an ecosystem approach when two contrasting ecosystems in Sucre State were selected for study and vector control methods were implemented based on research results. The need to have a health policy in place with an eco-health approach is crucial to the success of research and control. The review suggests that sustainability is low when not all the stakeholders are involved in the design and implementation of the research and control strategy development. The lack of community involvement makes sustainability doubtful. The author concludes that there were two interdependent challenges for malaria control: development of an ecosystem approach for malaria research and control, and the implementation of an integrated disease control strategy, with malaria as one of the important health issues.O autor faz uma revisão do programa de pesquisa sobre malária no Estado de Sucre, Venezuela, à luz de uma abordagem ecossistêmica. O objetivo era determinar quais métodos poderiam ter sido introduzidos no início do estudo para torná-lo mais ecológico e interdisciplinar. A fase inicial do estudo não incluía uma abordagem ecossistêmica ou controle integrado da doença, que só foram incorporados quando dois ecossistemas contrastantes no Estado de Sucre foram selecionados para pesquisa, junto com um método de controle de vetores com base nos resultados. Uma política de saúde bem-definida com uma abordagem ecossistêmica é crucial para o sucesso de uma estratégia de pesquisa e controle. Esta revisão sugere que a sustentabilidade é baixa se todos os atores não estiverem

  6. The Agro Pontino, climate change and malaria

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    Angelo Giuseppe Solimini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently in Italy a case of malaria was reported (November 2009. The patient was an Italian man of 44 years of age who had not travelled out of the country. The man apparently contracted malaria during a 2 weeks stay in August 2009 in a former malaria endemic area, the “Agro Pontino” (60-100 km South of Rome. Although confirmation of the Plasmodium species and the results of the epidemiological investigation undertaken by the Ministry of Health are still not available, the case seems unlikely to be linked with accidental contact of the patient with imported vectors or contaminated blood. This case raised concern over the possible recrudescence of malaria in Italy, especially in light of current and future climate change. Given the importance of the topic, this article will provide a brief review of the history of malaria in the Agro Pontino and the recent discussions that have appeared in scientific journals concerning the link between malaria and climate change.

  7. [Epidemiology of urban malaria in Quibdo, Choco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Johanna; Osorio, Lyda

    2006-06-01

    Although urban malaria is a public health problem in Colombia, little is known about its epidemiological characteristics, needed for the implementation of rational control strategies. To determine the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in the urban area of the municipality of Quibd6, in northwest Colombia. Malaria cases diagnosed in the city of Quibd6 between March and July, 2001 were classified as autochthonous or imported based on travel histories to endemic areas and place of residency. Autochthonous cases were mapped and risk areas identified using sex and age standardized morbidity ratios. During the study period 839 malaria cases were included: 77% due to Plasmodium falciparum; 19% due to P. vivax and 4% infections due to both species. 24.4% of P. falciparum cases and 39.1% of P. vivax cases were classified as autochthonous. Those neighborhoods located in the southeast of the town showed the highest risk for malaria. As in other urban areas, malaria transmission in the city of Quibdo is focal and the areas with the highest risk are located near vegetation zones. These results are useful to prioritize areas for intervention and the allocation of resources.

  8. Malaria drives T cells to exhaustion

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    Michelle N Wykes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a significant global burden but after >30 years of effort there is no vaccine on the market. While the complex life cycle of the parasite presents several challenges, many years of research have also identified several mechanisms of immune evasion by Plasmodium spp.. Recent research on malaria, has investigated the Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 pathway which mediates exhaustion of T cells, characterized by poor effector functions and recall responses and in some cases loss of the cells by apoptosis. Such studies have shown exhaustion of CD4+ T cells and an unappreciated role for CD8+ T cells in promoting sterile immunity against blood stage malaria. This is because PD-1 mediates up to a 95% reduction in numbers and functional capacity of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells, thus masking their role in protection. The role of T cell exhaustion during malaria provides an explanation for the absence of sterile immunity following the clearance of acute disease which will be relevant to future malaria-vaccine design and suggests the need for novel therapeutic solutions. This review will thus examine the role of PD-1-mediated T cell exhaustion in preventing lasting immunity against malaria.

  9. Designing malaria vaccines to circumvent antigen variability✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Amed; Barry, Alyssa E.; Dutta, Sheetij; Remarque, Edmond J.; Beeson, James G.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2016-01-01

    Prospects for malaria eradication will be greatly enhanced by an effective vaccine, but parasite genetic diversity poses a major impediment to malaria vaccine efficacy. In recent pre-clinical and field trials, vaccines based on polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigens have shown efficacy only against homologous strains, raising the specter of allele-specific immunity such as that which plagues vaccines against influenza and HIV. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, targets relatively conserved epitopes on the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. After more than 40 years of development and testing, RTS,S, has shown significant but modest efficacy against clinical malaria in phase 2 and 3 trials. Ongoing phase 2 studies of an irradiated sporozoite vaccine will ascertain whether the full protection against homologous experimental malaria challenge conferred by high doses of a whole organism vaccine can provide protection against diverse strains in the field. Here we review and evaluate approaches being taken to design broadly cross-protective malaria vaccines. PMID:26475447

  10. Designing malaria vaccines to circumvent antigen variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Amed; Barry, Alyssa E; Dutta, Sheetij; Remarque, Edmond J; Beeson, James G; Plowe, Christopher V

    2015-12-22

    Prospects for malaria eradication will be greatly enhanced by an effective vaccine, but parasite genetic diversity poses a major impediment to malaria vaccine efficacy. In recent pre-clinical and field trials, vaccines based on polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigens have shown efficacy only against homologous strains, raising the specter of allele-specific immunity such as that which plagues vaccines against influenza and HIV. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, targets relatively conserved epitopes on the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. After more than 40 years of development and testing, RTS,S, has shown significant but modest efficacy against clinical malaria in phase 2 and 3 trials. Ongoing phase 2 studies of an irradiated sporozoite vaccine will ascertain whether the full protection against homologous experimental malaria challenge conferred by high doses of a whole organism vaccine can provide protection against diverse strains in the field. Here we review and evaluate approaches being taken to design broadly cross-protective malaria vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. ANALISIS PEMERIKSAAN LABORATORIUM PADA PENDERITA MALARIA

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    I GEDE Wempi Permadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria is the disease initially in the area of the Marsh called the disease of freshwater marshes.Scientific research on malaria make progress in their important first in 1880, when a French army doctor workingin the military hospital of Constantine in Algeria named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed parasites forthe first time, inside the red blood cells of people suffering from malaria. This paper outlines some of thediagnostic screening for malaria. Examination of the diagnosis of malaria as gold standard still not satisfactoryas found parasitic blood through thin blood test. Examination of malaria in outline there are three, namely formicroscopic examination examination serologis and examination of dna. 1. Microscopic examination is still astandard gold for enforcement the diagnosis of diseases malaria. 2. Examination serologis detection using anantibody; detection techniques antibody can not tell that infection ' s going on but could have an antibody thatdetected is notching reaction immunologi of infection in the past. Meanwhile, with the technique of a spesificantigen can't portray degrees parasitemia patients. 3. DNA (PCR , more sensitive to a plasmodium but theweakness this technique is clear to financing costs and not all laboratory can do checking this.

  12. Hyposplenism revealed by Plasmodium malariae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Benjamin; Galloula, Alexandre; Simon, Anne; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-08-02

    Hyposplenism, due to splenectomy, inherited red blood cell disorders or acquired conditions such as celiac disease, has an important impact on the severity of malaria, especially in non-immune patients. Conversely, that malaria may reveal functional hyposplenism has not been described previously. A 31-year old gardener was diagnosed with an uncomplicated attack of Plasmodium malariae 11 years after leaving the endemic area. In addition to trophozoites and schizonts, thick and thin smears also showed Howell-Jolly bodies, pointing to functional hyposplenism. This was later confirmed by the presence of a calcified spleen in the context of S/β + sickle-cell syndrome in a patient previously unaware of this condition. Malaria may reveal hyposplenism. Although Howell-Jolly bodies are morphologically similar to nuclei of young Plasmodium trophozoite, distinction on smears is based on the absence of cytoplasm and irregular size of Howell-Jolly bodies. In the patient reported here, hyposplenism was revealed by the occurrence of P. malariae infection relatively late in life. Timely diagnosis of hyposplenism resulted in the implementation of appropriate measures to prevent overwhelming infection with capsulated bacteria. This observation highlights the importance of diagnosing hyposplenism in patients with malaria despite the morphological similarities between ring nuclei and Howell-Jolly bodies on thick smears.

  13. Steady progress toward a malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, Kirsten E

    2017-10-01

    Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection. Novel vaccines such as RTS,S/AS01E are on the edge of licensure, but old techniques have resurged with the ability to deliver vialed, whole organism vaccines. Novel adjuvants, multistage/multiantigen approaches and transmission blocking vaccines all contribute to a multipronged battle plan to conquer malaria. Vaccines are the most cost-effective tools to control infectious diseases, yet the complexity of malaria has frustrated all attempts to develop an effective product. This review concentrates on recent advances in malaria vaccine development that lend hope that a vaccine can be produced and malaria eradicated.

  14. Management of malaria in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silachamroon, Udomsak; Krudsood, Srivicha; Phophak, Nanthaphorn; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of treatment for uncomplicated malaria is to produce a radical cure using the combination of: artesunate (4 mg/kg/day) plus mefloquine (8 mg/kg day) for 3 days: a fixed dose of artemether and lumefantrine (20/120 mg tablet) named Coartem (4 tablets twice a day for three days for adults weighing more than 35 kg): quinine 10 mg/kg 8-hourly plus tetracycline 250 mg 6-hourly for 7 days (or doxycycline 200 mg as an alternative to tetracycline once a day for 7 days) in patients aged 8 years and over: Malarone (in adult 4 tablets daily for 3 days). In treating severe malaria, early diagnosis and treatment with a potent antimalarial drug is recommended to save the patient's life. The antimalarial drugs of choice are: intravenous quinine or a parenteral form of an artemisinin derivative (artesunate i.v./i.m. for 2.4 mg/kg followed by 1.2 mg/kg injection at 12 and 24 hr and then daily for 5 dayss; artemether i.m. 3.2 mg/kg injection followed by 1.6 mg/kg at 12 and 24 hrs and then daily for 5 days; artemether i.m. (Artemotil) with the same dose of artemether or artesunate suppository (5 mg/kg) given rectally 12 hourly for 3 days. Oral artemisinin derivatives (artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin with 4 mg/kg/day) could replace parenteral forms when patients can tolerate oral medication. Oral mefloquine (25 mg/kg divided into two doses 8 hrs apart) should be given at the end of the artemisinin treatment course to reduce recrudescence.

  15. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeveld, Florence J V; Vreden, Stephen G S; Grobusch, Martin P

    2012-03-29

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the interior of the country for a long time. An impressive decline in malaria cases was achieved in the past few years, from 14,403 registered cases in 2003 to 1,371 in 2009. The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2004 has further fuelled the decrease in the number of infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The only population group still heavily burdened with malaria is gold mining industry workers. Interestingly, an important part of malaria cases diagnosed and treated in Suriname originate from border regions. Therefore, practical initiatives of combined efforts between neighbouring countries must be scaled up in order to effectively attack these specific areas. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to keep investing into the malaria control programme and public awareness campaigns. Especially the correct use of ACT must be promoted in order to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, effective preventive measures and adequate therapeutic options are on their own not enough to control, let alone eliminate malaria. Changing personal and social behaviour of people is particularly difficult, but crucial in making the current success sustainable. With this in mind, research on successfully implemented interventions, focusing on behavioural modifications and methods of measuring their effectiveness, must be expanded.

  16. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffeng, L.E.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Vlas, S.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events. To optimize

  17. The Power of Malaria Vaccine Trials Using Controlled Human Malaria Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); C.C. Hermsen (Cornelus); R.W. Sauerwein (Robert); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractControlled human malaria infection (CHMI) in healthy human volunteers is an important and powerful tool in clinical malaria vaccine development. However, power calculations are essential to obtain meaningful estimates of protective efficacy, while minimizing the risk of adverse events.

  18. The Gates Malaria Partnership: a consortium approach to malaria research and capacity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Bhasin, Amit; Targett, Geoffrey

    2012-05-01

    Recently, there has been a major increase in financial support for malaria control. Most of these funds have, appropriately, been spent on the tools needed for effective prevention and treatment of malaria such as insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and artemisinin combination therapy. There has been less investment in the training of the scientists from malaria-endemic countries needed to support these large and increasingly complex malaria control programmes, especially in Africa. In 2000, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Gates Malaria Partnership was established to support postgraduate training of African scientists wishing to pursue a career in malaria research. The programme had three research capacity development components: a PhD fellowship programme, a postdoctoral fellowship programme and a laboratory infrastructure programme. During an 8-year period, 36 African PhD students and six postdoctoral fellows were supported, and two research laboratories were built in Tanzania. Some of the lessons learnt during this project--such as the need to improve PhD supervision in African universities and to provide better support for postdoctoral fellows--are now being applied to a successor malaria research capacity development programme, the Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, and may be of interest to other groups involved in improving postgraduate training in health sciences in African universities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  20. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

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    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.