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  1. Induction of strain-transcending immunity against Plasmodium chabaudi adami malaria with a multiepitope DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, T; Grubb, K; Smooker, P; Rainczuk, A; Proll, D; Spithill, T W

    2005-05-01

    A major goal of current malaria vaccine programs is to develop multivalent vaccines that will protect humans against the many heterologous malaria strains that circulate in endemic areas. We describe a multiepitope DNA vaccine, derived from a genomic Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS DNA expression library of 30,000 plasmids, which induces strain-transcending immunity in mice against challenge with P. c. adami DK. Segregation of this library and DNA sequence analysis identified vaccine subpools encoding open reading frames (ORFs)/peptides of >9 amino acids [aa] (the V9+ pool, 303 plasmids) and >50 aa (V50+ pool, 56 plasmids), respectively. The V9+ and V50+ plasmid vaccine subpools significantly cross-protected mice against heterologous P. c. adami DK challenge, and protection correlated with the induction of both specific gamma interferon production by splenic cells and opsonizing antibodies. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 22 of the V50+ ORFs were polypeptides conserved among three or more Plasmodium spp., 13 of which are predicted hypothetical proteins. Twenty-nine of these ORFs are orthologues of predicted Plasmodium falciparum sequences known to be expressed in the blood stage, suggesting that this vaccine pool encodes multiple blood-stage antigens. The results have implications for malaria vaccine design by providing proof-of-principle that significant strain-transcending immunity can be induced using multiepitope blood-stage DNA vaccines and suggest that both cellular responses and opsonizing antibodies are necessary for optimal protection against P. c. adami.

  2. Osteoclasts Are Required for Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Mobilization but Not for Stress Erythropoiesis in Plasmodium chabaudi adami Murine Malaria

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    Hugo Roméro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anemia and inflammation concurrent with blood stage malaria trigger stress haematopoiesis and erythropoiesis. The activity of osteoclasts seems required for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC from the bone marrow to the periphery. Knowing that BALB/c mice with acute Plasmodium chabaudi adami malaria have profound alterations in bone remodelling cells, we evaluated the extent to which osteoclasts influence their hematopoietic response to infection. For this, mice were treated with osteoclast inhibiting hormone calcitonin prior to parasite inoculation, and infection as well as hematological parameters was studied. In agreement with osteoclast-dependent HSPC mobilization, administration of calcitonin led to milder splenomegaly, reduced numbers of HSPC in the spleen, and their retention in the bone marrow. Although C-terminal telopeptide (CTX levels, indicative of bone resorption, were lower in calcitonin-treated infected mice, they remained comparable in naive and control infected mice. Calcitonin-treated infected mice conveniently responded to anemia but generated less numbers of splenic macrophages and suffered from exacerbated infection; interestingly, calcitonin also decreased the number of macrophages generated in vitro. Globally, our results indicate that although osteoclast-dependent HSC mobilization from bone marrow to spleen is triggered in murine blood stage malaria, this activity is not essential for stress erythropoiesis.

  3. Sonetos de Amor de Adami, para flauta doce e piano: análise e performance Sonnets of Love by Adami, for recorder and piano: analysis and performance

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    Luciane Cuervo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa e discute a construção da performance de Sonetos de Amor, obra de Felipe Kirst Adami para flauta doce e piano composta em 1999. A composição foi inspirada na obra poética Cien Sonetos de Amor de Pablo Neruda, tendo sido registrada no CD Sonetos de Amor e Morte, de Luciane Cuervo. Neste texto, a pesquisadora e intérprete reflete sobre o contexto da composição e de seu criador, bem como analisa a escrita idiomática para os instrumentos e a sua interpretação, buscando fornecer subsídios para futuros intérpretes e compositores interessados nesta formação instrumental. O artigo está organizado em quatro partes, analogamente aos quatro movimentos da obra: Manhã, Meio-Dia, Tarde, Noite.This paper analyzes and discusses the construction of the performance of Sonetos de Amor (Sonnets of Love, for flute and piano, work composed in 1999 by Felipe Kirst Adami. The work was inspired by the poetry collection Cien Sonetos de Amor by Pablo Neruda, having been recorded on CD Sonetos de Amor e Morte (Sonnets of Love and Death by Luciane Cuervo. In this paper, the researcher and interpreter reflects on the context of the composition and its creator, as well as analyzes the idiomatic writing for the instruments and their interpretation, seeking to provide elements for future performers and composers interested in these instruments. The paper is organized in four parts, similarly to the four movements of the work: Morning, Noon, Evening, Night.

  4. Erythrocytic Iron Deficiency Enhances Susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi Infection in Mice Carrying a Missense Mutation in Transferrin Receptor 1.

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    Lelliott, Patrick M; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2015-11-01

    The treatment of iron deficiency in areas of high malaria transmission is complicated by evidence which suggests that iron deficiency anemia protects against malaria, while iron supplementation increases malaria risk. Iron deficiency anemia results in an array of pathologies, including reduced systemic iron bioavailability and abnormal erythrocyte physiology; however, the mechanisms by which these pathologies influence malaria infection are not well defined. In the present study, the response to malaria infection was examined in a mutant mouse line, Tfrc(MRI24910), identified during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) screen. This line carries a missense mutation in the gene for transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). Heterozygous mice exhibited reduced erythrocyte volume and density, a phenotype consistent with dietary iron deficiency anemia. However, unlike the case in dietary deficiency, the erythrocyte half-life, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and intraerythrocytic ferritin content were unchanged. Systemic iron bioavailability was also unchanged, indicating that this mutation results in erythrocytic iron deficiency without significantly altering overall iron homeostasis. When infected with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi adami, mice displayed increased parasitemia and succumbed to infection more quickly than their wild-type littermates. Transfusion of fluorescently labeled erythrocytes into malaria parasite-infected mice demonstrated an erythrocyte-autonomous enhanced survival of parasites within mutant erythrocytes. Together, these results indicate that TFR1 deficiency alters erythrocyte physiology in a way that is similar to dietary iron deficiency anemia, albeit to a lesser degree, and that this promotes intraerythrocytic parasite survival and an increased susceptibility to malaria in mice. These findings may have implications for the management of iron deficiency in the context of malaria.

  5. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely resemb

  6. Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites can develop stable resistance to atovaquone with a mutation in the cytochrome b gene

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    Alves Ana C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistance to many of the drugs in use. The recommended treatment policy is now to use drug combinations. The atovaquone-proguanil (AP drug combination, is one of the treatment and prophylaxis options. Atovaquone (ATQ exerts its action by inhibiting plasmodial mitochondria electron transport at the level of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro resistance to ATQ has been associated with specific point mutations in the region spanning codons 271-284 of the cytochrome b gene. ATQ -resistant Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei lines have been obtained and resistant lines have amino acid mutations in their CYT b protein sequences. Plasmodium chabaudi model for studying drug-responses and drug-resistance selection is a very useful rodent malaria model but no ATQ resistant parasites have been reported so far. The aim of this study was to determine the ATQ sensitivity of the P. chabaudi clones, to select a resistant parasite line and to perform genotypic characterization of the cytb gene of these clones. Methods To select for ATQ resistance, Plasmodium. chabaudi chabaudi clones were exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of ATQ during several consecutive passages in mice. Plasmodium chabaudi cytb gene was amplified and sequenced. Results ATQ resistance was selected from the clone AS-3CQ. In order to confirm whether an heritable genetic mutation underlies the response of AS-ATQ to ATQ, the stability of the drug resistance phenotype in this clone was evaluated by measuring drug responses after (i multiple blood passages in the absence of the drug, (ii freeze/thawing of parasites in liquid nitrogen and (iii transmission through a mosquito host, Anopheles stephensi. ATQ resistance phenotype of the drug-selected parasite clone kept unaltered. Therefore, ATQ resistance in clone AS-ATQ is genetically encoded. The Minimum Curative Dose of AS-ATQ showed a six

  7. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS

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    Lawton Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required. Results The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages. Conclusions In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub

  8. Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS)

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Jennifer

    2012-03-29

    Background: The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s) of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required.Results: The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages.Conclusions: In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub-family A and B protein

  9. The evolutionary consequences of blood-stage vaccination on the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi.

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    Victoria C Barclay

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine developers are concerned that antigenic escape will erode vaccine efficacy. Evolutionary theorists have raised the possibility that some types of vaccine could also create conditions favoring the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Such evolution would put unvaccinated people at greater risk of severe disease. Here we test the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi evolving in laboratory mice. The antigen we used, AMA-1, is a component of several candidate malaria vaccines currently in various stages of trials in humans. We first found that a more virulent clone was less readily controlled by AMA-1-induced immunity than its less virulent progenitor. Replicated parasites were then serially passaged through control or AMA-1 vaccinated mice and evaluated after 10 and 21 rounds of selection. We found no evidence of evolution at the ama-1 locus. Instead, virulence evolved; AMA-1-selected parasites induced greater anemia in naïve mice than both control and ancestral parasites. Our data suggest that recombinant blood stage malaria vaccines can drive the evolution of more virulent malaria parasites.

  10. Studies in a co-infection murine model of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and Leishmania infantum: interferon-g and interleukin-4 mRNA expression

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    Cláudia S Marques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the T helper type 1/2 (Th1/Th2 cytokine profile in a co-infection murine model of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and Leishmania infantum. Expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-g and interleukin-4 (IL-4 was analyzed, in spleen and liver of C57BL/6 mice, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. High levels of IFN-g expression did not prevent the progression of Leishmania in co-infected mice and Leishmania infection did not interfere with the Th1/Th2 switch necessary for Plasmodium control. The presence of IL-4 at day 28 in co-infected mice, essential for Plasmodium elimination, was probably a key factor on the exacerbation of the Leishmania infection.

  11. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

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    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  12. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

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    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  13. Genetic Immunization of BALB/c mice with a Plasmid Bearing the Gene Coding for a Hybrid Merozoite Surface Protein 1-Hepatitis B Virus Surface Protein Fusion Protects Mice against Lethal Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi PC1 Infection

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    Wunderlich, Gerhard; Moura, Ivan C.; del Portillo, Hernando A

    2000-01-01

    The genetic immunization of rodents with a plasmid coding for a Plasmodium chabaudi merozoite surface protein 1 (C terminus)-hepatitis B virus surface fusion protein (pPcMSP119-HBs) provided protection of mice against subsequent lethal challenge with P. chabaudi chabaudi PC1-infected red blood cells. The percentage of survivor mice was higher in DNA-immunized mice than in animals immunized with a recombinant rPcMSP119– glutathione S-transferase fusion protein administered in Freund adjuvant. ...

  14. Characterization of the Plasmodium Interspersed Repeats (PIR) proteins of Plasmodium chabaudi indicates functional diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Yan Yam; Thibaut Brugat; Anthony Siau; Jennifer Lawton; Wong, Daniel S.; Abdirahman Farah; Jing Shun Twang; Xiaohong Gao; Jean Langhorne; Peter R Preiser

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium multigene families play a central role in the pathogenesis of malaria. The Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) genes comprise the largest multigene family in many Plasmodium spp. However their function(s) remains unknown. Using the rodent model of malaria, Plasmodium chabaudi, we show that individual CIR proteins have differential localizations within infected red cell (iRBC), suggesting different functional roles in a blood-stage infection. Some CIRs appear to be located on the s...

  15. Characterization and tissue-specific expression patterns of the Plasmodium chabaudi cir multigene family

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    Krücken Jürgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variant antigens expressed on the surface of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs are important virulence factors of malaria parasites. Whereas Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane proteins 1 (PfEMP1 are responsible for sequestration of mature parasites, little is known about putative ligands mediating cytoadherence to host receptors in other Plasmodium species. Candidates include members of the pir superfamily found in the human parasite Plasmodium vivax (vir, in the simian pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi (kir and in the rodent malarias Plasmodium yoelii (yir, Plasmodium berghei (bir and Plasmodium chabaudi (cir. The aim of this study was to reveal a potential involvement of cir genes in P. chabaudi sequestration. Methods Subfamilies of cir genes were identified by bioinformatic analyses of annotated sequence data in the Plasmodium Genome Database. In order to examine tissue-specific differences in the expression of cir mRNAs, RT-PCR with subfamily-specific primers was used. In total, 432 cDNA clones derived from six different tissues were sequenced to characterize the transcribed cir gene repertoire. To confirm differences in transcription profiles of cir genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed to compare different host tissues and to identify changes during the course of P. chabaudi infections in immunocompetent mice. Results The phylogenetic analysis of annotated P. chabaudi putative CIR proteins identified two major subfamilies. Comparison of transcribed cir genes from six different tissues revealed significant differences in the frequency clones belonging to individual cir gene subgroups were obtained from different tissues. Further hints of difference in the transcription of cir genes in individual tissues were obtained by RFLP. Whereas only minimal changes in the transcription pattern of cir genes could be detected during the developmental cycle of the parasites, switching to

  16. Rapid response to selection, competitive release and increased transmission potential of artesunate-selected Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.

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    Laura C Pollitt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release. Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both

  17. Rapid response to selection, competitive release and increased transmission potential of artesunate-selected Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.

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    Pollitt, Laura C; Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G; Salathé, Rahel M; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release). Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both single and mixed strain

  18. Testosterone-induced permanent changes of hepatic gene expression in female mice sustained during Plasmodium chabaudi malaria infection.

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    Delić, Denis; Gailus, Nicole; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Dkhil, Mohamed; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Wunderlich, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Testosterone has been previously shown to induce persistent susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in otherwise resistant female C57BL/6 mice. Here, we investigate as to whether this conversion coincides with permanent changes of hepatic gene expression profiles. Female mice aged 10-12 weeks were treated with testosterone for 3 weeks; then, testosterone treatment was discontinued for 12 weeks before challenging with 10⁶ P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes. Hepatic gene expression was examined after 12 weeks of testosterone withdrawal and after subsequent infection with P. chabaudi at peak parasitemia, using Affymetrix microarrays with 22 ,690 probe sets representing 14, 000 genes. The expression of 54 genes was found to be permanently changed by testosterone, which remained changed during malaria infection. Most genes were involved in liver metabolism: the female-prevalent genes Cyp2b9, Cyp2b13, Cyp3a41, Cyp3a44, Fmo3, Sult2a2, Sult3a1, and BC014805 were repressed, while the male-prevalent genes Cyp2d9, Cyp7b1, Cyp4a10, Ugt2b1, Ugt2b38, Hsd3b5, and Slco1a1 were upregulated. Genes encoding different nuclear receptors were not persistently changed. Moreover, testosterone induced persistent upregulation of genes involved in hepatocellular carcinoma such as Lama3 and Nox4, whereas genes involved in immune response such as Ifnγ and Igk-C were significantly decreased. Our data provide evidence that testosterone is able to induce specific and robust long-term changes of gene expression profiles in the female mouse liver. In particular, those changes, which presumably indicate masculinized liver metabolism and impaired immune response, may be critical for the testosterone-induced persistent susceptibility of mice to P. chabaudi malaria. PMID:20844152

  19. Regulatory T cell induction during Plasmodium chabaudi infection modifies the clinical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    Alessandro S Farias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is used as an animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS, which is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by activation of Th1 and/or Th17 cells. Human autoimmune diseases can be either exacerbated or suppressed by infectious agents. Recent studies have shown that regulatory T cells play a crucial role in the escape mechanism of Plasmodium spp. both in humans and in experimental models. These cells suppress the Th1 response against the parasite and prevent its elimination. Regulatory T cells have been largely associated with protection or amelioration in several autoimmune diseases, mainly by their capacity to suppress proinflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we verified that CD4(+CD25(+ regulatory T cells (T regs generated during malaria infection (6 days after EAE induction interfere with the evolution of EAE. We observed a positive correlation between the reduction of EAE clinical symptoms and an increase of parasitemia levels. Suppression of the disease was also accompanied by a decrease in the expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ and increases in the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β1 relative to EAE control mice. The adoptive transfer of CD4(+CD25(+ cells from P. chabaudi-infected mice reduced the clinical evolution of EAE, confirming the role of these T regs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data corroborate previous findings showing that infections interfere with the prevalence and evolution of autoimmune diseases by inducing regulatory T cells, which regulate EAE in an apparently non-specific manner.

  20. Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocytes Adhere to CD36 and Bind to Microvascular Endothelial Cells in an Organ-Specific Way

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    Mota, Maria M.; Jarra, William; Hirst, Elizabeth; Patnaik, Pradeep K.; Holder, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    Adherence of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum to microvascular endothelial cells (sequestration) is considered to play an important role in parasite virulence and pathogenesis. However, the real importance of sequestration for infection and disease has never been fully assessed. The absence of an appropriate in vivo model for sequestration has been a major barrier. We have examined the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS in mice as a potential model. Erythrocytes infected with this parasite adhere in vitro to purified CD36, a critical endothelium receptor for binding P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. P. c. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes adhere in vitro to endothelial cells in a gamma interferon-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of additional adhesion molecules in the binding process, as is also the case with P. falciparum-infected cells. Furthermore, plasma or sera from infected and hyperimmune mice, respectively, have the ability to block binding of infected erythrocytes to endothelial cells. In vivo, erythrocytes containing mature P. c. chabaudi parasites are sequestered from the peripheral circulation. Sequestration is organ specific, occurring primarily in the liver, although intimate contact between infected erythrocytes and endothelial cells is also observed in the spleen and brain. The results are discussed in the context of the use of this model to study (i) the relationship between endothelial cell activation and the level of sequestration and (ii) the primary function of sequestration in malaria infection. PMID:10858230

  1. Yield and yield component of sweet potato as affected by Farmyard manure and Phosphorus application: in the case of Adami Tulu District, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

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    Teshome-Abdissa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato is among the most important tuberous root crops produced in the central rift valley of Ethiopia. However, the yield and yield components obtained in the area is far below its genetic potential. The major cause of low yield is the use of poor agronomic practices. Specifically, scarcity of information on appropriate rates of fertilizers to be applied for growing the crop is one. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of farmyard manure and phosphorus on the yield and yield components of the crop at Adami Tulu, central rift valley of Ethiopia during the 2010 main cropping season. The treatments consisted of five levels of FYM (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 t ha-1 and three levels of P (0, 90,180 kg P2O5 ha-1. It was laid out as a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement, and replicated three times. A sweet potato cultivar known in the area Belela was used for the study. The result indicated that the main effect of FYM significantly (P < 0.05 affected; total tuberous root yield, tuberous root dry weight, fresh total biomass and dry harvest index. However, the main effect of P had no any significant influence on all parameters studied. Moreover, the interaction effects of FYM and P significantly (P < 0.05 affected; marketable root yield, specific gravity and total dry biomass yield. Combined application of 20 t farmyard manure ha-1 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 resulted in production of highest marketable yield (32.56 t ha-1. The lowest marketable yield (8.8 t ha-1 was obtained at the application of 0 t ha-1 FYM combined with 180 kg P2O5 ha-1. Thus, most of the yield and yield estimate parameters were enhanced in response to the application of FYM. For the two commonly used sweet potato quality parameters (dry matter and specific gravity, dry matter was not significantly responsive to both FYM and P while the highest specific gravity (1.09 was obtained at the combined application of 10 t FYM ha-1 and 0 kg P2O5

  2. Unlike the synchronous Plasmodium falciparum and P. chabaudi infection, the P. berghei and P. yoelii asynchronous infections are not affected by melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bagnaresi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Piero Bagnaresi1, Eduardo Alves1, Henrique Borges da Silva1, Sabrina Epiphanio2, Maria M Mota2, Célia RS Garcia11Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Unidade de Malária, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, PortugalAbstract: We have previously reported that Plasmodium chabaudi and P. falciparum sense the hormone melatonin and this could be responsible for the synchrony of malaria infection. In P. chabaudi and P. falciparum, melatonin induces calcium release from internal stores, and this response is abolished by U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and luzindole, a melatoninreceptor competitive antagonist. Here we show that, in vitro, melatonin is not able to modulate cell cycle, nor to elicit an elevation in intracellular calcium concentration of the intraerythrocytic forms of P. berghei or P. yoelii, two rodent parasites that show an asynchrononous development in vivo. Interestingly, melatonin and its receptor do not seem to play a role during hepatic infection by P. berghei sporozoites either. These data strengthen the hypothesis that hostderived melatonin does not synchronize malaria infection caused by P. berghei and P. yoelii. Moreover, these data explain why infections by these parasites are asynchronous, contrary to what is observed in P. falciparum and P. chabaudi infections.Keywords: malaria, calcium, melatonin, cell cycle, rhythm, sporozoite

  3. Interruption of the blood-stage cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Gazarini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a unicellular protozoan, Plasmodium, which affects 3.7 million people every year. Resistance of the parasite to classical treatments such as chloroquine requires the development of new drugs. To gain insight into the mechanisms that control Plasmodium cell cycle, we have examined the effects of kinase inhibitors on the blood-stage cycle of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. In vitro incubation of red blood cells for 17 h at 37ºC with the inhibitors led to a decrease in the percent of infected cells, compared to control treatment, as follows: genistein (200 µM - 75%, staurosporine (1 µM - 58%, R03 (1 µM - 75%, and tyrphostins B44 (100 µM - 66% and B46 (100 µM - 68%. All these treatments were shown to retard or prevent maturation of the intraerythrocytic parasites. The diverse concentration ranges at which these inhibitors exert their effects give a clue as to the types of signals that initiate the transitions between the different developmental stages of the parasite. The present data support our hypothesis that the maturation of the intraerythrocytic cycle of malaria parasites requires phosphorylation. In this respect, we have recently reported a high Ca2+ microenvironment surrounding the parasite within red blood cells. Several kinase activities are modulated by Ca2+. The molecular identification of the targets of these kinases could provide new strategies against malaria.

  4. Liver accumulation of Plasmodium chabaudi-infected red blood cells and modulation of regulatory T cell and dendritic cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M Medeiros

    Full Text Available It is postulated that accumulation of malaria-infected Red Blood Cells (iRBCs in the liver could be a parasitic escape mechanism against full destruction by the host immune system. Therefore, we evaluated the in vivo mechanism of this accumulation and its potential immunological consequences. A massive liver accumulation of P. c. chabaudi AS-iRBCs (Pc-iRBCs was observed by intravital microscopy along with an over expression of ICAM-1 on day 7 of the infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Phenotypic changes were also observed in regulatory T cells (Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs that were isolated from infected livers, which indicate a functional role for Tregs in the regulation of the liver inflammatory immune response. In fact, the suppressive function of liver-Tregs was in vitro tested, which demonstrated the capacity of these cells to suppress naive T cell activation to the same extent as that observed for spleen-Tregs. On the other hand, it is already known that CD4+ T cells isolated from spleens of protozoan parasite-infected mice are refractory to proliferate in vivo. In our experiments, we observed a similar lack of in vitro proliferative capacity in liver CD4+ T cells that were isolated on day 7 of infection. It is also known that nitric oxide and IL-10 are partially involved in acute phase immunosuppression; we found high expression levels of IL-10 and iNOS mRNA in day 7-infected livers, which indicates a possible role for these molecules in the observed immune suppression. Taken together, these results indicate that malaria parasite accumulation within the liver could be an escape mechanism to avoid sterile immunity sponsored by a tolerogenic environment.

  5. Protective Vaccination against Blood-Stage Malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi: Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of Balb/c Mice toward the End of Crisis Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh A.; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem A.; Delic, Denis; Wunderlich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Protective vaccination induces self-healing of otherwise fatal blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi in female Balb/c mice. To trace processes critically involved in self-healing, the liver, an effector against blood-stage malaria, is analyzed for possible changes of its transcriptome in vaccination-protected in comparison to non-protected mice toward the end of the crisis phase. Gene expression microarray analyses reveal that vaccination does not affect constitutive expression of mRNA and lincRNA. However, malaria induces significant (p 3-fold as compared to the corresponding constitutive expressions. Massive up-regulations, partly by >100-fold, are found for genes as RhD, Add2, Ank1, Ermap, and Slc4a, which encode proteins of erythrocytic surface membranes, and as Gata1 and Gfi1b, which encode transcription factors involved in erythrocytic development. Also, Cldn13 previously predicted to be expressed on erythroblast surfaces is up-regulated by >200-fold, though claudins are known as main constituents of tight junctions acting as paracellular barriers between epithelial cells. Other genes are up-regulated by 10-fold, which can be subgrouped in genes encoding proteins known to be involved in mitosis, in cell cycle regulation, and in DNA repair. Our data suggest that protective vaccination enables the liver to respond to P. chabaudi infections with accelerated regeneration and extramedullary erythropoiesis during crisis, which contributes to survival of otherwise lethal blood-stage malaria. PMID:27471498

  6. Resolution of acute malarial infections by T cell-dependent non-antibody-mediated mechanisms of immunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Cavacini, L A; Parke, L A; Weidanz, W P

    1990-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that acute blood stage malarial infections are resolved through the actions of protective antibodies, we observed that resistance to acute infection with Plasmodium chabaudi adami was mediated by T cell-dependent cellular immune mechanisms independent of antibody. We now report that acute blood stage infections caused by three additional murine hemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, and Babesia microti, appear to be co...

  7. Caractérisation moléculaire et morphologique de deux espèces affines de Paraphlebotomus: Phlebotomus chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc & Rioux, 1970 et P. riouxi Depaquit, Killick-Kendrick & Léger, 1998 (Diptera : Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounamous A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La description en 1998 de Phlebotomus riouxi a posé le problème de la diagnose différentielle délicate de la femelle avec celle d’une espèce affine : P. chabaudi. Le rôle suspecté de P. chabaudi dans la transmission de Leishmania killicki dans certains foyers tunisiens nous a amené, à partir de 37 spécimens algériens et tunisiens, à effectuer la caractérisation moléculaire de ces deux taxons. Les séquences du gène du cytochrome b (cyt b de l’ADN mitochondrial individualisent clairement ces taxons et mettent en évidence une variabilité intraspécifique. L’analyse morphologique ne permet pas de différencier les femelles des deux espèces sur la base des caractères génitaux. Un caractère céphalique nouveau tenant à la présence de dents latérales antérieures sur l’armature pharyngienne de P. chabaudi, absentes chez P. riouxi, est proposé, mais un recours au typage moléculaire semble nécessaire pour une identification fiable.

  8. IFN-γ and IL-21 Double Producing T Cells Are Bcl6-Independent and Survive into the Memory Phase in Plasmodium chabaudi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Carpio

    Full Text Available CD4 T cells are required to fight malaria infection by promoting both phagocytic activity and B cell responses for parasite clearance. In Plasmodium chabaudi infection, one specific CD4 T cell subset generates anti-parasitic IFN-γ and the antibody-promoting cytokine, IL-21. To determine the lineage of these multifunctional T cells, we followed IFN-γ+ effector T cells (Teff into the memory phase using Ifng-reporter mice. While Ifng+ Teff expanded, the level of the Th1 lineage-determining transcription factor T-bet only peaked briefly. Ifng+ Teff also co-express ICOS, the B cell area homing molecule CXCR5, and other Tfh lineage-associated molecules including Bcl6, the transcription factor required for germinal center (GC T follicular helper cells (Tfh differentiation. Because Bcl6 and T-bet co-localize to the nucleus of Ifng+ Teff, we hypothesized that Bcl6 controls the Tfh-like phenotype of Ifng+ Teff cells in P. chabaudi infection. We first transferred Bcl6-deficient T cells into wildtype hosts. Bcl6-deficient T cells did not develop into GC Tfh, but they still generated CXCR5+ IFN-γ+ IL-21+ IL-10+ Teff, suggesting that this predominant population is not of the Tfh-lineage. IL-10 deficient mice, which have increased IFN-γ and T-bet expression, demonstrated expansion of both IFN-γ+ IL-21+ CXCR5+ cells and IFN-γ+ GC Tfh cells, suggesting a Th1 lineage for the former. In the memory phase, all Ifng+ T cells produced IL-21, but only a small percentage of highly proliferative Ifng+ T cells maintained a T-bethi phenotype. In chronic malaria infection, serum IFN-γ correlates with increased protection, and our observation suggests Ifng+ T cells are maintained by cellular division. In summary, we found that Ifng+ T cells are not strictly Tfh derived during malaria infection. T cells provide the host with a survival advantage when facing this well-equipped pathogen, therefore, understanding the lineage of pivotal T cell players will aid in the

  9. Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraima Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of curcumin was studied in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi clones resistant to chloroquine and artemisinin, and drug interactions were analyzed by isobolograms. Subtherapeutic doses of curcumin, chloroquine, and artemisinin were administered to mice, and mRNA was collected following treatment for RT-PCR analysis of genes encoding deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs. Curcumin was found be nontoxic in BALB/c mice. The combination of curcumin/chloroquine/piperine reduced parasitemia to 37% seven days after treatment versus the control group’s 65%, and an additive interaction was revealed. Curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combination did not show a favorable drug interaction in this murine model of malaria. Treatment of mice with subtherapeutic doses of the drugs resulted in a transient increase in genes encoding DUBs indicating UPS interference. If curcumin is to join the arsenal of available antimalarial drugs, future studies exploring suitable drug partners would be of interest.

  10. Genome-wide screening identifies Plasmodium chabaudi-induced modifications of DNA methylation status of Tlr1 and Tlr6 gene promoters in liver, but not spleen, of female C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem S; Delic, Denis; Santourlidis, Simeon; Wunderlich, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming of host genes via DNA methylation is increasingly recognized as critical for the outcome of diverse infectious diseases, but information for malaria is not yet available. Here, we investigate the effect of blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi on the DNA methylation status of host gene promoters on a genome-wide scale using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and Nimblegen microarrays containing 2,000 bp oligonucleotide features that were split into -1,500 to -500 bp Ups promoters and -500 to +500 bp Cor promoters, relative to the transcription site, for evaluation of differential DNA methylation. Gene expression was analyzed by Agilent and Affymetrix microarray technology. Challenging of female C57BL/6 mice with 10(6) P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes resulted in a self-healing outcome of infections with peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i. These infections induced organ-specific modifications of DNA methylation of gene promoters. Among the 17,354 features on Nimblegen arrays, only seven gene promoters were identified to be hypermethylated in the spleen, whereas the liver exhibited 109 hyper- and 67 hypomethylated promoters at peak parasitemia in comparison with non-infected mice. Among the identified genes with differentially methylated Cor-promoters, only the 7 genes Pigr, Ncf1, Klkb1, Emr1, Ndufb11, and Tlr6 in the liver and Apol6 in the spleen were detected to have significantly changed their expression. Remarkably, the Cor promoter of the toll-like receptor Tlr6 became hypomethylated and Tlr6 expression increased by 3.4-fold during infection. Concomitantly, the Ups promoter of the Tlr1 was hypermethylated, but Tlr1 expression also increased by 11.3-fold. TLR6 and TLR1 are known as auxillary receptors to form heterodimers with TLR2 in plasma membranes of macrophages, which recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as, e.g., intact 3-acyl and sn-2-lyso-acyl glycosylphosphatidylinositols of P. falciparum

  11. Single Parents - Single Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis seeks to evaluate the social economic wellbeing of single parent households across eleven European countries. Starting with market income, taxes and transfers are incorporated to arrive at a disposable income figure. Effort is further made to include the value of in kind transfers, more specifically education and health care services. This results in an extended income concept, where redistribution both in cash and in kind is accounted for. Income figures for market inc...

  12. Comment on "Self-organized criticality in living systems" by C Adami

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, M E J; Sneppen, K; Tozier, W A; Fraser, Simon M.; Sneppen, Kim; Tozier, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Following extensive numerical experiments, it has been suggested that the evolution of competing computer programs in artificial life simulations shows signs of being a self-organized critical process. The primary evidence for this claim comes from the distribution of the lifetimes of species in the simulations, which appears to follow a power law. We argue that, for a number of reasons, it is unlikely that the system is in fact at a critical point and suggest an alternative explanation for the power-law lifetime distribution.

  13. IL-10在Plasmodium yoelii 17XL和Plasmodium chabaud AS疟原虫混合感染宿主病理损伤中的作用研究%The Role of IL-10 on the Host Pathological Injury in DBA/2 Mice Mixed Infection with Plasmodium yoelii 17XL and Plasmodium chabaudi AS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 曹雅明; 刘蕾; 蔡连顺; 毕胜; 苏菊香; 代月

    2013-01-01

    为探讨IL-10在致死型约氏疟原虫(Plasmodium yoelii 17XL,P.y17XL)和夏氏疟原虫(Plasmodium chabaudi AS,P.cAS)混合感染宿主病理损伤中的作用,用P.y17XL、P.cAS和P.y17XL+P.cAS分别感染DBA/2小鼠,计数红细胞感染率;感染后第3、5、8、10、12和19天分别尾静脉取血,肝素抗凝后短暂离心,采用高纯度DNA提取试剂盒抽提DNA,实时定量PCR检测虫负荷水平;感染后第0、1、3、5、8、10、12和15天制备脾细胞悬液,ELISA检测脾细胞培养上清中IL-10水平.实验结果发现,P.y17XL单独感染和混合感染小鼠IL-10水平在感染后第5天和第8天分别达峰值,随后开始下降至正常水平,小鼠虫血症均达中等水平,存活率100%;相比P.cAS感染小鼠IL-10在感染后第3天突然出现高水平升高并且维持时间较长;于感染后第8天达峰值,是同天P.y17XL单独感染和混合感染小鼠IL-10水平的2倍,虫血症水平较高,小鼠全部死亡.同时实时定量PCR结果发现,混合感染小鼠,于感染后3~ 12 d P.y17XL增殖占优势,而感染后15 ~ 19 d则P.cAS增殖处于优势状态.表明以IL-10为核心的免疫调节网络与疟疾感染过程中病理损伤密切相关.同时提示混合感染小鼠应答模式与P.y17XL感染小鼠的应答模式相同.%In order to investigate the role of IL-10 on the host pathological injury mixed infection with lethal Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (P. y17XL) and Plasmodium chabaudi AS (P. cAS) , DBA/2 mice were infected with P. y17XL, P. cAS, or P. y17XL + P. cAS respectively, and counted the infection rate of erythrocytes for each group of mice. Para-sitemia and mortality were monitored daily. Tail blood collected at different time points was anti-coagulated by heparin on day 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 and 19 post infection (PI) and cenlrifuged briefly for DNA extraction using a high pure blood genome DNA extraction kit, real-lime quantitative (RTQ) PCR for determining the level of parasite burden. On day 0, 1

  14. Single Parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR some parents the responsibility of bringing up a child is a one person task. Shouldering parental duties of two, single parents not only raise the child, but bring home the bacon as well. This is life for many people—either because of the death of a spouse, divorce, living apart from a spouse, pregnancy without marriage, or abandonment—the parent and child

  15. Single-Sex Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Although single-sex education was once the norm in the U.S., the practice has largely been confined to private schools for more than a century. However, with the introduction of the final version of the U.S. Department of Education's so-called single-sex regulations in 2006, public schools were allowed greater flexibility to offer single-sex…

  16. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  17. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and fluoresc

  18. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior of...

  19. A novel ENU-mutation in ankyrin-1 disrupts malaria parasite maturation in red blood cells of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Greth

    Full Text Available The blood stage of the plasmodium parasite life cycle is responsible for the clinical symptoms of malaria. Epidemiological studies have identified coincidental malarial endemicity and multiple red blood cell (RBC disorders. Many RBC disorders result from mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins and these are associated with increased protection against malarial infections. However the mechanisms underpinning these genetic, host responses remain obscure. We have performed an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen and have identified a novel dominant (haploinsufficient mutation in the Ank-1 gene (Ank1(MRI23420 of mice displaying hereditary spherocytosis (HS. Female mice, heterozygous for the Ank-1 mutation showed increased survival to infection by Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS with a concomitant 30% decrease in parasitemia compared to wild-type, isogenic mice (wt. A comparative in vivo red cell invasion and parasite growth assay showed a RBC-autonomous effect characterised by decreased proportion of infected heterozygous RBCs. Within approximately 6-8 hours post-invasion, TUNEL staining of intraerythrocytic parasites, showed a significant increase in dead parasites in heterozygotes. This was especially notable at the ring and trophozoite stages in the blood of infected heterozygous mutant mice compared to wt (p<0.05. We conclude that increased malaria resistance due to ankyrin-1 deficiency is caused by the intraerythrocytic death of P. chabaudi parasites.

  20. Attitudes Toward Single Parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Pećnik, Ninoslava; Raboteg-Šarić, Zora

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the family structure produce different social reactions, and the negative attitude of society towards single parent families can generate social vulnerability of this group. (The lack of) understanding of the environment influences not only the behaviour of other persons toward single parents and their children, but also their attitudes and personal experience of single parenthood. In order to improve the insight into the experience of new forms of family in our society, a survey o...

  1. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S

    2000-12-22

    Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.

  2. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  3. Single photon quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-10-28

    We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.

  4. Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Heather M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods Using a rodent malaria model system, behavioural avoidance of super-infection was tested by examining whether already-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were less responsive to new vertebrate hosts if they were infected. Additionally, a second dose of parasites was given to malaria-infected mosquitoes on a biologically realistic time scale to test whether it impeded the development of a first infection. Results No effect of a second infected blood meal on either the prevalence or parasite burden arising from a first was found. Furthermore, it was found that not only were infected mosquitoes more likely to take a second blood meal than their uninfected counterparts, they were disproportionately drawn to infected hosts. Conclusions The alterations in mosquito feeding propensity reported here would occur if parasites have been selected to make infected vertebrate hosts more attractive to mosquitoes, and infected mosquitoes are more likely to seek out new blood meals. Although such a strategy might increase the risk of super-infection, this study suggests the cost to parasite development is not high and as such would be unlikely to outweigh the potential benefits of increasing the contact rate between the parasite's two obligate hosts.

  5. Mosquito appetite for blood is stimulated by Plasmodium chabaudi infections in themselves and their vertebrate hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, H.M.; Read, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Background - Arthropod vectors of disease may encounter more than one infected host during the course of their lifetime. The consequences of super-infection to parasite development are rarely investigated, but may have substantial epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods - Using a rode

  6. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Margaret K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  7. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Horst

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  8. Single-photon imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Seitz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...

  9. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  10. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  11. Moving Single Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Single neutral atoms are promising candidates for qubits, the fundamental unit of quantum information. We have built a set of optical tweezers for trapping and moving single Rubidium atoms. The tweezers are based on a far off-resonant dipole trapping laser focussed to a 1 μm spot with a single aspheric lens. We use a digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate dynamic holograms of the desired arrangement of traps. The DMD has a frame rate of 20 kHz which, when combined with fast algorithms, allows for rapid reconfiguration of the traps. We demonstrate trapping of up to 20 atoms in arbitrary arrangements, and the transport of a single-atom over a distance of 14 μm with continuous laser cooling, and 5 μm without. In the meantime, we are developing high-finesse fibre-tip cavities, which we plan to use to couple pairs of single atoms to form a quantum network.

  12. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  13. Stresses of Single Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Stresses of Single Parenting Page Content Article Body What are some ways ... way. Check your local library for books on parenting. Local hospitals, the YMCA, and church groups often ...

  14. Single spin magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  15. Single event mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  16. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  17. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity. PMID:23146658

  18. Single Cell Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin

    It is believed that cancer originates from a single cell that has gone through generations of evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that associate with the hallmarks of cancer. In some cancers such as various types of leukemia, cancer is clonal. Yet in other cancers like glioblastoma (GBM), there is tremendous tumor heterogeneity that is likely to be caused by simultaneous evolution of multiple subclones within the same tissue. It is obvious that understanding how a single cell develops into a clonal tumor upon genetic alterations, at molecular and cellular levels, holds the key to the real appreciation of tumor etiology and ultimate solution for therapeutics. Surprisingly very little is known about the process of spontaneous tumorigenesis from single cells in human or vertebrate animal models. The main reason is the lack of technology to track the natural process of single cell changes from a homeostatic state to a progressively cancerous state. Recently, we developed a patented compound, photoactivatable (''caged'') tamoxifen analogue 4-OHC and associated technique called optochemogenetic switch (OCG switch), which we believe opens the opportunity to address this urgent biological as well as clinical question about cancer. We propose to combine OCG switch with genetically engineered mouse models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and high grade astrocytoma (including GBM) to study how single cells, when transformed through acute loss of tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53 and gain of oncogenic KRAS, can develop into tumor colonies with cellular and molecular heterogeneity in these tissues. The abstract is for my invited talk in session ``Beyond Darwin: Evolution in Single Cells'' 3/18/2016 11:15 AM.

  19. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  20. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions...

  1. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  2. Single-particle entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Can, M. Ali; Klyachko, Alexander; SHUMOVSKY, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Using the approach to quantum entanglement based on the quantum fluctuations of observables, we show the existence of perfect entangled states of a single "spin-1" particle. We give physical examples related to the photons, condensed matter physics, and particle physics.

  3. Single password authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Küpçü, Alptekin; Acar, Tolga; Belenkiy, Mira

    2013-01-01

    Single Password Authentication Tolga Acar∗ Intel Corporation, Bellevue, WA, USA Mira Belenkiy Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA Alptekin K up c u† Ko c University, _Istanbul, TURKEY May 11, 2013 Abstract Users frequently reuse their passwords when authenticating to various online services. Com-bined with the use of weak passwords or honeypot/phishing attacks, this brings high risks to th...

  4. Single Mother's Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferando, Annette; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  5. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  6. Single photon and nonlocality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aurelien Drezet

    2007-03-01

    In a paper by Home and Agarwal [1], it is claimed that quantum nonlocality can be revealed in a simple interferometry experiment using only single particles. A critical analysis of the concept of hidden variable used by the authors of [1] shows that the reasoning is not correct.

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg;

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...

  8. The Age of Singles?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Weili

    2011-01-01

    IF she followed tradition,at 27,Ru Li should have been a housewife raising a baby,along with all of her friends.However the free-spirited woman is currently attending a training course for makeup and image design.The reason for her carefree life is that she is single.

  9. TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOER,D.

    2001-04-27

    The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.

  10. Single-molecule bioelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenstein, J.K.; Lemay, S.G.; Shepard, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental techniques that interface single biomolecules directly with microelectronic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of powerful applications, from fundamental studies of biomolecules to ultra-sensitive assays. In this study, we review several technologies that can perform el

  11. Beware the single hit!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The first time that single particle effects from cosmic rays on electronics were observed was in 1991, when one of the instruments aboard an ESA satellite broke down after only five days in space. On 5 July, the TS-LEA group will have completed the installation of monitors that will help to reduce similar dangerous effects on LHC electronics.

  12. Single-atom spintronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan Z. HUA; Matthew R. SULLIVAN; Jason N. ARMSTRONG

    2006-01-01

    Recent work on magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs) was discussed. Complete magnetoresistance loops across Co QPCs as small as a single atom was measured. The remarkable feature of these QPCs is the rapid oscillatory decay in magnetoresistance with the increase of contact size. In addition,stepwise or quantum magnetoresistance loops are observed,resulting from varying transmission probability of the available discrete conductance channels because the sample is cycled between the ferromagnetic (F) and antiferromagnetic (AF) aligned states. Quantized conductance combined with spin dependent transmission of electron waves gives rise to a multi-channel system with a quantum domain wall acting as a valve,i.e.,a quantum spin-valve. Behavior of a few-atom QPC is built on the behavior of a single-atom QPC and hence the summarization of results as 'single-atom spintronics'. An evolutionary trace of spin-dependent electron transmission from a single atom to bulk is provided,the requisite hallmarks of artefact-free magnetoresistance is established across a QPC - stepwise or quantum magnetoresistance loops and size dependent oscillatory magnetoresistance.

  13. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  14. From single molecule to single tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Biological systems often make decisions upon conformational changes and assembly of single molecules. In vivo, epithelial cells (such as the mammary gland cells) can respond to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, type I collagen (COL), and switch their morphology from a lobular lumen (100-200 micron) to a tubular lumen (1mm-1cm). However, how cells make such a morphogenetic decision through interactions with each other and with COL is unclear. Using a temporal control of cell-ECM interaction, we find that epithelial cells, in response to a fine-tuned percentage of type I collagen (COL) in ECM, develop various linear patterns. Remarkably, these patterns allow cells to self-assemble into a tubule of length ˜ 1cm and diameter ˜ 400 micron in the liquid phase (i.e., scaffold-free conditions). In contrast with conventional thought, the linear patterns arise through bi-directional transmission of traction force, but not through diffusible biochemical factors secreted by cells. In turn, the transmission of force evokes a long-range (˜ 600 micron) intercellular mechanical interaction. A feedback effect is encountered when the mechanical interaction modifies cell positioning and COL alignment. Micro-patterning experiments further reveal that such a feedback is a novel cell-number-dependent, rich-get-richer process, which allows cells to integrate mechanical interactions into long-range (> 1mm) linear coordination. Our results suggest a mechanism cells can use to form and coordinate long-range tubular patterns, independent of those controlled by diffusible biochemical factors, and provide a new strategy to engineer/regenerate epithelial organs using scaffold-free self-assembly methods.

  15. A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A SCIENTIST: AHMET HAMDİ TANPINAR / BİR SANATKÂRIN BİLİM ADAMI OLARAK PORTRESİ: AHMET HAMDİ TANPINAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yunus BALCI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar is a most known writerabout problems of the modern Turkish literature. He hasliterary works like poems, novels, stories and scientificworks like history of literature, monographic work andarticles on literature. But he always behaves as an artistwhen he writes scientifically. His works have some commonsources. Especially Bergson and Bachelard are twoimportant thinkers for Tanpınar’s works. But exceptthem, Tanpınar’s scientific works have very rich sources.He benefits from philosophical, sociological, psychologicalworks as a literature researcher. We can see this richsubstructure in his history of literature work XIX. AsırTürk Edebiyatı Tarihi, monographic work on Yahya KemalBeyatlı and scientific articles.

  16. Towards single molecule switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhong, Jian Qiang; Lin, Jia Dan; Hu, Wen Ping; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Wee, Andrew T S; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-21

    The concept of using single molecules as key building blocks for logic gates, diodes and transistors to perform basic functions of digital electronic devices at the molecular scale has been explored over the past decades. However, in addition to mimicking the basic functions of current silicon devices, molecules often possess unique properties that have no parallel in conventional materials and promise new hybrid devices with novel functions that cannot be achieved with equivalent solid-state devices. The most appealing example is the molecular switch. Over the past decade, molecular switches on surfaces have been intensely investigated. A variety of external stimuli such as light, electric field, temperature, tunneling electrons and even chemical stimulus have been used to activate these molecular switches between bistable or even multiple states by manipulating molecular conformations, dipole orientations, spin states, charge states and even chemical bond formation. The switching event can occur either on surfaces or in break junctions. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli, as investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) and the break junction technique. We begin by presenting the molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli that do not provide single molecule selectivity, referred to as non-selective switching. Special focus is then given to selective single molecule switching realized using the LT-STM tip on surfaces. Single molecule switches operated by different mechanisms are reviewed and discussed. Finally, molecular switches embedded in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and single molecule junctions are addressed. PMID:25757483

  17. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to...

  18. Single Capacitor Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2009-01-01

    In this work single capacitor paradox (a variation of the remarkable two capacitor paradox) is considered. Simply speaking in an ideal (without any electrical resistance and inductivity) electrical circuit with single charged capacitor and switch, by transition from initial, open state (switch in OFF position) in the final, closed state (switch in ON position), there is a total loss of the initial energy of the electrical field in condenser. Given energy loss can be simply explained without any dissipative effects (Joule heating or electromagnetic waves emission) by work of the electrical field by movement of the charge from one in the other plate of the capacitor. (Two capacitors paradox can be, obviously, explained in the analogous way.)

  19. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-03-18

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.

  20. Single incision laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Prasad

    2010-01-01

    As a complement to standard laparoscopic surgery and a safe alternative to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery,single incision laparoscopic surgery is gaining popularity.There are expensive ports,disposable hand instruments and flexible endoscopes that have been suggested to do this surgery and would increase the cost of operation.For a simple surgery like laparoscopic cholecystectomy,these extras are not needed and the surgery can be performed using standard ports,instruments and telescopes.Tri...

  1. Single-polariton optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan; Ciuti, Cristiano; Favero, Ivan

    2014-01-10

    This Letter investigates a hybrid quantum system combining cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics. The Hamiltonian problem of a photon mode coupled to a two-level atom via a Jaynes-Cummings coupling and to a mechanical mode via radiation pressure coupling is solved analytically. The atom-cavity polariton number operator commutes with the total Hamiltonian leading to an exact description in terms of tripartite atom-cavity-mechanics polarons. We demonstrate the possibility to obtain cooling of mechanical motion at the single-polariton level and describe the peculiar quantum statistics of phonons in such an unconventional regime. PMID:24483897

  2. [The single coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, F; Berzin, B; Rihani, R; Pecheux, M; Dutoit, A

    1992-04-01

    Single coronary artery is a fairly rare entity which may nevertheless be found in 0.4 per cent of coronary arteriograms. The authors report 3 cases seen in 2 departments of cardiology. In each patient, despite the existence of definite cardiovascular risk factors, this distribution was a factor worsening coronary ischemia, leading to complete thrombosis in one case. Although most often a chance discovery, a review of the literature justifies the attribution to this anomaly of the onset of angina, infarction or even sudden death. PMID:1642437

  3. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0010 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 1e-41 37% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0110 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0110 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 2e-45 46% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0039 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0039 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 7e-68 58% ...

  7. Single snapshot DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, P.; Yang, B.

    2010-10-01

    In array signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) estimation has been studied for decades. Many algorithms have been proposed and their performance has been studied thoroughly. Yet, most of these works are focused on the asymptotic case of a large number of snapshots. In automotive radar applications like driver assistance systems, however, only a small number of snapshots of the radar sensor array or, in the worst case, a single snapshot is available for DOA estimation. In this paper, we investigate and compare different DOA estimators with respect to their single snapshot performance. The main focus is on the estimation accuracy and the angular resolution in multi-target scenarios including difficult situations like correlated targets and large target power differences. We will show that some algorithms lose their ability to resolve targets or do not work properly at all. Other sophisticated algorithms do not show a superior performance as expected. It turns out that the deterministic maximum likelihood estimator is a good choice under these hard conditions.

  8. Single photons on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)

  9. Do Single Women Value Early Retirement more than Single Men?

    OpenAIRE

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that income and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than heal...

  10. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  11. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  12. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  13. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  14. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  15. Single-nucleon experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the Jefferson Lab low momentum transfer data on moments of the nucleon spin structure functions $g_1$ and $g_2$ and on single charged pion electroproduction off polarized proton and polarized neutron. A wealth of data is now available, while more is being analyzed or expected to be taken in the upcoming years. Given the low momentum transfer selected by the experiments, these data can be compared to calculations from Chiral Perturbation theory, the effective theory of strong force that should describe it at low momentum transfer. The data on various moments and the respective calculations do not consistently agree. In particular, experimental data for higher moments disagree with the calculations.The absence of contribution from the $\\Delta$ resonance in the various observables was expected to facilitate the calculations and hence make the theory predictions either more robust or valid over a larger $Q^2$ range. Such expectation is verified only for the Bjorken sum, but not for other observables in which the $\\Delta$ is suppressed. Preliminary results on pion electroproduction off polarized nucleons are also presented and compared to phenomenological models for which contributions from different resonances are varied. Chiral Perturbation calculations of these observables, while not yet available, would be valuable and, together with these data, would provide an extensive test of the effective theory.

  16. Single Molecule Mechanochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaowei; Zhang, Yanxing; Ho, Wilson; Wu, Ruqian; Ruqian Wu, Yanxing Zhang Team; Wilson Ho, Shaowei Li Team

    Mechanical forces can be used to trigger chemical reactions through bending and stretching of chemical bonds. Using the reciprocating movement of the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), mechanical energy can be provided to a single molecule sandwiched between the tip and substrate. When the mechanical pulse center was moved to the outer ring feature of a CO molecule, the reaction rate was significantly increased compared with bare Cu surface and over Au atoms. First, DFT calculations show that the presence of CO makes the Cu cavity more attractive toward H2 Second, H2 prefers the horizontal adsorption geometry in the Cu-Cu and Au-Cu cavities and no hybridization occurs between the antibonding states of H2 and states of Cu atoms. While H2 loses electrons from its bonding state in all three cavities, the filling of its anti-bonding state only occurs in the CO-Cu cavity. Both make the CO-Cu cavity much more effectively to chop the H2 molecule. Work was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Chemical Innovation on Chemistry at the Space-Time Limit (CaSTL) under Grant No. CHE-1414466.

  17. From single-cell transcriptomics to single-molecule counting

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Saiful

    2013-01-01

    RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology has been progressing so fast in the last few years and made it possible to perform transcriptome analysis at single-cell level that was even unimaginable a few years before. Nowadays, the importance of gene expression analysis at the single-cell level is increasingly appreciated for the study of complex heterogeneous tissue. Also, in order to solve the obscure and no consensus definition of cell types, the single-cell gene expression analysis ap...

  18. Single-nanowire photoelectrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yude; Liu, Chong; Brittman, Sarah; Tang, Jinyao; Fu, Anthony; Kornienko, Nikolay; Kong, Qiao; Yang, Peidong

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectrochemistry is one of several promising approaches for the realization of efficient solar-to-fuel conversion. Recent work has shown that photoelectrodes made of semiconductor nano-/microwire arrays can have better photoelectrochemical performance than their planar counterparts because of their unique properties, such as high surface area. Although considerable research effort has focused on studying wire arrays, the inhomogeneity in the geometry, doping, defects and catalyst loading present in such arrays can obscure the link between these properties and the photoelectrochemical performance of the wires, and correlating performance with the specific properties of individual wires is difficult because of ensemble averaging. Here, we show that a single-nanowire-based photoelectrode platform can be used to reliably probe the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of individual nanowires. We find that the photovoltage output of ensemble array samples can be limited by poorly performing individual wires, which highlights the importance of improving nanowire homogeneity within an array. Furthermore, the platform allows the flux of photogenerated electrons to be quantified as a function of the lengths and diameters of individual nanowires, and we find that the flux over the entire nanowire surface (7–30 electrons nm–2 s–1) is significantly reduced as compared with that of a planar analogue (∼1,200 electrons nm–2 s–1). Such characterization of the photogenerated carrier flux at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface is essential for designing nanowire photoelectrodes that match the activity of their loaded electrocatalysts.

  19. Do single women value early retirement more than single men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Anne Møller; Ejrnæs, Mette; Husted, Leif

    2005-01-01

    and health are important determinants of the retirement decision. Furthermore, we find substantial gender differences in the retirement pattern. Healthy single women value retirement more than healthy single men and are willing to reduce their disposable income to 74% of their previous income while......The focus of this paper is to analyse why a large fraction of single elderly people choose to retire early. A structural model directly based on the individual decision of labour supply is estimated on a sample of singles, where singles are defined as those who are living alone. We find that income...... men are willing to reduce the income to 81%. Men's retirement decision is mainly influenced by income and health, whereas women's retirement decision is also affected by education and unemployment experience...

  20. Single-Gender Schools Scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study on publicly run schools in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago which has found that, while single-sex schools may benefit female students who prefer a single-sex environment, they are not inherently beneficial for boys or most girls. While the findings are based on data from one Caribbean nation, experts say they…

  1. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is at this point excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron systems. As discussed here, such work has to date been carried out

  2. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinic...

  3. Ramsey interference with single photons

    CERN Document Server

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Ramelow, Sven; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Interferometry using discrete energy levels in nuclear, atomic or molecular systems is the foundation for a wide range of physical phenomena and enables powerful techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, Ramsey-based spectroscopy and laser/maser technology. It also plays a unique role in quantum information processing as qubits are realized as energy superposition states of single quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference of different energy states of single quanta of light in full analogy to energy levels of atoms or nuclear spins and implement a Ramsey interferometer with single photons. We experimentally generate energy superposition states of a single photon and manipulate them with unitary transformations to realize arbitrary projective measurements, which allows for the realization a high-visibility single-photon Ramsey interferometer. Our approach opens the path for frequency-encoded photonic qubits in quantum information processing and quantum communicati...

  4. Chemical Analysis of Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Laura M.; Kottegoda, Sumith; Phillips, K. Scott; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2008-07-01

    Chemical analysis of single cells requires methods for quickly and quantitatively detecting a diverse array of analytes from extremely small volumes (femtoliters to nanoliters) with very high sensitivity and selectivity. Microelectrophoretic separations, using both traditional capillary electrophoresis and emerging microfluidic methods, are well suited for handling the unique size of single cells and limited numbers of intracellular molecules. Numerous analytes, ranging from small molecules such as amino acids and neurotransmitters to large proteins and subcellular organelles, have been quantified in single cells using microelectrophoretic separation techniques. Microseparation techniques, coupled to varying detection schemes including absorbance and fluorescence detection, electrochemical detection, and mass spectrometry, have allowed researchers to examine a number of processes inside single cells. This review also touches on a promising direction in single cell cytometry: the development of microfluidics for integrated cellular manipulation, chemical processing, and separation of cellular contents.

  5. Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Philipp; Beck, Johannes; Steiner, Matthias; Rempp, Florian; Fedder, Helmut; Hemmer, Philip R; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Jelezko, Fedor

    2010-07-30

    Projective measurement of single electron and nuclear spins has evolved from a gedanken experiment to a problem relevant for applications in atomic-scale technologies like quantum computing. Although several approaches allow for detection of a spin of single atoms and molecules, multiple repetitions of the experiment that are usually required for achieving a detectable signal obscure the intrinsic quantum nature of the spin's behavior. We demonstrated single-shot, projective measurement of a single nuclear spin in diamond using a quantum nondemolition measurement scheme, which allows real-time observation of an individual nuclear spin's state in a room-temperature solid. Such an ideal measurement is crucial for realization of, for example, quantum error correction protocols in a quantum register. PMID:20595582

  6. Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hadfield, R H; Miller, A J; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W; Schwall, R E; Stevens, M J; Gruber, Steven S.; Hadfield, Robert H.; Miller, Aaron J.; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Schwall, Robert E.; Stevens, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) based on nanopatterned niobium nitride wires offer single photon counting at fast rates, low jitter, and low dark counts, from visible wavelengths well into the infrared. We demonstrate the first use of an SSPD, packaged in a commercial cryocooler, for single photon source characterization. The source is an optically pumped, microcavity-coupled InGaAs quantum dot, emitting single photons on demand at 902 nm. The SSPD replaces the second silicon Avalanche Photodiode (APD) in a Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometer measurement of the source second-order correlation function, g (2) (tau). The detection efficiency of the superconducting detector system is >2 % (coupling losses included). The SSPD system electronics jitter is 170 ps, versus 550 ps for the APD unit, allowing the source spontaneous emission lifetime to be measured with improved resolution.

  7. Single shot measurement of a silicon single electron transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Hasko, D. G.; Ferrus, T.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A; Creswell, L.; Collier, R J; Williams, D.A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated a custom cryogenic Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit that has a higher measurement bandwidth compared with conventional room temperature electronics. This allowed implementing single shot operations and observe the real-time evolution of the current of a phosphorous-doped silicon single electron transistor that was irradiated with a microwave pulse. Relaxation times up to 90 us are observed, suggesting the presence of well isolated electron e...

  8. Adverse selection without single crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The single-crossing assumption simplifies the analysis of screening models as local incentive compatibility becomes sufficient for global incentive compatibility. If single crossing is violated, global incentive compatibility constraints have to be taken into account. This paper studies monotone...... solutions in a screening model that allows a one-time violation of single crossing. The results show that local and non-local incentive constraints distort the solution in opposite directions. Therefore, the optimal decision might involve distortions above as well as below the first-best decision...

  9. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    OpenAIRE

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-01-01

    The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the stat...

  10. Sequestration and histopathology in Plasmodium chabaudi malaria are influenced by the immune response in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugat, Thibaut; Cunningham, Deirdre; Sodenkamp, Jan; Coomes, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Spence, Philip J; Jarra, William; Thompson, Joanne; Scudamore, Cheryl; Langhorne, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Infection with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is associated with a strong inflammatory response and parasite cytoadhesion (sequestration) in several organs. Here, we have carried out a systematic study of sequestration and histopathology during infection of C57Bl/6 mice with Plasmodium chabaudi AS and determined the influence of the immune response. This parasite sequesters predominantly in liver and lung, but not in the brain, kidney or gut. Histopathological changes occur in multiple organs during the acute infection, but are not restricted to the organs where sequestration takes place. Adaptive immunity, and signalling through the IFNγ receptor increased sequestration and histopathology in the liver, but not in the lung, suggesting that there are differences in the adhesion molecules and/or parasite ligands utilized and mechanisms of pathogenesis in these two organs. Exacerbation of pro-inflammatory responses during infection by deletion of the il10 gene resultsin the aggravation of damage to lung and kidney irrespective of the degree of sequestration. The immune response therefore affected both sequestration and histopathology in an organ-specific manner. P.  chabaudi AS provides a good model to investigate the influence of the host response on the sequestration and specific organ pathology, which is applicable to human malaria.

  11. Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Marieke A.; Mylonas, Katie J; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen J; Mahajan, Simmi M; Allen, Judith E.; Graham, Andrea L

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of several common species of parasitic nematodes obligately migrate through, and often damage, host lungs. The larvae induce strong pulmonary Type 2 immune responses, including T-helper (Th)2 cells as well as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMphi) and associated chitinase and Fizz/resistin family members (ChaFFs), which are thought to promote tissue repair processes. Given the prevalence of systemic or lung-resident Type 1-inducing pathogens in geographical areas in which nematod...

  12. Rapid Response to Selection, Competitive Release and Increased Transmission Potential of Artesunate-Selected Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Pollitt, Laura C.; Silvie Huijben; Sim, Derek G.; Salathé, Rahel M.; Jones, Matthew J.; Andrew F Read

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against di...

  13. Special Issue: Single Molecule Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans H. Gorris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in the detection and manipulation of single molecules have enabled new insights into the function, structure and interactions of biomolecules. This Special Issue was launched to account for the rapid progress in the field of “Single Molecule Techniques”. Four original research articles and seven review articles provide an introduction, as well as an in-depth discussion, of technical developments that are indispensable for the characterization of individual biomolecules. Fluorescence microscopy takes center stage in this Special Issue because it is one of the most sensitive and flexible techniques, which has been adapted in many variations to the specific demands of single molecule analysis. Two additional articles are dedicated to single molecule detection based on atomic force microscopy.

  14. Single-employer pension plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active single-employer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  15. CERN Single Sign On Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Ormancey, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his ...

  16. Future ISIS single crystal instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designs of two proposed new single crystal instruments for ISIS are described. The biological structures instrument DIBS will allow the study of large unit cell materials in reasonable counting times. HRED, the high resolution elastic diffractometer, will provide a single crystal instrument of resolution ΔQ/Q ∼ 10-3, increasing the available resolution for reciprocal space surveying by some 10-fold over that currently obtainable on SXD. (author)

  17. Single beam atom sorting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We create two overlapping one-dimensional optical lattices using a single laser beam, a spatial light modulator and a high numerical aperture lens. These lattices have the potential to trap single atoms, and using the dynamic capabilities of the spatial light modulator may shift and sort atoms to a minimum atom-atom separation of 1.52 μm. We show how a simple feedback circuit can compensate for the spatial light modulator's intensity modulation

  18. Single Page Web Applications Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Beda

    2015-01-01

    With the constant spread of internet access, the world of software is constantly transforming product shapes into services delivered via web browsers. Modern next generation web applications change the way browsers and users interact with servers. A lot of word scale services have already been delivered by top companies as Single Page Applications. Moving services online poses a big attention towards data protection and web application security. Single Page Application are exposed to server-s...

  19. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  20. Single-ZnO-Nanobelt-Based Single-Electron Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao-Fan; Xu, Zheng; Cao, Shuo; Qiu, Kang-Sheng; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Xi-Tian; Xu, Xiu-Lai

    2014-06-01

    We fabricate single electron transistors based on a single ZnO nanobelt using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The transport properties of the devices are characterized at room temperature and at low temperature (4.2 K). At room temperature, the source-drain current increases linearly as the bias voltage increases, indicating a good ohmic contact in the transistors. At 4.2 K, a Coulomb blockade regime is observed up to a bias voltage of a few millivolts. With scanning the back gate voltage, Coulomb oscillations can be clearly resolved with a period around 1 V. From the oscillations, the charging energy for the single electron transistor is calculated to be about 10 meV, which suggests that confined quantum dots exist with sizes around 35 nm in diameter. The irregular Coulomb diamonds are observed due to the multi-tunneling junctions between dots in the nanobelt.

  1. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon

    CERN Document Server

    Söllner, Immo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at GHz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on-chip in an opto-mechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new opto-mechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nano-fabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.

  2. A Novel Single-Switch Single-Stage Electronic Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Hua Zhu; Xing-Bi Chen; Hong-Sheng Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A single-stage single-switch high- frequency electronic ballast topology is presented. The circuit topology is the integration of a buck power- factor-correction (PFC) converter and a class E resonant inverter with only one active power switch. The buck converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode and at a fixed switching frequency, and constant duty cycle to achieve high power factor and it can be controlled easily. Detailed analysis of the operation and characteristics of the circuit is provided. Simulation results satisfy present standard require- ments.

  3. Single-Photon Imaging and Efficient Coupling to Single Plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Celebrano, M; Kukura, P; Agio, M; Renn, A; Goetzinger, S; Sandoghdar, V

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate strong coupling of single photons emitted by individual molecules at cryogenic and ambient conditions to individual nanoparticles. We provide images obtained both in transmission and reflection, where an efficiency greater than 55% was achieved in converting incident narrow-band photons to plasmon-polaritons (plasmons) of a silver nanoparticle. Our work paves the way to spectroscopy and microscopy of nano-objects with sub-shot noise beams of light and to triggered generation of single plasmons and electrons in a well-controlled manner.

  4. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  5. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    . The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed......In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  6. 18. sajandi teise poole Šoti valgustusliku arhitektuuri ideedest, nende retseptsioonist Vene keisrikojas ning baltisaksa kultuuriruumis / Epi Tohvri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tohvri, Epi, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Arhitektide Robert Adami (1728-1792), Charles Cameroni (1745-1812) ja William Hastie (Vassili Geste 1755-1832) loomingust. Šoti valgustusajastu olulisemad arhitektuuriideed. Robert Adami mõju Eestis mõisaarhitektuuris

  7. Single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Drezet, Aurelien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  8. Introduction: why analyze single cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Dino; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Gossett, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant; however, in many fields including hematology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and cancer biology, data from tools and assays that analyze the average signals from many cells may not yield the desired result because the cells of interest may be in the minority-their behavior masked by the majority-or because the dynamics of the populations of interest are offset in time. Accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. In this chapter, we discuss the rationale for performing analyses on individual cells in more depth, cover the fields of study in which single-cell behavior is yielding new insights into biological and clinical questions, and speculate on how single-cell analysis will be critical in the future.

  9. Polyamide 6 single polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining the two basic techniques used for the preparation of single polymer composites (SPCs, hot compaction and film stacking, a polyamide 6 (PA 6 single polymer composite was manufactured. The starting materials were PA 6 high tenacity yarn (reinforcement and PA 6 film prepared via melt quenching (matrix, both expected to be the two principal polymorphic modifications of PA 6 and thus differing in their melting temperatures. The prepared single polymer composite is characterized by a layered structure and shows superior mechanical properties due to the good wetting – tensile modulus is improved by 200% and the ultimate tensile strength – by 300–400% as compared to the isotropic matrix film. Improvement of the interfacial adhesion via transreactions promoted by Sb2O3 as a catalyst was also undertaken.

  10. Single Page Web Applications Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Beda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the constant spread of internet access, the world of software is constantly transforming product shapes into services delivered via web browsers. Modern next generation web applications change the way browsers and users interact with servers. A lot of word scale services have already been delivered by top companies as Single Page Applications. Moving services online poses a big attention towards data protection and web application security. Single Page Application are exposed to server-side web applications security in a new way. Also, having application logic being executed by untrusted client environment requires close attention on client application security. Single Page Applications are vulnerable to the same security threads as server-side web application thus not making them less secure. Defending techniques can be easily adapted to guard against hacker attacks.

  11. Single Particle Difraction at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M.; Boutet, S.; Starodub, Dmitri; Decorwin-Martin, Philippe; /SLAC; Chapman, H.; Bajt, S.; Schulz, J.; /DESY; Hajdu, Janos; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; /Uppsala U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /Tofwerk AG, Thun

    2010-06-11

    Single-pulse coherent diffraction patterns have been collected from randomly injected single particles with a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of the object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. A diffraction pattern of a single particle will only be recorded when the particle arrival into the FEL interaction region coincides with FEL pulse arrival and detector integration. The properties of the experimental apparatus coinciding with these three events set the data acquisition rate. For our single particle FLASH diffraction imaging experiments: (1) an aerodynamic lens stack prepared a particle beam that consisted of particles moving at 150-200 m/s positioned randomly in space and time, (2) the 10 fs long FEL pulses were delivered at a fixed rate, and (3) the detector was set to integrate and readout once every two seconds. The effect of these experimental parameters on the rate of data acquisition using randomly injected particles will be discussed. Overall, the ultrashort FEL pulses do not set the limit of the data acquisition, more important is the effective interaction time of the particle crossing the FEL focus, the pulse sequence structure and the detector readout rate. Example diffraction patterns of randomly injected ellipsoidal iron oxide nanoparticles in different orientations are presented. This is the first single particle diffraction data set of identical particles in different orientations collected on a shot-to-shot basis. This data set will be used to test algorithms for recovering 3D structure from single particle diffraction.

  12. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed......The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  13. Single Electron Transistor: Applications & Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to review in brief the basic physics of nanoelectronic device single-electron transistor [SET] as well as prospective applications and problems in their applications. SET functioning based on the controllable transfer of single electrons between small conducting "islands". The device properties dominated by the quantum mechanical properties of matter and provide new characteristics coulomb oscillation, coulomb blockade that is helpful in a number of applications. SET is able to shear domain with silicon transistor in near future and enhance the device density. Recent research in SET gives new ideas which are going to revolutionize the random access memory and digital data storage technologies.

  14. Single port Billroth I gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R Huddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experience has allowed increasingly complex procedures to be undertaken by single port surgery. We describe a technique for single port Billroth I gastrectomy with a hand-sewn intracorporeal anastomosis in the resection of a benign tumour diagnosed incidentally on a background of cholelithiasis. Materials and Methods: Single port Billroth I gastrectomy and cholecystectomy was performed using a transumbilical quadport. Flexible tipped camera and straight conventional instruments were used throughout the procedure. The stomach was mobilised including a limited lymph node dissection and resection margins in the proximal antrum and duodenum were divided with a flexible tipped laparoscopic stapler. The lesser curve was reconstructed and an intracorporal hand sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed using unidirectional barbed sutures. Intraoperative endoscopy confirmed the anastomosis to be patent without leak. Results: Enteral feed was started on the day of surgery, increasing to a full diet by day 6. Analgesic requirements were a patient-controlled analgesia morphine pump for 4 postoperative days and paracetamol for 6 days. There were no postoperative complications and the patient was discharged on the eighth day. Histology confirmed gastric submucosal lipoma. Discussion: As technology improves more complex procedures are possible by single port laparoscopic surgery. In this case, flexible tipped cameras and unidirectional barbed sutures have facilitated an intracorporal hand-sewn two layer end-to-end anastomosis. Experience will allow such techniques to become mainstream.

  15. Hologram of a single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Jachura, Michał; Banaszek, Konrad; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The spatial structure of single photons is becoming an extensively explored resource to facilitate free-space quantum communication and quantum computation as well as for benchmarking the limits of quantum entanglement generation with orbital angular momentum modes or reduction of the photon free-space propagation speed. Although accurate tailoring of the spatial structure of photons is now routinely performed using methods employed for shaping classical optical beams, the reciprocal problem of retrieving the spatial phase-amplitude structure of an unknown single photon cannot be solved using complementary classical holography techniques that are known for excellent interferometric precision. Here, we introduce a method to record a hologram of a single photon that is probed by another reference photon, on the basis of a different concept of the quantum interference between two-photon probability amplitudes. As for classical holograms, the hologram of a single photon encodes the full information about the photon's ‘shape’ (that is, its quantum wavefunction) whose local amplitude and phase are retrieved in the demonstrated experiment.

  16. Prospects of Single Tax Payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Ivan M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article speaks about problem aspects of taxation, which were set by the state for the single tax administering due to permanent and system changes in the tax legislation. It shows the necessity of search for alternative methods of administering in the process of taxation of single tax payers by fiscal services. The goal of the article is the study of prospects of further taxation of entrepreneurs – single tax payers on the basis of analysis of conditions and principles created by the state for the business. The article used methods of system analysis, comparison, forecasting and modelling. It analyses the process of evolution of the simplified taxation system, accounting and reporting from the moment of its adoption until today. The article presents the structure of the quantitative composition of single tax payers depending on the selected groups. It marks out and characterises administrative and fiscal factors that do not facilitate further development of entrepreneurship in Ukraine. In the result of the conducted studies the article outlines problem aspects of organisation of taxation of the small business and offers specific and real ways of their overcoming or partial solution.

  17. Single cell electroporation on chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valero, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the results of the development of microfluidic cell trap devices for single cell electroporation are described, which are to be used for gene transfection. The performance of two types of Lab-on-a-Chip trapping devices was tested using beads and cells, whereas the functionality for si

  18. CERN single sign on solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormancey, E.

    2008-07-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

  19. CERN single sign on solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page

  20. CERN single sign on solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormancey, E [System Architect, CERN IT/IS CERN, Route de Meyrin, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Emmanuel.Ormancey@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

  1. Femtosecond single-electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lahme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast electron diffraction allows the tracking of atomic motion in real time, but space charge effects within dense electron packets are a problem for temporal resolution. Here, we report on time-resolved pump-probe diffraction using femtosecond single-electron pulses that are free from intra-pulse Coulomb interactions over the entire trajectory from the source to the detector. Sufficient average electron current is achieved at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz. Thermal load on the sample is avoided by minimizing the pump-probe area and by maximizing heat diffusion. Time-resolved diffraction from fibrous graphite polycrystals reveals coherent acoustic phonons in a nanometer-thick grain ensemble with a signal-to-noise level comparable to conventional multi-electron experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility of pump-probe diffraction in the single-electron regime, where simulations indicate compressibility of the pulses down to few-femtosecond and attosecond duration.

  2. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Detecting itinerant single microwave photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyamoorthy, Sankar Raman; Stace, Thomas M.; Johansson, Göran

    2016-08-01

    Single-photon detectors are fundamental tools of investigation in quantum optics and play a central role in measurement theory and quantum informatics. Photodetectors based on different technologies exist at optical frequencies and much effort is currently being spent on pushing their efficiencies to meet the demands coming from the quantum computing and quantum communication proposals. In the microwave regime, however, a single-photon detector has remained elusive, although several theoretical proposals have been put forth. In this article, we review these recent proposals, especially focusing on non-destructive detectors of propagating microwave photons. These detection schemes using superconducting artificial atoms can reach detection efficiencies of 90% with the existing technologies and are ripe for experimental investigations. xml:lang="fr"

  4. Sr+ single-ion clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, P.; Madej, A. A.; Jian, B.

    2016-06-01

    The evaluated uncertainty of the 88Sr+ ion optical clock has decreased by several orders of magnitude during the last 15 years, currently reaching a level of 1.2 x 10-17. In this paper, we review the methods developed to control very effectively the largest frequency shifts that once were the main sources of uncertainty for the 88Sr+ single-ion clock. These shifts are the micromotion shifts, the electric quadrupole shift and the blackbody radiation shift. With further improvements to the evaluation of the systematic shifts, especially the blackbody radiation shift, it is expected that the total uncertainty of the single-ion clock transition frequency will reach the low 10-18 level in the near future.

  5. Teleportation using squeezed single photons

    OpenAIRE

    Branczyk, Agata M.; Ralph, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of squeezed single photon states as a resource for teleportation of coherent state qubits and propose proof-of-principle experiments for the demonstration of coherent state teleportation and entanglement swapping. We include an analysis of the squeezed vacuum as a simpler approximation to small-amplitude cat states. We also investigate the effects of imperfect sources and inefficient detection on the proposed experiments.

  6. Single mode levitation and translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A single frequency resonance mode is applied by a transducer to acoustically levitate an object within a chamber. This process allows smooth movement of the object and suppression of unwanted levitation modes that would urge the object to a different levitation position. A plunger forms one end of the chamber, and the frequency changes as the plunger moves. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the chamber, with the acoustic energy on opposite sides being substantially 180 degrees out of phase.

  7. Single-electron heat diode

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokola, Tomi; Ojanen, Teemu

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new functional nanoscale device, a single-electron heat diode, consisting of two quantum dots or metallic islands coupled to electronic reservoirs by tunnel contacts. Electron transport through the system is forbidden but the capacitive coupling between the two dots allows electronic fluctuations to transmit heat between the reservoirs. When the reservoir temperatures are biased in the forward direction, heat flow is enabled by a four-step sequential tunneling cycle, while in t...

  8. Single card PC compatible computer

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P K

    1994-01-01

    This report details the construction and assembly of a single Eurocard PC (AT) compatible computer. The card has a 80386SX processor, maths co-processor, floppy disk controller, IDE standard hard disk controller, two serial ports and a printer port. It is manufactured by DSP Design. The advantage of this design is that any type of interface can be designed and fitted to the computer. This report includes an interface for the Sonic Anemometer and the Magnavox MX4200 GPS navigation system....

  9. Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruoxue

    The ability to manipulate light in subwavelength photonic and plasmonic structures has shown great potentials in revolutionizing how information is generated, transformed and processed. Chemically synthesized nanowires, in particular, offers a unique toolbox not only for highly compact and integrated photonic modules and devices, including coherent and incoherent light sources, waveguides, photodetectors and photovoltaics, but also for new types of nanoscopic bio-probes for spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy and sensing. Such nanowire probes would enable us to carry out intracellular imaging and probing with high spatial resolution, monitor in-vivo biological processes within single living cells and greatly improve our fundamental understanding of cell functions, intracellular physiological processes, and cellular signal pathways. My work is aimed at developing a material and instrumental platform for such single nanowire probe. Successful optical integration of Ag nanowire plasmonic waveguides, which offers deep subwavelength mode confinement, and conventional photonic waveguides was demonstrated on a single nanowire level. The highest plasmonic-photonic coupling efficiency coupling was found at small coupling angles and low input frequencies. The frequency dependent propagation loss was observed in Ag nanowire and was confirmed by quantitative measurement and in agreement with theoretical expectations. Rational integration of dielectric and Ag nanowire waveguide components into hybrid optical-plasmonic routing devices has been demonstrated. This capability is essential for incorporating sub-100nm Ag nanowire waveguides into optical fiber based nanoprobes for single cell endoscopy. The nanoprobe system based on single nanowire waveguides was demonstrated by optically coupling semiconductor or metal nanowire with an optical fiber with tapered tip. This nanoprobe design requires minimal instrumentation which makes it cost efficient and readily

  10. Single electron relativistic clock interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushev, P. A.; Cole, J. H.; Sholokhov, D.; Kukharchyk, N.; Zych, M.

    2016-09-01

    Although time is one of the fundamental notions in physics, it does not have a unique description. In quantum theory time is a parameter ordering the succession of the probability amplitudes of a quantum system, while according to relativity theory each system experiences in general a different proper time, depending on the system's world line, due to time dilation. It is therefore of fundamental interest to test the notion of time in the regime where both quantum and relativistic effects play a role, for example, when different amplitudes of a single quantum clock experience different magnitudes of time dilation. Here we propose a realization of such an experiment with a single electron in a Penning trap. The clock can be implemented in the electronic spin precession and its time dilation then depends on the radial (cyclotron) state of the electron. We show that coherent manipulation and detection of the electron can be achieved already with present day technology. A single electron in a Penning trap is a technologically ready platform where the notion of time can be probed in a hitherto untested regime, where it requires a relativistic as well as quantum description.

  11. Experimental techniques for single cell and single molecule biomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, C.T. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)]. E-mail: ctlim@nus.edu.sg; Zhou, E.H. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, A. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Vedula, S.R.K. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Fu, H.X. [Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2006-09-15

    Stresses and strains that act on the human body can arise either from external physical forces or internal physiological environmental conditions. These biophysical interactions can occur not only at the musculoskeletal but also cellular and molecular levels and can determine the health and function of the human body. Here, we seek to investigate the structure-property-function relationship of cells and biomolecules so as to understand their important physiological functions as well as establish possible connections to human diseases. With the recent advancements in cell and molecular biology, biophysics and nanotechnology, several innovative and state-of-the-art experimental techniques and equipment have been developed to probe the structural and mechanical properties of biostructures from the micro- down to picoscale. Some of these experimental techniques include the optical or laser trap method, micropipette aspiration, step-pressure technique, atomic force microscopy and molecular force spectroscopy. In this article, we will review the basic principles and usage of these techniques to conduct single cell and single molecule biomechanics research.

  12. Single neuron dynamics and computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Nicolas; Hakim, Vincent; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2014-04-01

    At the single neuron level, information processing involves the transformation of input spike trains into an appropriate output spike train. Building upon the classical view of a neuron as a threshold device, models have been developed in recent years that take into account the diverse electrophysiological make-up of neurons and accurately describe their input-output relations. Here, we review these recent advances and survey the computational roles that they have uncovered for various electrophysiological properties, for dendritic arbor anatomy as well as for short-term synaptic plasticity.

  13. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  14. Mechanically worked single crystal article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M. L.; Giamei, A. F.

    1985-07-09

    A single crystal nickel base superalloy component, such as a gas turbine blade is mechanically deformed at elevated temperature to improve the yield strength of a portion which is used at temperatures below 800/sup 0/ C., compared to a portion which is used at a higher temperature. A blade has a root which is deformed by 2-14% at 700/sup 0/-1100/sup 0/ C. and an airfoil which is not deformed. The root yield strength is increased 15-50% while the airfoil creep strength is maintained.

  15. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  16. Single-metalloprotein wet biotransistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Andrea; Salerno, Marco; Frabboni, Stefano; Facci, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Metalloproteins are redox molecules naturally shuttling electrons with high efficiency between molecular partners. As such, they are candidates of choice for bioelectronics. In this work, we have used bacterial metalloprotein azurin, hosted in a nanometer gap between two electrically biased gold electrodes, to demonstrate an electrochemically gated single-molecule transistor operating in an aqueous environment. Gold-chemisorbed azurin shows peaks in tunneling current upon changing electrode potential and a related variation in tunneling barrier transparency which can be exploited to switch an electron current through it. These results suggest the wet approach to molecular electronics as a viable method for exploiting electron transfer of highly specialized biomolecules.

  17. Single-molecule stochastic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Manosas, M; Huguet, J M; Ritort, F; 10.1103/PhysRevX.2.031012

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a well known phenomenon in dynamical systems. It consists of the amplification and optimization of the response of a system assisted by stochastic noise. Here we carry out the first experimental study of SR in single DNA hairpins which exhibit cooperatively folding/unfolding transitions under the action of an applied oscillating mechanical force with optical tweezers. By varying the frequency of the force oscillation, we investigated the folding/unfolding kinetics of DNA hairpins in a periodically driven bistable free-energy potential. We measured several SR quantifiers under varied conditions of the experimental setup such as trap stiffness and length of the molecular handles used for single-molecule manipulation. We find that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spectral density of measured fluctuations in molecular extension of the DNA hairpins is a good quantifier of the SR. The frequency dependence of the SNR exhibits a peak at a frequency value given by the resonance match...

  18. Single-primer fluorescent sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, J.L.; Morgan, C.A.; Middendorf, L.R.; Grone, D.L.; Brumbaugh, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Modified linker arm oligonucleotides complementary to standard M13 priming sites were synthesized, labelled with either one, two, or three fluoresceins, and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. When used as primers in standard dideoxy M13 sequencing with /sup 32/P-dNTPs, normal autoradiographic patterns were obtained. To eliminate the radioactivity, direct on-line fluorescence detection was achieved by the use of a scanning 10 mW Argon laser emitting 488 nm light. Fluorescent bands were detected directly in standard 0.2 or 0.35 mm thick polyacrylamide gels at a distance of 24 cm from the loading wells by a photomultiplier tube filtered at 520 nm. Horizontal and temporal location of each band was displayed by computer as a band in real time, providing visual appearance similar to normal 4-lane autoradiograms. Using a single primer labelled with two fluoresceins, sequences of between 500 and 600 bases have been read in a single loading with better than 98% accuracy; up to 400 bases can be read reproducibly with no errors. More than 50 sequences have been determined by this method. This approach requires only 1-2 ug of cloned template, and produces continuous sequence data at about one band per minute.

  19. Magnetotransport of single crystalline YSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, N. J.; Botana, A. S.; Phelan, D.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-06-01

    We report magnetic field dependent transport measurements on a single crystal of cubic YSb together with first principles calculations of its electronic structure. The transverse magnetoresistance does not saturate up to 9 T and attains a value of 75 000% at 1.8 K. The Hall coefficient is electron-like at high temperature, changes sign to hole-like between 110 and 50 K, and again becomes electron-like below 50 K. First principles calculations show that YSb is a compensated semimetal with a qualitatively similar electronic structure to that of isostructural LaSb and LaBi, but with larger Fermi surface volume. The measured electron carrier density and Hall mobility calculated at 1.8 K, based on a single band approximation, are 6.5× {{10}20} cm‑3 and 6.2× {{10}4} cm2 Vs‑1, respectively. These values are comparable with those reported for LaBi and LaSb. Like LaBi and LaSb, YSb undergoes a magnetic field-induced metal-insulator-like transition below a characteristic temperature T m, with resistivity saturation below 13 K. Thickness dependent electrical resistance measurements show a deviation of the resistance behavior from that expected for a normal metal; however, they do not unambiguously establish surface conduction as the mechanism for the resistivity plateau.

  20. Magnetic levitation of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tekin, H Cumhur; Guven, Sinan; Sridhar, Kaushik; Arslan Yildiz, Ahu; Calibasi, Gizem; Ghiran, Ionita; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-14

    Several cellular events cause permanent or transient changes in inherent magnetic and density properties of cells. Characterizing these changes in cell populations is crucial to understand cellular heterogeneity in cancer, immune response, infectious diseases, drug resistance, and evolution. Although magnetic levitation has previously been used for macroscale objects, its use in life sciences has been hindered by the inability to levitate microscale objects and by the toxicity of metal salts previously applied for levitation. Here, we use magnetic levitation principles for biological characterization and monitoring of cells and cellular events. We demonstrate that each cell type (i.e., cancer, blood, bacteria, and yeast) has a characteristic levitation profile, which we distinguish at an unprecedented resolution of 1 × 10(-4) g ⋅ mL(-1). We have identified unique differences in levitation and density blueprints between breast, esophageal, colorectal, and nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines, as well as heterogeneity within these seemingly homogenous cell populations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that changes in cellular density and levitation profiles can be monitored in real time at single-cell resolution, allowing quantification of heterogeneous temporal responses of each cell to environmental stressors. These data establish density as a powerful biomarker for investigating living systems and their responses. Thereby, our method enables rapid, density-based imaging and profiling of single cells with intriguing applications, such as label-free identification and monitoring of heterogeneous biological changes under various physiological conditions, including antibiotic or cancer treatment in personalized medicine. PMID:26124131

  1. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins but that in the limit of a small longitudinal momentum fraction x , only one origin remains. We find that in this limit, only the dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small x , they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small x is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons.

  2. Single spin asymmetries from a single Wilson loop

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniël; Mulders, Piet; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins, but that in the limit of small longitudinal momentum fraction $x$ only one origin remains. We find that in this limit only the $C$-odd or dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small $x$ they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small $x$ is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons.

  3. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Echevarria, Miguel G; Mulders, Piet J; Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins but that in the limit of a small longitudinal momentum fraction x, only one origin remains. We find that in this limit, only the dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small x, they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small x is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons. PMID:27058070

  4. Trapping of Single Atoms with Single Photons in Cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, A C; Hood, C J; Kimble, H J

    2000-01-01

    Two recent experiments have reported the trapping of individual atoms inside optical resonators by the mechanical forces associated with single photons [Hood et al., Science 287, 1447 (2000) and Pinkse et al., Nature 404, 365 (2000)]. Here we analyze the trapping dynamics in these settings, focusing on two points of interest. Firstly, we investigate the extent to which light-induced forces in these experiments are distinct from their free-space counterparts. Secondly, we explore the quantitative features of the resulting atomic motion and how these dynamics are mapped onto variations of the intracavity field. Not surprisingly, qualitatively distinct atomic dynamics arise as the coupling and dissipative rates are varied. For the experiment of Hood et al., we show that atomic motion is largely conservative and is predominantly in radial orbits transverse to the cavity axis. A comparison with the free-space theory demonstrates that the fluctuations of the dipole force are suppressed by an order of magnitude. Thi...

  5. Single photon emission computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis two single-photon emission tomographic techniques are presented: (a) longitudinal tomography with a rotating slanting-hole collimator, and (b) transversal tomography with a rotating gamma camera. These methods overcome the disadvantages of conventional scintigraphy. Both detection systems and the image construction methods are explained and comparisons with conventional scintigraphy are drawn. One chapter is dedicated to the determination of system parameters like spatial resolution, contrast, detector uniformity, and size of the object, by phantom studies. In separate chapters the results are presented of detection of tumors and metastases in the liver and the liver hilus; skeletal diseases; various pathological aberrations of the brain; and myocardial perfusion. The possible use of these two ect's for other organs and body areas is discussed in the last chapter. (Auth.)

  6. The Single-Photon Router

    CERN Document Server

    Hoi, Io-Chun; Johansson, Göran; Palomaki, Tauno; Peropadre, Borja; Delsing, Per

    2011-01-01

    We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting "transmon" qubit, in an open transmission line and investigated the strong scattering of incident microwave photons ($\\sim6$ GHz). When an input coherent state, with an average photon number $N\\ll1$ is on resonance with the artificial atom, we observe extinction of up to 90% in the forward propagating field. We use two-tone spectroscopy to study scattering from excited states and we observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We then use EIT to make a single-photon router, where we can control to what output port an incoming signal is delivered. The maximum on-off ratio is around 90% with a rise and fall time on the order of nanoseconds, consistent with theoretical expectations. The router can easily be extended to have multiple output ports and it can be viewed as a rudimentary quantum node, an important step towards building quantum information networks.

  7. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  8. Spectral compression of single photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoie, Jonathan; Wright, Logan G; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Resch, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Photons are critical to quantum technologies since they can be used for virtually all quantum information tasks: in quantum metrology, as the information carrier in photonic quantum computation, as a mediator in hybrid systems, and to establish long distance networks. The physical characteristics of photons in these applications differ drastically; spectral bandwidths span 12 orders of magnitude from 50 THz for quantum-optical coherence tomography to 50 Hz for certain quantum memories. Combining these technologies requires coherent interfaces that reversibly map centre frequencies and bandwidths of photons to avoid excessive loss. Here we demonstrate bandwidth compression of single photons by a factor 40 and tunability over a range 70 times that bandwidth via sum-frequency generation with chirped laser pulses. This constitutes a time-to-frequency interface for light capable of converting time-bin to colour entanglement and enables ultrafast timing measurements. It is a step toward arbitrary waveform generatio...

  9. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 μHy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode

  10. Electrochemical detection of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, F R; Bard, A J

    1995-02-10

    The electrochemical behavior of a single molecule can be observed by trapping a small volume of a dilute solution of the electroactive species between an ultramicroelectrode tip with a diameter of approximately 15 nanometers and a conductive substrate. A scanning electrochemical microscope was used to adjust the tip-substrate distance ( approximately 10 nanometers), and the oxidation of [(trimethylammonio)methyl] ferrocene (Cp(2)FeTMA(+)) to Cp(2)FeTMA(2+) was carried out. The response was stochastic, and anodic current peaks were observed as the molecule moved into and out of the electrode-substrate gap. Similar experiments were performed with a solution containing two redox species, ferrocene carboxylate (Cp(2)FeCOO(-)) and Os(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridyl). PMID:17813918

  11. Single-bunch kicker pulser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    The single-bunch kicker magnet is powered by a capacitor discharge pulser. The ferrite-core magnet is used to kick out one of twelve proton bunches circulating in the AGS (Alternating Gradient Synchrotron) into the experimental area. The magnet current pulse has a half-sinusoid shape, with a peak current of 2800 A. The pulse current rises and falls to zero, with minimum undershoot, in 410 nsec to minimize effects on adjacent bunches. The magnet inductance is 1.0 ..mu..Hy. The pulser is mounted on the kicker magnet in the AGS ring, and is exposed to ionizing radiation. The HVDC power supply, controls, monitoring, and auxiliary circuits are housed approximately 300 feet away external to the ring. A two-gap thyratron is used to discharge the energy storage capacitor. Two hydrogen diodes are series connected to function as an inverse diode.

  12. Single-cycle nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik; Goulielmakis, E.; Schultze, M.; Hofstetter, M.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Gagnon, J.; Uiberacker, M.; Aquila, A. L.; gullikson, E. M.; attwood, D. T.; Kienberger, R.; Krausz, F.; Kleineberg, U.

    2008-11-05

    Nonlinear optics plays a central role in the advancement of optical science and laser-based technologies. We report on the confinement of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter to a single wave cycle and demonstrate its utility for time-resolved and strong-field science. The electric field of 3.3-femtosecond, 0.72-micron laser pulses with a controlled and measured waveform ionizes atoms near the crests of the central wave cycle, with ionization being virtually switched off outside this interval. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulses of extreme ultraviolet light (photon energy {approx} 80 electron volts), containing {approx} 0.5 nanojoule of energy, emerge from the interaction with a conversion efficiency of {approx} 10{sup -6}. These tools enable the study of the precision control of electron motion with light fields and electron-electron interactions with a resolution approaching the atomic unit of time ({approx} 24 attoseconds).

  13. Single-port laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Anthony Y; Selzer, Don J

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery performed through a single-incision is gaining popularity. The demand from the public for even less invasive procedures will motivate surgeons, industry, and academic centers to explore the possibilities and refine the technology. Although the idea seems quite attractive, there are several technological obstacles that are yet to be conquered by improved technology or additional training. The question of safety has yet to be answered and will require well-designed randomized control trials. Opponents to the approach argue that the size of the single incision (see Table 1) is frequently larger than all the standard laparoscopy incisions combined. On the other hand, proponents remember a similar argument from traditional open surgeons during the initial development of laparoscopy. That argument was quickly discredited when the immediate benefits oflaparoscopy were compared with patients undergoing surgery with small laparotomy incisions. During the development of a new technique, the learning curve exposes patients to risk and society to expense. LESS pioneers appear to have reached a level of comfort with technology and techniques that paves the way for scientific scrutiny. Perhaps, the surgical community will capitalize on this situation with randomized, controlled studies and sound evidence to support or refute the benefits of LESS. If we do not seize this opportunity, patient demand and industry's dual edge message of financial success versus fear of losing referrals will lead to a scenario similar to the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 1990s. Regardless of its future, the surgical community will still benefit from a renewed excitement as surgeons aim to continually reduce the amount of pain and trauma our patients must endure. In addition, technological advances on instrumentation will benefit the field of laparoscopy and improve patient care.

  14. The Single Parent and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Alvin L.; Moen, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    Single parent families are misrepresented to the general public and to themselves. Issues change focus if one views single parenthood as a normal and permanent feature of our social landscape. (Author/EB)

  15. Stacking fault energy in some single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya M.Vora

    2012-01-01

    The stacking fault energy of single crystals has been reported using the peak shift method.Presently studied all single crystals are grown by using a direct vapor transport (DVT) technique in the laboratory.The structural characterizations of these crystals are made by XRD.Considerable variations are shown in deformation (α) and growth (β) probabilities in single crystals due to off-stoichiometry,which possesses the stacking fault in the single crystal.

  16. Direct imaging of single UvrD helicase dynamics on long single-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Balci, Hamza; Jia, Haifeng; Lohman, Timothy M.; Ha, Taekjip

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of single-protein dynamics on DNA has been largely limited to double-stranded DNA or short single-stranded DNA. We have developed a hybrid approach for observing single proteins moving on laterally stretched kilobase-sized ssDNA. Here we probed the single-stranded DNA translocase activity of Escherichia coli UvrD by single fluorophore tracking, while monitoring DNA unwinding activity with optical tweezers to capture the entire sequence of protein binding, single-stranded ...

  17. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is ineffective…

  18. The Advantages of Single-Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, single-sex education has been provided in the form of private schooling. Title IX regulations have loosened as a result of the No Child Left Behind Legislation; therefore, public school districts now have the legal right to create single-sex classes or single-sex schools if they deem it to be in the best interest of their students.…

  19. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  20. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  1. Engineered Quantum Dot Single Photon Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, Sonia; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Fast, high efficiency, and low error single photon sources are required for implementation of a number of quantum information processing applications. The fastest triggered single photon sources to date have been demonstrated using epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which can be conveniently integrated with optical microcavities. Recent advances in QD technology, including demonstrations of high temperature and telecommunications wavelength single photon emission, have made QD single photon sources more practical. Here we discuss the applications of single photon sources and their various requirements, before reviewing the progress made on a quantum dot platform in meeting these requirements.

  2. Single-photon emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Karolien; van Laere, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a functional nuclear imaging technique that allows visualization and quantification of different in vivo physiologic and pathologic features of brain neurobiology. It has been used for many years in diagnosis of several neurologic and psychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we discuss the current state-of-the-art of SPECT imaging of brain perfusion and dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging plays an important role in the localization of the seizure onset zone in patients with refractory epilepsy. In cerebrovascular disease, it can be useful in determining the cerebrovascular reserve. After traumatic brain injury, SPECT has shown perfusion abnormalities despite normal morphology. In the context of organ donation, the diagnosis of brain death can be made with high accuracy. In neurodegeneration, while amyloid or (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are the nuclear diagnostic tools of preference for early and differential diagnosis of dementia, perfusion SPECT imaging can be useful, albeit with slightly lower accuracy. SPECT imaging of the dopamine transporter system is widely available in Europe and Asia, but since recently also in the USA, and has been accepted as an important diagnostic tool in the early and differential diagnosis of parkinsonism in patients with unclear clinical features. The combination of perfusion SPECT (or FDG-PET) and DAT imaging provides differential diagnosis between idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Parkinson-plus syndromes, dementia with Lewy bodies, and essential tremor. PMID:27432669

  3. Prions: Beyond a Single Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Alvin S; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2016-07-01

    Since the term protein was first coined in 1838 and protein was discovered to be the essential component of fibrin and albumin, all cellular proteins were presumed to play beneficial roles in plants and mammals. However, in 1967, Griffith proposed that proteins could be infectious pathogens and postulated their involvement in scrapie, a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goats and sheep. Nevertheless, this novel hypothesis had not been evidenced until 1982, when Prusiner and coworkers purified infectious particles from scrapie-infected hamster brains and demonstrated that they consisted of a specific protein that he called a "prion." Unprecedentedly, the infectious prion pathogen is actually derived from its endogenous cellular form in the central nervous system. Unlike other infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, prions do not contain genetic materials such as DNA or RNA. The unique traits and genetic information of prions are believed to be encoded within the conformational structure and posttranslational modifications of the proteins. Remarkably, prion-like behavior has been recently observed in other cellular proteins-not only in pathogenic roles but also serving physiological functions. The significance of these fascinating developments in prion biology is far beyond the scope of a single cellular protein and its related disease. PMID:27226089

  4. Improved single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1998-12-09

    Building on recent work by N. Arkani-Hamed and the present authors, we construct realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single strongly-coupled sector. The most important improvement compared to earlier models is that the second-generation composite states correspond to dimension-2 ''meson'' operators in the ultraviolet. This leads to a higher scale for flavor physics, and gives a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. We also construct models in which the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. These models provide an interesting and viable alternative to gravity- and gauge-mediated models. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation squark and slepton masses. We also analyze large classes of models that give rise to both compositeness and supersymmetry breaking, based on gauge theories with confining, fixed-point, or free-magnetic dynamics.

  5. Single-cell semiconductor sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Andrea B; Moroz, Tatiana P; Barnes, Jeffrey P; Netherton, Mandy; Moroz, Leonid L

    2013-01-01

    RNA-seq or transcriptome analysis of individual cells and small-cell populations is essential for virtually any biomedical field. It is especially critical for developmental, aging, and cancer biology as well as neuroscience where the enormous heterogeneity of cells present a significant methodological and conceptual challenge. Here we present two methods that allow for fast and cost-efficient transcriptome sequencing from ultra-small amounts of tissue or even from individual cells using semiconductor sequencing technology (Ion Torrent, Life Technologies). The first method is a reduced representation sequencing which maximizes capture of RNAs and preserves transcripts' directionality. The second, a template-switch protocol, is designed for small mammalian neurons. Both protocols, from cell/tissue isolation to final sequence data, take up to 4 days. The efficiency of these protocols has been validated with single hippocampal neurons and various invertebrate tissues including individually identified neurons within a simpler memory-forming circuit of Aplysia californica and early (1-, 2-, 4-, 8-cells) embryonic and developmental stages from basal metazoans.

  6. Single Molecule Studies of Chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeans, C; Thelen, M P; Noy, A

    2006-02-06

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged as chromatin, a highly ordered structure formed through the wrapping of the DNA around histone proteins, and further packed through interactions with a number of other proteins. In order for processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription to occur, the structure of chromatin must be remodeled such that the necessary enzymes can access the DNA. A number of remodeling enzymes have been described, but our understanding of the remodeling process is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the fine structure of chromatin, and how this structure is modulated in the living cell. We have carried out single molecule experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the packaging arrangements in chromatin from a variety of cell types. Comparison of the structures observed reveals differences which can be explained in terms of the cell type and its transcriptional activity. During the course of this project, sample preparation and AFM techniques were developed and optimized. Several opportunities for follow-up work are outlined which could provide further insight into the dynamic structural rearrangements of chromatin.

  7. Single-Scale Natural SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    We consider the prospects for natural SUSY models consistent with current data. Recent constraints make the standard paradigm unnatural so we consider what could be a minimal extension consistent with what we now know. The most promising such scenarios extend the MSSM with new tree-level Higgs interactions that can lift its mass to at least 125 GeV and also allow for flavor-dependent soft terms so that the third generation squarks are lighter than current bounds on the first and second generation squarks. We argue that a common feature of almost all such models is the need for a new scale near 10 TeV, such as a scale of Higgsing or confinement of a new gauge group. We consider the question whether such a model can naturally derive from a single mass scale associated with supersymmetry breaking. Most such models simply postulate new scales, leaving their proximity to the scale of MSSM soft terms a mystery. This coincidence problem may be thought of as a mild tuning, analogous to the usual mu problem. We find t...

  8. Pair Tunneling through Single Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikh, Mikhail

    2007-03-01

    Coupling to molecular vibrations induces a polaronic shift, and can lead to a negative charging energy, U. For negative U, the occupation of the ground state of the molecule is even. In this situation, virtual pair transitions between the molecule and the leads can dominate electron transport. At low temperature, T, these transitions give rise to the charge-Kondo effect [1]. We developed the electron transport theory through the negative-U molecule [2] at relatively high T, when the Kondo correlations are suppressed. Two physical ingredients distinguish our theory from the transport through a superconducting grain coupled to the normal leads [3]: (i) in parallel with sequential pair-tunneling processes, single-particle cotunneling processes take place; (ii) the electron pair on the molecule can be created (or annihilated) by two electrons tunneling in from (or out to) opposite leads. We found that, even within the rate-equation description, the behavior of differential conductance through the negative-U molecule as function of the gate voltage is quite peculiar: the height of the peak near the degeneracy point is independent of temperature, while its width is proportional to T. This is in contrast to the ordinary Coulomb-blockade conductance peak, whose integral strength is T-independent. At finite source-drain bias, V>>T, the width of the conductance peak is ˜V, whereas the conventional Coulomb-blockade peak at finite V splits into two sharp peaks at detunings V/2, and -V/2. Possible applications to the gate-controlled current rectification and switching will be discussed. [1] A. Taraphder and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2814 (1991). [2] J. Koch, M. E. Raikh, and F. von Oppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 056803 (2006). [3] F. W. J. Hekking, L. I. Glazman, K. A. Matveev, and R. I. Shekhter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4138 (1993).

  9. Evaluation of Pain in Single and Multi Rooted Teeth Treated in Single Visit Endodontic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, T B V G; Seshadri, Abitha; Vamsipavani, B; Abhilash, K; Subhash, A V; Kumari, K.V Halini

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of post-operative pain was compared following single-visit canal treatment in single- and multi-rooted teeth, with and without periapical radiolucency. The article also reviews the issues of postoperative pain and healing, following single-visit and multi-visit endodontic therapy. Single-visit endodontic therapy (SVE) was performed in 50 single-rooted teeth and 60 multiple-rooted teeth.

  10. Formal and Informal Support Systems for Single Women and Single Mothers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Endut Noraida; Azmawati Azman Azwan; Mohd Hashim Intan Hashimah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how formal and informal supports were being experienced by single women and single mothers in Malaysia. Closely examining formal and informal support systems reported by single mothers and single women in Malaysia, participants generally reported good and were mainly satisfied with their informal support system. Informal support system comprised of mostly family members and friends. However, formal support system was still lacking and both single women and ...

  11. The influence of single parenthood on the social needs of the single parent

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysia F. Antonopoulou

    2012-01-01

    The changes occurring in the socio-economic situation in our country shape the environment that single - parent families experience. The treatment of single- parent families as a factor of economic and social development is a key objective in a state with a social character. AIM: The aim of this study was to research the phenomenon of single- parent families in Greece, and the effect of single parenthood on the social needs of the single parent. MATERIAL-METHOD: A specially designed, anonymou...

  12. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γsubstrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by the jet flow and the flow induced by the bubble wall oscillation. Furthermore, the observations reveal that the extent of direct bubble gas phase contact to the solid is partially smaller than the

  13. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Mansy, Sheref S.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed.

  14. Model Protocells from Single-Chain Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheref S. Mansy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed.

  15. Model protocells from single-chain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Sheref S

    2009-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in the construction of laboratory models of protocells. Most frequently the developed vesicle systems utilize single-chain lipids rather than the double-chain lipids typically found in biological membranes. Although single-chain lipids yield less robust vesicles, their dynamic characteristics are highly exploitable for protocellular functions. Herein the advantages of using single-chain lipids in the construction of protocells are discussed. PMID:19399223

  16. Gambaran Kepuasan Berwirausaha pada Wanita Single Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilah, Siti

    2014-01-01

    In general, the financial situation of a single mother less than adequate to fill their needs than when they have a husband. Entrepreneurship may be an option for single mother to fill their needs. When entrepreneur can handle the business they want smoothly and properly, they will feel the satisfaction on entrepreneurship. However, from the facts found in the literature and field study, there were some differences in the satisfaction of entrepreneurship on single mothers because of several t...

  17. Single parenthood in the government welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    EWA JURCZYK-ROMANOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Reflections on the subject of government welfare system aimed at single parents are presented in the article. Changes of civilisation are a cause of an escalation of the phenomenon of single parenthood in Poland, with the number of divorces rising year by year and an increase in the number of people who decide to live in concubinates or become single parents of children born out of wedlock. The withdrawal of the government from numerous forms of support for that social group is...

  18. Making "Operations" inside a Single Molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Free and delicate manipulation of single molecules has long been expected by scientists so as to realize specific functions. In the 1990s, the laboratory led by Prof. Wison Ho from the University of California was successful in inducing chemical reactions at the single molecule level with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), revealing the extensive potentials of "single molecule operation." However, until recently, researchers have failed to utilize the reaction to give rise to special physical properties.

  19. Ideologies of motherhood and single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hagan, Clare

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the situation of lone parents in contemporay Ireland, in particular the workings of ideologies of motherhood and the family through different sites, contexts and institutions in order to determine the impact of these ideologies on single mothers' lives. Specifically, the number of single mothers, ideologies of motherhood and the family, the influence of Church, State and New Right and Irish social policy are examined, and their combined impact on Irish single mothers is ...

  20. Single top quark production with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccolo Davide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.

  1. Search for Single Top Production at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    Single top production in e^+e^- annihilations is searched for in data collected by the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies from 189 to 209 GeV, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 634 pb-1. Investigating hadronic and semileptonic top decays, no evidence of single top production at LEP is obtained and upper limits on the single top cross section as a function of the centre-of-mass energy are derived. Limits on possible anomalous couplings, as well as on the scale of contact interactions responsible for single top production are determined.

  2. Single-molecule pulling: phenomenology and interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Ignacio; Schatz, George C

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule pulling techniques have emerged as versatile tools for probing the noncovalent forces holding together the secondary and tertiary structure of macromolecules. They also constitute a way to study at the single-molecule level processes that are familiar from our macroscopic thermodynamic experience. In this Chapter, we summarize the essential phenomenology that is typically observed during single-molecule pulling, provide a general statistical mechanical framework for the interpretation of the equilibrium force spectroscopy and illustrate how to simulate single-molecule pulling experiments using molecular dynamics.

  3. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; L(U) Jun-Hong; LI Hai-Kuo; AN Hong-Jie; WANG Guo-Hua; WANG Ying; LI Min-Qian; ZHANG Yi; LI Bin

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as "cutting", "pushing", "folding", "kneading", "picking up", "dipping", etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed.

  4. Heralded photonic interaction between distant single ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, M; Huwer, J; Kurz, C; Müller, P; Eschner, J

    2013-05-24

    We establish a heralded interaction between two remotely trapped single (40)Ca(+) ions through the exchange of single photons. In the sender ion, we release single photons with a controlled temporal shape on the P(3/2) to D(5/2) transition and transmit them to the distant receiver ion. Individual absorption events in the receiver ion are detected by quantum jumps. For continuously generated photons, the absorption reduces significantly the lifetime of the long-lived D(5/2) state. For triggered single-photon transmission, we observe a coincidence between the emission at the sender and quantum jump events at the receiver. PMID:23745873

  5. Analysis Of Single Phase Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Ahirrao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents concept of single phase matrix converter. Single phase matrix converter (SPMC performs a function such as frequency changer, rectifier, inverter; chopper. This reduces the need for new converter hardware. Pulse width modulation (SPWM techniques are used to calculate the switch duty ratio to synthesis the output. The simulation of converter is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Hardware design is obtained using readily available IC‟s and other components. This paper discusses the new multiple converter for single phase input using matrix topology using just a single control logic.

  6. Single Top Physics at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    zur Nedden, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A summary over the single top analyses in the ATLAS and CMS experiments is given. In this talk, the measurements of the single top cross sections in the t-channel, the Wt-channel and the s-channel are shown as the basis for a rich physics program with single top quarks. After discussing also the differential and fiducial cross sections and the V_tb properties, the single-top analyses are used as the bases for searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Searches for Mono-tops, Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and anomalous couplings are discussed.

  7. Single-Gender Education: Educators' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of educator's views regarding single-gender education was the basis of this study. The significance of the intended study is to show the educator's view of single-gender education as it relates to student academic achievement and behavioral incidents. A quantitative study was conducted utilizing a sample population of regular and…

  8. Single Chromatin Fibre Assembly Using Optical Tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, M.L.; Pope, L.H.; Leuba, S.H.; Grooth, de B.G.; Greve, J.

    2001-01-01

    Here we observe the formation of a single chromatin fibre using optical tweezers. A single -DNA molecule was suspended between two micron-sized beads, one held by a micropipette and the other in an optical trap. The constrained DNA molecule was incubated with Xenopus laevis egg extract in order to r

  9. Hiding Single Photons With Spread Spectrum Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Belthangady, Chinmay; Yu, Ite A; Yin, G Y; Kahn, J M; Harris, S E

    2010-01-01

    We describe a proof-of-principal experiment demonstrating the use of spread spectrum technology at the single photon level. We show how single photons with a prescribed temporal shape, in the presence of interfering noise, may be hidden and recovered.

  10. Economic Aspects of Single Parenthood in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1985-01-01

    Estimated single parenthood rates in Chicago in 1970 and 1980. Single parenthood was related to both low earning ability and very high earning ability. The former was affected by low educational levels and high unemployment. The latter was caused by an increase in women's earning ability. (BH)

  11. Single Parent Families: Diversity, Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Shirley M. H., Ed.; And Others

    Major changes are taking place in western families which affect the way professionals interact with families. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of scholars, this book presents a synthesis of the demographic, theoretical, and research data on the various permutations of the single parent family. Topics include economics, single custodial or…

  12. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  13. Integrated Electrowetting Nanoinjector for Single Cell Transfection

    OpenAIRE

    Elaheh Shekaramiz; Ganeshkumar Varadarajalu; Day, Philip J.; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell transfection techniques are essential to understand the heterogeneity between cells. We have developed an integrated electrowetting nanoinjector (INENI) to transfect single cells. The high transfection efficiency, controlled dosage delivery and ease of INENI fabrication promote the widespread application of the INENI in cell transfection assays.

  14. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  15. Single-Sex Schooling and Women's Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Patricia A.

    Rarely when single-sex Catholic secondary schools convert to coed school organization is the potential loss of gender-specific benefits addressed. Since the movement to coeducation is seldom accompanied by the return of a "converted" school to single-sex status, the incalculable loss to the traditional gender diversity of school organization is…

  16. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.

  17. Chemical principles of single-molecule electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Timothy A.; Neupane, Madhav; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Venkataraman, Latha; Nuckolls, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The field of single-molecule electronics harnesses expertise from engineering, physics and chemistry to realize circuit elements at the limit of miniaturization; it is a subfield of nanoelectronics in which the electronic components are single molecules. In this Review, we survey the field from a chemical perspective and discuss the structure-property relationships of the three components that form a single-molecule junction: the anchor, the electrode and the molecular bridge. The spatial orientation and electronic coupling between each component profoundly affect the conductance properties and functions of the single-molecule device. We describe the design principles of the anchor group, the influence of the electronic configuration of the electrode and the effect of manipulating the structure of the molecular backbone and of its substituent groups. We discuss single-molecule conductance switches as well as the phenomenon of quantum interference and then trace their fundamental roots back to chemical principles.

  18. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamics of single-photon absorption by a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide that simultaneously provides channels for spontaneous emission (SE) decay and a channel for the input photon. We have developed a time-dependent theory that allows us to specify any input ...... can be improved by a further 4% by engineering the dispersion. Efficient single-photon absorption by a single emitter has potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation....

  19. Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to 1D nanophotonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption.......We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption....

  20. Postsecondary Education and Economic Well-Being of Single Mothers and Single Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Min; Pandey, Shanta

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effects of post-secondary education on the economic well-being of single parents. The data for this study are from the 1993 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, with a sample of 930 single mothers and 168 single fathers. The results indicate that post-secondary education, particularly a 4-year college degree, improves the economic…

  1. A Single Father's Shopping Bag: Purchasing Decisions in Single-Father Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 1980 to 2003 panels of the Consumer Expenditure Survey, this article examines purchasing decisions in father-headed single-parent families. Single-father expenditures are compared to both married-parent expenditures and single-mother expenditures on 17 broad categories of household-level goods and services. Multivariate…

  2. Single-molecule dynamics in nanofabricated traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam

    2009-03-01

    The Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic trap (ABEL trap) provides a means to immobilize a single fluorescent molecule in solution, without surface attachment chemistry. The ABEL trap works by tracking the Brownian motion of a single molecule, and applying feedback electric fields to induce an electrokinetic motion that approximately cancels the Brownian motion. We present a new design for the ABEL trap that allows smaller molecules to be trapped and more information to be extracted from the dynamics of a single molecule than was previously possible. In particular, we present strategies for extracting dynamically fluctuating mobilities and diffusion coefficients, as a means to probe dynamic changes in molecular charge and shape. If one trapped molecule is good, many trapped molecules are better. An array of single molecules in solution, each immobilized without surface attachment chemistry, provides an ideal test-bed for single-molecule analyses of intramolecular dynamics and intermolecular interactions. We present a technology for creating such an array, using a fused silica plate with nanofabricated dimples and a removable cover for sealing single molecules within the dimples. With this device one can watch the shape fluctuations of single molecules of DNA or study cooperative interactions in weakly associating protein complexes.

  3. Stroing single-photons in microcavities arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Enk, S. J. Van; Kimble, H. J.

    2014-03-01

    Coupling light to arrays of microcavities is one of the most promising avenues to store/delay classical light pulses [F. Krauss, Nat. Phot. 2, 448-450 (2008)]. However, from the perspective of benefiting quantum communication protocols, the same ideas in principle can be extended down to the single-photon (quantum) level as well. Particularly, for the purposes of entanglement purification and quantum repeaters a reliable storage of single photons is needed. We consider in our work [I. M. Mirza, S. Van Enk, H. Kimble JOSA B, 30,10 (2013)] cavities that are coupled through an optical fiber which is assumed to be forming a Markovian bath. For this study two powerful open quantum system techniques, Input-Output theory for cascaded quantum systems and the Quantum Trajectory approach are used in combination. For the confirmation of photon delays the Time-Dependent Spectrum of such a single photon is obtained. Interestingly this leads to a hole-burning effect showing that only certain frequency components in the single photon wavepackets are stored inside the cavities and hence are delayed in time. Since on-demand production of single photons is not an easy task we include in our description the actual generation of the single photon by assuming a single emitter in one the resonators.

  4. Single-cell technologies in environmental omics

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-10-22

    Environmental studies are primarily done by culturing isolated microorganisms or by amplifying and sequencing conserved genes. Difficulties understanding the complexity of large numbers of various microorganisms in an environment led to the development of techniques to enrich specific microorganisms for upstream analysis, ultimately leading to single-cell isolation and analyses. We discuss the significance of single-cell technologies in omics studies with focus on metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. We propose that by reducing sample heterogeneity using single-cell genomics, metaomic studies can be simplified.

  5. Generation of single plasma channel in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions of generating a single plasma channel in air are studied by using picosecond and femtosecond laser pulse. A stable and single plasma channel can be generated by a picosecond laser pulse with energy of 8-12 mJ and focusing length of 15 cm. The self-generated light emission is observed to be confined in the plasma channel and propagates in the channel. When using short focal length lenses it is easy to generate a single plasma channel in air with femtosecond laser with energy less than 10 mJ. (authors)

  6. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennessen, Kristin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  7. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  8. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  10. Single-photon source characterization with infrared-sensitive superconducting single-photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hadfield, R H; Nam, S W; Stevens, M J; Hadfield, Robert H.; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo; Stevens, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    Single-photon sources and detectors are key enabling technologies in quantum information processing. Nanowire-based superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) offer single-photon detection from the visible well into the infrared with low dark counts, low jitter and short dead times. We report on the high fidelity characterization (via antibunching and spontaneous emission lifetime measurements) of a cavity-coupled single-photon source at 902 nm using a pair of SSPDs. The twin SSPD scheme reported here is well-suited to the characterization of single-photon sources at telecom wavelengths (1310 nm, 1550 nm).

  11. Fiber-pigtailed optical tweezer for single-atom trapping and single-photon generation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Sébastien; Hohmann, Leander; Reichel, Jakob; Long, Romain

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a miniature, fiber-coupled optical tweezer to trap a single atom. The same fiber is used to trap a single atom and to read out its fluorescence. To obtain a low background level, the tweezer light is chopped, and we measure the influence of the chopping frequency on the atom's lifetime. We use the single atom as a single-photon source at 780 nm and measure the second-order correlation function of the emitted photons. Because of its miniature, robust, fiber-pigtailed design, this tweezer can be implemented in a broad range of experiments where single atoms are used as a resource.

  12. Maldacena's consistency relation in single field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the consistency relation relating the squeezed limit of the bi-spectrum to the scalar spectral index in single field models of inflation. We give a simple integral formula for the bi-spectrum in the squeezed limit in terms of the free mode mode functions of the primordial curvature perturbation, in any Lorentz invariant single field model of inflation and without resorting to any approximation, generalizing a recent result obtained by Ganc and Komatsu in the case of canonical kinetic terms. We use our result to verify the consistency relation in an exactly solvable class of models with a non-trivial speed of sound. We then verify the consistency relation at the first non-trivial order in the slow-varying approximation in general single field inflation (a known result) and at second order in this approximation in canonical single field inflation. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (author)

  13. Superconducting nanowire single-photon imager

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Calandri, Niccolò; Dane, Andrew E; McCaughan, Adam N; Bellei, Francesco; Wang, Hao-Zhu; Santavicca, Daniel F; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    Detecting spatial and temporal information of individual photons is a crucial technology in today's quantum information science. Among the existing single-photon detectors, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have been demonstrated with a sub-50 ps timing jitter, near unity detection efficiency1, wide response spectrum from visible to infrared and ~10 ns reset time. However, to gain spatial sensitivity, multiple SNSPDs have to be integrated into an array, whose spatial and temporal resolutions are limited by the multiplexing circuit. Here, we add spatial sensitivity to a single nanowire while preserving the temporal resolution from an SNSPD, thereby turning an SNSPD into a superconducting nanowire single-photon imager (SNSPI). To achieve an SNSPI, we modify a nanowire's electrical behavior from a lumped inductor to a transmission line, where the signal velocity is slowed down to 0.02c (where c is the speed of light). Consequently, we are able to simultaneously read out the landing locati...

  14. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  15. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Updated:Sep 11,2015 What is a ... Heart Attack Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Radionuclide Ventriculography, Radionuclide Angiography, MUGA Scan Heart ...

  16. Automated single-slide staining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S. M.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus developed to Gram-stain single slides automatically is flexible enough to accommodate other types of staining procedures. Method frees operator and eliminates necessity for subjective evaluations as to length of staining or decolorizing time.

  17. Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Single Working Moms Carry a Heart Burden Stress, finances may boost cardiovascular risks for U.S. mothers, study ... the June 16 online edition of the American Journal of Public Health . SOURCES: Frank van Lenthe, Ph. ...

  18. Improved Intermittency Analysis of Single Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, R. A.; Ziaja, B.

    1998-01-01

    The intermittency analysis of single event data (particle moments) in multiparticle production is improved, taking into account corrections due to the reconstruction of history of a particle cascade. This approach is tested within the framework of the $\\alpha$-model.

  19. A Single Species Model with Impulsive Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hui; Lan-sun Chen

    2005-01-01

    In most models of population dynamics, diffusion between patches is assumed to be continuous or discrete, but in practice many species diffuse only during a single period. In this paper we propose a single species model with impulsive diffusion between two patches, which provides a more natural description of population dynamics. By using the discrete dynamical system generated by a monotone, concave map for the population,we prove that the map alwayshas a globally stable positive fixed point. This means that a single species system with impulsive diffusion always has a globally stable positive periodic solution. This result is further substantiated by numerical simulation. Under impulsive diffusion the single species survives in the two patches.

  20. Hyperspectral Single Pixel Image Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a drastic enhancement to the current prototype which only allows us to collect visible light and reconstruct a single wavelength image. This approach is a...

  1. Single Institution Feasibility Trials - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the CIP program, the current R21 mechanism provides potential funding for small, single institution feasibility trials. The current announcement is titled In Vivo Cancer Imaging Exploratory/Developmental Grants.

  2. Defect free single crystal thin layer

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami Tarek Mahmoud

    2016-01-28

    A gallium nitride film can be a dislocation free single crystal, which can be prepared by irradiating a surface of a substrate and contacting the surface with an etching solution that can selectively etch at dislocations.

  3. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  4. Single cell enzyme diagnosis on the chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sissel Juul; Harmsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Mette Juul;

    2013-01-01

    Conventional diagnosis based on ensemble measurements often overlooks the variation among cells. Here, we present a droplet-microfluidics based platform to investigate single cell activities. Adopting a previously developed isothermal rolling circle amplification-based assay, we demonstrate detec...

  5. Sensing electric fields using single diamond spins

    CERN Document Server

    Dolde, Florian; Doherty, Marcus W; Nöbauer, Tobias; Rempp, Florian; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Wolf, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The ability to sensitively detect charges under ambient conditions would be a fascinating new tool benefitting a wide range of researchers across disciplines. However, most current techniques are limited to low-temperature methods like single-electron transistors (SET), single-electron electrostatic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Here we open up a new quantum metrology technique demonstrating precision electric field measurement using a single nitrogen-vacancy defect centre(NV) spin in diamond. An AC electric field sensitivity reaching ~ 140V/cm/\\surd Hz has been achieved. This corresponds to the electric field produced by a single elementary charge located at a distance of ~ 150 nm from our spin sensor with averaging for one second. By careful analysis of the electronic structure of the defect centre, we show how an applied magnetic field influences the electric field sensing properties. By this we demonstrate that diamond defect centre spins can be switched between electric and magneti...

  6. The influence of single parenthood on the social needs of the single parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia F. Antonopoulou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes occurring in the socio-economic situation in our country shape the environment that single - parent families experience. The treatment of single- parent families as a factor of economic and social development is a key objective in a state with a social character. AIM: The aim of this study was to research the phenomenon of single- parent families in Greece, and the effect of single parenthood on the social needs of the single parent. MATERIAL-METHOD: A specially designed, anonymous questionnaire was used for this research, which was given to a random sample of single-parent families with dependent children both in the urban centers and in the province. The study sample consisted of 206 single parents with dependent children. The statistical analysis was carried out with the use of the statistical package SPSS, 16.00 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL. RESULTS: Of the 206 participants in the study, 181 were women and 25 were men. The average age of the heads of single parent families was 44 years, while 41.7% had one child and 41.3% had 2 children. Regarding the educational level of the participants, 39.3% were high school graduates. In relation to social needs, 66.1% of single parents expresed a need for psychological support. 27.2% reported the state for psychological support. 20.9% resorted to church and the 18.0% had applied to organizations. The 32.5% of single parents expressed a need for work. CONCLUSIONS: In Greek single-parent families there is an increased need for psychological support and employment. The psychological situation, as seen in the demand for psychological support of single parents with dependent children and the lack of employment, seem to relate to the form of single parenthood, marital status, educational level and residence of the single parent family.

  7. Analysis Of Single Phase Matrix Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Ahirrao; Bhagyashri Gaware

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents concept of single phase matrix converter. Single phase matrix converter (SPMC) performs a function such as frequency changer, rectifier, inverter; chopper. This reduces the need for new converter hardware. Pulse width modulation (SPWM) techniques are used to calculate the switch duty ratio to synthesis the output. The simulation of converter is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Hardware design is obtained using readily available IC‟s and other components. Thi...

  8. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    OpenAIRE

    Nischal, K; Chowdhary, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. ...

  9. Single atrium - a rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prasad Kalita; Manuj Kumar Saikia; Amitav Sharma; Biswajeet Saikia; Gautam Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Single atrium is a rare congenital heart disease in which there is developmental absence of both septum primum and secondum part of atrial septum. Present study reports a case of an adolescent female patient with single atrium without any endocardial cushion defect and other variety of congenital heart disease. Clinically the patient presented with features of congestive heart failure. She underwent successful surgical separation of atrium. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000): 3074-3076

  10. Position Control of Single Pneumatic Muscle Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei; PENG Guang-zheng; NING Ru-xin

    2005-01-01

    The PID, fuzzy, self-organized fuzzy and self-organized fuzzy-PID controllers are adopted in the position control of single pneumatic muscle actuator. Experiments show that the self-organized fuzzy-PID is obviously effective for the position control of single pneumatic muscle actuator, which can realize precision within 0.3 mm and withstand 18N variable load plus about 36N fixed load. It is relatively precise and robust.

  11. Single bubble sonoluminescence and stable cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; QIAN Menglu

    2004-01-01

    A single bubble trapped at an antinode of an acoustic standing wave field in water can emit 50ps-140ps light pulses, called "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL). It arouses much interest in physical acoustics because of its highly non-linear characteristics, high concentration of energy, and stable cavitation behavior. In this paper, bubble stability, the dynamic behavior of bubbles, non-invasive measurement of driving acoustic pressure and Mie scattering method are introduced.

  12. Single access retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: initial experience

    OpenAIRE

    Beiša, Virgilijus; Kildušis, Edvinas; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2011-01-01

    Today, endoscopic adrenalectomy has become a gold standard in endocrine surgery. To minimize the morbidity and improve cosmesis, single access retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (SARA) has been developed as an alternative to traditional multiport laparoscopy and single port access (SPA) surgery, potentially exploiting even more the already proven benefits of minimally invasive surgery. We applied the SARA technique to adrenalectomy using the posterior retroperitoneal approach. The aim is to h...

  13. Supra-Pubic Single Incision Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Monika E.; Wagner, Oliver J.; Thompson, Kari; Jacobsen, Garth; Spivack, Adam; Wong, Brian; Talamini, Mark; Horgan, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Surgery is moving towards less invasive and cosmetically superior approaches such as single incision laparoscopy (SIL). While trans-umbilical SIL is gaining popularity, incisions may lead to post-operative deformations of the umbilicus and the possibility of an increased rate of incisional hernias. Access within the pubic hairline allows preservation of the umbilicus and results in a scar which is concealed within the pubic hair. Methods Supra-pubic single incision cholecystectom...

  14. Bisimulation for Single-Agent Plausibility Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Epistemic plausibility models are Kripke models agents use to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of themselves and each other. Restricting ourselves to the single-agent case, we determine when such models are indistinguishable in the logical language containing conditional belief, i.e., we......-agent epistemic plausibility models on a finite set of propositions. This gives decidability for single-agent epistemic plausibility planning....

  15. Indium Single-Ion Frequency Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagourney, Warren

    2001-01-01

    A single laser-cooled indium ion is a promising candidate for an ultimate resolution optical time or frequency standard. It can be shown that single ions from group IIIA of the periodic table (indium, thallium, etc.) can have extremely small systematic errors. In addition to being free from Doppler, transit-time and collisional shifts, these ions are also quite insensitive to perturbations from ambient magnetic and electric fields (mainly due to the use of a J=0-0 transition for spectroscopy). Of all group IIIA ions, indium seems to be the most practical, since it is heavy enough to have a tolerable intercombination cooling transition rate and (unlike thallium) has transitions which are easily accessible with frequency multiplied continuous-wave lasers. A single indium ion standard has a potential inaccuracy of one part in 10(exp 18) for integration times of 10(exp 6) seconds. We have made substantial progress during the grant period in constructing a frequency standard based upon a single indium ion. At the beginning of the grant period, single indium ions were being successfully trapped, but the lasers and optical systems were inadequate to achieve the desired goal. We have considerably improved the stability of the dye laser used to cool the ions and locked it to a molecular resonance line, making it possible to observe stable cooling-line fluorescence from a single indium ion for reasonable periods of time, as required by the demands of precision spectroscopy. We have substantially improved the single-ion fluorescence signal with significant benefits for the detection efficiency of forbidden transitions using the 'shelving' technique. Finally, we have constructed a compact, efficient UV 'clock' laser and observed 'clock' transitions in single indium ions using this laser system. We will elaborate on these accomplishments.

  16. Single cell genomics: advances and future perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaulay, Iain C.; Thierry Voet

    2014-01-01

    Advances in whole-genome and whole-transcriptome amplification have permitted the sequencing of the minute amounts of DNA and RNA present in a single cell, offering a window into the extent and nature of genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity which occurs in both normal development and disease. Single-cell approaches stand poised to revolutionise our capacity to understand the scale of genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic diversity that occurs during the lifetime of an individual organis...

  17. Single-molecule dynamics at variable temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Zondervan, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Single-molecule optics has evolved from a specialized variety of optical spectroscopy at low temperatures into a versatile tool to address questions in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. In this thesis, the potential of single-molecule (and ensemble) optical microscopy at variable temperatures is demonstrated: Electron transfer has been identified as a crucial step in the photodynamics of organic fluorophores, and long-term memory effects have been discovered in the relaxatio...

  18. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  19. Single-cell analysis - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is certainly a timely volume in the Methods in molecular biology series: we already entered the synthetic biology era and thus we need to be aware of the new methodological advances able to fulfill the new and necessary needs for biologists, biotechnologists and nano-biotechnologists. Notably, among these, the possibility to perform single cell analysis allow researchers to capture single cell responses....

  20. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sohrab Abbas; Apoorva G Wagh; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to the incidence angle. We have measured the variation of neutron deflection and transmission across a Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms. The results agree well with theory.

  1. Efficient Synergistic Single-Cell Genome Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Narjes S; Embree, Mallory; Nagarajan, Harish; Zengler, Karsten; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    As the vast majority of all microbes are unculturable, single-cell sequencing has become a significant method to gain insight into microbial physiology. Single-cell sequencing methods, currently powered by multiple displacement genome amplification (MDA), have passed important milestones such as finishing and closing the genome of a prokaryote. However, the quality and reliability of genome assemblies from single cells are still unsatisfactory due to uneven coverage depth and the absence of scattered chunks of the genome in the final collection of reads caused by MDA bias. In this work, our new algorithm Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) demonstrates the power of coassembly of multiple single-cell genomic data sets through significant improvement of the assembly quality in terms of predicted functional elements and length statistics. Coassemblies contain significantly more base pairs and protein coding genes, cover more subsystems, and consist of longer contigs compared to individual assemblies by the same algorithm as well as state-of-the-art single-cell assemblers SPAdes and IDBA-UD. Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA) is also able to avoid chimeric assemblies by detecting and separating shared and exclusive pieces of sequence for input data sets. By replacing one deep single-cell sequencing experiment with a few single-cell sequencing experiments of lower depth, the coassembly method can hedge against the risk of failure and loss of the sample, without significantly increasing sequencing cost. Application of the single-cell coassembler HyDA to the study of three uncultured members of an alkane-degrading methanogenic community validated the usefulness of the coassembly concept. HyDA is open source and publicly available at http://chitsazlab.org/software.html, and the raw reads are available at http://chitsazlab.org/research.html. PMID:27243002

  2. Molecular pathology of single gene disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherall, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies using recombinant DNA technology have led to an understanding of the basic molecular pathology of single gene disorders. Furthermore, methods are being developed for finding genes for conditions, whose underlying biochemistry is still not understood, or which may contribute to polygenic systems that underlie common diseases. As well as providing new approaches to carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and treatment of single gene disorders, these advances promise to provide imp...

  3. Fully overheated single-electron transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M A; Heikkilä, T T; Nazarov, Yuli V

    2010-05-14

    We consider the fully overheated single-electron transistor, where the heat balance is determined entirely by electron transfers. We find three distinct transport regimes corresponding to cotunneling, single-electron tunneling, and a competition between the two. We find an anomalous sensitivity to temperature fluctuations at the crossover between the two latter regimes that manifests in an exceptionally large Fano factor of current noise. PMID:20866990

  4. On-Chip Single Plasmon Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Heeres, Reinier W.; Dorenbos, Sander N.; Koene, Benny; Solomon, Glenn S.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Zwiller, Valery

    2010-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (plasmons) have the potential to interface electronic and optical devices. They could prove extremely useful for integrated quantum information processing. Here we demonstrate on-chip electrical detection of single plasmons propagating along gold waveguides. The plasmons are excited using the single-photon emission of an optically emitting quantum dot. After propagating for several micrometers, the plasmons are coupled to a superconducting detector in the near-field...

  5. Efficient synergistic single-cell genome assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes S. Movahedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the vast majority of all microbes are unculturable, single-cell sequencing has become a significant method to gain insight into microbial physiology. Single-cell sequencing methods, currently powered by multiple displacement genome amplification (MDA, have passed important milestones such as finishing and closing the genome of a prokaryote. However, the quality and reliability of genome assemblies from single cells are still unsatisfactory due to uneven coverage depth and the absence of scattered chunks of the genome in the final collection of reads caused by MDA bias. In this work, our new algorithm Hybrid De novo Assembler (HyDA demonstrates the power of co-assembly of multiple single-cell genomic data sets through significant improvement of the assembly quality in terms of predicted functional elements and length statistics. Co-assemblies contain significantly more base pairs and protein coding genes, cover more subsystems, and consist of longer contigs compared to individual assemblies by the same algorithm as well as state-of-the-art single-cell assemblers SPAdes and IDBA-UD. Hybrid emph{De novo} Assembler (HyDA is also able to avoid chimeric assemblies by detecting and separating shared and exclusive pieces of sequence for input data sets. By replacing one deep single-cell sequencing experiment with a few single-cell sequencing experiments of lower depth, the co-assembly method can hedge against the risk of failure and loss of the sample, without significantly increasing sequencing cost. Application of the single-cell co-assembler HyDA to the study of three uncultured members of an alkane-degrading methanogenic community validated the usefulness of the co-assembly concept. HyDA is open source and publicly available at http://chitsazlab.org/software.html and the raw reads are available at http://chitsazlab.org/research.html.

  6. Experimental measurements on a single sweeping jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Damian; Graff, Emilio; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    ``Sweeping jets'' proved their effectiveness as Active Flow Control (AFC) actuators in improving the performance of vertical tails of generic and full-scale models. To gain further knowledge about the fundamental flow physics, the jets were investigated experimentally. The influence of a single jet on its surroundings was studied, especially the entrainment region. The results were compared to previous experiments to study the difference between a single isolated jet and multiple jets mounted on a vertical tail. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  7. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  8. Identifying single copy orthologs in Metazoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Creevey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of single copy (1-to-1 orthologs in any group of organisms is important for functional classification and phylogenetic studies. The Metazoa are no exception, but only recently has there been a wide-enough distribution of taxa with sufficiently high quality sequenced genomes to gain confidence in the wide-spread single copy status of a gene.Here, we present a phylogenetic approach for identifying overlooked single copy orthologs from multigene families and apply it to the Metazoa. Using 18 sequenced metazoan genomes of high quality we identified a robust set of 1,126 orthologous groups that have been retained in single copy since the last common ancestor of Metazoa. We found that the use of the phylogenetic procedure increased the number of single copy orthologs found by over a third more than standard taxon-count approaches. The orthologs represented a wide range of functional categories, expression profiles and levels of divergence.To demonstrate the value of our set of single copy orthologs, we used them to assess the completeness of 24 currently published metazoan genomes and 62 EST datasets. We found that the annotated genes in published genomes vary in coverage from 79% (Ciona intestinalis to 99.8% (human with an average of 92%, suggesting a value for the underlying error rate in genome annotation, and a strategy for identifying single copy orthologs in larger datasets. In contrast, the vast majority of EST datasets with no corresponding genome sequence available are largely under-sampled and probably do not accurately represent the actual genomic complement of the organisms from which they are derived.

  9. Dissipation-enabled efficient excitation transfer from a single photon to a single quantum emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Alber, G.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a scheme for triggering a dissipation-dominated highly efficient excitation transfer from a single-photon wave packet to a single quantum emitter. This single-photon-induced optical pumping turns dominant dissipative processes, such as spontaneous photon emission by the emitter or cavity decay, into valuable tools for quantum information processing and quantum communication. It works for an arbitrarily shaped single-photon wave packet with sufficiently small bandwidth provided a matching condition is satisfied which balances the dissipative rates involved. Our scheme does not require additional laser pulses or quantum feedback and does not rely on high finesse optical resonators. In particular, it can be used to enhance significantly the coupling of a single photon to a single quantum emitter implanted in a one-dimensional waveguide or even in a free space scenario. We demonstrate the usefulness of our scheme for building a deterministic quantum memory and a deterministic frequency converter between photonic qubits of different wavelengths.

  10. Comparing the linewidths from single-pass SPDC and singly resonant cavity SPDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Oliver; Ma, Lijun; Kuo, Paulina; Tang, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) is a common method to generate entangled photon pairs for use in quantum communications. The generated single photon linewidth is a critical issue for photon-atom interactions in quantum memory applications. We compare the linewidths of greatly non-degenerate single photon pairs from SPDC generated in the single-pass case and the singly-resonant cavity case. For a 6 mm periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal, the linewidth of the generated signal photons is reduced from 1 THz in the single pass case to tens of MHz in the singly-resonant cavity case, while the brightness within the modal lineiwdth is increased by a factor of the cavity finesse, though the overall SPDC generation rate remains unchanged.

  11. Binaries are the best single stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Izzard, R G

    2010-01-01

    Stellar models of massive single stars are still plagued by major uncertainties. Testing and calibrating against observations is essential for their reliability. For this purpose one preferably uses observed stars that have never experienced strong binary interaction, i.e. "true single stars". However, the binary fraction among massive stars is high and identifying "true single stars" is not straight forward. Binary interaction affects systems in such a way that the initially less massive star becomes, or appears to be, single. For example, mass transfer results in a widening of the orbit and a decrease of the luminosity of the donor star, which makes it very hard to detect. After a merger or disruption of the system by the supernova explosion, no companion will be present. The only unambiguous identification of "true single stars" is possible in detached binaries, which contain two main-sequence stars. For these systems we can exclude the occurrence of mass transfer since their birth. A further advantage is ...

  12. Bright Single Photon Emitter in Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, Benjamin; Schroeder, Tim; Mouradian, Sara; Dolde, Florian; Trong Tran, Toan; Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk

    Efficient, on-demand, and robust single photon emitters are of central importance to many areas of quantum information processing. Over the past 10 years, color centers in solids have emerged as excellent single photon emitters. Color centers in diamond are among the most intensively studied single photon emitters, but recently silicon carbide (SiC) has also been demonstrated to be an excellent host material. In contrast to diamond, SiC is a technologically important material that is widely used in optoelectronics, high power electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. It is commercially available in sizes up to 6 inches and processes for device engineering are well developed. We report on a visible-spectrum single photon emitter in 4H-SiC. The emitter is photostable at both room and low temperatures, and it enables 2 million photons/second from unpatterned bulk SiC. We observe two classes of orthogonally polarized emitters, each of which has parallel absorption and emission dipole orientations. Low temperature measurements reveal a narrow zero phonon line with linewidth < 0.1 nm that accounts for more than 30% of the total photoluminescence spectrum. To our knowledge, this SiC color emitter is the brightest stable room-temperature single photon emitter ever observed.

  13. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  14. Technologies for Single-Cell Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gross

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The handling of single cells is of great importance in applications such as cell line development or single-cell analysis, e.g., for cancer research or for emerging diagnostic methods. This review provides an overview of technologies that are currently used or in development to isolate single cells for subsequent single-cell analysis. Data from a dedicated online market survey conducted to identify the most relevant technologies, presented here for the first time, shows that FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorting respectively Flow cytometry (33% usage, laser microdissection (17%, manual cell picking (17%, random seeding/dilution (15%, and microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip devices (12% are currently the most frequently used technologies. These most prominent technologies are described in detail and key performance factors are discussed. The survey data indicates a further increasing interest in single-cell isolation tools for the coming years. Additionally, a worldwide patent search was performed to screen for emerging technologies that might become relevant in the future. In total 179 patents were found, out of which 25 were evaluated by screening the title and abstract to be relevant to the field.

  15. Structure and interactions of a malarial vaccine candidate, AMA1, form the parasite plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), a merozoite surface protein found in all species of Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites, is a strong candidate for inclusion in a malarial vaccine. Recombinant AMA1 protected against P. fragile in monkeys and P. chabaudi adami in mice. P. falciparum AMA1 which has a 62-kDa ectodomain consisting of three disulphide-stabilised domains, is a target of antibodies that inhibit merozoite invasion in vitro. Here we describe the solution structure of domain III (14 kDa), determined by NMR on 15N- and 13C/15N-labelled samples. It has a well-defined disulphide-stabilised core interrupted by a disordered loop, and both the N- and C-terminal regions of the molecule are unstructured. The structured region includes all three disulphide bonds. Naturally-occurring mutations across 11 different P falciparum strains that are located far apart in the sequence cluster around the disulphide core in the 3D structure of domain III, suggesting that this region contains the major epitopes recognised by neutralising antibodies. Consistent with this, the disulphide-bond stabilised conformation of the ectodomain was essential for protection, as the antigen was not an effective vaccine after reduction and alkylation. Peptides have been found by phage display that bind to AMA1 and block merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. We have investigated their solution structures and interaction with full-length AMA1 ectodomain in an effort to understand the structure-function relationships of this important vaccine candidate

  16. Single-shot and single-sensor high/super-resolution microwave imaging based on metasurface

    OpenAIRE

    Libo Wang; Lianlin Li; Yunbo Li; Hao Chi Zhang; Tie Jun Cui

    2016-01-01

    Real-time high-resolution (including super-resolution) imaging with low-cost hardware is a long sought-after goal in various imaging applications. Here, we propose broadband single-shot and single-sensor high-/super-resolution imaging by using a spatio-temporal dispersive metasurface and an imaging reconstruction algorithm. The metasurface with spatio-temporal dispersive property ensures the feasibility of the single-shot and single-sensor imager for super- and high-resolution imaging, since ...

  17. Photon Statistics of Single-Photon Quantum States in Real Single Photon Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李园; 王军民; 彭堃墀; 张天才

    2004-01-01

    @@ Single photon detection (SPD) with high quantum efficiency has been widely used for measurement of different quantum states with different photon distributions.Based on the direct single SPD and double-SPD of HBT configuration, we discuss the effect of a real SPD on the photon statistics measurement and it shows that the measured photon distributions for different quantum states are corrected in different forms.The results are confirmed by experiment with the strongly attenuated coherent light and thermal light.This system can be used to characterize the photon statistics of the fluorescence light from single atom or single molecular.

  18. A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland;

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....

  19. Single ion implantation for single donor devices using Geiger mode detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielejec, E.; Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic devices that are designed to use the properties of single atoms such as donors or defects have become a reality with recent demonstrations of donor spectroscopy, single photon emission sources, and magnetic imaging using defect centers in diamond. Ion implantation, an industry standard for atom placement in materials, requires augmentation for single ion capability including a method for detecting a single ion arrival. Integrating single ion detection techniques with the single donor device construction region allows single ion arrival to be assured. Improving detector sensitivity is linked to improving control over the straggle of the ion as well as providing more flexibility in lay-out integration with the active region of the single donor device construction zone by allowing ion sensing at potentially greater distances. Using a remotely located passively gated single ion Geiger mode avalanche diode (SIGMA) detector we have demonstrated 100% detection efficiency at a distance of >75 µm from the center of the collecting junction. This detection efficiency is achieved with sensitivity to ~600 or fewer electron-hole pairs produced by the implanted ion. Ion detectors with this sensitivity and integrated with a thin dielectric, for example a 5 nm gate oxide, using low energy Sb implantation would have an end of range straggle of 98% for counting one and only one ion for a false count probability of 10-4 at an average ion number per gated window of 0.015.

  20. Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and Implications on the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraima Neto; Marta Machado; Ana Lindeza; Virgílio do Rosário; Gazarini, Marcos L.; Dinora Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Antimalarial drug resistance remains a major obstacle in malaria control. Evidence from Southeast Asia shows that resistance to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is inevitable. Ethnopharmacological studies have confirmed the efficacy of curcumin against Plasmodium spp. Drug interaction assays between curcumin/piperine/chloroquine and curcumin/piperine/artemisinin combinations and the potential of drug treatment to interfere with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were analyzed. In vivo...

  1. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischal, K; Chowdhary, R

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. Midline fracture of the prosthesis is the most common complication related to single implant and two-implant retained mandibular overdentures. To manage such complication, a thin metal mesh is used to reinforce the overdenture and also to make the prostheses lighter and cost effective as compared to conventional cast metal framework. PMID:27403350

  2. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nischal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. Midline fracture of the prosthesis is the most common complication related to single implant and two-implant retained mandibular overdentures. To manage such complication, a thin metal mesh is used to reinforce the overdenture and also to make the prostheses lighter and cost effective as compared to conventional cast metal framework.

  3. Controlling chemical reactions of a single particle

    CERN Document Server

    Ratschbacher, Lothar; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The control of chemical reactions is a recurring theme in physics and chemistry. Traditionally, chemical reactions have been investigated by tuning thermodynamic parameters, such as temperature or pressure. More recently, physical methods such as laser or magnetic field control have emerged to provide completely new experimental possibilities, in particular in the realm of cold collisions. The control of reaction pathways is also a critical component to implement molecular quantum information processing. For these undertakings, single particles provide a clean and well-controlled experimental system. Here, we report on the experimental tuning of the exchange reaction rates of a single trapped ion with ultracold neutral atoms by exerting control over both their quantum states. We observe the influence of the hyperfine interaction on chemical reaction rates and branching ratios, and monitor the kinematics of the reaction products. These investigations advance chemistry with single trapped particles towards achi...

  4. Exploring patterns in European singles charts

    CERN Document Server

    Buda, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    European singles charts are important part of the music industry responsible for creating popularity of songs. After modeling and exploring dynamics of global album sales in previous papers, we investigate patterns of hit singles popularity according to all data (1966-2015) from weekly charts (polls) in 12 Western European countries. The dynamics of building popularity in various national charts is more than the economy because it depends on spread of information. In our research we have shown how countries may be affected by their neighbourhood and influenced by technological era. We have also computed correlations with geographical and cultural distances between countries in analog, digital and Internet era. We have shown that time delay between the single premiere and the peak of popularity has become shorter under the influence of technology and the popularity of songs depends on geographical distances in analog (1966-1987) and Internet (2004-2015) era. On the other hand, cultural distances between nation...

  5. Acoustic effects of single electrostatic discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Electric discharges, depending on their character, can emit different types of energy, resulting in different effects. Single electrostatic discharges besides generation of electromagnetic pulses are also the source of N acoustic waves. Their specified parameters depending on amount of discharging charge enable determination of value of released charge in a function of acoustic descriptor (e.g. acoustic pressure). Presented approach is the basics of acoustic method for measurement of single electrostatic discharges, enabling direct and contactless measurement of value of charge released during ESD. Method for measurement of acoustic effect of impact of a single electrostatic discharge on the environment in a form of pressure shock wave and examples of acoustic descriptors in a form of equation Q=f(pa) are described. The properties of measuring system as well as the results of regression static analyses used to determine the described relationships are analysed in details.

  6. Observation of Single-Photon Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y F; Liu, Y C; Yu, I A; Chen, Yong-Fan; Tsai, Zen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Chen; Yu, Ite A.

    2005-01-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of single-photon switching in laser-cooled $^{87}$Rb atoms. A resonant probe pulse with an energy per unit area of one photon per $\\lambda^2/2\\pi$ propagates through the optically thick atoms. Its energy transmittance is greater than 63% or loss is less than $e^{-1}$ due to the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. In the presence of a switching pulse with an energy per unit area of 1.4 photons per $\\lambda^2/2\\pi$, the energy transmittance of the same probe pulse becomes less than 37% or $e^{-1}$. This substantial reduction of the probe transmittance caused by single switching photons has potential applications in single-photon-level nonlinear optics and the manipulation of quantum information.

  7. Solid-state single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos

    2016-10-01

    Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.

  8. Anisotropic Shock Propagation in Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Cox, J; Unites, W; Collins, G; McWilliams, R; Jeanloz, R; Bruygoo, S; Loubeyre, P

    2005-05-26

    Most single-crystal shock experiments have been performed in high-symmetry directions while the nature of shock propagation in low-symmetry directions remains relatively unstudied. It is well known that small-amplitude, linear acoustic waves propagating in low-symmetry directions can focus and/or form caustics (Wolfe, 1995). In this report we provide evidence for similar focusing behavior in nonlinear (shock) waves propagating in single crystals of silicon and diamond. Using intense lasers, we have driven non-planar (divergent geometry) shock waves through single-crystals of silicon or diamond and into an isotropic backing plate. On recovery of the backing plates we observe a depression showing evidence of anisotropic plastic strain with well-defined crystallographic registration. We observe 4-, 2-, and 3-fold symmetric impressions for [100], [110], and [111] oriented crystals respectively.

  9. Theoretical study on single-molecule spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Guang-cun; HUANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The photon-by-photon approach for single molecule spectroscopy experiments utilizes the information carried by each detected photon and allows the measurements of conformational fluctuation with time resolution on a vast range of time scales,where each photon represents a data point.Here,we theoretically simulate the photon emission dynamics of a single molecule spectroscopy using the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to understand the underlying complex photon dynamic process of a single molecule.In addition,by following the molecular process in real time,the mechanism of complex biochemical reactions can be revealed.We hope that this theoretical study will serve as an introduction and a guideline into this exciting new field.

  10. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer ......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities.......The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer...

  11. Excitons in boron nitride single layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, Thomas; Paleari, Fulvio; Miranda, Henrique P. C.; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Wirtz, Ludger; Latil, Sylvain; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, François

    2016-09-01

    Boron nitride single layer belongs to the family of two-dimensional materials whose optical properties are currently receiving considerable attention. Strong excitonic effects have already been observed in the bulk and still stronger effects are predicted for single layers. We present here a detailed study of these properties by combining ab initio calculations and a tight-binding Wannier analysis in both real and reciprocal space. Due to the simplicity of the band structure with single valence (π ) and conduction (π*) bands the tight-binding analysis becomes quasiquantitative with only two adjustable parameters and provides tools for a detailed analysis of the exciton properties. Strong deviations from the usual hydrogenic model are evidenced. The ground-state exciton is not a genuine Frenkel exciton, but a very localized tightly bound one. The other ones are similar to those found in transition-metal dichalcogenides and, although more localized, can be described within a Wannier-Mott scheme.

  12. Fourier microscopy of single plasmonic scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A Femius

    2011-01-01

    We report a new experimental technique for quantifying the angular distribution of light scattered by single plasmonic and metamaterial nanoscatterers, based on Fourier microscopy in a dark field confocal set up. This new set up is a necessary tool for quantifying the scattering properties of single plasmonic and meatamaterial building blocks, as well as small coupled clusters of such building blocks, which are expected to be the main ingredients of nano-antennas, light harvesting structures and transformation optics. We present a set of measurements on Au nanowires of different lengths and show how the radiation pattern of single Au nanowires evolve with wire length and as a function of driving polarization and wave vector.

  13. What are single photons good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo

    2012-10-01

    In a long-held preconception, photons play a central role in present-day quantum technologies. But what are sources producing photons one by one good for precisely? Well, in opposition to what many suggest, we show that single-photon sources are not helpful for point to point quantum key distribution because faint laser pulses do the job comfortably. However, there is no doubt about the usefulness of sources producing single photons for future quantum technologies. In particular, we show how single-photon sources could become the seed of a revolution in the framework of quantum communication, making the security of quantum key distribution device-independent or extending quantum communication over many hundreds of kilometers. Hopefully, these promising applications will provide a guideline for researchers to develop more and more efficient sources, producing narrowband, pure and indistinguishable photons at appropriate wavelengths.

  14. What are single photons good for?

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    In a long-held preconception, photons play a central role in present-day quantum technologies. But what are sources producing photons one by one good for precisely? Well, in opposition to what many suggest, we show that single-photon sources are not helpful for point to point quantum key distribution because faint laser pulses do the job comfortably. However, there is no doubt about the usefulness of sources producing single photons for future quantum technologies. In particular, we show how single-photon sources could become the seed of a revolution in the framework of quantum communication, making the security of quantum key distribution device independent or extending quantum communication over many hundreds of kilometers. Hopefully, these promising applications will provide a guideline for researchers to develop more and more efficient sources, producing narrowband, pure and indistinguishable photons at appropriate wavelengths.

  15. Single top quark production with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Soureek

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of single top quark production are presented, performed using CMS data collected in 2011, 2012 and 2015 at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV respectively. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. In the t-channel the ratio of top and anti-top production cross sections is determined and compared with predictions from different parton density distribution functions. In the same channel, the inclusive cross-section in the fiducial volume is also measured. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production such as the top-quark polarisation, W-helicity in top quark decay and searches for anomalous couplings to gluons, photons are also presented,. A search for the s-channel is also performed.

  16. General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John D

    2015-11-01

    A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed. PMID:26651677

  17. Single-Molecule Studies in Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji

    2016-05-01

    Live-cell single-molecule experiments are now widely used to study complex biological processes such as signal transduction, self-assembly, active trafficking, and gene regulation. These experiments' increased popularity results in part from rapid methodological developments that have significantly lowered the technical barriers to performing them. Another important advance is the development of novel statistical algorithms, which, by modeling the stochastic behaviors of single molecules, can be used to extract systemic parameters describing the in vivo biochemistry or super-resolution localization of biological molecules within their physiological environment. This review discusses recent advances in experimental and computational strategies for live-cell single-molecule studies, as well as a selected subset of biological studies that have utilized these new technologies.

  18. THE BERTRAND MODEL OF THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadasan Ioana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the signification of the rationality hypothesis when the agent’s contentment is directly affected by the other agents’ decisions, the theory of games defines solutions for solving different situations of conflict. The economic actors have different behaviours of the Single Market. Oligopoly strategic behaviours were analysed by the Bertrand model. The two types revealed in the work show that strategic interactions are sensitive to the companies’ features, products and markets. Regarding the situation when we have an oligopoly competition, the companies make interdependent decisions in the environment affected by risk and uncertainty of the Single Market. For this reason it is an opportunity to study the structure of oligopoly type of of the Single Market with the aid of non – cooperative games.

  19. Tunable unidirectional scattering of ellipsoidal single nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Kalra, Yogita; Kumar, Ajeet; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    We report unidirectional scattering by tri-axial single ellipsoidal dielectric nanoparticle, which is applicable in the design and development of tunable, low-loss and ultra-compact nanoantennas. Based on the orientation and rotation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticle, three types of modes, one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes, have been excited. Electric and magnetic dipoles have been optically induced in the nanoparticle. Generalized Kerker's conditions have been applied at the interference of optically induced electric and magnetic dipoles. Azimuthally symmetric forward scattering with complete suppression of backward scattering using first Generalized Kerker's condition has been achieved at three different wavelengths for the allowed longitudinal mode and transverse modes in the optical region using single ellipsoidal nanoparticle. Due to 3-fold symmetry, forward scattering can be tuned at different wavelengths, using single ellipsoidal nanoparticle just by changing the direction of the incident electric field.

  20. Single Mode Fiber Optic Connectors And Splices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John G.

    1984-08-01

    There is a trend toward increasing use of single mode transmission, particularly in telecommunications where high data bit rates are transmitted for long distances. Inter-connections of multimode fibers can be made in a number of ways, using ferrules, v-grooves, elastomeric splices, etc. However, the connection of single mode fibers, which have core diameters of 4 to 13 μm, requires more precise alignment than do the multimode fibers having core diameters of 50 μm or more. At TRW, we have adapted the four rod alignment guide concept for single mode fiber inter-connections. The principle of this OPTAGUIDE* alignment guide is presented. The single mode connectors and splices use the four rod scheme with an index matching material to eliminate or reduce the losses incurred through fiber end roughness or angularity. We are able to produce demountable connectors for 80/4.4 pm fibers having typical insertion losses of 1.0dB. The main factors in obtaining this result are the naturally precise fiber alignment provided by the alignment guide, and the ability of several manufacturers to maintain tight diametral and core offset tolerances. The single mode OPTALIGN* SM Connectors have been subjected to performance and environmental tests including repeated matings, temperature cycle and vibration. The results of these tests are described in this paper. A feature of the OPTALIGN* SM Connectors is the relative ease and speed of attachment to fiber optic cable in the field, without the use of epoxy or polishing procedures. The alignment guide concept has also been applied to permanent single mode splices. The splicing procedure is simple to perform in the field without expensive or delicate equipment. Construction and assembly procedures of the demountable connectors and permanent splices will be described with the aid of diagrams and photographs.

  1. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sumanta; Sørensen, Anders S

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit far from the optical axis. We show that high fidelity, photon-mediated, entanglement between distant superconducting qubits can be achieved with incident pulses at the single photon level. Such low light level is highly sought for to overcome the decoherence of the superconducting qubit caused by absorption of optical photons.

  2. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  3. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup;

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  4. Superconducting Quantum Interference Single-Electron Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrico, Emanuele; Giazotto, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    We propose the concept of a quantized single-electron source based on the interplay between Coulomb blockade and magnetic flux-controllable superconducting proximity effect. We show that flux dependence of the induced energy gap in the density of states of a nanosized metallic wire can be exploited as an efficient tunable energy barrier which enables charge-pumping configurations with enhanced functionalities. This control parameter strongly affects the charging landscape of a normal metal island with non-negligible Coulombic energy. Under a suitable evolution of a time-dependent magnetic flux the structure behaves like a turnstile for single electrons in a fully electrostatic regime.

  5. Some Effects on A Single Particle Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiu-Ling; LUO Yan-An; CAI Chong-Hai; NING Ping-Zhi

    2002-01-01

    With the phenomenological A-nucleus potentials of Woods-Saxon shape,the effects of the maas-number dependence of the shrinkage,the effective mass m*^ and the charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) on the single particle energies are discussed.It is found that the single particle energies are not sensitive to the effective mass m*^.But the radius parameter depended on the mass number (ro (Ac) = r1 + r2A-2/3) can substantially improve the results.We also found that CSB effect is significant for heavy hypernuclei with a large neutron excess.

  6. Radiation piezoelectric effect in germanium single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1977-06-01

    Irradiation with ionizing particles of a germanium single crystal and uniaxial deformation at right-angles to the particle beam produced an electric field and a corresponding emf due to the radiation piezoelectric effect. Measurements were carried out when such a single crystal was irradiated with ..cap alpha.. particles and protons. The piezoelectric emf increased linearly with the compressive stress and the ..cap alpha..-particle flux intensity. The emf depended weakly on the particle energy. The observed effect was due to the anisotropy resulting from uniaxial deformation.

  7. Automated single-slide staining device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Mills, S. M. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A simple apparatus and method is disclosed for making individual single Gram stains on bacteria inoculated slides to assist in classifying bacteria in the laboratory as Gram-positive or Gram-negative. The apparatus involves positioning a single inoculated slide in a stationary position and thereafter automatically and sequentially flooding the slide with increments of a primary stain, a mordant, a decolorizer, a counterstain and a wash solution in a sequential manner without the individual lab technician touching the slide and with minimum danger of contamination thereof from other slides.

  8. Luminescence investigation of zinc molybdate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Andrey [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kamenskikh, Irina; Kolobanov, Vitaly; Savon, Alexander [Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Mikhailin, Vitaly [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Ivleva, Ludmila; Voronina, Irina; Berezovskaya, Ludmila [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Spassky, Dmitry

    2009-07-15

    Zinc molybdate is considered as an alternative to the sheelite-type molybdate crystals for cryogenic scintillating bolometers. We report the results of the first investigation of the luminescent properties of bulk ZnMoO{sub 4} single crystals grown by Czochralski method. The temperature dependence of the luminescence intensity under different excitation energies was studied, optical characteristics of zinc molybdate are presented. The potential of ZnMoO{sub 4} single crystal as a scintillating material at low temperature is demonstrated. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  10. Coupling single emitters to quantum plasmonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Huck, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the controlled coupling of single photon emitters to propagating surface plasmons has been intensely studied, which is fueled by the prospect of a giant photonic non-linearity on a nano-scaled platform. In this article we will review the recent progress on coupling single emitters to nano-wires towards the construction of a new platform for strong light-matter interaction. The control over such a platform might open new doors for quantum information processing and quantum sensing at the nanoscale, and for the study of fundamental physics in the ultra-strong coupling regime.

  11. Electron impact single ionization of copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L K Jha; O P Roy; B N Roy

    2000-09-01

    Electron impact single ionization cross sections of copper have been calculated in the binary encounter approximation using accurate expression for as given by Vriens and Hartree–Fock momentum distribution for the target electron. The BEA calculation based on the usual procedure does not show satisfactory agreement with experiment in this case but a striking modification is found to be successful in explaining the experimental observations. The discrepancy is linked with the ionization of the 310 electrons and probably effective single ionization does not take place from 3 shell of copper leading to smaller values of experimental cross sections.

  12. Single Molecule Biophysics Experiments and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yang, Haw; Silbey, Robert J; Rice, Stuart A; Dinner, Aaron R

    2011-01-01

    Discover the experimental and theoretical developments in optical single-molecule spectroscopy that are changing the ways we think about molecules and atoms The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. This latest volume explores the advent of optical single-molecule spectroscopy, and how atomic force microscopy has empowered novel experiments on individual biomolecules, opening up new frontiers in molecular and cell biology and leading to new theoretical approaches

  13. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  14. Highly efficient sources of single indistinguishable photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable and the source should be electr......Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable and the source should...

  15. Isolation, Culture, and Staining of Single Myofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallot, Yann Simon; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Mann, Aman K.; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle regeneration is orchestrated by a specialized population of adult stem cells called satellite cells, which are localized between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. The process of satellite cell-activation, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation that occurs during muscle regeneration can be recapitulated ex vivo by isolation of single myofibers from skeletal muscles and culturing them under suspension conditions. Here, we describe an improved protocol to evaluate ex vivo satellite cells activation through isolation of single myofibers from extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of mice and culturing and staining of myofiber-associated satellite cells with the markers of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation.

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0211 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0211 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 8e-21 45% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0023 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-40 64% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0839 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0839 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 5e-14 47% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0513 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0513 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-26 39% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-23 49% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1145 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1145 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 4e-19 43% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2523 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2523 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-16 33% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0934 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-37 52% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1050 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-08 36% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0006 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-26 51% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0662 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0662 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 7e-04 26% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0068 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 6e-27 48% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1422 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 47% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0140 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0140 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-33 43% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1373 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1373 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-46 52% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0012 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-43 60% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-25 38% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1761 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1761 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-31 51% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0389 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0389 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-32 54% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1167 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1167 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-29 60% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0071 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-60 60% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0312 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0312 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-39 52% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0421 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0421 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-22 37% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0392 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0392 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-38 68% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0542 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0542 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-49 59% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0139 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-47 53% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0121 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0121 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 4e-27 44% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0147 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0147 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-34 48% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0230 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-23 44% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0028 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-19 36% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0214 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0214 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-42 53% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1832 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1832 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-27 53% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0084 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-24 38% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0422 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-57 67% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0074 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 9e-22 45% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-0289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0289 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-21 50% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0070 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0070 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 51% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0013 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-28 50% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0077 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0077 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-20 37% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0143 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-40 54% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0487 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0487 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-17 37% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0484 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0484 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 1e-15 36% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-43 66% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0112 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0112 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-35 56% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0822 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0822 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 5e-21 47% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1883 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1883 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-15 33% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0287 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-30 41% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0081 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0081 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 60% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0069 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-34 52% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0267 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0267 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-35 56% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0023 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-51 54% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0228 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0228 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-15 40% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0076 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0076 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-22 32% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0162 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0162 ref|XP_745463.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH87248.1| hypothetical protein PC302387.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745463.1 0.18 28% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0505 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-18 45% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0194 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0194 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-28 41% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-40 52% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0031 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 58% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0249 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0249 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-19 33% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0133 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0133 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-16 40% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1464 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1464 ref|XP_734491.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH79466.1| hypothetical protein PC106124.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734491.1 4e-05 31% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-39 44% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1704 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1704 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 54% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0138 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0138 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-16 34% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1543 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1543 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-05 24% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0387 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0387 ref|XP_734055.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85114.1| hypothetical protein PC403034.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734055.1 0.002 47% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0063 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-44 57% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0422 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-27 47% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0186 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-24 43% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1208 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-19 32% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0136 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0136 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 4e-07 52% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-15 36% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0183 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 8e-31 57% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1324 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1324 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 1e-11 45% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0306 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0306 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-52 57% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0048 ref|XP_734491.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH79466.1| hypothetical protein PC106124.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_734491.1 2e-05 32% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0197 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0197 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-21 46% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0060 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 45% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-46 52% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0149 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0149 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-34 53% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0124 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-22 37% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0062 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0062 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-18 42% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0236 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0236 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-30 48% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0078 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-20 39% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0046 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-38 50% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0455 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0455 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-40 58% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1253 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1253 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 46% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0720 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0720 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-50 58% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0132 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0132 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-56 62% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0008 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-28 43% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1870 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1870 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-27 44% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0601 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-29 51% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0483 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0483 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 50% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0381 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0381 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 51% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0012 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-31 44% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0409 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0409 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 1e-06 50% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0085 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0085 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-27 35% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0524 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0524 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-38 54% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0610 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0610 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 0.016 25% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0060 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 50% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0072 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-57 57% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0652 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0652 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-50 58% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0017 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 59% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1314 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1314 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 60% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-47 54% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1302 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1302 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi...] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 0.010 25% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2302 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2302 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-19 32% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0206 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0206 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 3e-21 45% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0451 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-41 63% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0148 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0148 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-30 50% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0911 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0911 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 7e-21 46% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0751 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0751 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-33 46% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0069 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-37 57% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0115 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-47 53% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0472 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0472 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-25 42% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0376 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0376 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-40 46% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0448 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0448 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-49 56% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0045 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-44 54% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0000 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-45 53% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0375 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0375 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-20 39% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0051 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0051 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 3e-51 46% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0243 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0243 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-49 65% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0070 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0070 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-25 38% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-51 66% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0170 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0170 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-48 56% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-34 55% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0489 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0489 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 3e-20 45% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0074 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-41 49% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0814 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0814 ref|XP_745463.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH87248.1| hypothetical protein PC302387.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745463.1 2e-07 26% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0046 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-40 50% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1196 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1196 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-31 43% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1519 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1519 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 1e-19 43% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0084 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0084 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-48 52% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1212 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1212 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-30 50% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 5e-37 54% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-2357 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-2357 ref|XP_745682.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH75033.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_745682.1 0.096 26% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0407 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-32 54% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2619 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-17 33% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0238 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0238 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-48 59% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0560 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0560 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 7e-43 52% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0086 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-32 57% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1219 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1219 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-36 55% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0044 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0044 ref|XP_740434.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH86963.1| hypothetical protein PC405176.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740434.1 7e-04 24% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0052 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-39 53% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0006 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-48 54% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0107 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0107 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-51 55% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0204 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0204 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-46 53% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0602 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0602 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-54 60% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-36 52% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0034 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 37% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0057 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 3e-26 50% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0391 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0391 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-19 35% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0072 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0072 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-19 46% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0985 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0985 ref|XP_736860.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH82997.1| hypothetical protein PC400669.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736860.1 8.6 26% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0975 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0975 ref|XP_740158.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85547.1| hypothetical protein PC403595.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_740158.1 2e-22 46% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0028 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-50 57% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0443 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0443 ref|XP_733882.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85141.1| hypothetical protein PC403066.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_733882.1 0.22 39% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0307 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0307 ref|XP_742542.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH81944.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_742542.1 2e-71 59% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0131 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-22 36% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0636 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0636 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 8e-43 45% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0222 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0222 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 6e-14 40% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0050 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 52% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1259 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1259 ref|XP_736406.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH86683.1| hypothetical protein PC404847.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_736406.1 0.009 43% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0144 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0144 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-12 29% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0601 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0601 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 5e-28 56% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0480 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-33 55% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0100 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0100 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 37% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0496 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0496 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-23 37% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0019 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-13 30% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0437 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0437 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-41 51% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0310 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0310 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-34 57% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0031 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-38 53% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0215 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0215 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-53 59% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-09-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-09-0043 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-13 32% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0489 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0489 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-28 39% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0401 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0401 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-25 39% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0152 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0152 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-33 62% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0058 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 4e-49 57% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0296 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 2e-17 35% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0086 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 1e-24 44% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0080 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0080 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 9e-57 61% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-05-0004 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-44 55% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0143 ref|XP_738775.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH83762.1| hypothetical protein PC401526.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_738775.1 3e-20 33% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0217 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0217 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 4e-37 55% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-07-0002 ref|XP_732422.1| hypothetical protein [Plasmodium chabaudi chabau...di] emb|CAH85273.1| hypothetical protein PC403258.00.0 [Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi] XP_732422.1 2e-47 74% ...